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2010

RUSSIAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES


Institute for the History of Material Culture

Slavic and Old Russian Art


of Jewelry and its roots
Materials of the International Scientic Conference
dedicated to the 100th anniversary
of Gali Korzukhinas birth

St. Petersburg, 1016 April 2006

Publishing House Nestor-Historia


St. Petersburg
2010

-

,
100-

-, 1016 2006 .

-
-
2010

904:671.1(4-11)
63.4-41(45)
48



08-01-16123

-: .. , .. , ..

48

- . , 100- (, 1016 2006 .). . : -, 2010. 624 ., .


ISBN 978-5-98187-508-3
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_____ 77

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II . // . 2. 1998.
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82 _____

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11 ; 12 ; 14 ; 1516 ;
17 ; 18 ; 1920 .
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), 1899 . . (Anibaldi, Werner 1963: Taf. 48: 1, Abb. 10: 12; Alfldi 1932: Taf. 25: 1637). .
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20 , ,
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1994: . 15).
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1887 1899 . .
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Werner 1963: 371372). .. , V . ( 1990: 29, . 23: 8). .
D2/D3 (Tejral 1995: Abb. 27: 19).
D3 (
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., .. ( 2000: 21, 44), ,
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1990 .. // . . I. 1990.
1975 .. . ., 1975.
84 _____

. 1887 .

1994 .. (
IVV ). ., 1994.
1972 . //
. , 1972.
2000 ..
// . . 1. , 2000.
1891 1887 . // 18821888 .
., 1891.
2005 .. (, ). ., 2005.
Alfldi 1932 Alfldi A. Funde aus der Hunnenzeit und ihre ethnische Sonderung (mit 36 Tafeln und
20 Textabbildungen) // AH. IX. Budapest, 1932.
Annibaldi, Werner 1963 Annibaldi G., Werner J. Ostgotische Grabfunde aus Acquasanta Prov. Ascoli
Piceno (Marche) // Germania. 41. 2. 1963.
Tejral 1995 Tejral J. Neue Aspekte der frhvlkerwanderungszeitlichen Chronologie im Mitteldonauraum //
Neue Beitrge zur Erforschung der Sptantike im mittleren Donauraum. Brno, 1995.


. . 1. 1887. . 7: ,
.

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11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15
, 16 , 17 . : ,
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_____ 87

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ryc. 2). ( 1 .. ) (
1966: 6263, . 11: 6, 7).
90 _____

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19 ; 1014 ; 1517

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( 3 .. ), 7 ,
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1966: 7071, . 10: 1819).
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, . ,

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, - , .
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_____ 91

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- : I -; II ,
; III

, .
, .
, -
, ,
(, 2004: 164).

1966 .. . ., 1966.
2000 .. -
/ . . 122. ., 2000.
2001 .. . // . . 2. , 2001.
2000 .. - // : -
. , 2000.
2004 ..
// : , , . . 1. , 2004.
1982 .. // . , 1982.
1988 .. I . . .
. . . . . . , 1988.
1970 .. // . 156. 1970.
1958 .. // .
4. 1958.
1978 .. V VI . . . . ., 1978.
, 1988 .., ..
// . . 194. 1988.
2000 .. //
. --, 2000.
1996 .. . // . . 1. , 1996.
1998 .. 1- I . . . //
I . . , 1998.
1998 .. III //
I . . , 1998.
1959 .. I . . . ., 1959.
, 2004 .., ..
// . . ., 2004.
1982 .. -
VIIX . ., 1982.
1982 .. VIXIII . ., 1982.
1974 .. // . ., 1974.
1901 .. // . 25. 1901.
2002 .. . Lublin, 2002.
Madyda-Legutko 1983 Madyda-Legutko R. Prba rekonstrukcji pasw z metalowymi czciami na obszarze
rodkowoeuropejskiego Barbaricum w okresie wpyww rzymskich i we wczesnej fazie okresu wdrwek ludw //
Przegld Archeologiczny. 31. 1983.

..

VIVII .

.. ()


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VIVII .
. ,
, , ,
.
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, .
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1996; 2003; 2006 .).
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, 94 _____

VIVII .

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(. 1: 16),
. . , ,
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(. 1: 16). ,
(. 1: 6) ( 1977: 69, 75; Ancient Near Eastern Art 1984:
g. 68), (. 1: 2-5) (Ilyasov 2003: pl. VI; VII).
(, 1991: . 3: 15; 28).
(Ghirshman 1953:
g. 2; 12;17) (. 1: 13). ,
( ), .
II . . .
, VVII . (Ghirshman
1962: pl. 259; Peck 1969: g. 7; 14; 16; Harper 1981: pl. 10; 1518; 2022; 24; 27; 2931; 36; 38; g. 47) (. 1:
7, 915). (.1: 7, 912),
, (. 1: 14, 15), (Harper
1981: pl. 19; 33) (.1: 8).
, VI VII . (Schmauder 2000:
Abb. 6; 7) (. 1: 16, 17).
, , (Byzance
1992: 12; 13; 15; 16). ..
VIVII . ( 2003: 135),
3 ( ). ,
. ,
, , ,
(Schmauder 2000: Abb. 3; 4a; 813; 20). ( ),
,
.
VI ., ,
. , ,
.
VII . , (Roma dallAntichita al Medioevo
2001: 130; 131).
49 -, ()
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.
V . (. 1: 18, 19); ,
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: (. . 2: 1), (. . 2: 2, 4, 5)
(. . 2: 3). , , ,
_____ 95

..

. 1. : 1 (IV . .);
24 (III . . .); 5 -- (III . . .); 6 (V . . .); 7
(. II . . .); 815 : 8 I
(531579 .) (); 9 I (488531 .) (Metropolitan Museum of Art); 10 II? (591628 .)
(Bibliothque Nationale); 11 (VI .) (); 12 II (591628 .) (); 13
(VIVII .) (Walters Art Gallery); 14 (VII .) (Museum fur Islamische Kunst); 15 I
(399421 .) (Metropolitan Museum of Art); 16, 17 ( VI .); 18, 19 - (XV .)

VIVII .


.
. , , (, , ,
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( 1998: . 34) . 141 ( 1980: . 41: 10, 13)
( ).
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1997: . 21: 10, 11) . 27/1985 (, , 2001: . 22: 310313)
.. , -
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( 1982: . 4: 13, 5, 6).
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( 1959; 1979: . 3: 8; 1982: . 5: 12).
13
.. ( 2003: 134).
_____ 97

..

. 2. VVI . , .. : I . 5 88;
II 168; III . 8 176; IV . 1 99 (: 2003)
. 3. V 1- . VI . :
16 , . 6; 711 -, . 3 . 3 (: 1977)

. . 27/1985 , . 2 . 2 (I tesori
dei kurgani del Caucaso settentrionale 1990: 282). (Fettich 1953: pl. 30) , . 5 88 in situ (. 2: I).
. 5 , ..
( 2003: . 3: I, I).
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.
, , , (. 2: I, 2). (. 3: 6). ,
, .
. ,
,
. ,
,
VIII . (Daim 2000: Abb. 79).
3 . 3 - ( 1977: 121; 1986: 53) 1- . VI . . ,
(. 3: 7, 8), (. 3: 9, 10).
98 _____

VIVII .

. 4. VI . : 13 , . 4 (:
1990); 46 , . 2 (: 1994); 7, 8 , . 2 . 66 (: 1993);
9, 10 , . 1 . 1 (: 1960)
. 5. VIVII . :
18 , . 1 . 3; 918 , . 2 . 2

, . in situ
(. 2: I, 2; II, 1, 2; IV, 1, 3), . 8 176,
. ..
(. 2: IIIV),
168, .1 99, .1 205 ,
.
. 3 . 3 - (. 3: 11). 1,21,3 .
, VIII . ( 2005: . 48: 10; 59: 10; 79: 8).
,
( ).
4 ( 1990: 7375) 1- . VI .
(. 4: 1, 2),
, .
(. 4: 3), 11,1 ,
. 1,4 . 1- .
VI . 2 .. ( 2003: 135).
. 2 ( 1994: 190) .
, (. 4: 4),
. 3 ( 1994: . 40: 3), .. .
_____ 99

..

1- . VI .
.3 . 4 - ( 1994: . 28: 6, 7). . 42 , . 46 ( 1998: . 30:
3, 4; 36: 5, 9, 20).
. 2 (. 5: 5, 6).
,
, , . 3 , ,
, . 2, ,
, .
, 1- . VI .
-
, , .
(2- . VI .). 2- . VI . VII .
, , ,
(, , 2006: 355360; 2008).
1 . 1 ( 1960: 177; 2008: 8891) 2- . VI .
, ,
, (. 4: 9, 10).
, , , ,
. 1,31,4 .
2 . 66 ( 1993: 77), 2- . VI .,
.
, (. 4: 7). ,
, . 2 (. 4: 5).
(. 4: 8), . 1 , . 1,3 .
( VI 1- VII .). ( 2006: 114; , , 2006: 358360). ,
. 2 . 66 , .
VI ., -.
1 . 3 (, , 2006: 358, 359; 2008: 9697)
, ,
. , , , ,
, (. 5: 17). . 1
204 ( 2003: . 10). :
, ,
. 2- . VI . ( 3-2 .. ), , ,
(, , , 2006: . 48: 23), , . 2 . 2 (. 5: 1417) . 3 77 ( 2003: . 11: 3, 4).
, in situ
,
. .. . 1 204
(. 6: I),
(. 6: I, 1, 6).
. 2 . 2 (. 5: 9) (, , 2006: 317,
318). . 1 204 , . 2
. 2 . , ,
, . 1 . 3 (. 5: 8, 18).
( . 2 . 2
),
. 1 . 3 (. 5: 7).
2 .3 ( 1959: 219, 220) . VII .
, .
100 _____

VIVII .

,
(
1959: . 7: 1, 9, 11), , ,
.
( 1959: . 7: 10).
(2- 3- VII .). , 2- VII .
( ), 3- VII . (.:
2006; , , 2006).
2 . 2 ( ) (, , , 2006: 309323)
- , ,
(. 6: 917),
in situ. . 1,1 ,
. ,
. 1,2 , (. 5: 18). , (. 5: 18).
, ,
, . , (,
) . 2 . 3 .
.
, 17 .
2 . 3 ( ) (, , 2006: 245309)
, (. 7: 2, 3) (. 7: 4, 5), (. 7: 6),
(. 7: 7, 8, 11), (. 7: 9), , , , ,
(. 7: 10, 12, 13). ,
(, , 2006: . 17) , .
, . 1,1 . ,
, ,
.
(. 7: 14).
, , ,
.
, . , ,
.
, (. 7: 14).
. 3 204 (
2003: . 13), .. (. 6: II). , , ,
, (. 6: II, 1, 6). . -, . -,
, . ,
. 3 189 (. 6: IV, 4, 8), (. 6: II).
. 2 . 3 , , ,
. 15 .
, , ,
. 8,2 (. 7: 1). 89 ,
. , .
,
, -
( ). ,
.
_____ 101

..

. 6. 2- . VIVII . , .. : I . 1
204; II . 3 204; III . 3 170; IV . 3 189 (: 2003)
. 7. VII . . 2 . 3

1 .1 ( ) ( 1954: 230232)
,
(. 8: 13).
, ,
; ,
, . ,
. .., ,
,
, , , (. 8: 4). :
, . (. 8: 4),
. . 1 .
( ) ( 1929). (. 8: 57),
(. 8: 8).
, : (.: . 5: 18) , (. 8: 9).
. 1 .
3 . 5 ( ) (, 1996)
.
,
(. 9: 13, 5).
,
(. 9: 4); .
102 _____

VIVII .

. 8. VII . :
14 (: 1954); 59 (: 1929)
. 9. VII . . 3 . 5 (: , 1996)

, .
(. 9: 6). . 1,2 .
. 3 170 ( 2003:
. 14) , (. 6: III).
.
12 . 1 ( ) ( 2006). : ,
, . - , (. 10: 7). : -
(. 10: 1, 2); ;
; 1,11,2 .
, , (. 10).
;
.
(. 10: 12).
7 . 7 ( ) (Prichodnyuk, Fomenko 2003)
. , ,
,
(. 11: 17). . 1,2 .
.. 3-2,
(. 6: IV; 12, II, III) ( 2003:
. 11; 12; 1517). 3 189
_____ 103

..

, ,
(. 6: IV).
,
. . 7 . 7 (. 11: 8),
. . 5 164 in situ ( 2003: . 16: 6), . 3 -1
(. 12: I) (, 1982: . 22: 4).
. 7 . 7 :
, ,
, , . ,
(. 11: 9, 10).
12 . 8 () (, 1989: 9, 10).
, . ,
(. 14: 18). ,
, . 4 .1
() ( 1999),
, (. 14: 916), ( ) ( 1996)
(. 14: 19, 25) (. 14: 26).
. 1 .
12 . 7 ( ) (Prichodnyuk, Fomenko 2003)
, , , , (. 14: 3744).
, ,
. . 1 .
10 . 2 () (, 1969: 136, 137)
(. 14: 4749), , (. 14: 50),
. . 1 .
, (. 14: 5153) . 14 ( ) ( 1897:
126, 127). ,
. .. , , in situ , (
1897: 127, . 45).
. , . ,
. 3 . 5 , . 2 . 3 . ,
. 14 ,
. ,
(. 14: 51).
3 . 30 ( ) ( 1996).
,
, ( 1996: . 13: 14, 7, 8).
,
, , .
- (4- VII .).
1 . 2 ( ) ( . 1984/11).
, , (. 13: 17).
.
, .
104 _____

VIVII .

. 10. VII . . 12 . 1
. 11. VII . . 7 . 7 ( .. )
. 12. II-1: I -1, . 3 (: , 1982); II ,
. 3 77; III . 3 64 (: 2003)
. 13. 2- . VII . : 18 , . 1 . 2;
915 II, . 11 . 1 (: . 1978); 1619 , . 7 . 1

_____ 105

..

, .
, ,
. ,
(.: . 1: 19). , ,
, ,
(. 13: 8).
. 1 .
11 . 1 II ( ) ( . 1978). , , , ,
.
,
. 1 (. 13: 914).
, . , ,
, (. 13: 15).
7 . 1 ( ) (, , 2006: 323335).
: ,
(. 13: 16, 17), ,
(. 13: 19). ,
(. 13: 18), .
0,9 0,3 ;
. 0,8 1,5 .
0,9 ,
, , .
, . , , ,
.

; .
5 . 12 () ( 1985; 1990).
. ( . 1966/31),
; , ,
, , , .
, , , . 7 . 1
. , ,
.
. 17 () ( 1990).
, 4
(. 14: 2836), , , .
. 3 - () ( 1965). , , ,
(. 14: 5464), .. . ,
, ,
. 2 . 3
. - ,
, ( 1965: . 27),
.
9 .5 III (, - 1974).
(. 14: 45). , ,
, - . ( 1950)
(. 14: 46), , , .
. VII .,
, , VIVII .
106 _____

VIVII .

. 14. VII .: 18 , . 12 . 8
(: , 1989); 916 , . 4 . 1 (: 1999); 1727
(: 1996); 2836 , . 7 (: 1990); 3744 , . 12, . 7 (
.. ); 45 III . 9 . 5 (: , - 1974); 46 ; 4750
, . 10 . 2 (: 1990); 5153 , . 14 (: 1990); 5464 -, . 3

_____ 107

..

. ,
- , ,
(. 1: 16). 1517 ,
, .
, , .
. ,
.
I , .
I-1 (. 1: 16; 2: II; 4: 3, 8); I-2
(. 2: III; 7: 13).
. 2 . 3 , VVI . I-1.
II .
II-1 ,
. II-1 , . ,
,
-. II-1 (. 11: 9, 10; 12: I, II).
II-2 . II-2 , (. 7: 13; 13: 8).
II-2 (. 5: 8, 18; 8: 4, 9; 9: 6; 10: 12; 13: 15).
(. 3: 6), -
.
. : I . : II-1
- . : II-2
.
. , .
I-1.
, VI .
VI . ,
, (11,2
1,31,4 ). II-2 (), ,
, .
- .
(. 13: 1, 2, 5, 6, 19) (. 14: 62, 63), (. 13: 16, 17; 14: 54, 55),
, ().
- ,
, .
,
. , .
. -, , , , -,
. , , 2- .
VI ., . . 2
. 3 , ,
, . : . 5 . 12 , . 11 . 1
108 _____

VIVII .

II, . 10 . 4 ( 1996), . 3 . 5 ( 1983)


, . . 17 ,
. ,
, (
?).

(.: 2006),
( 1965: . 17). VIII . ( 2005: 47),
.
. , (. 1 . 1 ).
,
, . 2 . 17 .
.. , ,
( 2003: 130 ).
. 10 . 2 . 12
. 13 (, 1969: . 52: 11; 83: 6), . 11 . 2 (,
2001: . 12: 13), . 2 . 22 ( . 1960: . 74: 6)
. -,
( . 11 . 2 , ).
, , , VIVII . (. :
2006; , , 2006).

: . 2 . 3 ; . 3 . 5 ; .5 .12 . 4 . 1
; . 3 . 30 ; (, 1985) ,
; . 1 . 111 ( 1960) . ,
, .
( ) , , ,
, , .
(. 1 . 2 , . 5 . 12 , . 3 . 5 , -, . 14 ). ()
. 3 . 5 . 14
(. 9: 4; 14: 52). (.
12 . 1 , . 1 , . 2 . 2 , . 7 . 7
.) , ,
( 2005). ,
, , ,
,
(, , 2006: 303307).
, , , , , .
. , . , .
,
1- . V . 1-3 .. ( 2003: 134),
; 2- . V .
_____ 109

..

, . , I-1
(). 1- . VI . . 44
. 141 ,
VI .

.
. 3 . 3 -, , , , . 4 (.:
2003: . 1: 14, 15). . 2 . 2 .
66 (. 4: 5, 7), , ,
, .
2- . VI . - ( 2003: . 10: 19),
(. 6: 16).
( 2008), ,
.
. VII . , , , VII .
, , .

, .
, .
VII . (.: 2003)
.
- (. 5: 9; 10: 1; 14: 27, 43),
(. 7: 1, 2) (. 5: 10, 11; 7: 7, 8; 14: 62, 63).
, , .. 2- . 1- . VII ., -
2- . VII .
. 2 . 3
(. 7: 1, 2), VII . ( 1996: . 122: 14),
. 2 . 2 (. 5: 12, 13)
,
, ( 1996: 208).
, ,
, ,
(. 6: II, IV; 12: III), (. 8: 14; 9: 6;
10: 12; 11: 9, 10). , ,
.
,
, .
.. , , ,
,
( 2003: 134, 138). , ,
, ,
. . 12 . 1 .
,
.
110 _____

VIVII .

288, 321, 325, 381 (, 1993: . 36:


14, 15; 47: 27, 28; 48: 19; 60: 19, 20), VII VIII . 3-2
.. , .
,
(. 14: 45, 46). ,
, .
,
- VIVII .
VI . , VII .
, .
,
, , , , .
, , ,
, , . VII .
,
, (
2006).
,
- VIVII .
, , -
. 2- . V 1- . VI .
, , , , ,
1- . VI . .
-
( 1982: . 5: 13, 41; 6: 67; 8: 2); , ,
. , VII . ,
( 2003: . 83: 8, 12, 53), in situ .
. 144 (, 2003: . 77: 7578). . 15 ;
( 1914: . 20: 6; . I: 6, 7). ,
, ..
II-2.
: .107
(, 2001: 159; . 119: 10, 12), . 37 4
(, 2001: 78; . 55: 6, 7).
,
, . 11 . 1 II. . 1
- , , , , , (, 2001: 54; . 13: 6, 9, 11, 12). . 78, 92
(, 2001: 151, 156; . 91: 5; 104: 5, 6), . 45
(, 2001: 113; . 62: 8, 10).
3
, , (
1979: . 6: 5, 20, 22, 29, 33, 34), , . . 16
, . 11 ,
- (, 1996: . 82: 91, 94, 103, 110).
, VII .
II-2, . II-1
. 3 -1 (, 1982: . 22).
II-1 , ,
_____ 111

..

, , . , , ( )
II-1, II-2 ( 1992: . 27).
, VII .
, - ,
. ,
, , .. , , , . ,
(- , )
(). ,
,
,
.
. , - , . , ,
VIVII .
,
, , .. . : ,
, , , ,
.
,
VIVII .

1985 .. // . 3. 1985.
1990 .. // . . . 1990.
1999 .. . ,
1999.
, 1997 .., ..
// . . VI. 1997.
1980 .. . , 1980.
, , 2001 .., .., .. .
19811995 . ., 2001.
1996 .. VII VIII . //
. . , 1996.
, 2001 .., .. . . 1. ., 2001.
1990 .. . , 1990.
1985 .. VII . . . // . 2.
1985.
1992 .. - (
IVVII . ). , 1992.
1959 .. // .
. V. , 1959.
, 1993 .., .. . , 1993.
, 1982 .., .. IVVII . //
VVIII . ., 1982.
112 _____

VIVII .

, , 1960 .., .., ..,


.., .. .- //
. . VIII. , 1960.
, 1996 .., .. . ., 1996.
, 2003 .., .. VVII // ,
- . ., 2003.
, 1989 .., ..
. . . , 1989.
1950 .. ' VIII . . // .
. 3. 1950.
1979 .. // .
. 158. 1979.
1982 .. . // . ., 1982.
2003 .. VIX //
, - . ., 2003.
1888 ..
// . . 2. , 1888.
1993 .. IV
V . . . // . . III. 1993.
1994 .. ( IVV .). ., 1994.
1965 .. - // . 125. 1965.
1998 ..
// . . ( ). , 1998.
1979 .. IVI . . // .
. .12. ., 1979.
2000 .. . ., 2000.
. 1978 .., .., .. . // . , 1978.
2004 .. // .
. I. ; , 2004.
2005 ..
VII . VIII . // . . II. ; , 2005.
2006 .. VII . //
- . . . ., 2006.
2006 ..
VII VIII . // .
. 5. , 2006.
2006 .. VII . . //
. . 5. , 2006.
, , 2006 .., .., .. VI
VII . - // . . 5. , 2006.
2008 .. : 2- VI VII . // . . III. ; , 2008.
1977 ..
// . . . . 1977.
.. - III . . . IV . . . , 1986.
1980 .. . ., 1980.
2005 .. ( ). , 2005.
_____ 113

..

1982 .. V . // . ., 1982.
1996 .. . ., 1996.
2001 .. . // . . 2. , 2001.
1977 .. . ., 1977.
1990 .. ( ). , 1990.
, - 1974 .., - ..
1970 .// . . 1. ., 1974.
1993 .. II . // . . 3. , 1993.
2004 .. .
//
. ., 2004.
, 1996 .., .. VIVII . //
I . . . . , 1996.
1979 .. // . 4. 1979.
1929 . - . ,
. , 1929.
1914 .. 19111912 . // .
. 56. 1914.
, 1991 .., .. -
I . . . , 1991.
1954 .. //
. . 39. 1954.
1897 .. , . //
VIII . . III. 1897.
1965 .. . , 1965.
1959 .. // . 60. 1959.
1960 .. . // i .
. VIII. , 1960.
2003 .. VVII . - //
. . . 2003.
1983 .. VIII . //
IIII . , 1983.
, 1969 .., .. VI . . , 1969.
Ancient Near Eastern Art 1984 Ancient Near Eastern Art // The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin.
Vol. 41. 4. 1984.
Byzance. 1992 Byzance. Lart byzantin dans les collections publiques franaises. Paris, 1992.
Daim 2000 Daim F. Byzantinische Grtelgarnituren des 8. Jahrhunderts // Die Awaren am Rand der
byzantinischen Welt. Innsbruck, 2000.
Fettich 1953 Fettich N. La trouvaille dune tombe princire hunnique Szeged-Nagyszkss // AH.
T. . 1953.
Fleury, France-Lanord 1998 Fleury M., France-Lanord A. Les trsors Mrovingiens de la basilique de
Saint-Denis. 1998.
Ghirshman 1953 Ghirshman R. Notes Iraniennes V. Scnes de banquet sur largenterie Sassanide //
Atribus Asiae. Vol. 16. 1/2. 1953.
Ghirshman 1962 Ghirshman R. Parthes et Sassanides. Paris, 1962.
Harper 1978 Harper P.O. The Royal Hunter. Art of the Sassanian Empire. New York, 1978.
Harper 1981 Harper P.O. Silver vessels of the Sassanian period I. Royal Imagery. New York, 1981.
Ilyasov 2003 Ilyasov J. Covered tail and ying tassels // Iranica Antiqua. Vol. 38. 2003.
I tesori dei kurgani 1990 I tesori dei kurgani del Caucaso settentrionale. Roma, 1990.
114 _____

VIVII .

Peck 1969 Peck E.H. The Representation of Costumes in the Reliefs of Taq-i-Bustan // Atribus Asiae.
Vol. 31. 2/3. 1969.
Prichodnyuk, Fomenko 2003 Prichodnyuk O., Fomenko V. Early Medieval nomads burials from the vicinity
of the village of Hristoforovka, the district of Nikolaevo, Ukraine // Archaeologia Bulgarica. VII. Soa, 2003.
Roma dallAntichita al Medioevo 2001 Roma dallAntichita al Medioevo. Archeologia e Storia.
Milano, 2001.
Schmauder 2000 Schmauder M. Vielteilige Grtelgarnituren des 6.7. Jahrhunderts: Herkunft, Aufkommen
und Trgerkreis // Die Awaren am Rand der byzantinischen Welt. Innsbruck, 2000.


. 1984/11. .., .. .
1984 .
. 1966/31. .. -
1966 .

..

.. ( )

.

( = . monstrsen Fibeln, ).

. . ,
(Barbaricum Solum) ,
( 2005: 59, 60),
.

( 1966: 72).
-
(. 1) VII
(Almgren 1923: Taf. IX).
, () .
.
,
.
, ..
.
. : A VII, 216 S-
3 3 , A VII, 217
, A VII, 216,

, A VII, 220 S- 2,5 ,
A VII, 221 , A VII, 216
A VII, 217, (. 1).

1b (. 240275 .)
, .
.
- , (Godowski
1994: 485).
.
, (Levada 2000: 463).

.
III IV . . .
1

116 _____

: 2009: 94105.

. 1.
Almgren VII (: Almgren 1923: Taf. IX)


; , ( 2005: 147).
. 7 Monstrse Almgren VII (. 2). - , . /Passarge-Flu (. 3).

, (Werner 1988: Abb. 5)
Monstrse Barbaricum.

Monstrse,
7. . , - . (ehem. Grebieten, Kr. Samland)
, A VII, 217 (. 4: 34), . G
(Nord)-177 71 , (?) ,
.
: (?) , .
- (Bujack 1888: 176180, Taf. V: 1a,1b).
. G (Nord)-177, ( ) , . (?)
, , .
_____ 117

..

. 2.
1 2. : Werner 1988: Abb. 5,
. :
1 Todireni; 2 Vasilica; 3 Budeti;
4 Daneny; 5 Chanska; 6 Slusegaard;
7 Grebieten; 8 Weklice; 9 Lubieszewo;
10 Lauth; 11 Brandenburg; 12 Lietuva;
13 Polowity; 14 Grunajki; 15 Petrikivtsy;
16 Novopolovetskoje; 17 Medvedovka
:
A VII, 217; Matthes B Matthes C

. 3. ( Gaerte
1932). :
;
(. . 2).
:
1 . Huntenberg; 2 . Pettelkau;
3 Heinrikau; 4 . Wormditt;
5 . Migehnen; 6 . Heiligenfelde;
7 . . Lengainen; 8 . Gr. Bartelsdor;
9 Siedlung Schnwalde; 10 Siedlung Hirschberg;
11 . Scheufelmhle; 12 . Sagsau;
13 . Klaukendorf

, .
.
( 1998: 90). , , .
8. Weklice, stan. 7, woj. Warminsko-Mazurskie, . 150 ,
AVII,217. , (. 5: 23).
, .
(, )
, ,
118 _____

. 4. 12
; 34
. G (Nord)177 (34); 5 . 600
Slusegaard ( )

. 5. Weklice-7, . 150: 1 ; 25

(. 5: 1). , , ( ,
. 5: 4), (-
, 4 -, , 3 ,
, ).
(. 5: 5) .
( ,
_____ 119

..

. 6. Lubieszewo, . 10: 18

7 , Madyda-Legutko
E2-3) (?) .
C1b C2 (Okulicz-Kozaryn 1992: 143). , . Weklice
, , .
9. Lubieszewo, stan. 2, woj. Warminsko-Mazurskie, . 10 ,
A VII, 217 (. 6: 12), .
. :
22 8- 49 ,
120 _____

A VI,161, ( )
A VI,168, Beckmann 16,
Madyda-Legutko H19, , - Wogiewicz XVIIIE (. 6: 38). , . 10 Lubieszewo,
2 (Jonakowski 2001: 186, 187).
. 10 Lubieszewo , Weklice,
, .
Lubieszewo (?) ,
, . ,
Lubieszewo . 600
Slusegaard, Bornholm (. 4: 5).
10. , - (ehem. Lauth, Kr. Samland)
, 2000 .,
- 2.
11. , - (ehem. Brandenburg, Kr. Heiligenbeil) A VII, 217, (
. , 13201340 .) (. 4: 1).
XXI . (?)
, (. 4: 2)
, . 2002 . -
. ..
( 268270 .),
Lund Hansen 3. 2003 . ,

( 2003. /). , , - (. 4, 1), , .
, , .
12. Lietuva, Kariomuzejaus Vitauto Didziojo, Kaunas AVII, 221 (. 7: 1),
( ) , . 1b2 (. 220260 . . .)
(Michelbertas 2000: 65, Abb. 2). , , .
13. Polowity, woy. Warmisko-Mazurskie (ehem. Polwitten, Kr. Mohrungen)
AVII, 221 (. 7: 2), , . / (?)
II
(Gaerte 1937: Abb. 5).
14. Grunajki, woj. Warmisko-Mazurskie, . D A VII, 221 (. 7: 3).
, . . , ,
,
. .
, 6
. , , .

, ,
, , ,
S- (Stadie 1919: 411, 412, Abb. 184).
2

,
.. ,
.

_____ 121

..

. 7. , A VI,168:
1 Lietuva; 2 Polowity; 3 Grunajki-D

Grunajki -
. ,
.
,
. :
. (
Weklice, Lietuva, Polowity, Grunajki) (. , , Lubieszewo) , ,
. , ,
. (. 2) ,
. , ,
, A VII,217 (M IV)
( ) ( ) , (ackeprang 1943: Taf. 13).
MIV C1b (Lund Hansen 1987: g. 20)
210250 . (Ethelberg 1992: g. 4). , ,
. ,
2 (. 300350 .) ,
Matthes B ( ) Matthes C ( ), .
(Vo 1998: 150, Abb. 13). ,
.
, ( 7, . 150; 5,
. 17) 3 ( 300350 . Pietrzak, Tyszyska 1988: L370.1).
.
, , , -
. - ( ), , 2
( ) ,
. 3 (), , ()
(270330 . 1999: . 1), .. . 2
(, ).
122 _____

A VII 2 ( ,
Slusegaard-600) . (, 7)
(, 2004: 124).
. A VII,217 , ( )
(. 4: 3).
.
, ( ),
,
(. 5: 3).
I . . . (,
- Pfalzfeld St. Goar, Deutschland),
( Nydam). Barbaricum
. ,
.
Weklice, Lubieszewo, Slusegaard,
ehem. Grebieten
- .
3 , (
. 8: 2), , (. 9).

( 2005: 47).
.
, , . (?) (. 4: 1),
, AVI,168 (
) , . , , .
. , ,
.
, ( ) , .
( )
.
,
251 .
. ,
A VII, 211
( 2005: 41), .
.

A V, 101, A VII, 219 , , . 2
(Schulte 1998: 297). , , ,
, A IV, 71A IV, 75. , , . A IV, 71A IV, 75
Prussia-Museum 1b ,
.
A IV, 71A IV, 75 -,
_____ 123

..

. 8. . 261 (Eisliethen)

. 9.
: 1 . 194
; 2 . (. 1905 .)
Nowe Boczwinki; 3 . 150 .
Greibau

(, 2002: 590, 592).


Monstrse,
( 2003: 88).

Monstrse, .
.
,
II . IV . (. 10). ,
, -
(Gottschalk 1996: 483, 494).
Monstrse. ,
, (, /, )?
: ,
- ,
. . ,
124 _____

. 10. - : 15 HrthHermlheim (II . IV .): 1 Hrth-Hermlheim; 2 Sotteville; 3 Poundbury; 4 Emona; 5 Kln;


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You wrote it? There was no on earth outside the


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13. , - , , [. I.2.4]
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238240; 1989: 124, . 38: 13).
14. , . . .
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15. ( ), , , [.II.4] (Miloevi 1990).
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17. /, , , [. II.67]. (Csallny 1933: 3336, tab. IX); Garam 2001: Taf. 137).
18. , , , , , 21 [.II.828]
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19. , , , (Davidson 1952: 934, pl. 68).
20. , , 1974 ., S
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90 % (, , , 1991: 88, . 29-31)].
2. , ( 1953: 86, 54; 85, . 20: 1; Pekarskaja, Kidd 1994: Kat.-Nr. 60
71; 119, Taf. 26: 1; 1996: 602, . 12: 2) [, , . 17213 90 %
(, , , 1991: 8788, . 2628)].
3. , ( 1953: 86, 51; 85, . 20: 1; Pekarskaja, Kidd 1994: Kat.-Nr. 13
54; 118, Taf. 25: 1; 1996: 602, . 12: 3) [, , , . 14695 90 %
(, , , 1991: 87, . 1215)].
4. , ( 1953: 86, 52; 85, . 20: 1; Pekarskaja, Kidd 1994: Kat.Nr. 102 86; 118, Taf. 25: 2; 1996: 602, . 12: 4) [, , , . 17256,
90 % (, , , 1991: 89, . 7880)].
5. -, , ( 1953: 87, 56; 85, . 21; Pekarskaja, Kidd 1994: Kat.Nr. 6272; 120, Taf. 27: 2; 121, Taf. 28: 1; 1996: 602, . 12: 5) [, , , .
1721590 % (, , , 1991: 88, . 3235)].
6. -, , ( 1953: 87, 55; 85, . 21; Pekarskaja, Kidd 1994: Kat.Nr. 6373; 120, Taf. 27: 1; 1996: 602, . 12: 6) [, , , . 17216
90 % (, , , 1991: 88, . 3639)].
7. -, , ( 1953: 87, 58; 85, . 21; Pekarskaja, Kidd 1994: Kat.Nr. 48 64-65; 121, Taf. 28: 2; 1996: 603, . 13: 1) [, ,
Inv.-Nr. M & LA 1912, 6-10,4].
8. - , ( 1953: 87, 57; 85, . 21; Pekarskaja, Kidd 1994:
Kat.-Nr. 64 7374; 122, Taf. 29:2; 1996: 602, . 12:7), [, , , .
17217, 90 % (, , , 1991: 88, . 4043)].
9. - , ( 1953: 87, 59; 85, . 21; Pekarskaja, Kidd 1994:
Kat.-Nr. 49 65-66; 122, Taf. 29: 1; 1996: 603, . 13: 2) [, , Inv.Nr. M & LA 1912, 6-10,3].
10. , .. ( 2004: 215, 45; 2004: 139,
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138139, 185), 8 5,4 , .
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138139, 186), 8,3 5,3.
13. - , (, , 1996: 86, . 7: 1; 96) [
, . 4780/78, 19 % (, 2001: 301, . 20)].
14. - , (, , 1996: 86, . 7: 2; 96) [
, . 4780/79, (26 %) (12 %)
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15. , . (. . 3: 4).
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22. , , , ( 1963).
23. , (Rieck, Jrgensen, Petersen, Christensen 1999: 24, g. 17; Rieck 1996), ,
.
24. , . . ( 1991: 273275;
1991: 2123; 2000: 189, . 83: 8).
_____ 165

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3. , 5 [ ,
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. 6: 3; 1989: 123, . 37: 26; 109, . 23: 24).
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1989: 123, . 37: 26; 109, . 23: 24).
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5. - , , (Csallny 1933: 3336, tab. VIII: 25; Werner 1953:
Taf. 4). . 2: 7.
6. , / (Werner 1953: Taf. 5: 1; Garam 2001: Taf. 137). . 2: 5.
7. , / (Werner 1953: Taf. 5:2; Garam 2001: Taf. 137). . 2: 6.
8. - , (Werner 1953: Taf. 1:1). . 2: 8.
9. () , , (Werner 1953: Taf. 1: 2).
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13. , , (Werner 1953: Taf. 2: 1).
14. (?) , (Werner 1953: Taf. 2: 2).
15. , (Werner 1953: Taf. 2: 3).
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2006 ..
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1951 .. //
. . . 2. ., 1951.
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., 1953.
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: ii . . 2006.
, .. i i i i i i i i.
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. III. . , 1890.
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// . 108. 1963.
1974 .. // . ., 1974.
1992 . - j (I) //
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1993 . - j (II) //
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. . 77. . 113. .. VVIII . III.
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_____ 189

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190 _____

IXXIII .

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, . 11: 5 ( 1975: 2226).
-
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,
.
XII . (. 10: 11, 30, 31;
. 11: 1, 2, 6; . 12: 1, 2).
-
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,
.
XIII ., XI . (. 11: 4). -
, (.
11: 1, 4). ,
(. 13: 14).
. -
,
.
( 1986: 49, 50, 62, . 17). -
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, , (. 11: 9, 10, 14, 17, 22).
, . 11: 2022 (
1986: . 13: 6, 7; 14: 35, 36). ,
(. 11: 11, 12, 15, 18). ,
XII . :
, , .
;
(. 11: 912, 15).
XII .,
, ( 1986: 52, 91).
.
XII . (. 11: 19).
-
. -, - ,
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(. 12: 7, 8). (. 12:
46, 9). (. 12: 6, 9).
-, (. 13). -
: ,
(. 13: 511).
(. 13:
1217). :
,
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XII . (. 12: 10, 11).
XII . -
. ,
_____ 191

..

. 11. XII XIII .:


1, 2 - ;
3 ., 1900 .; 4 -
; 5 , , 1824 .; 6 , 1822 .; 7, 12 ,
, 1842 .; 8, 14 , , 1901 .; 9 , . -, 1893 .;
10 ., 1876 .; 11, 20 ., 1908 .; 13, 15, 21 ,
, 1903 .; 16 ., 18921893 .; 17
., 1970 .; 18 , . , 1939 .; 19 , 1906 .; 22 , , 1841 .
XI XII .: 1, 2, 5 - () ;
6 ; 8, 13, 16, 20 .
XII .: 9, 10, 14, 17, 21, 22 .
XII XIII .: 3, 7 - ; 4
; 11, 12, 15, 18, 19

192 _____

IXXIII .

. 12. - XII XIII . :


1 - ;
2 , , 1824 .; 3 ; 4, 1315 , 19371950 ., 1970 .;
5 - 2 ; 6, 9, 17, 18 , 1970 .;
7 , , 1903 .; 8 , 1974 .; 10, 11
; 12 , 1979 .; 16 , 1988 .; 19 , 19371950 .

, (. 12: 1219).
- (. 10:
5, 17, 30, 31, 38; . 12: 9).
-.
,
_____ 193

..

. 13. - XII .:
1a ; 1 , , 1876 .; 2 ,
, 2000 .; 3 . . .; 4 ,
, 1824 .; 5 , , 1899 .; 6, 7 , 1967 .; 8 ,
1974 .; 9 , 1979 .; 10 , 1837 .; 11 , 1979 .; 12 .,
1920- .; 13 ., 1876 .; 14 ;
15 , 1992 .; 16 , 1865 .; 17 , 1896 .

194 _____

IXXIII .

. 14. - XII . XIII . 1


; 2 , ,
1885 .; 3, 16 , , 1936 .; 4
; 5, 12 , , 1903 .; 6
, 2; 7 , 1909 .; 8 , 1906 .; 9 , 1914 .; 10 , , 1872 .;
11 , 19371950 .; 13 , 1988 .; 14 , 1974 .; 15 , 1911 .;
17 , 1898 .; 18, 20, 22 ., 1920- .; 19 , 2005 .;
19 - , .. ;
21 , 5; 23 , , 1899 .;
24 , . , , XIII .

_____ 195

..

-
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14: 5). ,
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:
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19-21).
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. (.
15: 16, 18). ,
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- (. 14: 24, 25).
XII .
(. 15: 1, 68).
196 _____

IXXIII .

. 15. XII . XIII .( ): 1 .,


1903 .; 2 , , 1824 .; 3 , , 1851 .; 4 , 1822 .;
5, 15 ., 1900 .; 6, 7 ., 1908 .; 8, 13 , 1837 .;
9 , . , 1939 .; 10 , 1970 .; 11, 22 , 1865 .; 12, 19, 21 C
, 1868 .; 14 , 1988 .; 16, 20 , , 1903 .; 17 ,
, 1901 .; 18 , , 1876 .; 23 , 1993 .; 24, 25 , 1949 .
1, 6, 8, 16 XII .; 2, 3, 912, 1723 - XII .; 4, 5, 1315, 24, 25 XII
XIII . 1, 2, 6, 7, 9 - ; 8, 10
; 16, 18, 21 ; 3, 1214, 20, 22, 23 ()
; 4, 5, 15 ; 25 ;
14 -

_____ 197

..

,
(. 15: 24, 914).
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. , (. 15: 5, 15).
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, , - .
, , .
XII XIII . - , ,
. 2.

1991 .. . , 1991.
1949 .. // . 11. 1949.
2000 .. VIII XI . , 2000.
1936 .. XXIII . ., 1936.
1997 .. // . ., 1997.
1998 .. XIIXIII . (, , ) // . ., 1998.
2001 .. , // . . . . , 2001.
2002 .. IXXI . // . , 2002.
2002 .. // . 1112. ., 2002.
- 1939 - . .
.. . .; ., 1939.
1958 .. . . I. .; ., 1958.
1954 .. . .; ., 1954.
1975 .. . ., 1975.
1986 .. . ., 1986.
2005 ..
XI // IXXIV . . ., 2005.
1901 .. , 18971898 . // XI
. . I. , 1901.
1988 .. XXI . . ., 1988.
1974 .. // . ., 1974.
1987 .. . ., 1987.
1915 .. . . ., 1909 . ., 1915.
1993 .. XXII . //
/ . . 82. ., 1993.
1976 .. // . 2. 1976.
1980 .. //
. 3. 1980.
1904 .. . // . . XX. 2. ., 1904.
2003 . ii i. -i, 2003.
Dekan 1980 Dekan J. Moravia Magna. Bratislava, 1980.
Dostl 1966 Dostl B. Slovansk pohebit ze stedni doby hraditni na Morave. Praha, 1966.
2
( 1954; 1936; 2002; 1975 1986; 2003),
.
.

..

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200 170 ,
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_____ 199

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, , . 1030-
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200 _____

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, ,
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( 1987: 157).
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202 _____

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1995: 155159), ( 1992: 2732; 2003: 223), (, 1993: 27; , 1985: 94101; ,
1993: 9494 .), ( 1968: 2533; , 1985:
104), ( 1950: 103), ( 1990: 160), (
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(, 1985: 94104;
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_____ 203

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1985: 243 .), .
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:
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( 1967: 123).

1990 ..
// / . . 74. ., 1990.
1967 .. () // . . 110. 1967.
1968 .. // . ., 1968.
1973 .. XXIII . ., 1973.
1991 .. //
- . ., 1991.
1950 .. . , 1950.
1999 .. ( ). . . . . ., 1999.
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1995.
, 1981 .., ..
(19701978 .) // . 3. 1981.
, 1993 .., .. i XIXII .
i // i . ii i 19841989. , 1993.
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19801982 . // 19781983 . , 1985.
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1958 .. . . 1. .; ., 1958.
1990 .. - -
// VI . .
., 1990.
2 , XXI -

XIII . (, 1985: 105), XI . (, 1993: 98).


3 ... .. .

204 _____

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1992 .. ( ) //
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2003 .. //
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1989 .. . ., 1989.
1988 .. //
. ., 1988.
1968 .. i ( ). , 1968.
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1981 . . . ., 1981.
1998 .. // . 5. 1998.
1987 .. // ..
XIIXIII . ., 1987.
1948 .. . ., 1948
1994 .. ( ) // -. ., 1994.
1996 .. - XXV . (
) // - .
XIXV . ., 1996.
1997 .. XXV . ., 1997.
1954 .. . . . .
., 1954.
1988 .. : ,
// V -. . 2. , 1988.
2003 .. (70 . ) // . . 1. ., 2003.

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206 _____

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208 _____

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1984 .. . ., 1984.
1988 .. .
. // . 2. 1988.
1861 .. . ., 1861.
1964 .. - . ., 1964.
1977 .. . ., 1977.
1872 ..
. ., 1872.
, 1967 .., .. 1966 . // . 2.
1967.
1906 .. (1668, 1669). ., 1906.
1956 .. , , XIX
XX . // . . XXXI. 1956.
, , 2002 ., ., . //
. , , . 3. , 2002.
18541855 .. . ., 18541855.
1986 .. IXXIII . //
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1965 .. XII . //
. 1- . . ., 1965.
1967 .. - // . 2. 1967.
1981 .. . ., 1981.
2005 .. . ., 2005.
1981 .. (XXV .) ., 1981.
1915 1906 . // . . XI. 1915.
1970 .. . ., 1970.
, 1998 ., . : . ., 1998.

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210 _____

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_____ 211

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1 . , .
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13 55 (. 1: 23; . 1985: . XXII: 3132), . 23
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, , , ,
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1.2 22,5 66,5 .
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1.2.2.1 ,
1.2.1.4. , 212 _____

. 1. -: 1 , ;
2, 3 (2 . 55, 3 . 13); 4 , . 23;
5, 16 (5 . 18, 16 . 19); 6 , . 123;
7 . ; 8, 12, 14, 23 (8 10 ., 12 2 .); 9 ;
10, 19, 24 ; 11, 30 , ; 13, 25
(13 3 .); 15 . ; 17 . ; 18 . ; 20, 22, 27 ;
21, 34 ; 26 ; 28 . ;
29 ; 31 . ; 32 . ; 33 .

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_____ 213

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470 ( 1.2.1.2 . 1992: . 65: 37) (
1.2.1.2; 1.2.1.3; 1.2.2.1 . , 2003: 30, ). ( 1.2.1.4 .: - 1987: . LXXXII: 38, 2.2 .:
2001: 72, . 48; 76).

1899 .. // . . III. ., 1899.


, 1970 .., .. // . 9. 1970.
1985 .. . , 1985.
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1995 .. . . , 1995.
1978 .. - XXIV . //
. ., 1978.
1997 .. // . . ., 1997.
, 2003 .., .. .
, 2003.
1998 .. . IXXIII . , 1998.
1992 .. . ., 1992.
214 _____

2001 .. . , 2001.
1981 .. VIII-XII . ., 1981.
2005 .. // :
. , 2005.
1980 .. // .
, 1980.
2001 .. . ,
2001.
1928 .. , . ., 1928.
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1992 .. XVI XIX . , 1992.

..
.

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216 _____

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_____ 217

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1936 .. . .,
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_____ 219

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2005 .. .
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1958 .. . . 1. .; ., 1958.
1954 .. . .; ., 1954.
1958 .. . // . 2. 1958.
1976 .. // . 1. 1976.
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. , 2004.
1996 .. //
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1994 ..
. // . ., 1994.
1982 .. VI . ., 1982.
2001 .. //
. . 212. 2001.
1905 .. // . . 15. 1905.
1967 .. //
I . . III / . . 43. ., 1967.
1967 .. // XIXIII .
. III / . 43. ., 1967.
1980 .. //
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:
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..

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_____ 221

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222 _____

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_____ 223

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1954: 131, 127: 9).
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7

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_____ 229

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_____ 231

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_____ 237

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1911: 36, . 92. . . 6: 1012.
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1911: 36. . . 7: 12, 13.

, 1988 . ., . . //
. 9. 1988.
, 1989 . ., . .
// . 4. 1989.
_____ 241

.. -

1997 .. // - . , 1997.
1980 .. // .
16. , 1980.
1885 .. . 1885.
1951 .. .. . ., 1951.
1962 .. - // ( 60- .. ). ., 1962.
1969 .. . . . XII . ., 1969.
1936 .. XXIII . ., 1936.
, 1978 .., .. . ., 1978.
, 1982 .., .. ( 1979 .) //
. 2. 1982.
1996 .. //
. 3. ., 1996.
1998 .. //
. . 80- .. . ., 1998.
1998 .. // . 3. 1998.
1998 .. XIIXIII . (, , ) // . ., 1998.
1998 .. // i.
2. 1998.
2002 .. -
// . . 213. 2002.
2002 .. IXXI . //
. 2001. - .
, 2002.
2003 .. - //
XIII . . ., 2003.
2005 .. - VIIIX . // .
Stratum plus 20032004. 5. .; ; ; , 2005.
Ii, , , 1998 Ii .., .., .., .. i i 1997 . // ii i
i 19971998 . , 1998.
I 1996 I XIII XVI . , 1996.
1941 .. // . X. 1941.
1961 .. . . 1. .; ., 1961.
1926 . - . ( ) // .
. XXXIV. . 12. 1926.
1982 .. IX XIII .
. , 1982.
, 1964 .., ..
// . 3. 1964.
1896 .. : . ., 1896.
1954 .. IXXIII . .; ., 1954.
1972 .. // . . 129. 1972.
1967 .. // XXIII . /
. . 43. ., 1967.
1994 .. //
. ., 1994.
, 1898 .., ..
III. ., 1898.
1975 .. . . 1975.
1986 .. . ., 1986.
242 _____

..

1988 .. //
. ., 1988.
1955 .. // . 49. 1955.
1965 .. . ., 1965.
- 1995 - .. 6-
. // , -
1994 150- .. . ., 1995.
- 2001 - ..
.. // . VII
. ., 2001.
1996 .. . ., 1996.
1981 .. // . . 164. 1981.
i 1988 i .. I // i. 61. , 1988.
1983 .. . .
. . . . 2. ., 1983.
1940 .. X
XIII . // . 6. 1940.
1949 .. // . 11. 1949.
1915 . // . . XI. , 1915.
1963 .. XXV . // .
117. 1963.
2005 . . .
., 2005.
1974 .. (
) // . 2. 1974.
1908 .. . ., 1908.
1972 .. // . . 129. 1972.
1982 .. VIXIII . ., 1982.
1981 .. (XXV .). ., 1981.
1997 .. XXV . ., 1997.
1986 . . .. . ., 1986.
1911 .. . . 1911.
1887 ..
. ., 1887.
2000 .. XIXIV . , , . ., 2000.
1898 .. .. .
, 1898.
1902 .. .. . . V. , 1902.
1975 .. IXXIII . , 1975.
1975 .I. . i //
i. 16. 1975.
2003 . i i. `-i, 2003.
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_____ 243

.. -


. . 1V. . 1. . 1490. , ,
. ,
.. .. .
. . I. . V. . 303. 1923 . . ( ..
.. . /1923/)
. . V. . 57. 1919 . .. .. .
. . 1. 1885 . . 59. XII - .
. . 1. 1866 . . 36-. .., ..
. . (I). . . . . 2. .. . 1917 .
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Princely Treasures From Medieval Kiev in The British
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1907 1907. 21. ., 1907.


1896 .. . . I. ., 1896.
1954 .. IXXIII . .; ., 1954.
1972 .. // . . 129. 1972.
1986 .. . ., 1986.
1916 . 3862. , 1916.
1907 .. .. . , 1907.
British Museum 1923 British Museum. A Guide to the Anglo-Saxon and Foreign Teutonic Antiquities.
London, 1923.
Brown 1980 Brown K.R. Russo-Byzantine Enamels in The Metropolitan Museum of Art // Appolo. 1. 1980.
Brown 1997 Brown K.R. Entries on Temple Pendant and Ceremonial Ornaments // The Glory of
Byzantium: Art and Culture of the Middle Byzantium Era, A.D. 8431261. [Catalogue of the exhibition].
Ed. H.C. Evans, W.D. Wixom. New York, 1997.
Dalton 1912 Dalton O.M. Byzantine Enamels in Mr. Pirpont Morgans Collection. London //
The Burlington Magazine. April September. Vol. XXI. 1912.
Grin 1993 Grin P.S. Jewellery From Kiev // Jewellery Studies. Vol. 6. 1993.
Wixom 1995 Wixom W.D. Two Cloisinne Enamel Pendants: The New York Temple Pendant and the
Cleveland Enkolpion // Byzantine East, Latin West. Art-Historical studies in honor of Kurt Weitzmann.
Princeton, 1995.


. . 1. 1906. . 116. . 12. .. .. 24
1906 .
Private archive of J.P. Morgan. File G.L. & AP. Durlacher Brothers art dealers in London, 19001923.
Letter of April 30, 1907. The Pierpont Morgan Library, New York.
The British Museum. London. Department of Prehistory and Europe. Registration. 1907, 520, 121.

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, 1991 .., .. -.
., 1991.
1997 .. (XXIV .) //
VI . . 3. . ., 1997.
1998 .. -
: , , . . . . . .
., 1998.
1951 .. //
. . 2. .; ., 1951.
_____ 271

..

1953 .. // . . 1.
.,1953.
1981 .. XXV . // .
. I-60. ., 1981.
.. 1988 .. - //
. ., 1988.
1981 .. (XXV .). ., 1981.
1994 .. XII . //
. , 1994.
1967 .. //
XIXIII . . III / . . 43. ., 1967.
1992 .. // .
., 1992.
1993 .. // Ad polus. .. .
. . 10. ., 1993.
1994 .. , ,
( ) // . , 1994.
Tnisson 1974 Tnisson E. Die Gauja-Liven und ihre materielle Kultur (11. Jh. Anfang 13. Jhs.).
Tallinn, 1974.

..

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,
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XXII . ( 1946: 4552).

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(. 4) ,
_____ 273

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. 1. . 1, 2 . (); 3
(); 4 , . (); 5, 6, 8 . . 43
(); 7 ( ); 9 . . 4 (); 10
; 11 . (); 12 . (); 13 . ();
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1958: . III; 1954: 8485; 1969: 164; 1996: 133129; 1996: 7980;
1998: 258267). - , ,
274 _____

. 2. :
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(); 8, 9 . , , . 64 (); 10 . , .
(); 11, 12 . (); 13 . (); 16 ();
17 (); 18 (); 19 ();
20 (); 21 . (); 22 . , . 34 ();
23 . - (); 24 . (); 25 ;
26 ( ); 27

, , D
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,
( ) (. 1: 13; 2: 17; 3: 811, 14, 15) (Teodor 1968: 237; g. 25: 1; Teodor 1980: 404; Teodor
1981: 109, 110, g. 17, 18; Spinei 1999: 66, g. 14).
_____ 275

..

. 3. D. ; 1 ();
2 (); 3 ( ); 4, 5 ();
6, 7 . , . 2 (); 8, 9 . (); 10, 11 ();
12, 13 . (); 14, 15 . (); 16, 17 ();
18 . (); 19 . . 5 (); 20, 25 . , . 16 ();
2123 (); 24, 28 (); 26 . ();
27 . (); 29 (); 30 ( );
31 (); 32 ( ); 33 ()

276 _____

. 4. . : 1 (); 2 ();
3 XIII (); 4 ( ); 5 (); 6 . ,
. 19 (); 7 (); 8 ( ); 9 (
); 10 (); 11 ( ); 12, 1518 ();
13, 14 ( ); 19 ( ); 20, 21, 24
( ); 22, 26 ; 23 (); 25 ( );
27 . , . 22 (); 28, 29 . , - (); 30
(); 3133 ; 34, 35 ; 3638 ();
39, 40 ()

_____ 277

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( , , , ) D
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, , , (. 1: 11, 12)
(Kurnatowska 1980: 155163; 1963: 2237; 1976: . 18). , , (. 2, 510, 2527) (Masov
1979: 39; 1977: 34; 1974: 922; 1976: 207, 1987: 298308;
1992: 61; 1993: 121134; 1992: 130; 2004: 6975; , 2003:
221391; 1992: . 16).
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, , , (. 1: 18, 19) (Kka-Krenz 1993: 31;
2005: 96, . 22). , , ,
(. 1: 59; . 2: 16; . 3: 1) (Hrub 1955: obr. 41; Chropovsk 1962: 175240; Dostl 1966: tab. 911;
Kalousek 1971: 189, obr. 344, tab. 27).

,
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VIVII .,
IXXI . ( 1946: 59).
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1993: 121134; 2004: 6975; , 2003: 221391).
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:
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(. 3: 822).
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; D (. 3: 27, 29, 31, 32).
278 _____

. 5. . :
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5, 7 . , . 59 (); 6 . (); 8 ;
9, 10 . , . 4 . (); 11 ();
12 (); 13 (); 14 ( );
15, 17 ; 16 ( ); 1725 . ,
. 7, 8, 28, 11, 30 (); 26 . , . 56, 63 ();
27, 28 . , . 4 (); 29, 30 . ();
31, 32, 34, 35 ; 33 .

_____ 279

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. 6. . : 1, 2 . , . 50 ();
3, 4 . , . (); 5 . (); 6 ();
7, 8 . (); 9 ( ); 11
(); 10, 1218 . , . 11, 4, 51, 7, 28 (); 1922

, .
7. . ;
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(. 8: 23, 24) ( 1958: 127; , 2003: 221391).
:
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3. , (
1985: 210, . II: 12).
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( 1985: 210, . II: 3).
5. (Dekan 1979: 140).
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.
280 _____

. 7. : 1 ();
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7 (); 8
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(); 12, 13 . ()

7. , , , .
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. 2: 17; . 4: 2527). (. 4: 3133,
35, 39, 40).
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: ,
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VIIVIII .
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( 1991: 121127),
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(, 1997: 236245). ,
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. (Chropovsk 1962: 177240; 1976: 207; , 2003: 121191;
_____ 281

..

. 8. . : 1 (); 2 ( );
3 ; 4, 5, 6 ( ); 7, 8 , . ();
9, 10 (); 11 ();
12 (); 13 (); 1416 ;
17, 18 ; 19 ; 20 ; 21 ; 22 ;
23 (); 24 .

- 1951: 2155)
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.

, , ,
, , D ( 1993: 187, . III),
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,
(. 7).
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282 _____

, ,
, , . .. ,
.
, , , ,
1 (. 5: 4) ( 1948: 127; 1953:
104126; , 1985: 180188: 1998: 258267).
IXX . - - ,
. (), ,
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X . ( 1993: 121133; , 1996: 133136; 1987: 5057;
2001: 121125).
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1953: 104127). ,
, ( 1946: 4552).
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. , , , ( 1998: 263, 264).
,
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, (
1954: 84; 1996: 175; 1996: 124; i 2008: 59, . 17).
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( ) (), , ,
, () ( 2005: 9395;
Nowakiewicz 1998: 531543) (. 1). , ,
, . ,
: 1993 .
( 1998: 258267).
, IX XI .
, , XXI . , , , ,
. ,
( 1990; , 1997).

1993 .. VIII X . // . . III. 1993.


, 2003 ., . // . 3839 (5354). 2002/2003. 2003.
, 1985 ., .. I // - . , 1985.
1974 .. ( VIXI) // . 3. ,
1974.
1976 . . , 1976.
1987 .. // . 4. 1987.
, 1996 .., .. . ., 1996.
_____ 283

..

1977 . XIXII . // . XIX. 1. , 1977.


, 1993 ., . // -. . 6. , 1993.
1985 .. . , 1985.
1999 . // .
XL. 34. , 1999.
2004 . // . XLIV. 1. , 2004.
1975 . ., 1975.
1996 . i i i // Materiay i Sprawozdania Rzeszowskiego Orodka Archeologicznego. T. XVII. Rzeszw, 1996.
- 1968 - . j j //
. XVIII. 1967. , 1968.
- 1971 - . j 9
13 // . XX. 1970. , 1971.
1998 ..
// VI . . 4. ., 1998.
i 2008 i . ii i ii-i i. , 2008.
2001 .. IXX . // 125 / . . 124. . ., 2001.
1958 .. . . 1. .; ., 1958.
1946 .. .
XXII . // . . 13. 1946.
1954 .. IXXIII . .; ., 1954.
i- 1948 i- . i // i. . 2. 1948.
1958 .. // . 74. 1958.
1992 . j. j, 1992.
1901 .. // XI . . I. , 1901.
1993 . IXXI . // , IX. , 1993.
1963 . // . V. 3. , 1963.
1993 . ( XXIV .) // . . 4. , 1993.
1990 .. //
( ) / . . 111. ., 1990.
1992 . // -. . 5.
, 1992.
1987 .. // V . . III. . 1. ., 1987.
1996 .. // . ., 1996.
1996 .. //
. 1994. ., 1996.
, 1997 .., ..
- - XXI . // Stratum + . .; , 1997.
2005 .. . .
., 2005.
1991 .. // . . 31.
1991.
1997 ..
// . . ., 1997.
1953 .. . // . . 50. 1953.
284 _____

, , 1984 .., .., .. XXI . , 1984.


1969 . I. i i i // -i
i. , 1969.
1992 . . . III. , 1992.
- 1951 - . . // . j II. , 1951.
Chropovsk 1962 Chropovsk B. Slovansk pohebisko v Nitre na Lupke // Slovensk Arheolgia. X. 1.
1962.
Hrub 1955 Hrub V. Star Msto. Velkomoravsk pohebite Na Valh. Praha, 1955.
Dekan 1979 Dekan J. Wielkie Morawy. Epoka i sztuka. Wrocaw, 1979.
Dostl 1966 Dostl B. Slovansk pohebit ze stedn doby hraditn na Morav. Praha, 1966.
Garam 1993 Garam E. Katalog der awarenzeitlichen Goldgegenstnde und der Fundstcke aus den
Frstengrbern im Ungarischen Nationalmuseim. Budapest, 1993.
Juri 1986 Juri R. Srednjovjekovni nakit Istre i Dalmace // Izdanja Hrvatskog arheoloskog drustva.
11/2. 1986.
Kalousek 1971 Kalousek F. 1971. Beclav-Pohansko. T. I. Brno, 1971.
Kka-Krenz 1993 Kka-Krenz H. Biuteria pnocno-zachodnio sowiaska we wczesnym redniowieczu.
Pozna, 1993.
Kurnatowska 1980 Kurnatowska Z. Rola strefy naddunajskiej w formowaniu si kultury sowianskiej VIII
IX wieku // Slovan VIX stoleti. Brno, 1980.
Masov 1979 Masov S. La ncropole mdivale prs du village Gradesnica, dep. de Vraca // Culture et art
en Bulgarie mdivale (VIIIXIV s.). Soa, 1979.
sterhzy 1994 sterhzy K. Az n. Tokaji kincs revzija. // Folia Archaeologica. XXII. Budapest,
1994.
Nowakiewicz 1998 Nowakiewicz T. Nowe odkrycia zausznic typu Borszczewka // wiatowit. XLI.
B. Warszawa, 1998.
Poulk 1960 Poulk J. Sta Moravan buduj svj stt. Gottwaldov, 1960.
Spinei 1999 Spinei V. Marile migraii din Estul i Sud-Estul Europei n secolele IXXIII. Iai, 1999.
Teodor 1968 Teodor D. Contribuii la cunoaterea culturii Dridu pe teritoriul Moldovei // SCIV(A).
19. 2. 1968.
Teodor 1978 Teodor D.G. Teritoriul est-carpatic in veacurile VXI e.n. Iai, 1978.
Teodor 1980 Teodor D. Tezaurul de la Raducaneni // SCIV(A). 31. 3. 1980.
Teodor 1981 Teodor D. Romanitatea Carpato-Dunaena si bizantul in veakurile VXI e.n. Iai, 1981.
Va 1954 Va Z. Mad'ai a slovan ve svtle archeologickch nlez XXII stolet // Slovensk archeologia. 2. 1954.

..

.. ()

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( 1954; 1971; 1997;
1998), .
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286 _____

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1991: 66, . 5: 14; 2003: . 1).
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(, , 1995: . 131).
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_____ 287

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. 1. : 13 ; 4
; 5 ; 6, 9
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288 _____

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_____ 289

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. 2. : 12
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1987: 550). - - IXXI . ( 1979: 56)
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290 _____

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. ,
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.

1949 .. // . 11. 1949.


1977 .. . , 1977.
1992 .. . , 1992.
1895 .. // . 18. 1895.
1992 .. . .
., 1992.
1979 .. - // . . 1-59. ., 1979.
, , 1966 .., .., .. o
. , 1966.
, 1985 .., .. - 19801982 // 19781983 . , 1985.
1958 .. . . 1. .; ., 1958.
, , 2003 ., ., . 19982002 . // -
VIIIXI . , 2003.
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1982 .. // . 50
. ., 1982.
, 1991 .., .. . . // 100- . .
. 2. . , 1991.
1893 // . 14. 1893.
1984 . .
// . , 1984.
1991 .. - (
XIV ). , 1991.
1991 .. //
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. , 1991.
1981 .. , ( 5, V) // . , 1981.
1957 //
. . 1. , 1957.
1967 .. // . 142. 1967.
1987 .. . ., 1987.
1981 .. XXIV . // . . 1-60.
., 1981.
1991 .. . , 1991.
1970 .. // . 163. 1970.
1997 ..
// 1097 .
_____ 291

..

, 900- .
, 1997.
1998 ..
XXIII // . . 12. , 1998.
1962 ..
1946 // . . 87. 1962.
, , 1976 .., .., ..
1973 . // . , 1976.
1947 .. //
. . 1. , 1947.
2001 .. - IXXII . ., 2001.
, 1902 .., .. . . 5.
(VIXIII .). , 1902.
1954 .. //
. . 3. , 1954.
1971 .. .. //
. . 1. , 1971.
1971 .. // 1970. 1971.
1978 .. (IXXIII .). , 1978.
2003 .
VIIIXI . // - VIIIXI . , 2003.


. . 1989. . 184. .., .., ..,
.. . 1989 .
. . 1988. . 84. ., ., ., .,
, . . .
1998 . . 1. . .
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_____ 293

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294 _____

. 1. , :
1, 3 ; 2 ; 4 ; 5 ;
67, 15 ; 8 ; 9 ;
10 ; 11 ; 12 -; 13, 14
; 16 ; 17 ; 18 ; 19 ;
20 ; 21 ;
22 -; 23 ; 24 .
13, 56, 8, 1214, 20 ; 4, 11 ; 7, 10 ; 9 ;
15, 17 ; 16, 18, 2123 -1; 19 ; 24

_____ 295

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280 . , ,
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296 _____

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75 % (. 1: 1), XI
_____ 297

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7
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298 _____

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_____ 299

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300 _____

1
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312 _____

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Byzantine Art 1964 Byzantine ArtEuropean Art. Athens, 1964.
Byzantine and post-Byzantine art 1981 Byzantine and post-Byzantine art. Athens, 1981.
Jenkins 1988 Jenkins . Fatimid jewelry, its subtypes and inuences // Ars Orientalis. XVIII. 1988.
Tait 1991 Tait . Jewellery 7000 years. An international history and illustrated survey from the collection
of the British museum. New York, 1991.
The Glory of Bizantium. 1997 The Glory of Byzantium. Art and culture of the middle Byzantine era A.D.
8431261. [Catalogue of the exhibition]. Ed. H.C. Evans, W.D. Wixom. New York, 1997.

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, 2007 .., .. // Sacrum et Profanum. . II. .


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328 _____

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Mapja-j 1987 Mapja-j . VI XII
j. , 1987.
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Ginalski 19992000 Ginalski J. Enkolpiony z grodziska Horodyszcze w Trepczy kolo Sanoka // Acta
archaeologica Carpathica. T. XXXV. 19992000.
Spinei 1975 Spinei V. Les relations de la Moldavie avec le Byzance et la Russie au premier quart du
II-e millnaire la lumire des sources archologiques // Dacia. XIX. 1975.
Spinei 1992 Spinei V. Circulaia unor piese de cult n regiunile romneti nord-dunrene n secolele X
XVII . // Arheologia Moldovei. XV. Iai, 1992.
Yaschaeva, Nagornyak 2003 Yaschaeva T., Nagornyak S. Ancient Russia Reliquary Crosses from the Byzantine Taurica // 16th Jnternazional Congress of antique Bronzes Typology, chronology, authenticity. Abstracts
and Contributorslist. Bucharest, 2003.

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1996 .. i // i
i. , 1996.
1965 .. ii i X . // i. . XIX. 1965.
1917 .. . , 1917.
Powstenko 1954 Powstenko O. The Cathedral of St.Sophia in Kiev // The Annals of the Ukrainian Academy
of Arts and Sciences in the U.S. III-IV. New York, 1954.


. . 30. . 1. . 118. .. .
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1993 . //
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1905 .. // . 15. 1905.
1968 .. // .
., 1968.
1970 .. . . I. ., 1970.
, 1998 .., .. . . III. ., 1998.
Goldmann 1985 Goldmann K. Bronzegusstechniken // Archeologische Bronzen. Berlin, 1985.
Laszlo 1972 Laszlo G. Lart des Nomades. Budapest, 1972.
Staecker 1999 Staecker J. Rex regum et dominus dominorum: die wikingerzeitlichen Kreuz- und Kruzixanhnger als Ausdruck der Mission in Altdnemark und Schweden. Stockholm, 1999.

. ()

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, 2003; Pohanstvo 2004; 2005; Pitarakis 2006).
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a, ( 2001: . 81a-; 2006: . 10).
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378 _____

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2006a: 250; 2008: 265268).

, 2003 .., A.A. .


- XIXIII . ., 2003.
2005 / . III., ., 2005.
2006 .. - // -
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. . 9. , 2002.
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(, , 1924 2006 .) // . 15. 2008.
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1983 .. XIXV . // .
1-60. ., 1983.
Oi . 2003 Oi ., O O., C . i i
ii // : i i. , 2003.
2001 C. i ii . ii, 2001.
2006 A.A. . ., 2006.
CerkiewWielka Tajemnica 2001 CerkiewWielka Tajemnica. Sztuka cerkiewna od XI do 1917 roku ze
zbiorw polskich. Gniezno, 2001.
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Ginalski 2001 Ginalski J. Wczesnoredniowieczne lady kultu chrzecaskiego obrzdu wschodniego na
grodzisku Horodyszcze w Trepczy koo Sanoka // Cerkiew Wielka Tajemnica. Sztuka cerkiewna od XI do
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Ginalski 2004 Ginalski J. Pectoral (Enkolpion) // Galitzia en Galicia. El arte de Cracovia y la Pequena
Polonia. Santiago de Compostela, 2004.
Gnutova, Zotova 2000 Gnutova S.V., Zotova E.Y. Crosses. Icons. Hinged Icons. Artifacts cast from Brass
11th early 20th Century from the Andrey Rublev Central Museum of Ancient Russian Culture and Art. Moscow, 2000.
Kalavrezou-Maxeiner 1985 Kalavrezou-Maxeiner I. Byzantine Icons in Steatite. Wien, 1985.
Kruk 2007 Kruk M. Enkolpiony ze zbiorw Muzeum Narodowego w Krakowie // Od powietrza, godu,
ognia i wojny Czowiek wobec nieszczcia [14 grudnia 2007 14 lutego 2008]. Leszno, 2007.
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-, ,

1984 . - //
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A . 1995 A ., ., M., ., . .
, 1995.
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1930 1930 //
. VII. /.
1988 . - // . 2. 1988.
1972 . XIXIV .
, 1972.
1992 . . III. VIIIXIV . , 1992.
Aladjov 1994 Aladjov Z. Deux enolpions de la rgion Preslav // Bulletin de lInstitut darchologie.
XXXVIII. Soja, 1994.
Atanasov 1991 Atanasov G. Croix-encolpions proche-orientales de la rgion de la Dobroudja du Sud
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1991. 1. 1991.
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(Msie et Dobroudja) en 1242 (Selon les donnes des sources numismatiques, archologiques et narratives) //
. 12. 1995.
Barinkliev, Dimitrov, Nicolov 1965 Barinkliev Ch., Dimitrov M., Nicolov D. Muse National de Stara
Zagora. Soa, 1965.
Barnea Al. 1984 Barnea Al. Spturile de salvare de la Noviodunum // Peuce. IX. 1984.
Barnea I. 1968 Barnea I. Sigilii bizantine de la Noviodunum // SCN. IV. 1968.
Barnea I. 1975 Barnea I. Sigilii bizantine de la Noviodunum (II) // SCN. VI. 1975.
Barnea I. 1977 Barnea I. Noi descoperiri la Noviodunum // Peuce. VI. 1977.
Barnea I. 1981a Barnea I. Arta cretin n Romnia. Vol. 2. Secolele VIIXIII. Bucureti, 1981.
Barnea I. 1981b Barnea I. Cristian Art in Romania. Vol 2. 7th13th centuries. Bucharest, 1981.
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. -, .

Barnea I. 1990 Barnea I. Les sceaux byzantins mis au jour Noviodunum // Studies in byzantine sigillography. Dumbarton Oaks. 2. 1990.
Barnea I. 1997 Barnea I. Noviodunum n lumina sigiliilor bizantine // SCIV(A). 48. 4. 1997.
Barnea I., Mnucu-Adameteanu, Topoleanu 1996 Barnea I., Mnucu-Adameteanu Gh., Topoleanu Fl.
Isaccea // Situri arheologice cercetate n perioada 19831992. Brila. 43. 1996.
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3 :
_____ 417

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1
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6

5 174/5
5 175/5
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21
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. 1240 . ( 1954: 3031).
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XIII . (, 1993: 308).

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( 1980: 210).
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.

1892 .. 1891 . // .
. XXXVI. 892.
1893 .. 1892 . // .
. XLI. 1893.
2004 .. . ., 2004.
, 1993 .., .. -
// Byzantinoslavica, LIV. 1993.
, 2003 .., .. .
- XIXIII . ., 2003.
1990 .. //
. 1. 1990.
418 _____

..

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2001 .. i i
i (X XIII .). , 2001.
, 1997 .., .. //
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. 2 (14). , 1990.
1981 .. (XXV .). ., 1981.
1898 .. .. .
, 1898.
1980 .. XIIXIII . , 1980.
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, 1899.
.. .. 1900 .. .. . . . II.
, 1900.

..

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420 _____

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1950; 1954; 1956: 337342; 1959; 1981;
301312; 1983: 139148).
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1979: 60; , , 1997: 3137; 2000, 2003, 2005,
2006 .). ,
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I II .
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. (, 2006: 136).
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, (Die Welt von Byzanz 2004: 276, 310, 311, 314, 315;
Early Christian and Byzantine Art 1990: tab. LXVIII: 449; 2005: . 8: 20).
, -, , -,
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.
.
.
, , , , .
. , , ;
Crois Patte () Spire Cross
_____ 423

..

. 2. :
1, 2, 3, 4 , ; 512 (: Die Welt von Byzanz
2004); 13 - (: 1993); 14, 16 (: 2004); 15 -
(: 2004); 17 Doln Vestonice, pohr. 467 (: Dekan 1981); 18 , ;
19 - (: j-j 1977); 20 Haidudorog Gyulas; 21 Balatonmagyord Felso
Kolonidulo (: Lang, Trk 2004); 2223 ( 2002). : 121; 2223

().2 Agnus Dei


( ) (Healey 1977: 291; East Christian Art 1987: 5);
(, 2003: . 17; 7275; 8688;
9296).
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, ,
..; ( 1993: . 18: 3,
7, 12, 13; 1996: . V: 25; XVI: 13; 2004: . 98 .),
- (Die Welt von Byzanz 2004: 239).
( Patte, Forme Forme Patte)
(Ecclesiastical silver plate 1992: g. 28.1), (Dodd 1968: 27.1b; 31.1b; 31.2b; Catalogue of Early Christian Antiquities 1901: 397, 399);
, (Catalogue of Early Christian Antiquities
1901: 376, 496, 821, 822; Die Welt von Byzanz 2004: 334336, 339, 412414), ( 1990:
. 41, 37); ( 1990: . 28: 13),
, , (Cradle of Christianity 2000: 62, 65, 99, 101) . .
-, .
2
.: .. : , 1907/1908
. ., 1908; , , .. . // . . XXXII. . . .. , .. . ., 1895.
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, . , -
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. . .. .

424 _____

- VVII . (Die Welt von Byzanz 2004: 311, 314, 315),


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: 1,3 1,6 , Forme Patte, Patte.
,
VVII .
(Die Welt von Byzanz 2004:
276). - VIIIX . Forme Forme Patte
( 2002: . 2; 2004: . 140: 1, 4, 7, 8).
189 - ( 1993: . 6: 31). ,
- ,
- , Patte Forme, ,
( 2004: 442446, . 2: 7, 8, 12; j-j 1977: 70, 70, 71).
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,
, .. , .. , .. ..
( 1983: 222225; Petrukhin, Pushkina 1998: 247258;
2002: 4247). . ( 124, 125
.. ), (, 2006: . 6) 5
Alisee Forme. C
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.,
. (Staecker 1999: 9596). (. 3: 14) .
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459 Forme Patte
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( 1988: . 10: 9).
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1999: 20, 53c, 103). Forme . 49
( 2005: . 8: 20), -
, .. ,
1.4.3 . (Staecker 1999: 110111). -
13 ( 2005: . 9: 20)
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,
( 2005: 155), .
, .
-.
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. , (. 2: 3, 4),
189 - (. 2: 13). ( ,
, ) (j-j 1977: 7),
, , ,
_____ 425

..

. 3. I . :
1 Cuthberts Cross; 2 Wilton Cross; 3 Whitby Abbey; 4 Sigtuna; 5 Birka Grab 698; 6 Oldenburg;
7 Kastlsa; 8 Birka 835; 9 Skjeppinge Grund; 10 Birka 480 (: Staecker 1999); 11 , -301;
12 , . 459 (: Petrukhin, Pushkina 1998); 13 , . 93 (: 1905);
14 (: , 2006); 15 , . 124; 16, 17 , . 125 (: 1959)

, (. 2: 18). , , , .
, ,
I . (j-j 1977: 28).
3 (. 2: 20) . . I . (Lang,
Trk 2004: 390, Abb. 11: 5). 467
(. 2: 17). , , . , ,
.

,
. VIVII .
(Early Christian and Byzantine Art 1990: 63; Die Welt von Byzanz 2004: 268, 426429, 509, 510, 550,
551, 553, 554, 562, 571), I . (j-j
1977: 65), - (
2004: . 2: 8).
( 2004: . 337: 16; 2005: . 50: 15 .).
I .,
426 _____

, ,
(, 2003: 14, 15, . 12).
.
- ,
II . ( 2002: 565).
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. ,
, , (. 2: 2223).
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(IIXIII .), . ,
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.
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I . .

, I .
, , ,
- (.: 1982: . LVII: 6)
,
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. ,
. ,
- , , .

. I ., , , I
II . , I .
.

1990 .. // . . I. 1990.
1993 .. VIII . // . . III. 1993.
1996 .. :
- IIIVII . ., 1996.
, , 1989 .., .., ..
1989 . . , 43. , 1989.
, 1993 .., .. //
. 19841989. , 1993.
, 1975 .., .. . //
. 7. 1975.
, , 1979 .., .., ..
(1974 1975) // . , 1979.
1999 .. : //
. ., 1999.
_____ 427

..

1999 .. (
). . . . . . ., 1999.
, 2003 .., ..
// . . 1. ., 2003.
1998 .. // . 3. 1998.
2003 .. IIII . (
). . . . . . ., 2003.
2004 .. . ., 2004.
, 2006 .., .. I . // . . . .,
2006.
, 2006 ., . // (
) . , 2006.
2005 .. I . (19971999 .) // IIV :
. ., 2005.
1959 .. . . 1. .; ., 1959.
2002 - 1872
1922 . , 2002.
1950 .. // CA.
T. XIV. 1950.
1954 .. IXXIII . .; ., 1954.
1956 .. ..
. // . T. XXV. 1956.
, 2003 .., .. .
- IIII . ., 2003.
1997 .. . . . .
. . ., 1997.
2004 .. - - //
. ; , 2004.
2002 .. // . . , 2002.
2004 .. - .
, 2004.
1975 .. . ., 1975.
1986 .. . ., 1986.
j-j 1987 j-j . VI XII
j. , 1987.
, , 2005 .., .., .. // . . 16. -, 2005.
2002 .. V .
. ., 2002.
2005 .. Milites Christi .
. ., 2005.
1983 .. // . 4. 1983.
1981 . , 1981.
2005 .. ( . ). , 2005.
1988 .. I . .
., 1988.
1948 .. . ., 1948.
, , 1997 .., .., ..
// . 1996. , 1997.
428 _____

1982 .. VIIII . ., 1982.


1972 M.B. // . . 129. 1972.
1981 .. (XXV .). ., 1981.
1905 .. .. // .
. 15. 1905.
1983 .. . , 1983.
2006 .. I . //
- . . . ., 2006.
1913 .. . , 1913.
2004 .. .. //

. ., 2004.
Byzanz 2001 Byzanz. Das Licht aus dem Osten. Mainz, 2001.
Catalogue of Early Christian Antiquities 1901 Catalogue of Early Christian Antiquities and Objects from
the Christian East in the Department of British and Mediaeval Antiquities and Ethnography of the British Museum. London, 1901.
Cradle of Christianity 2000 Cradle of Christianity. Jerusalem, 2000.
Dekan 1981 Dekan J. Moravia Magna: The Great Moravian Empire. Minneapolis, 1981.
Die Welt von Byzanz 2004 Die Welt von Byzanz Europas stelisches Erbe. Glanz, Krisen und Fortleben
einer tausendjhrigen Kultur. Mnchen, 2004.
Dodd 1968 Dodd E.C. Byzantine silver stamps: Supplement II. More treasure from Syria // DOP. 22.
1968.
Ecclesiastical silver plate 1992 Ecclesiastical silver plate in sixth-century Byzantium. Washington, 1992.
East Christian Art 1987 East Christian Art. London, 1987.
Early Christian and Byzantine Art 1990 Early Christian and Byzantine Art. London, 1990.
Healey 1977 Healey T. The Symbolism of the Cross in Sacred end Secular Art // Leonardo. Vol. 10. 1977.
4 (Autumn).
Lang, Trk 2004 Lang P., Trk A. Honfoglals kori srok Mindszent-Koszors-dln // Studia
Arhaeologica X. Szeged, 2004.
Musin 1998 Musin A. Two Churches or two Traditions: Common Traits and Peculiarities in Northern and
Russian Christianity before and after 1054 AD through the Archaeological Evidence. A View from the East //
Rom und Byzanz im Norden. Mission und Glaubenswechsel im Osteeraum whrend des 8.14. Jahrhunderts.
B. II. Mainz, 1998.
Petrukhin, Pushkina 1998 Petrukhin V.Ya., Pushkina T.A. Old Russia: the Earliest Stages of Christianisation // Rom und Byzanz im Norden. Mission und Glaubenswechsel im Osteeraum whrend des 8.14. Jahrhunderts. B. II. Mainz, 1998.
Staecker 1999 Staecker J. Rex regum et dominus dominorum: die wikingerzeitlichen Kreuz- und Kruzixanhnger als Ausdruck der Mission in Altdnemark und Schweden. Stockholm, 1999.

V

IXXI .:

.
Hjermind

. ()

HJERMIND
(
)1

, .. .
, . ,
(NM 1613).
. ,
, , 1876 .
Hjermind ( ),
.
, .
(. 1).
12,1 , 2,82,3 , 1,6 .
, . 3,3 , 6,5 .
,
4,3 2 .
.

. 0,5 .
.

(Rygh 1885: 674; Strmberg 1961: Taf. 71: 1),
Groix (Arbman, Nilsson 1969: fig. 19; MllerWille 1978: Abb. 3: 1). ,
,
(rsnes 1966: tav. 5i). , , .
,
(Paulsen 1953: I: 4b).
,
.
, ,
. . , , ,
1 I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. Anne Pedersen who helped me during my studies

of the swords in the National Museum of Denmark in July 2001 and also supplied me with information about the nd circumstances of some Danish swords during my work on this article. The
Berit Wallenberg Foundation sponsored my journey to Denmark and the ke Wiberg Foundation
supported my work on this article. It forms part of my project The gift to men and the gift to the
gods: swords, wealth and value in Viking Age Life and Thought. A fuller English version of this
article is planned to be published in forthcoming volume of Current Swedish Archaeology.

_____ 433

. 1. Hjermind
(The National Museum of Denmark)

( Halland, Skne Blekinge) (Schleswig/Holstein).


,
(Pedersen 1995; 1997a; 1997b; 2002; 2003).
, ,
- .
, ,
(LUHM Kulturen).
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(Langeland) (Lolland) (. 2). , , 91 .
19 , (Skne).
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2 Middelsom (Jrgensen 1991: 299304),
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, (Stocklund 1991: 295).
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(Wamers 1994: 156).
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Moltke 1942: 1) (Jacobsen, Moltke 1942: 2).
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IX .,
2

434 _____

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14 . V S, X . 18 % 20 %.
_____ 435

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Rostock-Dierkow (Geibig 1993), O, W .
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Klse 2005: 513, fig. 2). Oppmana Sj (Strmberg 1961: Taf. 64: 1).

. , ,
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: Appadurai 1988). ,
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436 _____

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152; Thlin Bergman, Arrhenius 2005: 51). , , IX .,
. , 900930/40 950975 . (, 2006: 316).
_____ 437


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Taf. 6: 1, 4, 8; 44: 1, 6). Z, . .
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T.
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951 .) , ,
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(Whitelock 1930: 23). (twa
seolforhilted sweord), 200 mancuses
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(ths swrdes mid tham sylfrenan hiltan), c. , . , , ,
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438 _____

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seneschal . ,
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pl. X: 2031). ,
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(Whitelock 1955: 494). .
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(Helgesson 2004: 223). ,
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366432; Ljungkvist 2006: 173), (Menghin 1980: 227255), , (Willemsen
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440 _____

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( D, E, L, R, S, T, Z).
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.
1. , (. 2 3)
Jylland
B
1) C6871 Moss S JP B (Androshchuk 2006)
2) C6375 Norr, Fladbro, Grensten sogn, Middelsom herred, Viborg, Jylland JP B (Androshchuk 2006)
D
3) C1572 Snders, Overlade sogn, rs herred, lborg amt, Jylland JP D1(Skibsted Klse 2005)
4) Lgstr (Skibsted Klse 2005: 9, g. 7)
H/I
5) C32337, Hospital sengen, Randers, Stvring, Randers amt, Jylland JP H
6) D1030 Sjrring sogn, Hundborg herred, Thisted amt, Jylland JP H (Behrend 1970: 90, g. 91)
L
7) D2335 Stvringgrd, Stvring sogn, Stvring herred, Frederiksborg, Jylland JP L
M
8) C15293, Roum, Roum sogn, Rinds herred, Viborg amt, Jylland JP M (?)
O
9) RAM 5403 Fladbro, Haslum, Galten herred, Randers amt, Jylland JP O
10) C25221 Stenalt, rsted sogn, Rougs herred, Randers amt, Jylland JPO
S
11) Brandstrup I, Vindum sogn, Middelsom herred, Viborg amt, Jylland (Lavrsen 1960)
12) Hemstok, rhus amt, Jylland JP S (Pedersen 1995: 71)
13) C5205 Kolindsund, Snder herred, Randers amt, Jylland JP S
V
14) C9058 Fars, Fars sogn, Gislum herred, Aalborg amt, Jylland JP V (Brndsted 1936)
15) Kammerhj, Redsted sogn, Mors, Jylland (Brndsted 1936: 88; Pedersen 1995: 72) JP V (?)
16) VSM 6285a Lamhj, Laastrup sogn, Rinds herred, Viborg amt, Jylland JP V (Brndsted 1936)
X
17) RAM 5401 Grensten, Grensten sogn, Middelson herred, Viborg amt, Jylland
18) Hald, grave 1, rslevkloster sogn, Viborg amt, Jylland (Brndsted 1936: 92; Pedersen 1995: 73)
19) C19425 Rends, Burkal sogn, Slogs herred, Tnder amt, Jylland
1
20) C6373-6374 Norr, Fladbro, Grengsten sogn, Middelsom herred, Viborg Jylland (Peirce 2002: 150)
2
21) C2504 Graasand, Haderup, sogn, Ginding herred, Ringkbing amt Jylland
22) D1031 Sjrring S, Sjrring sogn, Hundborg herred, Thisted amt Jylland

23) C23622 Broager, Broager sogn, Nybl herred, Snderborg amt, Jylland (Brndsted 1936: 123; Pedersen
1995: 73) JP X/V
24) C1613 Hjermind S, Viborg amt, Jylland
25) C20600 Ravnholt, Tiset sogn, Aarhus amt, Jylland JP D/U (Brndsted 1936) (?)
26) C5204 Kolindsund, Djur Snder herred, Randers amt, Jylland JP M (?)
27) C20367 Veggerslev, Veggerslev sogn, Djurs Nrre herred, Randers amt, Jylland JP V (?)
28) C5864 Hurup, Als, Hindsted herred, lborg amt, Jylland (a mould for a hilt)
442 _____

Hjermind

Sjlland

29) C16348 Hrby, Holbk amt, Sjlland JP A (Brndsted 1936: 200; Pedersen 1995: 69)
H/I
30) C23627 Kirkmosegrd, Kbenhavn, Sjlland JP H (Pedersen 1995: 69).
31) C24550 Srup S, Mlv sogn, Smrum herred, Kbenhavns amt, Sjlland JP H (Pedersen 1995: 69).
32) C24554 Tude, Hejninge, Slagelse herred, Sr amt, Sjlland JP H
O
33) C23666 Hellenslev, Holbk amt, Sjlland JP O1
R
34) C16430 Sborg S, Sborg sogn, Holbo herred, Frederiksborg amt, Sjlland JP R (Peirce 2002: 106) (?)
S
35) C5821 Frlunde, Tornborg sogn, Slagelse herred, Sor amt, Sjlland JP S
36) 15556 Kge havn, Kge sogn, Rams herred, Kbenhavn amt, Sjlland JP S
37) 25684 Magle, Korsr Nor, Tornborg sogn, Slagelse herred, Sor amt, Sjlland JP S (Pedersen 1995: 71)
38) C25683 Magle, Korsr Nor, Tornborg sogn, Slagelse herred, Sor amt, Sjlland JP S (Pedersen 1995: 71)
39) C5821 Storeblt, Frlunde Fed, Trnborg sogn, Slagelse herred, Sor amt, Sjlland JP S (Pedersen
1995: 71)
V
40) C22323 Nstels, Nstels sogn, Hammer herred, Prst amt JP V
41) C5818 Osted, Osted sogn, Volborgs herred, Kbenhavn amt JP V (Peirce 2002: 112)
42) FSM (Fyns Stiftelsemuseum) A 1775 Jrlunde sogn, Lynge-Frederiksborg herred, Frederiksborg amt,
Sjlland JP V?
X
43) C8727 Tiss, St. Fuglede sogn, Ars herred, Holbk amt, Sjlland
1
44) C3118 Kallungborg/ Holbk, Sjlland (Peirce 2002: 30)
2
45) C1849 ster Egesborg, Brge herred, Prst amt, Sjlland

46) C25655 Herlufmagle, Tybjerg herred Sjlland JP (?)
47) C26043 Vrebro , Gundsnagle sogn, Smme herred, Kbenhavn amt, Sjlland, JP B/H (?)
Langeland
V
48) Langelands museum Stengade I, grave 3, Tulleblle, Langeland
Nrre herred, Svendborg amt JP V (Brndsted 1936: g. 66)
Uncertain types
49) Langelandsmuseum Longelse, Longelse sogn, Svenborg amt, Langeland, JP X/V (?)
Lolland
V
50) C8304 Errindlev, Errindlev sogn, Fuglse, Maribo amt JP V (Brndsted 1936: g. 9394; Pedersen 1995:
72)
51) C7371 Hoby, Gloslunde, Maribo Lolland, JP V (Brndsted 1936: g. 88)

52) B34881 Nysted, Lolland JP B/C?
53) C25487 Ventave Store JP V (?)

E
54) UI1364 JP E
2.
H
1) Haithabu JP H (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 287. Taf. 159: 6)
_____ 443

K
2) Haithabu JP K (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 276. Taf. 156: 13)
3) Haithabu JP K (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 277. Taf. 157: 13)
4) Haithabu JP K (?) (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 284. Taf. 159: 3)
L
5) Haithabu JP L (?) (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 282. Taf. 159: 1)
6) Schleswig-Holstein JP L (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 332. Taf. 165: 13)
N
7) Angeln JP N (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr.329. Taf. 165: 13)
O
8) Angeln JP O (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr.330. Taf. 165: 45)
9) Haddebyer Noor JP O (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 274. Taf. 155: 4)
S
10) Haithabu JP S (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 293. Taf. 160: 3)
11) Haithabu JP S (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 301. Taf. 161: 2)
12) Haithabu JP S (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 304. Taf. 161: 5)
V
13) Haddebyer Noor JP V (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 273. Taf. 155: 13)
14) Haithabu JP V (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 280. Taf. 158: 57)
15) Haithabu JP V (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 303. Taf. 161: 4)
W
16) Schleswig JP W (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 324. Taf. 164: 45)
X
17) Haithabu JP X (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 279. Taf. 158: 14)
Y
18) Haithabu JP Y (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 302. Taf. 161: 3)
1
19) Haithabu JP St1 (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 275. Taf. 156: 46,5)

20) Haithabu JP (?) (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 278. Taf. 157: 46)
21) Haithabu JP (?) (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 283. Taf. 159: 2)
22) Haithabu JP (?) (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 285. Taf. 159: 4)
23) Haithabu JP (?) (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 286. Taf. 159: 5)
24) Haithabu JP (?) (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 288. Taf. 159: 7)
25) Haithabu JP (?) (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 289. Taf. 159: 8)
26) Haithabu JP (?) (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 290. Taf. 159: 9)
27) Haithabu JP (?) (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 291. Taf. 160: 1)
28) Haithabu JP (?) (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 292. Taf. 160: 2)
29) Haithabu JP (?) (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 294. Taf. 160: 4)
30) Haithabu JP (?) (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 295. Taf. 160: 5)
31) Haithabu JP (?) (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 296. Taf. 160: 6)
32) Haithabu JP N/X (?) (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 297. Taf. 160: 7)
33) Haithabu JP N/X (?) (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 298. Taf. 160: 8)
34) Haithabu JP (?) (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 299. Taf. 160: 7)
35) Haithabu JP (?) (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 300. Taf. 161: 1)
36) Haithabu JP (?) (Geibig 1991: Kat.-Nr. 300. Taf. 161: 1)
3. Skne

1) SHM 2110:73 Vendel/Viking (Behmer 1939: Taf. LIV: 3)
B
2) LUHM 9999 Hllestads JP B (Strmberg 1961: 61, Taf. 40: 3; Androshchuk 2006)
3) SHM 28271 Lund, Kllby JP B (Arbman 1937: 216; Wilson 1955: 105; Strmberg 1961: 46)
D
4) LUHM 29087 St. Kpinge JP D (Strmberg 1961: 27, Taf. 64: 3,3)
444 _____

Hjermind

5) LUHM 24929 sterlvsta, Oppmansjn JP D (Strmberg 1961: 72, Taf. 64: 1)


H/I
6) LUHM 29026, Burkv, Arlv JP H (Strmberg 1961: 15, Taf. 40: 1)
7) LUHM 12358 Kristianstad, Hammarsjn JP H (Strmberg 1961: 43, Taf. 40: 2)
8) Lderups, Hagestad JP H (Strmberg 1963: 125; Strmberg 1961: 149, Abb. 13)
9) Lddekpinge, Vikhgsvgen JP H (Olsson 1976: 106, g. 6667)
10) LUHM 3213 JP H
M
11) LUHM 13078 JP M
O
12) LUHM 28399 Kvistofta, Rya JP O (Strmberg 1961: 44, Taf. 39: 1)
13) SHM 3217:52 Skanr JP O (Strmberg 1961: 56, Taf. 64: 2)
V
14) LUHM 13077 Trelleborg JP V
15) LUHM JP V
X
16) LUHM 24925 Bosrp JP X (Strmberg 1961: 57, af. 40: 4; Svanberg 2003: 162, 295, g. 67: 7)
Z
17) KM 661666:1903 Lund JP Z (Bergman, Billberg 1976: 387389, g. 341a-b)
18) LUHM 22930 Svde, Vrngebck JP Z (Rydbeck 1932: 253f.; Strmberg 1961: 2122, Taf. 65: 1; Androshchuk 2003: 3543, g. 8)
19) SHM 4515 .Vemmenhg, Dybck JP Z (Rydbeck 1932: 253f.; Strmberg 1961: 6667, Taf. 65: 2;
Graham-Campbell 1980: 70, pl. 250; Androshchuk 2003: 3543, g. 7).

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( IXI .).
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2001 .. , //
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2008 .. XI
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1975 . . . // . . .
. ., 1975.
1966 .. // . . 1-36. . 1. .;
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146153). .
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110160 - .

, 2005 .., .. // - XIIXIV . , 2005.


1903 .. . ., 1903.
1995 .. // ii
i . ii, 1995.
2000 .. VIII XI / . . 2. , 2000.
2005 .. I
II . . . , 2005.
1990 .. - . .,
1990.
1978 .. //
. 6. 1978.
1989 .. - // . ., 1989.
2001 .. // . . 212. 2001.
1954 .. IXXIII . 1954.
1996 .. . - . ., 1996.
1958 .. .
/ . 74. 1958.
1910 .. ( ).
., 1910.
1965 .. . , 1965.
1989 .. - :
. ., 1989.
1965 .. - IX . // . . V. ., 1965.
_____ 453

..

1998 .. //
I . . ( ). , 1998.
1977 .. ' // i. 21.
i, 1977.
1963 .. // XXI . ., 1963.
1978 .
// . ., 1978.
1892 .. ,
// . , 1892.
1956 .. - . ., 1956.
Arbman 1940 Arbman H. Birka I. Die Grber. Tafeln. Uppsala, 1940.
Graham-Campbell, Kidd 1980 Graham-Campbell J., Kidd D. The Vikings. London, 1980.
Solle 1959 Solle M. Knieci pohebit na Star Kouimi // Pamtky archeologick. Cz katalogowa.
L. 2. Praha, 1959.
ak 1963 ak J. Importy skandynawskie na ziemiach zachodniosowiaskich od IX do XI wieku.
Pozna, 1963.

..
-: ,

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2002: 132133). , , ,
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.

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1-3

1.2.1. Variante

1.2.2.

1.2.4. Variante B

, ,

,
1.2.2.
2 .
( Bj 480)

1.2.2.
. t.a.q. 946 .
II/125-

1.2.2. Bj 517

1.2.6.,
LUHM14079

1.2.2.

3 .

t.p.q.
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t.p.q. 913/14

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970- .

,

, - 970- .

,
,



,

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,


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; IX
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t.p.q. 892907

1. 988 .
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4033

41 33

40 35

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1

32 27;
3,5

30 30 ;
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19

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18

17

16

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5
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,
27
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,

t.p.q.
1085

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997 999

t.p.q.
969/970

975 .,

,
.

1.2.2., ,

1.2.6.

1.2.2.,

1.2.4. Variante B,

- 1.1.1. Variante
.

, , -

- 1.2.1., Variante
.

1987;
60-61

- 1.2.6.
.

t.p.q. 913/14

, ,

25

3537

2830

3535

13, 57 : 1958: 142143, 208211, . XXVIIIXXIX;


4 : , 2003: 4143, . 5, 1;
8 2005 . 150
1 ( .. );
9 : 1977: 160163, . II: 3;
10, 16 : , 1989: 193,196-200, .1, 3, 4, 2,7; : 25, 328;
11 : 1996: 53, 280;
12 : 1988: 42; 2002: 133,135, .34;
1315 : 1991: 148, 164, 167, 168, . 12: 13;
1718 : : 37, . 21, 12; 1983: 223224, . 1, 6; 1988: 115, 117, . 10, 9;
19 : 1954: 102103, 61; 1897: 151152, . 29.

12

-: ,

_____ 469

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,
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25 1906 . , ..
14 ( 1910: 137; 1958: 142143, . V: 2). 1.2.2, . , -301. ,
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), 997 999 . , , , 459/1977
417 . ,
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1.2.2, . , - 49/1999, (
.) 988989 ., 11 .
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1.2.2., . ,
5/1978, 27/1979, 38/1979,
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, 1.2.2. . 27 1979 .
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(Staeker 1999: 87, 8991).
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VIVII .,
(Staeker 1999: 90).
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.
1.2.6. ,
XI .,
VI .
(Staeker 1999: 103105).
, , 38/1979,
. .
1.2.4.: , . , , 1.1.2. (
). 12
. - (-), 1.2.4.,
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( , ) 38/1979
, 1.1.1.: (nicht einheitlich) .
, , (Staeker
1999: 8284). ,
470 _____

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, (Staeker 1999: 8384, 86, 99-10).


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, , .
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4 . Bj 968 (Grslund 1984a: 112, 114, Abb. 12: 5).
, , ,
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). . , ,
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,
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1.2.2.
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, 900920 950970 . ,
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1993: 9, . 5; , , 1999 .,
49, . , 2003: 4143, . 5: -2; , 1997
., 13, . , 2003: 39, . 1: 3).
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XI XII .
( 2002: 127, 129, . 18: 1415). 26 (XI .), ( 2002: 129, . 18: 12),
(, ) .
(- 1987: 1011), . . .
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- , em. 39: 8b,
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102, 88. , , ,
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935 .
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( 899/900, 920/21, 922/23, , 414943, ).
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XIX . ( 1958: 190191, 217; 1966: 7677, 8081),
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_____ 473

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., - -
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, .
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117; 125, , , ). ,
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. , ,
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-
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945 . . - ,
() (),
( 1968: 101103; 1980: 184185,
189190, 204208).
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, .
- 192 .
, , , , ,
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, 905/06 .
II 12 ( 1996: 67).
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, .
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1863 .
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945 ., , . , 1530 . ,
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, 980 .: ,
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1530 .,
. , 980 .
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1161 . , ,
474 _____

-: ,


, ,
-I.

, 1989 .., .. //
. ., 1989.
1999a .. (
). , 1999.
1999 . Petersen-51 // Vita antiqua.
1. , 1999.
2004 .
// Ruthenica. . III. 2004.
1872 .. // . 126 21/. 1872.
1879 .. .
1876 . // . . . 1879.
1884 .. // V
. . . , 1884.
1888 .. ,

. // . . . 1888.
1895 .. . ., 1895
. 11. , 1894.
1993 . 1. , 1993.
1888 .. , //
. . II. 1888. .
1903 .. - // . 6. 1903.
1977 .. . , 1977.
, , 1978 .., .., ..
IXXI . ., 1978.
1910 . 1908 1909 .
// - . 78. , 1910.
1993 .. //
- . , 1993.
1964 .. // . 3. 1964.
1993 . . . . , 1993.
1976 .. . ., 1976.
, 1987 . ., . . // .
1. 1987.
1989 .. // . 4. 1989.
1994 .. // . , 1994.
1996 .. VIIIX . //
Biaoru, Litwa, Polska, Ukraina. Wsplne dzieje pienidza. Warszawa, 1996.
, 2003 ., . . (
- 19971999 . // -
VIIIXI . , 2003.
2001 ..
.. // / . . 124. 2001.
1991 .. //
. ., 1991.
1958 .. . . I. .; ., 1958.
1961 .. . . II. .; ., 1961.
1899 . , 1899.
_____ 475

..

1966 .. . . 12 // . . 1-36. .;
., 1966.
1973 .. IX
XIII . / / . . 1-36. .; ., 1973.
1954 .. . .; ., 1954.
1976 .. // . ., 1976.
, 1979 .., ..
// -
. ., 1979.
1990 .. // .
, 1990.
, 1990 .., ..
. ., 1990.
1985 .. . ., 1985.
2002 .. // . . , 2002.
, 1982 .., .. . //
. 41. 1982.
- 1987 - . VI XII
. , 1987.
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., 1990.
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., 1988.
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., 2005.
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- 1987 - . . 1987.
1913 .. . , 1913.
2002 .. . VIII . ., 2002.
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.). . V. , 1902.
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kurhanowych na cmentarzysku podhoreckim, zdaje si wskazywa na dominujce znaczenie zmarego, by moe,
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:

1962 .. i i // . . XII. ,
1962.
2006 . // -
. . . ., 2006.
Antoniewicz 1928 Antoniewicz W. Archeologja Polski, Warszawa, 1928.
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51 . 30 .
18 (,
). , , 0,28 (Arwidsson, Thorberg 1989: 121).
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; 22 . 965
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644 , ; 12 .
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,
, ,
.

, 1993 .., .. //
. 4. 1993.
2006 .. II //
. LI . , 2006.
2006 .. X . // . LI . , 2006.
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..

.. ()

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_____ 497

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502 _____

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1861 ... . ., 1861.
, 2002 .., .. // . ., 2002.
1966 .. // . ., 1966.
1976 .. // . .,
1976.
2006 .. ,
// . 4. 2006.
1995 .. VXI . // :
. . 2. ., 1995.
2003 .. / // . 1. 2003.
2005 .. // . 1. 2005.
1996 ( ). Stockholm, 1996.
, 1988 .., .. . , 1988.
1994 .. . ., 1994.
1984 .. - //
. ., 1984.
2000 .. //
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2004 .. // . 11. 2004.
1984 .. // . . 3. 1984.
2000 .. : , // Florilegium. 60- .. . ., 2000.
- 1987 - . ., 1987.
2006 .. //
- . . . ., 2006.
2005 .. (, ). ., 2005.
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..
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508 _____

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514 _____

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1950 .. // . . XIII. 1950.
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I . //
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XIII . ( ) // . 19. 2004.
, 2002 .., ..
// . 9. 2002.
1965 .. XXIII . , 1965.
2006 .. XIXIII . // . LI . , 2006.
1957 .. 1954 . //
. . 1. , 1957.
1975 .. ( .). , 1975.
1978 .. ( .). , 1978.
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I . . 278. .. .. ,
1965
I . . 578. .. 1978 .
I . . 953. .. . 1986 .

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1,41

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0,228

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6
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2,56
2,18

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145
151

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127

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2,84

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120

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0,13

0,05

0,228

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0,05

0,216

0,216

0,229

0,216

0,229

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1,88

1,43

1,31

1,9

0,16

0,756

0,686

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2,407

3
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2,36

2,23

3,47

3,63

3,87

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6,87

7,99

6,76

3,09

4
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1,17

0,807

1,08

1,04

1,13

1,67

1,53

1,43

1,35

0,78

5
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0,243

0,161

0,278

0,208

0,0594

0,48

0,485

0,727

0,622

0,951

6
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0,0067

0,0083

0,0115

0,0128

0,0145

0,0244

0,0230

0,0219

0,0212

0,0109

7
Cr %

2.
,
(Stilke, Heih, Mommsen 1996: 29; 1999: 416)

1,13

120

1
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1.

0,243

0,161

0,278

0,208

0,0594

11
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.. , ..

127, 144 151. ( 120 145) , .


, .
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, , , .
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.

1978 .. . .
., 1978.
2006 .. - (
) // . . 1. ., 2006.
, 1993 .., ..
( ) // . 6. 1993.
, , , 2006 .., .., ..,
.. - // Buletinul
Institutului de Geozic i Geologie al AM. 2. 2006.
, , 1978 .., .., ..
IXXI . ., 1978.
1980 .. IXX . //
. . , , . ., 1980.
, , 1986 .., .., ..
(- ) // . ., 1986.
1971 .. // . . 125. 1971.
1971 .. // . . XVI. , 1971.
1985 .. . - . ., 1985.
1979 .. (
). ., 1979.
1963 //
- . . 7. 1963.
2003 .. //
. . . ., 2003.
2002 .. ( ) // . ., 2002.
_____ 527

.. , ..

2003 .. // .
. . ., 2003.
- 2000 - . // . . 70. 10. 2000.
1985 .. // .
. ., 1985.
2007 ..
// . ., 2007.
, 1977 .., ..
. . ., 1977.
2008 .. :
// .
LIII . , 2008.
1986 . //
. ., 1986.
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..

.. (-)

7

(
)

1.
2008 . 105
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558 _____

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_____ 559

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560 _____

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_____ 561

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562 _____

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_____ 563

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1995: 174). ., -2. 1996 . ..
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48 .. . , ,
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_____ 565

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566 _____

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568 _____

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_____ 569

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V Acta musei Varnaensis. Varna
AH Archaeologia Hungarica. Budapest
AP Archeologia Polski. Warszawa
AM Academia de tiine a Moldovei. Chiinu
_____ 581

Aun Archaeological studies. Uppsala University. Institute of North European Archaeology / Societas archaeologica Upsaliensis. Institutionen fr arkeologi och antik historia, Uppsala universitet. Uppsala
BAR British Archaeological Reports. Oxford
BCH Buletin Corespondance hellniques. Paris
BSNR Buletinul Societii Numismatice Romne. Bucureti
CA Cahiers archologiques. Paris
CCA Cronica cercetrilor arheologice. Bucureti
CIAC Congrs international darchologie chrtienne
CN Cercetri numismatice, Muzeul Naional de Istorie a Romniei. Bucureti
Dacia Dacia. Rvue darchologie et dhistoire ancienne. Bucarest
DACL Dictionaire darchologie chrtienne et de liturgie. Paris
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EN Ephemeris Napocensis. Cluj Napoca
ET Etudes et traveau. Paris
Hesperia Hesperia. Athena
ICEM Institutul de Ceratri Eco-Muzeale, Tulcea
Istros Istros. Muzeul Brilei
KVHAA Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, Stockholm
LA Lietuvos archeologa. Vilnius
LUHM Lunds Universitets Historiska Museum
MAB Monumenta Archaeologica Barbarica
MAK Muzeum Archeologiczne w Krakowie
MINAC Muzeul de istorie naional i archeologie, Constana
MNK Muzeum Narodowe w Krakowie
Mousaios Mousaios. Muzeul judeean Buzu.
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p.p.m. parts per million
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UV Riksantikvariembetets arkeologiska uppdragsverksamhet, Sverige


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Summary

Summary

SUMMARIES

Leo Klejn (Saint-Petersburg)

From the Hoards of Russia: G. F. Korzukhina


Gali Feodorovna Korzukhina, a hereditary intellectual, granddaughter of a known artist and
a daughter of an architect, was destined to deal with Russian art. She grew up in a family
with democratic traditions and was lled with civic dignity. No wonder that later, in the
Institute for the History of Material Culture, she became part of the backbone that made it
possible for the team to maintain the reputation of high scholarship despite all upheavals and
the Soviet ideological pressure. Korzukhina studied artifacts of the early Medieval period,
Russian hoards in particular, and other materials formerly studied by N. P. Kondakov.
Like his apprentices in the early 20th century, the so-called fact-worshippers, she revived
in practice his idea of Combinationism (formation of the new on the basis of crossing of
dierent ethnic components), and especially his methods of iconographic analysis. With her
natural inclination to reveal latent order in everything (from football matches to the trac
of vessels along the Neva), she sought one in the archaeological materials either. That was
a specic trait of her personality as a researcher. In her thriving to acquire a clear picture
she never projected a theory on the material, but she always relied on the material itself,
classifying it and revealing interconnections. Due to this very approach it was Korzukhina
who, side by side with I. I. Lyapushkin and M. A. Tikhanova, managed to withstand the
doctrine implanted by B. A. Rybakov and P. N. Tretyakov. This was the speculative doctrine
of the through (penetrating several millennia) continuity in the development of Russian
culture and state in the Ukraine. The doctrine was popular only because it met the political
situation. Korzukhina defended not merely the objective picture of ethnogenesis on the
territory of the Ukraine, but also the picture of ethnic diversity of the Russian plain in the
second half of the 1st millennium A.D. Among other peoples, she spared a place there for
Normans, opposing her views to the ultra-patriotic theories developed by Anti-Normanists.
G. F. Korzukhinas contribution to archaeology is unforgettable. Its estimation grows, along
with its value. The scholars unpublished papers become printed, and nowadays her role in
the history of Russian archaeology is getting increasingly important and irrefutable.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1 P. 17.
The cover of G. F. Korzukhinas unpublished manuscript The Origins of
Rus, 1951.
Fig. 2. P. 18.
I.P. Shaskolsky. L.S. Klejns friendly jests, middle 1960s.
Fig. 3. Pp. 2021.
Draft of Norman Battle with friendly jests for the disputants of Varangian discussion. From left to right top-down: I. V. Stepanov, S. L. Peshtich, I. P. Shaskolsky,
A. L. Shapiro, L. S. Klejn, G. F. Korsukhina.

ara Medvedeva (Saint-Petersburg)

The Heritage of G. F. Korzukhina in the Materials of the Photo Archive


of the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute for the History of Material Culture
The article gives the description of photographic materials connected with the work of
Galy Feodorovna Korzukhina, which are in custody of the Institute. It gives more precise
586 _____

Summary

information concerning the chronological characteristics and the circumstances under which the materials were
obtained by the Archive. The connection is maintained between the photographs and the published works and
subjects studied by G. F. Korzukhina, as well as the archive les stored in the Russian Academy of Sciences
Institute for the History of Material Culture. The published material provides a wider scope of the scholars
heritage stored in archives and is a part of collective work on the publication of the collections of the Institute.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 25.
G. F. Korzukhina. 1 1930; 2 1935; 3 1949; 4 early 1960s; 5 1970.
Fig. 2. P. 26.
Expedition at Staraya Ladoga, 1947. 1 Galy Feodorovna and her son are sitting on the wall, top row; 2
G. F. Korzukhina (on the right) working at the excavation.
Fig. 3. P. 27.
Expedition at Toropets, 1960. 1 the team, from left to right: M. V. Malevskaya, E. Vilinbakhova, T. Ratner,
G. F. Korzukhina, K. D. Laushkin; 23 G. F. Korzukhina guides trial-pits digging at the Big Hillfort.

Olga Scheglova (Saint-Petersburg)

The Heritage of G. F. Korzukhina in the Manuscript Archive Collection of the Scientic Archive
of the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute for the History of Material Culture
The article describes the formation and acquisition of new materials for the archival Fund 77 the personal
fund of Galy Feodorovna Korzukhina, which is preserved as part of the the Manuscript Archive Collection of
the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute for the History of Material Culture, and which includes the materials
of published works, topical collections of various documents (extracts, pictures, photographs), as well as the
texts of unpublished articles and monographs. Fund 77 include 164 archive les reecting the results of the
scholars work since 1926 to 1974.
Especially interesting are the nished manuscripts of two monographs The Origins of Rus 1951
(File 43) and The Ancient Russian Carved Bone 1954 (File 105), as well as the monumental work The History of the Dnieper Region in the 5th7th Centuries (Files 113-116), which G. F. Korzukhina was writing until
her last days, and a number of articles which did not lose neither their subtlety nor their urgency (The Aurochs
Horns in Chernigov Burial Mounds File 106; The Problems of History of the Middle Dnieper Region in
the 1st Millennium BC File 142).
The materials associated with the works composed by the scholar during the period of over 50 years, scrupulously selected and classied, acquired the status of important sources, as among others they describe archeological nds lost in the II World War.
Several topical blocks of materials were singled out, among them The Jewellers Art in the Ancient Rus ;
The Religious Repoussage; The Antiquities of Old Ladoga; The Parts of Attire with Champleve Enamels;
The Pieces of the 6th7th Centuries Artistic Handcraft Within and Outside the Middle Dnieper Region.
Attached to the article are the inventory lists of Fonds 77 (The Personal fonds of G. F. Korzukhina) and
other materials of G. F. Korzukhina, mostly associated with her eld work and discovered by the research ocer
of the Manuscript Archive Collection N. A. Belova in the other fonds of the Manuscript Archive Collection
Scientic Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute for the History of Material Culture.

Nadezhda Pivovarova (Saint-Petersburg)

G. F. Korzukhina in the Russian Museum. On Some Unknown Facts from the Scholars Biography
The article unveils some unknown facts from the biography of Galy Korzukhina (19061974). It is focused on
the scholars work in the Department for Ancient Russian Art of the Russian Museum (19351938), where she
was the custodian of the precious metals collection. On the basis of the materials from the Departmental Archive
and documents from the Department for Ancient Russian Art, the Russian Museum, the author systematizes
the facts concerning Galy Korzukhinas work and oers the information about some of her unpublished works
and preparatory materials. The author also discovers the reasons which forced the scholar to leave the Russian
Museum.
_____ 587

Summary

The second part of the article gives an account of the main results of the work on discovering and systematizing the applied arts collections at the Department for Ancient Russian Art, the Russian Museum, greatly
contributed to by G. F. Korzukhina.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 65.
A paper from the inventory of the Department for the Old Russian Art, State Russian Museum, with
G. F. Korzukhinas notes.
Fig. 2. Pp. 6667.
G. F. Korzukhinas report on the ambon of Saint Sophias Cathedral, Novgorod.
Fig. 3. P. 68.
G. F. Korzukhina. The description for the catalogue of Russian hoards.
Color page:
01. The cover with the image of a Crucixion from the Solotchinsky monastery, was donated to the Russian
Museum by G.F. Korzukhina, the State Russian Museum.

Victor Aksionov (Kharkov)

The Objects of Slavic Type from the Saltovo Culture Sites in the Upper Donetz Region
The objects of Slavic type are found in some burial complexes of Saltovo-Mayatskaya archeological culture
in the basin of the Seversky Donetz river. The studied burials are dated to the second half of the 8th
the beginning of the 9th century. Among the studied objects those associated with female dress dominate.
This fact could indicate that these objects came from the Slavic culture through matrimonial relations.
The male persons (Alans and Prebulgarians) who came to the Upper Donetz region in the early 8th century
used to marry local women. The presence of objects associated with the equipment of a warriors horse
let us suppose that in Saltov military detachments there were representatives of the local population. The
discovery of Slavic objects in the closed Saltov complexes confirms the thesis that there existed symbiosis of
different ethnic groups: the locals (Slavs and Sarmato-Alans) and the new-comes (Alans and Prebulgarians)
in the basin of the Seversky Donetz river.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1.P. 75.
Objects of Slavic type at Saltovo sites of the upper Donets region: 19 Staro-Saltovsky burial ground,
catacomb 21; 1016 Verkhne-Saltovsky (main) burial ground: 1011 catacomb 42, 1216 catacomb 24; 1725 Sukhogomolshansky cremation burial ground: 1719 burial 29, 2023 burial
54, 2425 burial 175, fragments of horses brow-band.

Vjacheslav Baranov (Kiev)

The Burial Complex near Sagi Farm.


To the History of the Discovery and Publication of Assemblage
In 1887 near Sagi farm close to town Alyoshki (nowadays town Cyuryupinsk, Kherson region) a rich hunnish
complex was occasionally discovered. Eventually, the artifacts from this complex found their place in the State
Hermitage Museum. Later some artifacts were published by dierent scholars as separate items as if found
in dierent places. These facts inevitably decreased the scientic value of the complex and complicated its
interpretation. The aim of the publication is to show ones more all the presently surviving nds from Sagi farm
1887 assemblage and to reveal all the facts concerning this discovery.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 83.
Complex of nds Sagi Farm, year 1887. 12 big belt buckle; 34 nail-heads; 5 buckle ring; 6
belt plate; 7 fragment of the base of a shoe buckle; 8 ring; 9 belt plate; 10, 13 belt ends; 11 wire ring;
12 shoe buckle; 14 belt end; 1516 plaque facing; 17 belt end facing; 18 stranded wire necklace;
1920 clamps from bridle belts. 12, 56, 8 silver; 7, 1011, 1318 gold.
588 _____

Summary

Alexey Vorontsov (Tula)

The New Finds of the Horizon Objects of the East European Champleve Enamels
at the Sites of the Oka and Don Watershed
The article is aimed at denoting the range of antiquities associated with the horizon of East European champleve
enamels on the territory of the Oka and Don Watershed. The recent researches made it possible for the rst time
to determine stratigraphically the archaeological layers connected with this period and to dene its position on the
local chronological scale. These results allowed to narrow the period of the presence of East European champleve
enamels in the region of Oka and Don Watershed to the 2nd half of the 3rd century. The nds associated with the
East European champleve enamels are considered together with the other categories of objects and ceramics.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 87.
Hillforts in the region of the Oka and Don watershed, where the items of the circle of East European Champleve enamels were found, and synchronous sites on the contiguous territories: 1 Supruty, 2 Porechye, 3
Schepilovo , 4 Torkhovo, 5 Fediashevo, 6 Duna, 7 Moshchinskoye, 8 Ogubskoye, 9 Troitskoye,
10 Borisoglebskoye , 11 Shcherbinskoye, 12 Kuznechiki t, 13 Djakovo, 14 Kuzminsky Burial Ground,
15 Koshibejevsky Burial Ground, 16 Lipetskoye, 17 Podgorenskoye. Map symbols: sites belong to
Moshchinskaya culture, sites belong to Dyakovskaya culture, sites belong to Ryazano-Okskaya Burial
Ground culture, sites belong to Verkhnedonsky type.
Fig. 2. P. 88.
Objects from the layer of East-European champleve enamels at the sites of the Oka and Don watershed:
19 Schepilovo hillfort; 1011 Supruty hillfort.
Fig. 3. P. 89.
15, 7 plates with anthropomorphous images from the sites of the late Dyakovo: 1 Ogubskoye hillfort
(according to G. F. Korzukhina), 2, 5 Troitskoye hillfort (according to A. F. Dubinin), 3, 7 Scherbinskoje
hillfort (according to A. F. Dubinin), 4 Kuntsevskoye hillfort (according to I. G. Rosenfeldt); 6 Fragment
of Moschinskaya ceramics from Torkhovsky hillfort .
Fig. 4. P. 91.
Schepilovo hillfort. The layer of East-European champleve enamels: 19 rough hand-modeled ceramics;
1014 glazed hand-modeled ceramics; 1517 covers.
Fig. 5. P. 92.
The place of the layer of East-European champleve enamel nds in the chronology of the sites of the Oka
and Don watershed: I the layer of the sites of Novo-Klejmenovo type; II the layer associated with the nds
of East-European champleve enamels; III the layer of Moschinskaya culture when inuenced by Cherniakhovskaya culture.

Alexey Komar (Kiev)

Fragments of the East European Nomads footwear, 6th7th Centuries A.D.


The paper analyzes the metal details found in the feet area of East European nomad graves. The analysis of sets of metal
shoe fragments their disposition and combination show that they were part of bandage belts for soft boots.
The reconstruction the schemes of bandage gives two basic types (with variants) used by East European nomads in the 6th7th centuries A.D. Type I: single bandage belt usually xed as a gure-of-eight. Type II: bandage
with additional moveable or half-moveable heel belt.
Both traditions of bandage originate in the traditions of the Iranian peoples of the Late Antiquity and Early
Medieval times (Scythians, Sarmathians, Parthians, Sassanian Perse), although the style of metal fragments found
in the graves of East European nomads of the 6th7th centuries A.D. is usually of Byzantine origin and identical
to those found at the Early Medieval cemeteries in the Crimea.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 96.
Shoe details in images of ne arts: 1 Tovsta mogila (4th c. B. C.); 24 Orlat (1st2nd c. A.D.); 5
Takht-i Sangin (1st2nd c. A.D.); 6 Persepolis (5th c. B. C.); 7 statue of Kanishka (mid. of the 2nd c. A.D.);
_____ 589

Summary

815 Sassanian silver dishes with royal images: 8 Khusro I (531579 A. D.) ; 9 Kavad I (488531 A. D.);
10 Khusro II? (591628 A. D.); 11 unknown (6th c. A. D.); 12 Khusro II (591628 A. D.); 13 unknown
(6th7th c. A. D.); 14 unknown (7th c. A. D.); 15 Yazgard I (399421 A. D.); 16, 17 Kissuphim (end of
the 6th c. A. D.); 18, 19 Saint Denis basilica (15th c. A. D.).
Fig. 2. P. 98.
Shoes of 56th c. A. D. from Lutchistoe cemetery, reconstruction of E.Khairedinova: I Gr. 5 Crypt 88;
II Gr. 168; III Gr. 8 Crypt 176; IV Gr. 1 Crypt 99.
Fig. 3. P. 98.
Shoe details of nomads of the 5th rst half of the 6th c. A. D. and variants of bandage reconstruction:
16 Likhachevka, Barrow 6; 711 Novo-Podkrjazh, Gr. 3 Barrow 3.
Fig. 4. P. 99.
Shoe details of nomads of the 6th c. A. D. and variants of bandage reconstruction: 13 Zhivotino, Gr. 4;
46 Shipovo, Gr. 2; 7, 8 Tsarev, Gr. 2 Barrow 66; 9, 10 Bolshoj Tokmak, Gr. 1 Barrow 1.
Fig. 5. P. 99.
Shoe details of nomads of the end of 6th7th c. A. D. and variants of bandage reconstruction: 18 Shelugi,
Gr. 1 Barrow 3; 918 Sivashskoje, Gr. 2 Barrow 2.
Fig. 6. P. 102.
Shoe details of the second half of 6th 7th c. A. D. from Lutchistoe cemetery, reconstruction of E.Khairedinova:
I Gr. 1 Crypt 204; II Gr. 3 Crypt 204; III Gr. 3 Crypt 170; IV Gr. 3 Crypt 189.
Fig. 7. P. 102.
Shoe details of the 7th c. A. D. from Gr. 2 Barrow 3 of Sivashovka and bandage reconstruction.
Fig. 8. P. 103.
Shoe details of the 7th c. A. D. nomad graves from Lower Volga region and variants of bandage reconstruction: 14 Avilovsky; 59 Zinovyevka.
Fig. 9. P. 103.
Shoe details of the 7th c. A. D. from Gr. 3 Barrow 5 of Vinogradnoje and bandage reconstruction.
Fig. 10. P. 105.
Shoe details of the 7th c. A. D. from Gr. 12 Barrow 1 of Dmitrievka and bandage reconstruction.
Fig. 11. P. 105.
Shoe details of the 7th c. A. D. from Gr. 7 Barrow 7 of Hristoforovka and variant of bandage reconstruction.
Fig. 12. P. 105.
Shoes with bandage of variant II1b: I Tsibilium1, Gr. 3; II Lutchistoe Gr. 3, Crypt 77; III
Lutchistoe Gr. 3, Crypt 64.
Fig. 13. P. 105.
Shoe details of nomads of the second half of 7th c. A. D. and variants of bandage reconstruction: 18
Vasilevka, Gr. 1 Barrow 2; 915 Kovalevka II, Gr. 11 Barrow 1; 1619 Kostogryzovo, Gr. 7 Barrow 1.
Fig. 14. P. 107.
Possible shoe details from nomad graves of the 7th c. A. D.: 18 Bogachevka, Gr. 12 Barrow 8; 916
Izobilnoye, Gr. 4 Barrow 1; 1727 Tsarsk Barrow; 2836 Natashino, Barrow 7; 3744 Hristoforovka,
Gr. 12 Barrow 7 (drowing of R.S.Orlov); 45 Jasyrev III Gr. 9 Barrow 5; 46 Voznesenka; 4750 Risovoe,
Gr. 10 Barrow 2; 5153 Belozerka, Barrow 14; 5464 Uch-Tepe, Barrow 3.
Color pages:
02. The detailed images of shoes from the Subashi casket, 6th7th centuries (Tokio National Museum).

Vladimir Koulakov (Moscow Kaliningrad)

Monstrse Brooches in the Baltic Sea Region


Oscar Almgren, the pioneer of studying provincial-Roman and barbarous" brooches, has attributed the
Monstrse Brooches to the Group VII. The brightest feature of Monstrse Brooches is a specic device on
their back. In addition to complex design, fasteners were beautifully decorated with gold foil that covered the
specied overlays. Due to all those features, it becomes obvious that the brooches had ceremonial value.
In the delta of the Vistula river, in the historical Prussia and along the Baltic coast, to the right of the
Neman, there were found 7 Monstrse brooches belonging to the group Almgren VII. These finds are
590 _____

Summary

situated outside the northeast border of Wielbark-culture. The samples of these type of fasteners could
come on the Amber coast as prototypes for the brooches Monstrse in the beginning of Cymbern"
chronological horizon with the wave of resettlement of groups of German population from Jutland during
Marcomannic wars.
Samland (Sambia) and the delta of the Vistula river, two major territories of spread the brooches Monstrse
were the most important parts of the sacred way connecting the East-Germanic areas around the Dniester and
the Dnieper with the religious centers situated on the islands in the western part of the Baltic Sea Region.
An accumulation of the brooches Monstrse on a narrow piece of the Baltic coast between the modern cities of Gdansks and Zelenogradsk, a specificity of local type brooches Monstrse are obviously not
casual. A hypothesis is suggested that defined groups of the Monstrse brooches were of local origin.
In the third quarter of the 4th century A.D. these brooches started moving with small groups of the local
German tribes to the West, to the all-Germanic sacred centers, and to the South-East, to the flourishing
Black Sea Coast.
Thus, this part of the future historical Prussia, during the epoch of Gothic wars, could become the area where
one of the most important material features typical of the old-Germanic cult namely, the female Monstrse
brooches were wide spread.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1 P. 117.
Monstrse brooches and their immediate predecessors in Almgren VII typological group (according to:
Almgren).
Fig. 2. P. 118.
The distribution of Monstrse brooches at phases 1 and 2. (according to: Werner 1988: Abb. 5, suplemented by M. Levada and the author): 1 Todireni, 2 Vasilica, 3 Budeti, 4 Daneny, 5 Chanska,
6 Slusegaard, 7 Grebieten, 8 Weklice, 9 Lubieszewo, 10 Lauth, 11 Brandenburg, 12 Lietuva,
13 Polowity, 14 Grunajki, 15 Petrikivtsy, 16 Novopolovetskoje, 17 Medvedovka. Map symbols:
type Almgren VII, 217; type Matthes B and Matthes C.
Fig. 3. P. 118.
The nds of Monstrse brooches at the north-eastern border of Wielbark-culture (according to Gaerte
1932). Map symbols: the border of the geographic range of Gothic" antiquities; the nds of Monstrse
brooches and their numbers (see g. 2). Archeological sites along the border of the geographical range of Goths"
antiquities: 1 Huntenberg burial ground, 2 Pettelkau burial ground, 3 Heinrikau hoard, 4 Wormditt
burial ground, 5 Migehnen site, 6 Heiligenfelde burial ground, 7 Lengainen burial ground and site, 8
Gr. Bartelsdor burial ground, 9 Schnwalde site, 10 Hirschberg site, 11 Scheufelmhle burial ground,
12 Sagsau burial ground, 13 Klaukendorf burial ground.
Fig. 4. P. 119.
12 bula and aureus from Ushakovo burial ground, 34 bula from the former Grebieten G
(Nord)177 (34), 5 bula from burial 600 Slusegaard burial ground. (no scaling).
Fig. 5 P. 119.
Earth burial ground Weklice7, burial 150: 1 plan; 25 examples of inventory.
Fig. 6. P. 120.
Lubieszewo burial ground, burial 10: 18 examples of inventory.
Fig. 7. P. 122.
Monstrse brooches, typologically close to the clasps of type Almgren VI,168: 1 Lietuva, 2 Polowity,
3 Grunajki-D.
Fig. 8. P. 124.
Crossbow-like bulas from burial 261, Gerojskoje burial ground (Eisliethen).
Fig. 9. P. 124.
Crossbow-like bulas with a tongue-like plate on a leg: 1 burial 194, Gerojskoje burial ground; 2 burial
(excavated in 1905), Nowe Boczwinki burial ground; 3 burial 150, the former Greibau burial ground.
Fig. 10. P. 125.
Types of Roman provincial spindles with the composite body. 15 horn spindles of Hrth-Hermlheim
type (the 2nd the rst half of the 4th centuries A.D.): 1 Hrth-Hermlheim, 2 Sotteville, 3 Poundbury, 4 Emona, 5 Kln; 67 amber spindles of Dorweiler type (the 3rd the early 4th centuries A.D.):
6 Dorweiler, 7 Niederzier; 811 amber spindles of Aquilea type (second half of the 1st second half of
the 4th centuries A.D.): 89 Sopron, 10 Kln, 11 Aquilea.
_____ 591

Summary

Olga Khomiakova (Kaliningrad)

Ringgarnitur Style in the Antiquities


of the Sambian-Natangian Culture of the Late Roman Period
The goods decorated in Ringgarnitur style are prevalent in the Sambian-Natangian culture. They include
crossbow brooches of types A. 211 and A. 167, the so-called groe rmbrustbel, neck rings, pins and other
goods ornamented with hoops made of notched wire. There exist several types or Ringgarnitur, among them
those with one or several ranks of notched wire, or those which combine wire and mould elements or embossed
foil. Dierent types of Ringgarnitur may be used for archeometrical purposes, for each of them existed in
rather limited time periods. The most luxurious types (type II and its modications) found in Hassleben-Leuna
horizon indicate that it should be attributed to the period of 1bC2. The latest types (I, III) prevail in phases C2,
C3 and D1. The nds ornamented with notched wire have tremendous parallels to those found in the regions of
Vistula, Northland and the islands of the Baltic Sea, which may be the evidence of permanent contacts between
the population of Sambia and Europe.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 129.
The map of concerned burial grounds: a nds of dierent goods decorated Ringgarnitur type II and its
modications, big crossbow brooches with Ringgarnitur type I and III.
Fig. 2. P. 130.
The crossbow brooches ornamented with hoops made of notched wire in Sambian-Natangian culture according to N. berg.
Fig. 3. P. 132.
The types of ornament with hoops made of notched wire represented on objects of Sambian-Natangian
culture.
Fig. 4. P. 133.
Ring decor elements and application techniques.
Fig. 5. P. 137.
Exemples of bulas with ring decor, types IIII from the territory of Sambian-Natangian culture.
Fig. 6. P. 138.
The dating of types of Ringgarnitur ornament with hoops made of notched wire.

Ekatherina Shablavina (Saint-Petersburg)

The Eagle-headed Buckle from A.A. Bobrinskys Collection


The collection of the State Hermitage Museum includes several series of silver and brass eagle-headed buckles,
produced by dierent craftsmen. Among them there is an eagle-headed buckle, which diers tremendously from
all the other known examples. This object has no analogues among Bosporan antiquities either. This buckle is an
occasional nd, which was purchased by the earl A.A. Bobrinsky. As the result of the X-ray uorescence analysis
of its metal composition, it was determined that the object was made of bronze. The study of its technique shows
that the buckle was produced by means of imprinting from the brass eagle-headed buckle, but not by wax model,
as it was with silver buckles. The closer analogies to this buckle are found among the nger-shaped bulas of the
Dnieper type from the so-called Antaes Antiquities. These facts lead us to the supposition, that this bronze
eagle-headed buckle, which was made by primitive copying of a Bosporan object, but ornamented in the Middle
Dnieper manner, has to be considered in the context of the Slavic Dnieper antiquities.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 143.
Eagle-headed buckles, front and back views: 1 Kerch, crypt 152 (inventory No. 1820/301), the original;
2 Kerch, crypt 152 (inventory 1820/300), replica from silver buckle.
Fig. 2. P. 144.
Eagle-headed buckle, front and back view. Kerch, A. A. Bobrinsky collection (inventory No. 1101/6). Replica
from brass buckle.
592 _____

Summary

Olga Scheglova (Saint-Petersburg)

The Mystery of Dancing Little Men and the Traces of Unknown Beasts.
Anthropo- and Zoomorphous Images in Early Slavic Art-metal Craft
The silver gures from Martynovka hoard are unique among the pieces of applied arts found on the territory of
expansion of the early Slavic archeological cultures. Firstly, compared to the other jewelry, Martynovka little
men and horses are notable for their marked ornamentality, the function of the items being still not completely
determined. Secondly, until recently they were considered a unique nd, without any analogies neither in the
Middle Dnieper region nor on the wider territory. Therefore the attempts to discover the meaning of the images
never referred to the wider context of the synchronous antiquities, which resulted in the interpretation of the nds
as a nave realistic image of the people participating in some pagan ritual dances (B. A. Rybakov, V. M. Vassilenko)
or in circus merry-making (G. F. Korzukhina).
Recently some more complexes containing gures of Martynovsky type were discovered (Troubchevsk hoard,
hoard from S. N. Platonovs collection, Serpoukhov hoard), single items of the same type were found on a
very big territory, from Sardis in Asia Minor, the North Caucuses and Corinth to Ndam in Denmark. If the
gures were found in the dated archeological contexts, the latter beared the date within the early Byzantine
period, the 6th7th centuries.
The Martynovka-type figures are for the first time considered from the point of view of the traditional
study of objects, which means that at the first stage not only the ornamental, but also the technological
qualities are taken into account. The range of the closest analogies is determined. The templates for such
figures are also known (Velestinon hoard, Biscupie, Fnlac, Koban, Sardis) the assortment of templates
being much wider than the range of known castings. Cover plates with the images of lions and typologically close to one of the templates from Velestinon hoard, are present in the symmetrical composition of
the wooden saddle decorations from Lombard necropolis at Castel Trozino (A. Kish). Among the specific
characteristics of such saddle-decorations is the triple symmetrical composition, consisting of the compound
central figure and one or several pairs of animals symmetrically opposed to each other lions, dolphins,
birds. Similar plates were attached to shields, in which case the composition could be less strict. Whatever
the case, the finds of cover plates in European burial complexes are associated with the items of male martial
subculture of the 6th7th centuries.
These analogues indicate that the functional set of Martynovka-type gures should eventually include a human gure and two reection symmetric animal gures opposed to each other. A composition consisting of an
anthropomorphous gure and two animal protoms turned to it similar to Martynovka horses, was found on
the plates of the Dnieper anthropozoomorphous bulas.
The next step in the research implies involving iconographic parallels for both single images and the whole
reconstructed composition. For instance, Martynovka dancing little men gures, beardless, with bowl haircuts,
dressed in shirts with embroidered insets, trace back to the image of a young warrior and circus merry-maker typical of the early Byzantine ne and applied arts. Images of that type can be found on surviving Byzantine mosaics
in the Middle East (Kissum, Gerassa) and North Africa (Cartago, Bawit in Egypt) etc. The same character is
depicted on a series of cast Byzantine candlesticks with the gure of a young man, which were wide-spread on
the territory of the Empire and its Eastern provinces.
The animal gures found in the Dnieper region are usually interpreted as the images of horses and hippopotamuses. Although one should note some predator features preserved by these images (talons, hooked
tail, exaggerated teeth fangs, mighty mane, completely covering the animals neck). The Dnieper gures
show some fantastic and aggressive beast of prey. Hence the iconography of the reconstructed composition
consisting of a human and two animal gures traces back to the composition Daniel and Lions well known
in the early medieval Christian art. The 7th century was the time when the theme was very popular with the
applied art of the German world that was accepting Christianity. The composition Daniel and Lions can
be found on the buckle plates of Burgunds in France, Visigoths in Spain, the theme is also present on the bag
plates from Sutton-Hoo.
The indicated iconographic resemblance is not an accidental coincidence. It proves that the craftsmen who
made Martynovka-type gures, were familiar with the West European tradition of representing the theme of
Daniel and Lions. They borrowed their images and shapes from the pieces if applied art of the Byzantine periphery, which could be occasionally found in Eastern Europe, as well as from the suciently uniform European
early medieval martial subculture.
_____ 593

Summary

Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 149.
Variants of reconstructing function of Martinovka gures: 1 Saddle decorations (according G. Laslo);
2 Accesoires of male dress (according O.M. Prikhodniuk, drawing P.N. Kornienko); 3 Wooden idol decorations (according K.I. Bakumenko, drawing K.I. Bakumenko).
Fig. 2. P. 150.
Analogies to Martinovka gures according to G.F. Korzukhina prepared publication Midle Dnieper
region in VVIII c.c. AD. 1 supposed it was planned to place item from Koban; 2, 3 stanitsa Pregradnaya;
4 itluk; 5, 6 Fnlak; 7 Biskupie; 8 Velestinon, 9 Samchintsi, 10 Asia Minor.
Fig. 3. P. 152.
Distribution of Martinovka gures and models for their production. Numbers corresponds with the same
in nd list: 1 Martinovka; 2 Cherkassi region, nd from Platonovs collection; 3 Troubchevsk; 4 Degtiarevka; 5 Serpoukhov region, nd 2008; 6 Shilovo region; 7 Samchintsi; 8 Ndam; 9 Koban;
10 Kamunta; 11 stanitsa Pregradnaya; 12 mountain Kugul; 13 Galaiti; 14 Southern Dobrudza;
15 itluk; 16 Biskupie; 17 Fenlak; 18 Velestinon; 19 Corinth; 20 Sardis; 21 Novo-Bikkino;
22 Cherkassi region, stray nd; 23 Luchistoe; 24 Tisafred.
Fig. 4. P. 153.
Figures from Trubchevsk hoard. 1, 3 casting; 2 cut from thin plait. Silver.
Fig. 5. P. 157.
Ndam lion. Silver.
Fig. 6. P. 163.
Fantastic animals in composition Man with horses / lions. 1 Spain, bukle dated by 7th c.; 2 Martinovka; 3 Trubchevsk.
Color pages:
03. The casted gures of Martynovka type. Discovered in 2008. Serpoukhov District, Moscow Region (?).
Copper alloy. Photographed by G. Naumenko.
04. The symmetrical composition: 13 A man and horses / lions: 1 Martynovka; 2 Cherkassky
Region, Platonovs Hoard; 3 Serpoukhov Region, discovered in 2008; 4 Daniel in the Lions Den,
the glass patera, Dokla near Podgoritsa, Montenegro (so-called Basilevskys Cup, the State Hermitage
Museum), 4th century; 5 an anthropozoomorphic composition on the bulas top plate, Middle Dnieper
Region.

Natalia Zhilina (Moscow)

The History of the Russian Metal Attire of the 9th13th Centuries


For each of the periods, which G.F. Korzoukhina dened for hoards of the 9th13th centuries, the article regards
the following: to trace back the development of the types of headgear and necklaces; of jewel technique; of the
types, variants, constructive details and style of items.
In the 9th century the band headgear with cast and wire temple rings, worn on both sides of head by the band
or frizz, was the most popular. The cumbrous gear with noising pendants bound the head of a woman. Torques
and necklaces with pendants and noising bells were very popular.
In the 10th century the band headgear was decorated with jeweled ear-pendants of cluster type, temple rings
were stringed with ligree beads, and the rst samples of Russian three-bead rings are attributed to this period.
The ligree necklace composed of lunula pendants, medallions and beads become popular. In the beginning of
the 10th century the volumetrical geometrical style was wide-spread, in the middle of the 10th century it gives place
to the linear-geometrical style, at the end of the 10th century to the geometrical style.
The 11th century is the period of wide diversity of gears: the band headgear with temple rings; compound
kichka type gear with bell-formed pendants combined with chest chains in archaic national style.
At the turn of the 11th and 12th centuries the enamel attire become popular emong elite: womens ubrus
with forehead metal hoops, a diadem and colts on double chains of round metal plates; a mens crown with
church-type pendants. The early styles of enamel and niello attires were the same: ascetics-sacred style and plant
style. In the niello attire the pagan-like motifs were developed.
In the rst half of the 12th century there existed band ligree headgear with ray colts on a wide hoop, worn
as temple rings.
594 _____

Summary

In the second half of the 12th century and the rst third of the 13th century the attires of dierent techniques
became closer. The ligree attire changed under the inuence of the enamel one: there developed the type of
forehead adornment of three-bead hoops and ray colts on the chains with a lunula hoop.
In the enamel attire there appeared chains of quatrefoil plates. Comfortable chains composed of little stamp
blocks were created in the stamp technique. They developed from wide and double forms to the narrow single
ones with triangular ends. As a result, the universal type of stamp chains was developed.
The extra-plant style was introduced in the enamel attire, and wattle style in the niello attire. Stamp necklaces
developed from the plant style to wattle and splendor styles. The splendor style was formed in the gold ligree
examples. For the 13th century the princess crown may be reconstructed.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 177.
The metal attire according the hoards of 9th century:
1, 3, 5, 15, 17 Ivachniki of Poltava province, 1905; 4 Mishnevo of Kaluga province, 1892; I, III, 2, 7, 8,
10, 19 Zaraysk district of Ryazan province, 1855; II Poltava, 1905, Brovarky of Poltava province; IV, 6, 9, 11,
18 Poltava, 1905; 12, 13 Ugodichi of Yaroslavskaya province, 1914; 14 Gorky of Saint-Petersburg province,
1875; 16 Uzmina of Saint-Petersburg province, 1889. I, 15, 16 the boundary of the 8th9th centuries; 6,
7, 10, 11, 14, 16, 17 the rst half of the 9th century; 8, 9, 12, 13, 15 the second half of the 9th century; IV,
19 the boundary of the 9th10th centuries.
Fig. 2. P. 179.
The development of the metal attire of the 10th century:
1, 9 Gnezdovo of Smolensk province, 1867; 2, 3 Peresopnitsa cemetery; Kiev cemetery 4 the tomb
112 (920923), 5 the tomb 124 (931944); 6 Kopievka of Kiev province, 1928; 7 Gnezdovo of Smolensk province, 1993; 8 the metal attire according the dregovich barrows in the basin of Berezina near Mozyr.
1, 2, 4 the boundary of the 9th10th centuries; 3 ,5, 6 the rst half of the 10th century; 79 the second
half of the 10th century. 18 volumetrical geometrical style; 7, 9 line-geometrical style.
Fig. 3. P. 181.
The ligree items of the metal attire of the 10th century:
14, 15, 29 Kopievka of Kiev province, 1928; 5, 6, 18 Borshevka of Volyn province, 1883; 7, 22, 23,
25 Gnezdovo of Smolensk province, 1993; 811, 13, 14, 26, 27, 36 Vladimir barrows, Kiev cemetery; 12,
19, 20, 28, 3032 Gnezdovo of Smolensk province, 1867; 16 Pinsk district; 17 Gnezdovo of Smolensk
province, 1870; 21, 34, 37 Yurkovtsy of Kiev province, 1864; 33 Gushino near Chernigov, around 1930;
24, 35 Denis of Poltava province, 1912. 1, 7, 8, 15, 26 the boundary of the 9th10th centuries; 24, 911,
1618, 2225, 2834 the rst half and the middle of the 10th century; 5, 6, 1214, 1921, 3537 the second
half of the 10th century. 14, 8, 9, 26 volume-geometrical style; 10, 11, 1523, 25, 2730 line-geometrical
style; 5, 6, 13, 14, 24, 3136 geometrical style.
Fig. 4. P. 182.
The bracelets and torques of the hoards of the 10th century:
1 Kiev, 1851; 2, 3, 5 Kiev, 1913; 4 Spilyovka of Kharkov province; 6, 9, 10 Borshevka of Volyn
province, 1883; 7 Gnezdovo of Smolensk province, 1867; 8 Kopievka of Kiev province, 1928. 1, 6 the beginning of the 10th century; 2, 7, 8 the rst half and the middle of the 10th century; 35, 9, 10 the second
half of the 10th century.
Fig. 5 . P. 183.
The metal attire of the 11th century:
1, 2, 12 Shalachova of Nevel district of Vitebsk province, 1892; 3 Belogostits monastery of Yaroslavl province, 1836; 4 Vaskovo of Pskov province, 1923; 5 Spanka of Saint-Petersburg province, 1913; 6 Mironov
folvark of Kiev province, 1883; 7 the toweling hesdgear of the Svyatoslav wife on the miniature of the Izbornik of
1073; 8 the ubrus of the princess Irina, the wife of Yaropolk on the miniature of the Trir Psalter of the 11th century;
9 the ubrus of the princess Olga on the miniature of the Chronic of Ioann Skilitsa 1079/1081; 10 Kamenny Brod
of Kiev province, 1903; 11 Elets monastery near Chernigov, 1848. 16, 11, 12 the rst half of the 11th century;
710 the second half of the 11th century. 2, 3 line-geometrical style; 6 archaic style.
Fig. 6. P. 184.
The temple adornments of the 11th century: 1, 7, 22 Shalachova of Nevel district of Vitebsk province, 1892;
2 Berezovetsy cemetery, barrow 19, the boundary of 10th11th centuries; 3, 4, 11, 12 Vaskovo of Pskov
province, 1923; 5 Mironov folvark of Kiev province, 1883; 6, 8, 10 Spanka of Saint-Petersburg province,
_____ 595

Summary

1913; 9 Belogostits monastery of Yaroslavl province, 1836; 1321 Vladimir barrows; 23 the barrow from
Brovarky of Poltava province; 24 Novgorod, Troitsky excavation site, around 1070. 2, 13 the boundary of
XXI centuries; 312,1423 the rst half of the 11th century; 24 the second half of the 11th century.
Fig. 7. P. 185.
The bracelets and torques of the 11th century:
1, 10, 11 Bogdychov of Volyn province, around 1860; 2, 18 Mironov folvark of Kiev province, 1883;
3 Strazhevich of Mogilyov province, 1903; 4, 8, 1921 Pilyava of Kiev province, 1895; 5, 6 Shalachova
of Nevel district if Vitebsk province, 1892; 7, 9 Buzhiski of Grodnensky province, 1885; 12, 15 Kiev, the
house of Brodsky, 1899; 13, 14 Vaskovo of Pskov province, 1923; 16, 17 Iskovshina of Kanev district of
Kiev province, 1891. 14, 1114 the boundary of 10th11th centuries; 2, 3, 10, 15, 16 the rst half of the
11th century; 59, 1721, 22 the second half of the 11th century.
Fig. 8. P. 187.
The necklaces of the 11th century:
1 Vaskovo of Pskov province, 1923; 2 Vitebsk province, before 1907; 3, 14 Staraya Ladoga, 1920;
4 Skadino of Leningrad province, 1928; 5 Elets monastery near Chernigov, 1848; 6 Shalachova of Nevel
district if Vitebsk province, 1892; 7, 10, 12 Belogostitsy monastery of Yaroslavl province, 1836; 8, 9, 15
Mironov folvark of Kiev province, 1883; 11, 16 Sobachy Gorby of Novgorod province, 1906; 13 Spanka of
Saint-Petersburg province, 1913. 1, 24, 5, 6, 812 the boundary of 10th11th centuries; 3, 6, 7, 13, 14 rst
half of the 11th century; 16, 17 second half of the 11th century. 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 line-geometrical style; 813
geometrical style; 15, 16 archaic beast style; 17 ascetic sacral style.
Fig. 9. P. 189.
The jewel attire in the rst half of the 12 thcentury:
IIII Reconstructions of typical assemblages I the kichka type gear with bell form pendants and
chains; II the band headgear with colts of the 1 group; III the enamel gear with ubrus and diadem; 110
Reconstructions upon concrete hoards Martynovka, 1886 and Mironov folvark, 1883 of Kiev province; 2
Staraya Ryazan, 1967, Tver, 1906; 3 Kresty of Tula region, 1876, Staraya Ryazan, 1868; 4 Chernigov, 1958
and Staraya Ryazan, 1887, 1979; 5 the tomb under the cathedral of Boris and Gleb in Staraya Ryazan, 2001;
6 Staraya Ryazan, 1970; 7 Vladimir, 1837; 8 Kiev, St. Michael monastery, 1903; 9 Kiev, the house of
Leskov, 1876; 10 Kiev, the house of Grebenovsky, 1889. I, 1, 5 the boundary of 11th12 th centuries; II, III,
2, 3, 6, 7, 10 the rst half of the 12 th century; 4, 8, 9 the middle of the 12 th century. I, 1 the archaic style;
2 line-geometrical style; II, 3, 69 geometrical style; III, 10 ascetic sacral style; 4 strict style.
Fig. 10. P. 190.
The items of ligree attire of the rst half of the 12 th century:
1 Miropol of Zhitomir province, 1938; 2, 10 Staraya Ryazan, 1868; 3 Staraya Ryazan, 1967; 4 Kresty
of Tula province, 1876; 5, 9 Chernigov, 1958; 6 Gorodishe of Khmelnits province, 1970; 7, 17 Kiev, the
house of Leskov, 1876; 8, 14, 27 Tver, 1906; 11 Staraya Ryazan, 1822; 12 Kiev, 1885; 13 the tomb under
the cathedral of Boris and Gleb in Staraya Ryazan, 2001; 15 Vladimir, 1896; 16, 32 Staraya Ryazan, 1970;
1826 the ornamental compositions of the beads of three-beads rings; 28 Moscow, 1988; 29, 35 Staraya
Ryazan, 1937/1950; 30 Kiev, 1986; 31 Sakhnovka, 1900; 33 Staraya Ryazan, 1979; 34 Kiev of unknown
place; Lesky of Orlov province, 1853; 37 Kiev, the Michailov monastery, 1903; 38 Staraya Ryazan, 1887. 1,
2, 7, 12, 13, 32 the boundary of 11th12 th centuries; 3, 4, 8, 14, 15, 1824, 2729, 3337 the rst half of
the 12 th century; 5, 6, 911, 16, 17, 30, 31, 38 the middle of the 12 th century. 1, 2, 7, 32 archaic style; 3,
8, 14, 1823, 27, 28, 3235 line-geometrical style; 4, 6, 15, 2426, 29, 36, 37 geometrical style; 5, 911,
30, 31, 38 strict style; 17 plant (krin) style.
Fig. 11. P. 192.
The enamel and niello attires in the second half of the 12th the rst third of the 13th centuries:
1, 2 the type reconstructions of woman and man prince enamel attire in sacral-ascetic style; 3 Sakhnovka,
1900; 4 the type reconstruction of woman prince enamel-ligree attire in splendor style; 5 Kiev, St. Michael
monastery, 1824; 6 Staraya Ryazan, 1822; 7, 12 Kiev, Desyatinnaya Church, 1936; 8, 14 Kiev, the house
of Orlov, 1901; 9 Kiev, Malo-Vladimirskaya ul., 1893; 10 Terichovo of Orlov province, 1876; 11, 20 Svatoye Ozero of Chernigov province, 1908; 13, 15, 21 Kiev, St. Michael monastery, 1903; 16 Romanovo of
Mogilyov province, 1892/1893; 17 Gorodishe of Khmelnits province, 1970; 18 Kiev, Streletskaya ul., 1939;
19 Tver, 1906; 22 Kiev, Michailovskaya Gora, 1841. The end of the 11th the beginning of the 12 th centuries: 1, 2, 5 ascetic sacral (geometrical) enamel style; 6 gold strict ligree style; 8, 13, 16, 20 enamel-like
niello style; the middle of the 12th century: 9, 10, 14, 17, 21, 22 plant style in the enamel and niello; the end of
596 _____

Summary

the 12th century the rst third of the 13th century: 3, 7 exaggerate-plant style in enamel; 4 gold splendid
ligree style; 11, 12, 15, 18, 19 wattled niello style.
Fig. 12. P. 193.
The ligree attire in the second half of the 12th the rst third of the 13th centuries:
The geometrical style in granulation 1 the type reconstruction of woman prince enamel attire in sacral-ascetic
style; 2 Kiev, St. Michael monastery, 1824; 3 Izyaslavl; 4, 1315 Staraya Ryazan, 1937/1950, 1970; 5 the
type reconstruction of granulation and ligree women attire with temple rings of the 2 group; 6, 9, 17, 18, Staraya
Ryazan, 1970; 7 Kiev, St. Michael monastery, 1903; 8 Staraya Ryazan, 1974; 10, 11 openwork beads of threebeads jewelry ornaments; 12 Staraya Ryazan,, 1979; 16 Moscow, 1988; 19 Staraya Ryazan, 1937/1950.
Fig. 13. P. 194.
The process of emerging of the forehead band from the three-beads hoops in the ligree attire in the second
half of the 12th century:
1a the type reconstruction of the forehead band of enamel attire; 1 Kiev, the house of Leskov, 1876;
2 Kiev, St. Michael monastery, 2000; 3 Kolesishe of Kanev district of Kiev province; 4 Kiev, St. Michael
monastery, 1824; 5 Kiev, the house of Grebenovsky, 1899; 6, 7 Staraya Ryazan, 1967; 8 Staraya Ryazan,
1974; 9 Lgov, 1979; 10 Vladimir, 1837; 11 Staraya Ryazan, 1979; 12 Verbov of Lvov province, around
1920; 13 Terechovo of Orlov province, 1876; 14 the type reconstruction of the forehead band from the
three-beads hoops; 15 Staraya Ryazan, 1992; 16 Vladimir, 1865; 17 Vladimir, 1896.
Fig. 14. P. 195.
The development of the ryasno-chains for colts in the second half of the 12th the rst third of the 13th centuries: 1 the type reconstruction of the wearing of the enamel colts on the chains from round plates; 2 Kiev, the
house of Esikorsky, 1885; 3, 16 Kiev, Desyatinnaya Church, 1936; 4 the type reconstruction of the wearing
of the enamel colts on the chains from quatrefoil plates; 5, 12 Kiev, St. Michael monastery, 1903; 6 Gubin
of Bolochov land; 7 Kiev, 1909; 8 Kiev, 1906; 9 Kiev, 1914; 10 Kiev, the house of Trubetskoy, 1872;
11 Staraya Ryazan, 1937/1950; 13 Moscow, 1988; 14 Staraya Ryazan, 1974; 15 Kiev, 1911; 17 Kiev,
1898; 18, 20, 22 Verbov of Lvov province, around 1920; 19a Staraya Ryazan, 2005; 19 the stamp of the
ligree ornamentation of the three-bead hoop on the skin detail, micro photo by N.V. Zhilina; 21 Bolochov,
the hoard 5; 23 Kiev, Desyatinnaya Church, before 1899; 24 the headgear of Desislava, the fresco in the
Church of Saint Panteleymon in Boyan, Bulgaria, the middle of the 13th century.
Fig. 15. P. 197.
The necklaces of the in the second half of the 12th the rst third of the 13th centuries:
1 Kamenny Brod of Kiev province, 1903; 2 Kiev, St. Michael monastery, 1824; 3 Isady near Suzdal, 1851; 4 Staraya Ryazan, 1822; 5, 15 Sakhnovka of Kiev province, 1900; 6, 7 Staraya Buda of Kiev
province, 1908; 8, 13 Vladimir, 1837; 9 Kiev, Streletskaya ul., 1939; 10 Staraya Ryazan, 1970; 11, 22
Vladimir, 1865; 12, 19, 21 Staraya Ryazan, 1868; 14 Moscow, 1988; 16, 20 Kiev, St. Michael monastery,
1903; 17 Kiev, the house of Orlov, 1901; 18 the house of Leskov, 1876; 23 Vladimir, 1993; 24, 25 Kiev,
1949. 1, 6, 8, 16 the beginning of the 12th century; 2, 3, 912, 1 723 the middle and the second half of the
12th century; 4, 5, 1315, 24, 25 the end of the 12th century the rst third of the 13th century. 1, 2, 6, 7, 9
the ascetic sacral style in enamel and niello; 8, 10 geometrical style in granulation; 16, 18, 21 geometrical
style in stamping; 3, 1214, 20, 22, 23 plant (krin) style in niello and stamping; 4, 5, 15 gold splendid ligree
style; 25 splendid style in stamping; 14 exaggerate-plant style in enamel and stamping.

Irina Zajtseva (Moscow)

On the Problem of Organization of Jewellers Handicraft in Ancient Russian Towns


The problem of organization of jewellers handicraft is discussed on the basis of planigraphic and stratigraphic
analysis of production complexes for processing of nonferrous metals discovered in the towns of Land of
Vyatiches in Spas-Gorodok, 11th14th centuries, and Serensk, 13th century. Both centres belong to the
category of so-called small towns that was singled out by A. V. Kouza.
Near the rampart in Spas-Gorodok there was found a production area for ferrous and nonferrous metals
processing: the remains pise metallurgical furnace, pre-Mongolian two-room earth-house, where the remains
of clay oven were discovered in one of the rooms, and on the oor there were found fragments of brass plates
remaining from vessels, an iron hammer, clusters of small completely decayed and unidentiable bronze objects.
T. N. Nikolskaya considers this structure a workshop.
_____ 597

Summary

In the south-east corner of the stronghold in Serensk at the horizon of the 1st half of the 13th century a big
multi-product handicrafts complex of 6 structures was explored. One of them accommodated the industrial forge;
in three other structures with ovens the evidence of handicrafts was discovered, there were found a lot of iron balls,
knives whole and in fragments, arrowheads, belt rings, keys, locks, decorated with leaf brass, iron buckles, brigandine plates (pieces of lamellar armor?). Two accumulations of fragmented glass bracelets were found within the
handicrafts complex, all in all over 6 thousand fragments, 70% of them being misshapen and re-polished. One
could suppose that the fragments of bracelets were used for making glass inserts or enamels. There were also found
some jewellers instruments, including 16 bronze molds, aps from stone casting forms, and many other objects.
As the jewellers shops in many small towns, the handicrafts complexes in Serensk and Spas-Gorodok occupy
marginal zones of strongholds near the ramparts. Detailed consideration of the town production complexes where
the jewelry was made shows that they were multi-product. Usually jewelry-making was accompanied by ferrous metal
working, amber crafts, painting, glass and enamel working. Complexes consisted of several structures and an open
yard. Ferrous and non-ferrous metals were most commonly treated in the same building, using the same ovens.
The industry was organized by an owner-craftsman who hired workers, or by a merchant, or the knyaz or
a boyar. Serensk workshops were possessory patrimonial. Making jewelry, especially of precious metals, required
that the craftsman was provided with expensive materials and that the sale of his products was guaranteed. Therefore of all handicrafts jewelry had the strongest association with high-rank patrons and customers knyaz and
the aristocracy.
The complexes are dated mostly from the 12th century. Their beginnings should be obviously explained by
the wide development of the market in the 12th century that was noted by many specialists. For later periods,
the experts nd multi-production complexes mostly in the possessory, patrimonial sector of economy. The free
urban handicrafts develop mostly in the direction of strictly specialized manufactures.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 200.
Towns of the Land of Viatichy.
Fig. 2. P. 201.
Stronghold in Serenskoje hillfort. Plan of level 2 (rst half of the 13th century).
Fig. 3. P. 203.
Multiproduct handicraft production complex in the south-western part of Serensky stronghold. The map.

Natalia Kalashnikova (Saint-Petersburg)

Semiotics and Semantics of Old Russian Folding Bangles


The article considers Old Russian hand-bangles (a piece of silver metal jewelry consisting of two semi-circular
folds joined with hinges) used as womens decoration in the period from the second half of the 11th to the rst half
of 13th century. N.S. Kalashnikova examines the semiotic meaning of this ritual object and suggests the semantic
interpretation of the scenes engraved on the folding hand-bangle from the hoard discovered in the city of Tver.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 208.
Bracelet from Tver hoard of 1906 (drawing by Yu. Yu. Piotrovsky).

Natalia Krylasova (Perm)

Flask-shaped Pierced Needle-Cases of Prikamye type


Special needle-cases are typical of the Finno-Ugric material culture from the medieval times till the 19th century.
On the western territories inhabited in Finno-Ugric population, horizontal needle-cases were widely spread.
In the East, from the Urals to the Western Siberia, the vertical type of needle-cases prevailed. These needle-cases
consisted of a bone or metal tubule and a cord, on which the tubule moved freely and which was pierced with
needles. Metal needle-cases in the shape of a attened ask, which are characteristic of the Perm Cis-Ural region
only, can be attributed to the vertical type. Their shape and decoration are more or less standard. In terms of
the production technique, these items could be divided into 2 groups cast steel and jewelry. The complex and
598 _____

Summary

intricate decoration of these needle-cases could be explained by a peculiar feature of the population of the Perm
Cis-Ural region. The inhabitants of this area tended to attribute amulet functions to any items, even to those of
everyday domestic usage. This tendency is clearly seen in the items with special appendages, producing noise.
Single specimens of ask-shaped needle-cases were found on the territories of Udmurtya, Bashkirya, Tatarstan
and Western Siberia. Probably they reached these areas through matrimonial contacts.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1.P. 213.
Flask-shaped pierced needle-cases: 1 Teploukhovs collection; 2, 3 Demenkovsky burial place (2 grave
55, 3 grave 13a); 4 Redikarsky burial place, grave 23; 5, 16 Uryinsky burial place, 5 grave . 18, 16
grave 19; 6 Ogurdinsky burial place, grave 123; 7 Kharino village; 8, 12, 14, 23 Rozhdestvenskiy burial place
(8 10 ex., 122 ex.); 9 Maikorskoye protected settlement; 10, 19, 24 Anyushkar protected settlement; 11,
30 place unknown; 13, 25 Vakinskoe settlemen (13 3 ex.); 15 Zagarye village; 17 Maltsevo village;
18 Kilosovo village; 20, 22, 27 Rozhdestvenskoe protected settlement; 21, 34 Antybarsky burial plase,
25 Vakinskoye settlement, 26 Stepanovo Plotbische burial place, 28 Kalino village, 29 Lekmartovsky
treasure; 31 Troshata village; 32 Trapeznikova village, 33 Ananino district, Veslyana River.

Larissa Mikhailik (Moscow)

The Attempt of Reconstruction of the Basic Variants of Womens Burial Attire


from the 10th the early 11th centuries according to the Materials of Kiev and Kvetoun Burial places
The article is devoted to the reconstruction, study and interpretation of the Ancient Russian womens funeral attire
of the 10th11th centuries. For this purpose four of the most representative burials from Kiev and Kvetoun burial
graves were selected. All four were closely studied, separate details of the attire were provided with analogies, their
types were specied in the accepted typology. All the burials are relatively rich in the attire nds, all similar in their
character (being single burials), in the age and in the status of the deceased. Another common feature of the burials
is their silver complexes. This conrms the conclusions made by G.F.Korzukhina concerning the evolution of the
jewelry attire. All the sets of ornaments can be attributed to the second period of the silver attire, which is typically
characterized by ne granulation technique, and also by special types of decorations, such as necklaces with moonshaped pendants and beads, temporal rings, various torcs. The Kievan burials belong to the Kiev drujina (princes
military band) culture with a wide set of components Slavic, Scandinavian, Byzantine.
The Kvetoun burials are monuments of rural culture, and consequently reect the originality and traditional
character of the region.
As the result of the research, the graphic variants of reconstruction were provided for each of the burials.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1.P. 218.
Examples of Old Russian female burial attire: 1 Kiev, burial complex from Zolotovorotskaya str. 1984 (Main
detail: necklace of various beads and silver moon-shaped pendant); 2 Kiev, burial complex from Mikhailovskyi
Zlatoverhii monastery 1999 (Main detail: necklace of various beads and three semispherical silver pendants, and
a silver bula); 3 Kvetun barrows, barrow 53 (Main detail: 4 seven-rayed temporal rings, and a twisted torc);
4 Kvetoun barrows, barrow XX (Main detail: silver-plated plaque torc, and coin-shaped pendants).

Svetlana Novakovskaya-Boukhman (Saint-Petersburg)

Jewelry from the Disintegrated Ancient Russian Hoards in the Collection of M. P. Botkin
The article oers the rst complete publication of the materials from the oldest part of M. P. Botkins collection
deposited in the State Russian Museum, which includes the 10th13th centuries jewelry of rare artistic level,
analogous to those from the Ancient Russian hoards. The author ascertained that once some of them were parts
of well-known hoards which eventually lost their integrity.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 222.
Table with Old Russian and foreign decorations published in The Collection of M. P. Botkin.
_____ 599

Summary

Fig. 2. P. 223.
Table with Old Russian and Byzantine objects published in The Collection of M. P. Botkin.
Fig. 3. P. 226.
Golden decorations from M. P. Botkin's collection . Phototable from the le of Archeological Commission.
Fig. 4. P. 231.
Silver decorations from M. P. Botkin's collection. Phototable from the le of Archeological Commission.
Color pages:
05. Jewelry, the collection of M. P. Botkin. 12 beads from a necklace (second half of the 12th the rst
third of the 13th centuries (cat. 29); 3 a korsounchik cross, Old Ryazan, 12th century (cat. 2); 4 a necklace of ribby (lentil-like) beads, Kiev, the end of the 12th the rst third of the 13th centuries (cat. 28); 5
a necklace, Sakhnovsky hoard, discovered 1900, Kiev, second half of the 12th century (cat. 1); 6 a conic ribby
pendants, the end of the 12th the rst third of the 13th centuries (cat. 27); 7 a diadem, Kiev, 12th century
(cat. 3); 8 temple rings of a signet-ring type, Kiev, 12th century (cat. 8).
06. Jewelry, the collection of M. P. Botkin. 12 golden colts with insert plates, Kiev, the turn of 12th and
13th centuries (cat. 4, 5); 34 bronze colts with a champlev and a cloisonn enamel, Kiev, 13th century
(cat. 6, 7); 512 three beads temple rings with a granulation, 12th rst third of 13th centuries: 5 with
a granulated lozenges and triangles (cat. 9), 69 with a granulation inside rings on the hollow beads surface
(cat. 1013), 1012 with a granulation on a wire frame (cat. 1416); 1322 three beads temple rings,
1170s the rst third of 13th centuries: 1316 with hollow spherical beads, decorated with cloisonn rings,
Kiev, Kiev Land, (cat. 1720), 1722 with open-work beads (cat. 2126).
07. Jewelry from the collection of M. P. Botkin. 1 a signet-ring with a lion image, Kiev, eastern craftsman,
rst third of 13th century (cat. 30); 24 rings with a stone, second half of 12th rst third of 13th centuries
(cat. 3133); 510 a silver bracelets with the plate-endings, 11th13th centuries (cat. 3641); 11, 14
chains tips in the shapes of a with dragon and a snake, Scandinavia, 10th11th centuries (cat. 3435); 12,
13 three beads temple rings, Northern Europe, 11th 13th centuries (cat. 4445); 15 a necklace of silver
beads and a medallion with a Blossoming Cross, Old Ryazan (?) (cat. 43).

Vania Pavlova (Varna)

Torques or Belts?
The article considers the silver hoops found in some hoards of the 14th century in modern Bulgaria. The question of
their intended purpose is so far disputable: are they in fact torques or belts? All of them are made of narrow twisted
tubular circles or of thick twisted wires. The nds from North-West Bulgaria (near the village of Druzhba, District
of Vidin, and in the town of Nikopol) are more massive and weighty. One half of the hoops is twisted, while the
other half turns into tubes decorated with rings and rosettes. Their clasp is made of a hook and a ring or hinge.
All other nds were discovered in North-East Bulgaria: by the villages of Klimentovo, Izvorsko and Krumovo,
District of Varna. They are made in the same way, but one quarter of their total length passes into a narrow band,
sometimes plain and sometimes engraved. Some of these decoration circles end in one or two small hemispheres:
one being just decorative and the other used for clasping.
The amazing likeness with similar ne jewelry from the Medieval Russia (11th forties of 13th centuries) is
the main argument used by the Bulgarian scholars to accept that all these hoops are torques.
Although, it has to be pointed out that so far the only sure evidence for using torques in the Mediaeval Bulgaria is a
church mural in the village of Stanichene, District of Pirot (present Serbia). These murals were painted in 13311332,
during the times of the Bulgarian king Ivan Alexander (13311371). The torque on the mural, depicted on a Bulgarian noble womans neck, is identical to the torques from the hoards found in Druzhba village and Nikopol.
According to the authors opinion, the hoops ending in a band and hemispheres have another purpose. They
served as belts, which is logically deduced from their size, decoration and the way of clasping. This opinion is
proved by tests made on a contemporary young womans waist. These belts were used as a special decoration of
a maidens festive attire.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 247.
Silver hoops and their details: 14; 610 mood of hoops xation; 5, 11 belt from Klimentovo, District
Varna; 12 torque, treasure from Nicopol.
600 _____

Summary

Color page:
08. Mural painting, the church near Stanichene, District Pirot, Serbia.

Liudmila Pekarskaya (London)

The New Data about Kiev Hoard 1906


The article presents the hoard found in Kiev near Mikhailovsky Golden Dome Monastery in July 1906. Its
surviving parts are kept in the British Museum in London and the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
That is the largest of the 11th12th century hoards that survived in the western museums. The hoard contains
outstanding materials, which belong to the culture of Kievan Rus. The paper establishes and gives a brief account
of some unknown details of the hoards entry abroad, and presents new dates of its original content. Some of the
pieces from the Metropolitan Museum, previously said to be of unknown origin, in reality belong to the hoard
of 1906, as well as some items from B.Khanenkos collection. The new archival evidence is brought up, namely
the unpublished documents from the Pierpont Morgan Library which bear upon the details of his purchase of
the Kiev hoard.
All the results of the study of this 1906 hoard and some other Kievan medieval objects of decorative art in
custody of western museums are going to be presented in the monograph: Princely Treasures from Medieval Kiev
in The British Museum and The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1.P. 252.
J. Pierpont Morgan (18371913). Photographic Portrait by Edward Steichen, 1903. The Pierpont Morgan
Library, New York.
Fig. 2. P. 253.
Kiev hoard, 1906: 1, 3 temple pendants, pair; 2 nger-ring, silver-gilt, niello. The Metropolitan museum
of Art, Gift of J.Pierpont Morgan, 1917. (17.190.708709). Photograph, all rights reserved, The Metropolitan
Museum of Art.
Fig. 3. P. 254.
Letter of N. Stepenko to the Imperial Archaeological Commission, May 8th, 1909.

Julia Podosenova (Perm)

Temple Rings with Pear-Shaped Pendants in Burial Grounds and Hoards of Perm Cis-Ural Region
The article is devoted to one of the most beautiful and loved decoration of the 9th12th centuries headdress in
Perm Cis-Ural Region to the temple ring with pear-shaped pendants and ligree and granulated ornamentation.
The analysis of their technology made it possible to divide the almost identically-looking objects into two groups:
the objects made using simplied technology and those made using labour intensive technology. The association
of the objects technology and places of their occurrence showed that the items from the rst group were found
in burials only, while those from the second group appear in hoards. Thus the temple rings indicate not only the
level of jewelry in Perm Cis-Ural Region, but they may also be a signicant indicator of the social position.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 257.
Temle rings with pear-shaped pendants and granulated and ligree decoration: 17 group I, typical of
burial grounds in the Kama region ; 1 whole ring; 27 details of design; 813 group II, typical of hoards
from the Kama region: 8 whole ring; 913 details of design.

Liubov Pokrovskaya (Moscow)

Amulet-Pendants of Medieval Novgorod (Nerevsky and Troitsky Excavations)


The article is devoted to amulet-pendants documented at Nerevsky and Troitsky excavation sites (110 items). Among
them: pendants in the shape of miniature articles of daily use and weapons, arcuate chain-holders used for hanging
_____ 601

Summary

the amulets, zoomorphous amulets, amulets with serpent images and some unique pendants. As the result of the work
two periods of their existence in Novgorod were singled out. The rst period (2nd half of the 10th early 12th centuries)
is characterized by the largest variety of pendants which may be caused by certain pagan ideas that still survived among
the townspeople. It is in the levels of this period that most of at zoomorphous amulets and miniature articles of daily
use and weapons were found. The second period (1st half of the 13th early 14th centuries), unlike the rst one, does
not show large variety of amulet-pendants. Sharp increase in the amount of hollow rustling hangers-horses in the
late 13th early 14th centuries indicates, in the rst place, the interplay between dierent traditions, characterizing
multicomponent nature of Novgorod material culture, but not the prevalence of pagan superstitions in Novgorod.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 260.
1 layout of yards at Nerevsky excavation site; 2 layout of yards at Troitsky excavation site.
Fig. 2. P. 262.
Pendants from Troitsky (17, 9, 12, 14, 1621) and Nerevsky (8, 10, 13, 15) excavation sites. 114 amulet
pendants; 1521 noising hollow pendants.
Fig. 3. P. 267.
1 chronological distribution of amulets; 2 chronological distribution of amulets at Nerevsky and Troitsky
excavation sites. Map symbols: 1 Nerevsky excavation site; 2 Troitsky excavation site.

Svetlana Riabtseva (Saint-Petersburg Kishinev)

On Grape-Like Jewellery
The problem of the so-called Wolyn type earrings is one of the most notable among the variety of subjects
studied by Galy Feodorovna Korzukhina. The scholar proposed the rst typology of the items, considered the
problems of their technique and possible analogues and prototypes. Presumably, it is important to consider
Wolyn earrings in the wide context of the grape-like jewellery style which developed in Danube region under
the direct Byzantine inuence. The analysis brings us to the conclusion that the variants of Wolyn earrings
dier from each other most in the East Europe, where they were part of expensive garments for show and were
made of silver, applying techniques of embossing, ligree and granulation. Whereas in Danube region, where the
grape-like jewellery is represented by a wider range of dierent items, including both brazed and cast objects,
they display much closer cognation, even within the Wolyn type.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 274.
Wolyn rings of A type with their prototypes and analogues: 1, 2 burial ground Arbonu (Hungary); 3
Kelegeja complex (the Ukraine); 4 Pastyrskoje hillfort, an occassional nd (Ukraine); 5, 6, 8 Nitra burial
ground, burial 43 (Slovakia); 7 Trnovec nad Vahom (the Middle Danube Region); 9 Nitra burial ground,
burial 4 (Slovakia); 10 Novotroitskoje hillfort; 11 Gradeshniki burial ground (Bulgaria); 12 Vylchedrom
burial ground (Bulgaria); 13 Arsura burial ground (Romania); 14 Borschevka hoard (Ukraine); 15 Tushta
hoard (Helsingland); 16 Gniozdovo hoard (1993); 17 Tulchinsky hoard (Ukraine); 18 Obra-Nova hoard
(Poland); 19 Bszob burial ground (Hungary).
Fig. 2. P. 275.
Wolyn rings of B type with their prototypes and analogues: 1 elovce (Middle Danube region); 2 Holiare (Middle Danube region); 3 Skaliska burial ground (Middle Danube region); 4, 5 Pliska burial ground,
burial 19 (Bulgaria); 6 Vina (Middle Danube region); 7, 9 Stenje settlement, Goljam Grad island, burial 64
(Macedonia); 8, 14, 15 Gradeshniki burial ground (Bulgaria); 10 Dobreshto settlement, Gradishto district
(Macedonia); 11, 12 Halimba burial ground (Hungary); 13 Zlokukash settlement (Macedonia); 16 Stare
Mesto (Czechia); 17 R duk neni hoard (Romania); 18 Tokaj hoard (Hungary); 19 Yurkovtsy hoard
(Ukraine); 20 Kopievka hoard (Ukraine); 21 Elizavetgradsky uyezd (Ukraine); 22 Br neti burial ground,
burail 34 (Moldova); 23 bural in Kluj-Napoka (Romania); 24 Ekim ui hillfort (Moldova); 25 North Bulgaria; 26 Kurvingrad (Middle Danube region); 27 Middle Danube region.
Fig. 3. P. 276.
Wolyn rings of types and D: 1 Nitra (Slovakia); 2 Dobeshte (Macedonia); 3 Novi Kniaevac (the
Middle Danube region); 4, 5 Pernik (Bulgaria); 6, 7 Preslav burial ground, burial 2 (Bulgaria); 8, 9 Izvorul
602 _____

Summary

(Romania); 10, 11 R duk neni hoard (Romania); 12, 13 Ekim ui hillfort (Moldova); 14, 15 Blandiana
burial ground (Romania); 16, 17 Tokaj hoard (Hungary); 18 Elizavetgradsky uyezd (Ukraine); 19 Galiche
burial ground, burial 5 (Bulgaria); 20, 25 Pliska burial ground, burial 16 (Bulgaria); 2123 Kopievka hoard
(Ukraine); 24, 28 Denis hoard (Ukraine); 26 Mirkovo burial ground (Bulgaria); 27 Liubenovo burial ground
(Bulgaria); 29 Batajtci (Serbia); 30 Brno Malomeshnitse (Czechia); 31 Yurkovtsy hoard (Ukraine); 32
Branev (Middle Danube region); 33 Preslav (Bulgaria). Dierent scales.
Fig. 4. P. 277.
Branch-like rings: 1 Ciko (Hungary); 2 Hdmezvsrhely (Hungary); 3 Budapest XIII (Hungary);
4 Biskupin (Middle Danube region); 5 Stoicani (Romania); 6 Pliska burial ground, burial 19 (Bulgaria);
7 Stare Mesto (Czechia); 8 Zelenko (Middle Danube region); 9 Koloin (Middle Danube region);
10 Trilj (Dalmatia); 11, 1518 Stare Mesto (Czechia); 12 Pedmosti (Middle Danube region); 13, 14
Bluin (Middle Danube region); 19 Kladno (Middle Danube region); 20, 21, 24 Stare Kouzim (Middle
Danube region); 22, 26 Gniozdovo; 23 Dobosht' (Macedonia); 25 Lipovo (Middle Danube region);
27 Galiche burial ground, burial 22 (Bulgaria); 28, 29 Stenje settlement, Goljaem Grad island (Macedonia);
30 Negotino (Macedonia); 3133 Middle Danube region; 34, 35 North Bulgaria; 3638 Dobrichko
(Bulgaria); 39, 40 Sredische (Bulgaria). Dierent scales.
Fig. 5. P. 279.
Rings with cast pendants: 1, 3 Mikhailovo burial ground, burial 1, 4 (Bulgaria); 2 North Bulgaria; 4
Gniozdovo; 5, 7 Lukovit burial ground, burial 59 (Bulgaria); 6 Radolishte settlement (Macedonia); 8 North
Bulgaria; 9, 10 Galiche burial ground, burial 4 and outside it (Bulgaria); 11 Rujno Kartal Kale (Bulgaria);
12 Okorosh (Bulgaria); 13 Rujno Ajazmoto (Bulgaria); 14 Trajanov Most (Middle Danube region); 15,
17 Middle Danube region; 16 Kurvingrad (Middle Danube region); 1725 Nitra burial ground, burials
7, 8, 28, 11, 30 (Slovakia); 26 Galiche burial ground, burials 56, 63 (Bulgaria); 27, 28 Mikhailovo burial
ground, burial 4 (Bulgaria); 29, 30 Cimbrud burial ground (Romania); 31, 32, 34, 35 North Bulgaria; 33
Novotroitskoje hillfort. Dierent scales.
Fig. 6. P. 280.
Rings with cast pendants: 1, 2 Galiche burial ground, burial 50 (Bulgaria); 3, 4 Galiche burial ground,
outside the burial (Bulgaria); 5 Vranch okrug (Bulgaria); 6 Preslav (Bulgaria); 7, 8 Galiche burial ground
(Bulgaria); 9 Kurvingrad (Middle Danube region); 11 R duk neni hoard (Romania); 10, 1218 Nitra
burial ground, burials 28, 11, 4, 51, 7, 28 (Slovakia); 1922 North Bolgaria. Dierent scales.
Fig. 7. P. 281.
Cast earrings: 1 Preslav (Bulgaria); 2 Predloka (the Middle Danube region); 3 Trajanov Most
(Middle Danube region); 4 Kloshtar (Middle Danube region); 5 Ptuj (Middle Danube region); 6, 10
Klotar (Middle Danube region); 7 Veliki Varandin () (Hungary); 8 Ptuj (Middle Danube region); 9 Junuzovii (Middle Danube region); 11 Tolna Zsanto (Hungary); 12, 13 Lukovit burial ground
(Bulgaria).
Fig. 8. P. 282.
Cast earrings: 1 Preslav (Bulgaria); 2 Kupinov (Middle Danube region); 3 Middle Danube region;
4, 5, 6 Vina (Middle Danube region); 7, 8 Mast, Bratislava okrug (Slovakia); 9, 10 Rujno Kartal Kale
(Bulgaria); 11 Vodniantsi (Bulgaria); 12 Rujno Ajazmato (Bulgaria); 13 Skala (Bulgaria); 1416 North
Bulgaria; 17, 18 Fativizhsky hoard; 19 Chersones; 20 Batitsa; 21 Zheleznitsky hoard; 22 Gniozdovo;
23 Sredische (Bulgaria); 24 Novotroitskoje hillfort. Dierent scales.

Marina Sergeeva (Kiev)

Old Russian Zoomorphic Carved Bone of the Middle Dnieper Area


The article gives a survey of the Old Russian bonecarved items with zoomorphic decorations. The Animal
style was not a widespread decorative motif in the South Russian bonecarving production. It is represented
by separate objects only. Its most widespread version is volumetrical heads of animals or birds, which nish the
objects of dierent functional purpose. The contour and relief pictures are represented by isolated specimens.
The zoomorphic decoration is characteristic of unique objects, probably made to order. The only exception is
ear-cleaners with standard tops in the shape of stylised ornitomorphic heads, which concerned to be production
of mass demand. The style of representative objects often roots in non-local artistic traditions, especially in those
of North European art.
_____ 603

Summary

Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 288.
Zoomorphic carved bone from Kiev: 13 ear-cleaners with ornithomorphic ending; 4 lash handle with
zoomorphic ending; 5 plate with the image of a fantastic creature; 6, 9 points with the heads of zoomorphic
creatures on the blunt end; 7 halter buckle with the image of a beast from Kiev; 8 half-nished halter buckle
from Vyshgorod; 10 object of unknown purpose with a volumetrical image of a beast.
Fig. 2. P. 290.
Zoomorphic carved bone from various sites of the Middle Dnieper region: 12 ornothomorphic nials
of whip handles (Voinskaja Greblia); 3 mirror handle with a zoomorphic image (Sharki); 4 mirror handle
with a zoomorphous image (Kanev region); 56 duck pendants (Zhovnin); 7 duck image on knife handles:
Kiev, Old Ryazan.

Julia Stepanova (Tver)

Suspension Brackets as Parts of the Old Russian Womens Burial Attire in the Upper Volga Region
This article is devoted to various types of the suspension brackets, which played the important role in an OldRussian female costume the round and trapezoid suspension brackets, the coins, chains, crosses, rustling and
other types of this ornaments. The suspension brackets are not so frequent element in female funeral costume of
Upper Volga area, as the temporal rings or breast necklaces from a beads. However they serve as bright addition
of a costume, as a rule, determining its individual shape. The place of the ornaments in burial sometimes allows
to nd out the structure of a funeral costume and breed of clothes entering into it. The most part of the suspension
brackets concerns to the types widely widespread to territories of Ancient Russia. At the same time, for separate
types the suspension brackets, such as rustling, trapezoid, the areas of their concentration are allocated in the
east and west parts of Upper Volga area. The belt suspension brackets prevail in east part of this territory. Probably,
that the Baltic and Finno-Ugric traditions have inuenced folding of the Old-Russian female costume here.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 295.
Types of the suspension brackets which are a part of Old-Russian female funeral costume in the Upper
Volga area: 1, 3 small bells; 2 cross; 4, 5 trapezoid suspension brackets; 6, 7, 15 round cast suspension
brackets; 8 encolphion; 9 trapezoid suspension bracket with sign of Rurikovichi; 10 round cast openwork
suspension bracket; 11 lunnitza; 12 dirkham; 13, 14 round stamping suspension brackets, 16 ring suspension bracket; 17 trefoliashaped; 18 triangular frame suspension bracket; 19 hollow suspension bracket;
20 chain with a knife and a gure of a horse; 21 rustling lunnitza; 22 suspension bracket in the form
of a horse; 23 lamellar suspension bracket; 24 at suspension bracket with heads of the cocks.
13, 5, 6, 8, 1214, 20 Izbrizhje; 4, 11 Berezovetsky; 7, 10 Blagoveschenje; 9 Khilovo; 15, 17
Visokino; 16, 18, 2123 Pleshkovo1; 19 Bolshaja Kosha; 24 Yagodino.
Fig. 2. P. 297.
Types of the suspension:
1 round suspension brackets in two of some, 2 the cross separately from a necklace, 3 bells at a level
of a breast and on a belt, 4 triangular frame suspension bracket on a neck-ring, 5 pairs bells on shoulders
and trapezoid suspension brackets on a belt, 6 complex suspension brackets on the shoulder and the belt.
1 Blagoveschenje, 2, 5 Bolshaya Kosha, 3 Glinniki, 4 Pleshkovo, 1, 6 Khilovo.
Fig. 3. P. 304.
Types of the suspension brackets in the Old-Russian necropolis of Upper Volga area:
1 round suspension brackets, 2 bubenchik (bells), 3 crosses, 4 lunnitza, 5 chain, 6 trapezoid
suspension brackets, 7 rustling suspension brackets.

Olga Fetissova (Saint-Petersburg)

On the Problem of Origins of Ancient Russian Golden Kolts Ornamented with Cloisonn Enamels
The article considers two possible roots of the original Ancient Russian golden kolts ornamented with cloisonn
enamels. Kolts of the rst type (with pearl edging and enamel images), to the authors opinion, ascend directly
604 _____

Summary

to Byzantine models of the middle and late 11th century. The history of the second-type Ancient Russian golden
kolts (with multi-beam edging) seems to be more complicated. The structure of temple crescent-shaped hollow
pendant with set-in central plate roots in the eastern antiquity. It is supposed that the change of the eastern ligree
ornament on the plates for images in the technique of cloisonn enamel, along with slight transformation of
the whole structure, was most likely carried out in Byzantine in the late 11th century, and afterwards borrowed,
comprehended and re-designed by Russian jewellers.
Color pages:
09. Byzantine and Ancient Russian temple pendants: 12 a pair of colts, discovered 1887, Kiev hoard,
by the fence of Mikhailovsky nunnery, Kiev, the end of 11th century (the State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg);
34 a pair of temporal pendants, Syria or Egypt, 11th century (the Metropolitan Museum of Arts, New York);
5 a temporal pendant, Constantinople, 11th12th centuries (Dumbarton Oaks, Washington, D.C.); 6 a temporal pendant, Byzantine Empire (?), 10th12th centuries, Sparta, Greece (the Mystra Museum); 7 a temporal
pendant, Constantinople, the end of 11th the rst half of 12th centuries (the Metropolitan Museum of Arts,
New York); 89 a pair of colts, hoard, discovered 1897, Knyazha Gora, Kanevsky Uyezd, Kiev Gouberniya,
Kiev, 12th century (the Museum of Ukrainian Historical Treasures, Kiev); 10 a temporal pendant, the collection of I. P. Balashov (the Slocket Collection, Brussels); 1112 a pair of temporal pendants, Byzantine
Empire (?), 11th 13th centuries (the Benaki Museum, Athens); 1314 a pair of colts, Kievan Rus (?),
11th12th centuries (the Metropolitan Museum of Arts, New York); 1516 a pair of colts, Kievan Rus (?),
Byzantine Empire (?), 12th century (the Metropolitan Museum of Arts, New York, donated by J. G. P. Morgan,
1917). 15, 714 gold; 6, 1516 gold plated silver.

Natalia Astashova, Tatiana Saracheva (Moscow)

The Chemical and Technological Investigation of the Old Russian Relief Enkolpia
from the Archaeological Collection of the State Historical Museum
The scientic attention to the Rus enkolpia rose at the end of the 19th century. That was the time when
the rst private and museum collections started to be formed, mostly from the so-called market purchases.
The bibliography of enkolpia is rather extensive and impressive, but the research undertaken by G. F. Korzukhina
in the middle of the 20th century is the most signicant and well-reasoned one.
At present a special research of crosses from the archaeological collection of the State Historical Museum is
carried out. This collection includes about 200 examples, 45 of them belonging to 2 types (after G. F. Korzukhina's classication): relief and relief-nielloed enkolpia. Their halves depict well-known images of Crucixion
and the Virgin. The measured attributes allow to reveal the examples of big (810 cm) and average (68 cm) size
and to determine the proportion features of these types.
The study of manufacturing of enkolpia is based on the visual analysis, which allows us to propose several
reconstructions of the main fabrication techniques. The techniques dier in the way of forming the relief images,
inscriptions, design and the presence of nishing post-casting operations. The majority of objects still bear the
clear traces of casting in a clay mould made by the impression of another encolpion. Some objects were made
using wax or metal models.
The chemical investigation of metal by non-destructive X-ray uorescent spectrometry method showed
that the enkolpia were made of dierent alloys: mainly multi-compound bronze and brass. Such alloys indicate
that dierent raw metal materials were mixed together.
This work is the rst attempt to apply the system method to the study of a representative collection of the ancient Rus enkolpia, which should be continued.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 319.
1 reverse of encolpion 41; 2 encolpion 1.
Fig. 2. P. 320.
Encolpion 29, obverse and reverse.
Fig. 3. P. 321.
Encolpion 15, obverse and reverse.
_____ 605

Summary

Fig. 4. P. 322.
1, 2 traces of loops attaching on the reverse side of encolpia 24 and 1; 3 obverse of encolpion
38; 4 reverse of encolpion 18.
Fig. 5. P. 324.
Distribution of encolpia according to the schema of production.
Georgi Atanasov (Silistra, Bulgaria)

The Iconography of Saint George: Foot Soldier and Dragon-Fighter (Semantics, Monuments, Dating)
There exists evidence that the iconography of Saint George as a Warrior and Dragon-Fighter originated in the
east provinces of the Byzantine Empire as early as in the 5th6th centuries. Simultaneously with the classical
iconographies of Saint George as a Foot Soldier and Saint George as a Rider and Dragon-Fighter, there appeared
the image of Saint George as a Foot Soldier and Dragon-Fighter. This is indisputably documented by a fabric
from Ahmim (5th century) and a terracotta icon from Vinitsa (todays Macedonia) dated to the 6th century, with
an accompanying inscription: Saint George. Later, with the falling of the southern provinces under the pressure
of Arabic invasion and as a result of iconoclastic movement, this specic iconography disappeared from the
Byzantine art. Although, it continued to exist outside the political borders of the Empire. The examples of this
iconographic type can be found on a mural painting from Faras (South Egypt), a graphite from Abdeh (Asia
Minor) dated to the 8th century and a relief upon the so-called Arch of Einhardt from the beginning of the 9th
century. We attribute the new version of the iconography of Saint George as a Foot Soldier and DragonFighter in the Byzantine cultural circle to the end of the 10th the beginning of the 11th centuries. In the
course of excavations in Drastar (Silistra Bulgaria) and the adjacent Fortresses Skala, Sredishte, Popina, lead
icons of the same type were discovered, with a Golgotha Cross engraved upon one side, and Saint George as
a Foot Soldier upon the other treading on and spearing a dragon, with an inscription around it: OAC
C. But for the time being no records depicting this scene were discovered outside the Region of Drastar.
There exists evidence that the icons were cast in a local atelier (probably in Drastar), and it seems possible that
they transcribe the iconography of some stavrothecca which did not survive to the present day, but was very
popular in the 10th11th centuries.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 332.
Ceramic Icons. 12 from The Fortress Vinitsa: 1 depicting Saint George and Saint Christopher
(6th century); 2 depicting Saint Theodor (6th century); 3, 4 from North Africa depicting Saint George?
(5th6th centuries).
Fig. 2. P. 333.
1 Kopt fabrics from Ahmim (4th5th c. A.D.); 2 graphitty from Abdeh (6th8 th c. A.D.); 3 mosaic
in Archbishops Cathedral in Ravenna (5 th c. A.D.); 4 clay lamp from North Africa (6 th c. A.D.); 5 coin
of Markian (450457); 6 coin of Valentinian III (421); 7 frescoe from Faras Nubians (8 th c. A.D.); 8
bone diptych (8 th9 th c. A.D.); 9 coin of Constantine The Great (306337); 10 relief Arches of Egenhardt
(the beginning of 9 th c. A.D.).
Fig. 3. P. 339.
Lead Icons from Silistra (Dobrudzha Bulgaria): 1, 7 Drastar/Silistra 2 Popin; 3, 4 Skala;
5 The Fortress of Tsar Asen; 6 Sredishte. 5 10 th century, 14, 6, 7 the end of 10th the beginning
of 11th c. A.D.
Elena Veremeychyk (Chernigov)

The Objects of Christian Cult from the 11th13th Centuries


at the Village Settlements in Chernigov Polesye
The article gives the review of personal piety items (crosses encolpia, perctora crosses, small icons) and details
of church utensils, found at the village settlements in Chernigov Polesye.
The main conclusions are that the personal piety items could be used by dierent categories of village population. The presence of church utensils and plinth at the settlements allows to assume that there were churches
in the villages of Chernigov region.
606 _____

Summary

Illustrations:
Fig. 1.P. 345.
Map of the spread of the objects of the Christian cult on village settlements of the Chernihiv Polesje. 1 Klonov,
2 Leskovoj, 3 Ocheretjanaja Gora, 4 Siberezh, 5 Lanok, 6 Shumlaj, 7 Masany, 8 Rov2, 9
Shestovitsa-Flood-Lands, 10 Selyshe, 11 Ovramenkov Krug, 12 Avtunichi, 13 Goritsa, 14 Rasterep, 15
Volynka 1. Map symbols: settlement, encolpions, church utensils, icon, personal crosses.
Fig. 2. P. 346.
Encolpia crosses: 1 Lanok settlement; 23 Masany settlement, photograph and drawing.
Fig. 3.P. 347.
Underwear crosses of metal: 1, 7, 10 Leskovoje; 2, 5, 89, 14 Goritsa; 34, 1213 Avtunichi; 6
Siberezh; 11 Shumlaj.
Fig. 4.P. 349.
Underwear crosses of stone: 1 Ocheretianaja Gora; 2, 4 Shumlaj; 3, 5 Leskovoje.
Fig. 5. P. 351.
Church plate fragments: 1, 4 Rov-2; 2 Shestovitsa-Pojma; 3 Leskovoje; 5 Selische; 67 Ovramenkov Krug; 8 Shumlaj.

Alexander Gertsen (Simferopol), Tatjana Yashayeva (Sevastopol)

Ancient Rus Reliquary Crosses from South-West Crimea


This article analyzes the Ancient Rus copper cast reliquary crosses from dierent centers of South-West Crimea:
Pampuk-Kaya fortress, cave town Mangup-Kale, the neighborhood of rock monasteries Chelter-Koba and KachiKal'on, and the valley of the river Belbek. All the reliquary crosses under consideration are chance nds. Only three
examples originate from the cultural layer: two of them come from the medieval necropolis near St. Constantine's
church in Mangup-Kale and another from the burial within the basilica in the citadel of Pampuk-Kaya.
The collection of reliquary crosses includes the following types, according to A.A. Peskova's classication:
II.1, variant 1; II.1, variant II; III.3; VII. 1.1; VII.3.1. Besides, there is a rare specimen that has no analogues,
namely the reliquary cross with straight arms, portraying St. Nicholas in the middle of its front leaf and archangels
and seraph in frames on the ends of the arms.
According to the position of the holes drilled through the cross, some single leaves were worn as underwear
crosses or were hanged on processional crosses, used as appliqus on liturgy books, diptyches, etc.
The Ancient Rus reliquary crosses penetrated to dierent centers of Taurica in dierent ways, therefore we
propose to vary approaches depending on the specicity of each individual nd. According to many characteristics,
eight out of thirteenth reliquary crosses under the present analysis could not appear in the Crimea earlier than the
13th century. In our opinion, some dicult-of-access fortresses and monasteries in South-West Crimea, where (or
in close neighborhood of which) the Rus reliquary crosses were found (Pampuk-Kaya, Chelter-Koba, KachiKal'on and others), could become shelters for runaway Christian captives in the period of Mongol expansion. It is
also possible that the pilgrims from Rus visited Kachi-Kal'on, as the church of Nastasya the Martyr of Christ
was well-known in Rus during the Late Byzantine period. Close relations between the ruling elite of Theodoro
Principality and Moscow could inuence the fact that the Ancient Rus reliquary crosses appeared in the capital of
Theodoro. The Rus crosses could also be imported to the region of Mangup-Kale from Cherson which was actually
abandoned in the late 14th century, and some of its former residents could migrate to Mangup-Theodoro; the latter
became both political and religious center of South-West Crimea in the second half of the 14th century.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 356.
Map of the nds of Ancient Rus reliquary crosses in the south-western area of the mountainous region of
the Crimea.
Fig. 2. P. 357.
13 reliquaries; 4 stone cross; 2 liturgical tool from the burials near St. Constantine's Church,
Mangup-Kale plateau.
Fig. 3. P. 360.
Reliquaries: 12, 46 crosses from the vicinities of Mangup-Kale plateau; 3 from the vicinity of the
monastery in Kachi-Kalon; 7 from the vicinity of Chelter-Koba monastery; 8 from the valley of river
Belbek.; 910 from Pampuk-Kaya fortress.
_____ 607

Summary

Denis Jolshin (Saint-Petersburg)

On the Reconstruction of the Original Design of the Tithe Church in Kiev


The article considers the historiography of reconstruction variants of the original design of the Tithe (Desyatinnaya)
church in Kiev (989996), as well as the problem of dating the galleries of the church. The lack of archaeological
evidence forces the author to criticize the hypothesis of M.K. Karger, who dated the galleries to 1030s. The recently
alighted archive records and drafts of D.V. Mileev (the chief excavator of the site in 19081914) indicate denitely
that it was him to who the idea of multistage building history of the church occurred rst, and the hypothesis was based
on the dierences in the structure of foundations. Nevertheless, the archaeological data (received in the course of the
excavations carried out in 19081914, 19381939, 20052007) do not allow neither to date the galleries to the later
time nor to accept the theory of O. Powstenko-G.F. Korzoukhina (who supposed that the galleries were rebuilt).
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 364.
The variants of the reconstruction of the plan of the Tithe church in Kiev: 1 D.V. Mileev; 2 M.K. Karger;
3 G.F. Korzukhina; 4 N.V. Kholostenko; 5 G.N. Logvin; 6 Yu.S. Aseev; 7 P.A. Rappoport; 8
A.A. Reutov.
Fig. 2. P. 365.
The variants of the reconstruction of the plan of the Tithe church original core: 1 M.K. Karger; 2
G.F. Korzukhina.
Fig. 3. P. 366.
Excavations of the Tithe church in Kiev in 1939 by the expedition of The Institute of Archaeology (Leningrad
Department). G.F. Korzukhina is drafting on the right.
Fig. 4. P. 367.
D.V. Mileev. 1 plan of the excavations of the eastern part of the Tithe church in Kiev (19081909); 2
eastern section of the trench excavated in 1908, showing the fundamental trenches.
Fig. 5.P. 368.
Excavations of the Tithe church in Kiev in 1908: quartzite blocks found in situ at the base of northern fundamental trench of the central nave. View from the east.

Vladimir Zotsenko , Mikhail Yevlev (Kiev).

The 11th-Century Bronze Casting Mould from Kiev


The article is devoted to the publication and analysis of a unique 2-ap divided bronze casting mold that was
used for casting crosses which A. A. Spitsyn called Scandinavian-type crosses. According to archeological
context the mold is dated back to the 2nd half of the 11th century and indicates that Kiev should be considered as
the centre of manufacture of such crosses. The authors express their ideas concerning the origins of their shape
and technology of their production.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 372.
Plan of the main excavation site at Izyaslav's town.
Fig. 2. P. 373.
Lead seal of prince Izyaslav Yaroslavovich.
Color pages:
10. I Front and back of a half of a casting mold, excavations at Izyaslavs Town, second half of
11th century.

Mirosaw Piotr Kruk (Krakow)

The Ancient Russian Reliquary Crosses and Metal Icons


in the Collection of the Orthodox Department of the National Museum in Krakow
The National Museum in Krakow (MNK) owns one of the oldest collections of Orthodox art in the Central
and Eastern Europe, which started to be gathered since the origins of the Museum, i.e. since the year 1879.
608 _____

Summary

Among the oldest and the most valuable monuments there are a few dozens of enkolpia, mainly reliquary
crosses, but also plaques which were shown at the exhibition Sacralia Ruthenica in the Main Building of the
MNK in September-October 2006, in connection with the 12th Annual Meeting of the European Association
of Archaeologists held in Krakow. Within the schedule of the Meeting there was a one-day session entirely
devoted to the research on enkolpia carried out in various countries of Europe. The exhibition, as well as the
accompanying catalogue, included enkolpia from the collections of two museums the National Museum
in Krakow and the National Museum in Warsaw (MNW). The MNK collection is constituted mainly by the
works which the Museum obtained as early as at the end of the 19th century, directly from Vohlynia and Red
Ruthenia, while the MNW collection is based on the collection of Jzef Choynowski, the more varied one,
among other objects including a wide range of later crosses and plaques, which should be associated rather
with Novgorod. These works had never been published before, thus the exhibition and the catalogue gave an
occasion to promote their scholarly circulation, which was preceded by papers presented in Wigry in June
2005 and in St. Petersburg in April 2006.
The present communication outlines the problems relating the dating of selected works, excavated in usually
unknown circumstances, and examined on the basis of comparative analysis. The search for Old Rus works in
dierent departments of the MNK also resulted in the recognition of various jewelry. Byzantine enkolpia from
the Princes Czartoryski Collection in Krakow gathered through purchases made in the Western Europe are also
worth paying attention to.
From the statistical point of view, the collection of the Orthodox Department of the MNK consists of
26 enkolpia dated between the 11th and the 15th centuries, 3 enkolpia-plaques and 1 early Byzantine weight
with a cross motif. In the Decorative Art and Material Culture Department there are 2 temple pendants (kolti),
1 cruciform-pendant, 1 appliqu-pendant, 3 pairs of earrings, 2 separate pieces and 2 rings. Two enkolpia-plaques
of amulet character were recognized during the exhibition in the Numismatics Room of the MNK, while in the
Princes Czartoryski Collection we found one Old Rus medieval plaque coming from the area of the northern
Poland. The inclusion of the described works of the Old Rus art into scholarly circulation helps to supplement
the picture of the spiritual culture of Rus in its material dimension; many objects have been underestimated for
a long time and are still often unknown.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 377.
1 ross (Scandinavia or Nothern Rus (?), late 10th early 12th cent., cast bronze); 2 double-sided
plaque pendant or part of diptych: reverse Annunciation (Rus, Novgorod (?), 12th cent.); 3 pendant
plaque, Mother of God of the Sign Znamenie (Rus, Novgorod (?), 15th cent.); 4 pendant plaque, Mother
of God Hodegetria (Rus, Novgorod (?), 16th cent.) 5 pendant plaque, Mother of God Hodegetria (Rus,
Novgorod (?), 18th cent.); 6 enkolpion reliquary cross: obverse Martyr Saints Boris and Gleb (Kievan
Rus, 2nd half of 13th early 14th cent.); 7 enkolpion reliquary cross: obverse Crucied Christ (Rus,
15th cent.); 8 double-sided plaque: obverse (?) Saints Nicholas and Charalampous; reverse Saint George
(Athos (?), 2nd half of 17th early 18th cent.). 1 bronze; 27 cast bronze; 8 horn.

Georgy Mnucu-Adameteanu, Ingrid Poll (Bucharest, Romania)

Encolpia Crosses found in Isaccea, District Toulcha, Romania


The article oers the analysis of encolpion crosses found within the territory of the ancient town NoviogunumIsaccea in the Lower Danube Region (North Dobroudzha). In the medieval times Isakcha fortress was one of the
leading urban centres of North Dobroudzha and the only centre in this region where people lived continuously
through the period of the 10th15th centuries. 22 bronze encolpia crosses remain from those times (of which
only one is of archeological origin), made in the technique of casting and ornamented with relief and engraved
gures (the article gives a detailed review of 14 items).
The analysis brings to the conclusion that the period when Byzantine encolpia crosses and crosses of
Byzantine looks were especially wide-spread in Dobroudzha was the 10th12th centuries, items with figures
in relief being more numerous. Crosses of Byzantine looks with engraved figures were also used in the 13th
14th centuries.
Using the method of X-ray uorescence analysis, quality and quantity analysis of the crosses from Isaccea
was carried out (see Table 3: 511, 1321), as well as the analysis of some crosses found in other locations
_____ 609

Summary

of Dobroudzha in the South of the region in Tyrgshor ( 4) and Beroy ( 1, 2 and 3), and also in Noufarou
( 22 and 23) in the North of the region.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1.P. 384.
Relief encolpia crosses from Isaccea fortress (Romania): 1 private collection, Bucharest; 2 Archeological
Museum of the Institute for Eco-Museum Studies, Tulcha, inventory No. 26047; 3 ibid., inventory No. 33193;
4 Museum of National history and Archeology, Constansa; 56 private collection, Tulcha; 7 Archeological
Museum of the Institute for Eco-Museum Studies, Tulcha, inventory No. 4071; 8 private collection, Isakcha;
9 Archeological Museum of the Institute for Eco-Museum Studies, Tulcha, unnumbered.

Anna Peskova (Saint-Petersburg), Liudmila Strokova (Kiev)

On the History and Composition of Khanenkos Syrian Collection in the Collection


of the National History Museum of the Ukraine
The article studies the history and content of the Syrian Collection of B. I. and V. N. Khanenko which,
according to N. P. Kondakov, they acquired in Damascus, Syria, from a railway construction engineer. According
to N. I. Petrov, B. I. Khanenko bought two collections of metal crosses, one in Damascus, Syria, another on
island Crete. However, the collection came down into the history as Syrian, being considered as a sample
collection of Syrian crosses and miniature icons.
Nowadays the collection called Syrian remains deposited at the National History Museum of the Ukraine. It
includes 332 items received from B. I Khanenko. The collection consists of 2 parts: 235 articles of non-ferrous metals,
glass and stones, represented by jewelry and welfare items, and 96 dierent crosses, among them 20 Ancient Russian
ones. It was discovered that the integrity of the Syrian Collection was rst broken in B.I. Khanenkos lifetime, in
the course of editorial preparation of the 3rd issue of the album Russian Antiquities. Crosses and Miniature Icons.
Afterwards it was broken again many times, in the course of redistribution of museum collections and of evacuation process during the war. The analysis of the Christian part of Khotinenkos Syrian Collection proved that it
represents the full diversity of Byzantine crosses including Balkan-Danube types. There fore nowadays it is more
correct to consider it not as a sample Syrian collection, but as a uniquely diverse collection of Byzantine crosses that
enriches signicantly the basic sources for the study of Byzantine and Ancient Russian religious plastic art.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 400.
Photoprint from V. V. Khvojka's negatives.
Fig. 2. P. 401.
Photoprint from V. V. Khvojka's negatives.

Vassily Poutsko (Kaluga)

Saint Healers in the Stone Plastic of Vladimir-Suzdal Russia


(Iconographic and Stylistic Parallels)
The study is devoted to the reliefs of Holy Martyrs-Healers Kozma and Damian on the south-west pilaster of
Georgievsky Cathedral in Yurjev-Poslky, erected in 12301234. These images are compared with those of saint healers
in Byzantine plastics represented by items historically connected with Medieval Russia and dating back to the early
13th century. Of special interest is an icon from Kiev with images especially close in its artistic manner. Stylistically it is
similar to the icon of Boris and Gleb which originates from Solotchinsky monastery near Ryazan. They are products
of the same studio, of which many were discovered in dierent Russian towns. New archeological nds of similar
items are also taken into consideration. As a result it becomes possible to suppose that such stone gures could be
used as samples by the carvers who worked on the faade sculpture of Georgievsky Cathedral in Yurjev-Polsky.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 406.
Saint Cosma and Damian, princes Boris and Gleb on the relieves St. George Cathedral in Yurjev-Polsky:
1 south-western pilaster; 2 southern side of a south-western pilaster. Around 1234 A.D.
610 _____

Summary

Fig. 2. P. 407.
Saint Healers. Relieves on the eastern part of the southern side St. George Cathedral in Yurjev-Polsky.
Around 1234 A.D.
Fig. 3. P. 408.
13, 5 Saint Unmercenary Healers Cosma and Damian: 1 talc icon (around 1200, Perejaslav-Khmelnitsky, National Open-Air Museum; 2 shale icon (rst third of the 13th century, Kiev, Archeological Institute
National Academy of Scienses, Ukraine); 3 shale icon (the rst third of the 13th century, Tver, Research
Center for History, Archeology and Restoration); 5 Byzantine icon (12th century. Mount Sinai, St. Catherine
nunnery); 4 Princes Boris and Gleb. Slate icon from Solotchinsky monastery near Ryazan. (First third of the
13th century. Ryazan, Open-Air Museum of History and Architecture).

Ludmila Sitaya (Chernigov)

Crosses from V.V. Tarnovskys Collection


The article is devoted to the crosses from the collection of V. V. Tarnovsky. In the catalogue of V. V. Tarnovskys
collection in 1898 there were 51 encolpia, 41 underwear crosses, made of various materials, and 6 crucixes. There
are 20 encolpia, 5 underwear crosses and 1 Crucix in the modern collection of V.V. Tarnovsky Museum. Only
one halve of an encolpion was imported from the Eastern Church and dates back to the 10th12th centuries. All
the others are dated to the 12th13th centuries and were produced by the Old Russian craftsmen.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 413.
Byzantine encolpia cross (group I).
Fig. 2. P. 414.
16 encolpia crosses with high relief (group ); 710 relief-and-niello encolpion crosses (group III).
Fig. 3. P. 415.
16 niello encolpia crosses (group IV).
Fig. 4. P. 416.
12 encolpia crosses with small densely placed relief images (group VII); 3 encolpion cross of rare
type (group IX).
Fig. 5P. 417.
Underwear crosses and a plate with Crucuxion: 12, 4 copper alloy; 3 stone, gold; 56 pyrophyllite.

Natalia Khamayko (Kiev)

Old Rus Bronze Jewelry Mould from the Excavations in the Lower Town (Podol) of Kiev
The paper publishes a rare bronze mould discovered during the excavations of an area near the Dnieper river at
the Podol (Lower Town) of the Old Kiev. This is a two-halves mould with the images of small decorated crosses
of the Croix Patte shape. The mould was produced with wax model casting and nal cutting of details. A crack
in the mould is the result of destruction in process of using probably, casting tin ornaments. This mould
was found in the river-bed of Podol stream of the 12th century along with the other products of jewelry-making.
The images of crosses seem to be older than the archaeological context of the nd. Similar crosses were popular
in the ornaments of the 10th11th centuries. Unfortunately, due to the lack of the second half of the mould, we
cannot specify the function of products. The existing analogues allow to suppose that they were used as pendants,
tin-plates or brooches, but only the future nds of identical ornaments can solve this problem.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 421.
Bronze mould Kiev, Podol.
Fig. 2. P. 424.
Equilateral Patte crosses of the Kiev mould and their parallels: 1, 2, 3, 4 Kiev, Podol; 512 nds from
Byzantine provinces; 13 Eski-Kermen; 14, 16 Tepsen; 15 Kalos-Limen; 17 Doln Vstonice, pohr.
467; 18 Serbia, 19 Vina-Ritopek; 20 Haidudorog-Gyulas, 21 Balatonmagyord-Felso-Koloni-dulo;
2223 Kiev.
_____ 611

Summary

Fig. 3. P. 426.
Old Rus equilateral Pate crosses of the 10th beginning of 11th centuries and parallels: 1 Guthberts
Cross; 2 Wilton Cross; 3 Whitby Abbey; 4 Sigtuna; 5 Birka Grave 698; 6 Oldenburg; 7 Kastlosa;
8 Birka Grave 835; 9 Skjeppinge Grun; 10 Birka Grave 480; 11 Gnezdovo; Grave -301; 12 Timerevo, Grave 459; 13 Gnezdovo, Grave 93; 14 Korosten; 15 Kiev, Grave 124; 16, 17 Kiev, Grave 125.
Color page:
10. II jewelry bronze mold, excavations at Podol in Kiev;
III faults of the mold surface created during the process of the mold production and use: 1 side ; 24,
7 side ; 5 lower facet; 6 upper facet.

Fjodor Androshchuk (Sigtuna)

A Find from Lake Hjerminds, Denmark, and Some Peculiarities


of the Production and Circulation of Swords in the Society of the Viking Age
This article deals with the analysis and interpretation of the lower guard of a unique sword type from the Viking
Age found in lake Hjerminds in Denmark. The nd is related to the other swords found in South Scandinavia.
Apart from 19 sword nds known from the former Danish province Skne (now Sweden), 91 swords and fragments
or details of swords have been registered on the territory of ancient Denmark. It is possible to dene three main
areas with the largest concentration of nds Middelsom herred (medieval locality) and Hedeby on Jutland and
the area of lake Tiss on Sjlland (Zealand). It is stressed that, contrary to the situation in Norway and Sweden,
where most nds come from rural areas, Danish sword nds mostly come from the areas where aristocratic sites
controlled by the royal power have been registered. On the basis of the analysis of the guard from Hjerminds
and other sword hilts cast of silver or bronze, it is concluded that jewelers could take part in the production of
some swords. This means that dierent parts of swords could be produced by dierent craftsmen. The analysis
of written sources makes it possible to suggest four dierent models for the circulation of swords in the Viking
Age. Finds of weapons in water could be explained in dierent ways, but some nds like the Hjerminds guard
should be interpreted as oerings, a kind of contract between the people and the gods.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 434.
The lower guard from lake Hjerminds.
Fig. 2. P. 435.
Map of the distribution of Viking ages swords in Denmark.
Fig. 3. P. 437.
Typochronology of Viking ages swords.

Aleksandr Grigorjev (Moscow)

Monetary and Ware Hoards of the 9th the Early 10th Centuries in the Middle Oka Basin
The right bank of the Middle Oka river in the 9th the early 10th centuries is characterized by dense concentration
of hoards of Arabian silver. For today there are 20 places of nds of Cuc coins in hoards of the rst and second
periods, xed in the indicated region. Some hoards, in addition to coins, contained jewelry. Such complexes are
very few, but their value can hardly be overestimated. Seven hoards found in the basin of the Middle Oka include
ware material. Unfortunately, three hoards Lapotkovo, Baskach and Kashira did not survive. The available
descriptions of their contents do not always allow to dene the objects which constituted the complex.
All the four monetary and ware hoards, still available for study, belong to the second period of circulation of
Arabic coins in East Europe. The signicant share of coins dated to 860s allows to date the given group of hoards
to the turn of the 9th and the 10th centuries. Perhaps Kashirsky hoard should be dated to the same period. The set
of categories of objects represented in dierent hoards is relatively uniform. It includes Glazovsky"-type neck
rings, beamed temple-rings, Saltovo-type earrings, simple wire rings and fragments of Saltovo-type strap sets.
The objects from hoards have direct analogies in the materials from the layer of the re at Supruty Gorodische.
There are reasons to believe that some of these objects, the beamed temple-rings for example, were made by the
craftsmen from Supruty. The structure of the monetary parts of the hoards is also similar to the set of coins from
the layer of the destruction of the settlement.
612 _____

Summary

It is supposed that the time when the indicated group of hoards was lost, corresponds to the nal stage of
existence of the settlement. The structure of the hoards was formed in the area of the Middle Upa, which is
indicated by the objects of local production.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 450.
9th-century hoards in the the Middle Oka basin: 1 Baskach (807808 A.D.); 2 Bobyli (875876 A.D.);
3 Gritchino (860861 A.D.); 4 Zheleznitsy (877878 A.D.); 5 Kashira; 6 Kunakovo (851852 A.D.);
7 Lapotkovo (816817 A.D.); 8 Lesnaja Verkusha; 9 Mishnevo (868869 A.D.); 10 Ostrogi (870 A.D.);
11 Protasovo (842 (?) A.D.); 12 Rastovets (863864 A.D.); 13 Supruty (866 A.D.); 14 Timofejevka
(749(?) A.D.); 15 Tula; 16 Khitrovka (810811 A.D.); 17 Khitrovka (872873 A.D.); 18 Alpatjevo;
19 Torkhovo. Map symbols: monetary hoards; monetary and ware hoards.

Vladimir Zotsenko (Kiev)

Kiev Cemetery-II: Place in Historical Topography, Typology of Grave Goods, Chronology


The nds of Scandinavian import from the Flat part of Kiev stay apart from the same Podol district,
Zamkovaya Gora and the Upper Town. The artifacts found here (excluding 4 coins with inscriptions,
which remind Scandinavian runes from the hoard with 192 dirhams of 894 935, found near the Jordan
church in Bohoslov's cemetery originate from four graves of Kiev Cemetery II. According to the available
information, the cemetery was a eld of barrow mounds that stretched along the rst and the second terraces
of the basic bank of the Dnieper River lower than Lysa Gora. It stretches for 12501300 meters from SouthEast to North-West. The width of this stripe inside the terrace varied from 150200 meters up to 500 meters.
The excavated burials of this cemetery refer to the same chronological span, corresponding to 950970 A.D.
Like in the complexes of Cemetery I, the Scandinavian antiquities from the burials of this cemetery referred
to both men's and women's attire including 2 swords of types J. Petersen E3 and H, a ringed bula with
a long needle of type J. Petersen 227, and two pairs of oval brooches of each type J. Petersen I. Jansson 51
C3 and 52 D. These burials are well correlated with the cultural layer excavated in 1965 in the Southern part
of the hillfort on Lysa Gora and dated by the authors of the excavations to the early 10th century. Despite the
prevalent opinion, the monuments of Lysa Gora of this time are secondary in relation to the lower residential
horizons of Podol district and the early barrow complexes of Kiev Cemetery I, and obviously exterritorial
to the city. They must be connected to the independent retinue which appeared in Kiev not earlier than the
forties of the 10th century.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 458.
Kiev necropolis-II. 15 The inventory of grave 118.
Fig. 2. P. 461.
Kiev necropolis-II. 1 The inventory of grave 1/1989; 216 The inventory of grave 124.
Fig. 3. P. 463.
Kiev necropolis-II and contemporary items. 1 Cross from Iskorosten; 2 the top of sword, supposedly
from grave 116; 321 The inventory of grave 117/125.
Color pages:
11. The Kiev necropolis-II. 1 plan of general location; 12 general view of the surroundings.

Yury Lesman (Saint Petersburg)

A Casting Mould from Vyshgorod


This is the publication of a casting mould discovered in 1934 in Vyshgorod near Kiev (deposited in the National
History Museum of the Ukraine, inventory number 2/968). The mould made of solid limestone was used for
making wax models of several metal decorations. At the rst stage it was intended for casting a round pendant
with a human face on the pseudo-loop (the head is backless, wholes in the side facets were used for hanging).
The slot ground of the pendant is formed by the creatures neck transforming to tail. The pendant develops
_____ 613

Summary

Scandinavian traditions of the Viking epoch, although there are no analogues in Scandinavia. The most likely
date of this casting form is the 2nd half of the 11th the 1st one-third of the 12th centuries. This is one of the
samples of a whole group of East European objects that develop the tradition of Scandinavian animal style on
the local basis, which indicates that it would be expedient to single out a special Russian-Scandinavian cultural
constituent dated within the 10th 12th centuries.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 479.
Casting mould from Vyshgorod. 1 photograph; 2 drawing.
Fig. 2. P. 481.
Models of the objects to be casted in the casting mould from Vyshgorod.

Radosaw Liwoch (Krakow)

Great Barrows in Plesnesk


In the second half of the 19th century there were conducted research excavations of the burial ground in the
village of Pidgirci (early medieval Plesnesk) in western Ukraine. In 1874 one of the burial mounds was explored
by amateur B. Szaniawski. In the grave he found a skeleton and furnishings (including a sabre). We have more
information about other graves which were explored fairly professionally for the times by T. Ziemicki. In 1881
he explored a barrow (height 2.5 m) hiding a double burial probably of a married couple with furnishings
(a sword, a chain mail, jewelry, buckets and others). In the teeth of the male skeleton there was a piece of gold.
In 1882 he explored two burial mounds which he called the Great Twin Barrows. In one of them (height app. 2.0 m,
diameter app. 16.0 m) there was a richly furnished double burial (a sword, a hatchet, jewelry, buckets) of a man
and a woman with pieces of gold in their mouths and crosses. In the other grave (height app. 2.0 m, diameter app.
16.0 m) there was a male skeleton with a gold wire in his teeth, two crosses and furnishings (a hatchet, a sickle,
rings, buckets). Twin barrows are an example of two traditions coexisting and merging in Kievan Rus at the turn of
the 1st and 2nd millennia A.D. The old tradition is manifested in the rich furnishings of the graves conrming their
owners pagan mentality, while the new tradition is manifested by the religious items which were put in the graves to
demonstrate their owners Christianity. The context in which the crosses were discovered conrms that, even among
the Old Russias social elite, the changes connected with abandoning old beliefs and adopting Christian eschatology
occurred slowly, and the pagan outlook was still reected in the burial rituals of the people who regarded themselves
as the followers of Christ. Small gold objects were found in the mouths of the dead from the barrows excavated by
T. Ziemicki, which can be interpreted as a local variation of the obolus of the dead custom. All the four graves
ought to be regarded as the only necropolis with team burials, found in western Ukraine, which is a chronological
and material equivalent of the late phases of the burial grounds such as Old Ladoga Gnezdovo Shestovica.
They date back to the end of the 10th, the rst half of the 11th centuries.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 487.
Burial mounds in Plesnesk (drawn by A. Dziedzic, photo by R. apanowski). 1 sabre from the barrow
on the ground of Tooczko; 25 inhumation from the Great barrow on peasant grounds; 2 plan of the
inhumation; 3 bracelet; 45 sword.
Fig. 2. P. 489.
Burial mounds in an annalistic Plesnesk (drawn by A. Dziedzic, photo by R. apanowski). Inhumation
from the Great Twin Barrow burial 1. 1 plan of the inhumation; 214 grave goods; 2, 3 crosses; 4,
5 a pieces of gold from (the archives of MAK); 68, 10, 15 rings; 10 bracelet; 11 handle; 12 axe;
13 scabbard chape; 14 sword.
Fig. 3 . P. 491.
Burial mounds in an annalistic Plesnesk (drawn by A. Dziedzic). Inhumation from the Great Twin Barrow
2. 1 plan of the inhumation; 2 reliquary cross enkolpion; 3 cross; 4 wire, 5 6 rings; 7 axe.
Color page:
12. Finds from burial mounds in an annalistic Plesnesk (photo by R. apanowski): 1, 1011, 20 the Great
Twin Barrow, burial 2; 2, 49, 12, 1519 the Great Twin Barrow, burial 1; 3, 13, 14 the Great Barrow burial, from the farmstead 1.
614 _____

Summary

Alexander Mikhailov, Sergey Salmin (Pskov)

A Chest from Chamber Burial 2 at Starovoznesensky Excavations in Pskov


(An Attempt of Reconstruction)
A burial ground of the second half the end of the 10th century was excavated in historic skov (Okolny Gorod)
in 2004. It contained two chamber burials of Scandinavian cultural tradition. This publication is devoted to a
small chest from the funeral stock of chamber 2. The chamber contained a female burial (age 3545). A round
spot of organic decay about 0.3 m in diameter with metal pieces was found in the chamber's corner to the right
of the skeleton remains. It appeared to be a fragment of wooden vessel cover. The X-ray analysis of the nd
and the study of metal pieces carried out in the restoration process allowed to reconstruct the outlook of small
chest. The cover was decorated with four iron triangular plates. One of them had a lock hole. Four bronze
stamped plates ornamented in Elling style were situated between the iron plates. There was an iron ring in
the centre of the cover. In the process of study of the nd, according to the remaining details, we managed to
reconstruct the lock. The nds similar to this one from Pskov are known in the chamber burials of Dane and
Sweden, which are dated to the middle 9th second half of the 10th century. This is the rst nd of this type
on the territory of Russia.
Illustration:
Fig. 1. P. 495.
Pskov. Starovoznesensky I excavation site. Chamber burial 2: plan; section. Symbols: 1 boulder;
2, 3 sand; 4 remains of decayed wood; 5 wooden board; 6 grey clay sand; 7 individual nd.
Color page:
13. A burial with a chamber, 2, Pskov: 1 a fragment of a bronze plate; 2 a version of a reconstruction
of a casket cover; 3 a casket lock; 4 a construction of locking mechanism.

Vladimir Petrukhin (Moscow)

Scandinavian Iconographic Traditions in Old Russian Art


Scandinavian gurative traditions in Old Russian art are usually connected with a few mythic and epic topics:
Odin between two ravens (on the steels from Kama region, according to Gali Korzoukhina et al.), valkyries
and the deeds of Sigurd Vlsung (Ivar Paulsen). The rst topic could be considered as romantic: symmetrical
scheme a man between two birds etc. is one of universal motives (known in Kama region itself), which do not
yield to concrete interpretation; the anthropomorphic person is deprived of the necessary feature characterizing
Odin the Scandinavian god is one-eyed. It is dicult to dierentiate female images: the gures of valkyries
from Gnezdovo, Ryurikovo, Ladoga have analogues in Scandinavia, but the attempt of dierentiation the images
of valkyries and deities according to their attributes (drinking horn or necklace) is not convincing. There
was no clear dierentiation of various categories of female mythological persons (disir, norns, valkyries) in the
Scandinavian tradition. The motives connected with the deeds of Sigurd reproduce the compositions known in
Scandinavian art: serpent pierced with a sword (axe of Andrej Bogolyubsky) and the hero himself with sword
and the ring behind (gures of the Vikings from Daugmale and Novy Bykhov).
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 499.
Anthropomorphic person between two birds. 1, 2 Anthropomorphic person between two birds on the steel
from Kama region and on the pendant from Vasilki; 38 Steels from Kama region; 910 Harness-bow
mounts from Gotland and Danemark (according L.Thunmark-Nylen).
Fig. 2. P. 500.
Femaile images in Late Roman art: 13 Pendant from Aska and female images in the Late Roman
tradition (according to U. Nsman); 4 Silver bowl from the National museum in Copenhagen (according to
I. Worsaae).
Fig. 3. P. 501.
Scandinavian mythological and poetical subjects and corresponding ones in Late Roman and Medieval European Art. 1 Pierced serpent on the axe of Andrej Bogolyubsky; 2 Figure of the Viking from Daugmale;
38 Motifs of the meeting of Sigurd and Brynhild (according to K. Dwel); 914 Bracteat from Viken and
analogous Roman compositions (according to H. Vierck); 15 Scabbard cover plate from Griniovo.
_____ 615

Summary

Nikolaj Plavinsk (Minsk)

The Sword Chapes of the 10th13th Centuries from the Territory of Belarus
Among the far-famed works of G. Korzukhina there is the article From the History of Old Russian Weapons
of the 11th Century published in 1950. In this article the scholar developed her typology of sword chapes in Old
Rus and adjoining territories. Three years later Peter Paulsens work dedicated to the study of sword chapes of
the Baltic region appeared. The typology suggested by Paulsen has become most commonly used. However, it is
worth mentioning that the principles of determining dierent types proposed by Korzukhina and Paulsen have
much in common, as well as their conclusions concerning the chronology and origins of several types. After the
publication of above-mentioned works, the specialists in Old Russian archaeology have hardly paid any attention
to studying sword chapes. Most interest in the question was taken by N. Eniosova, V. Zotsenko, K. Mikhailov,
N. Nosov. To the present day 25 intact and fragmented sword chapes were discovered on the territory of
Belarus. They can be divided into two big groups: 1) sword chapes of the Viking Age and later period (for their
systematization we use Paulsens typology), 2) U-shaped swords that spread in Europe in Romanesque Epoch.
The rst nds of sword chapes on the territory of Belarus date to the late 10th early 11th centuries. They all
pertain to North European types. 16 of 22 sword chapes could be ascribed to the Baltic group III:2, IV, V:1,
V:2, VII:2 types. Moreover, VII:2 type has its origins in Gotland as well as probably part of the examples of IV
and V:1 types. Two more sword chapes of individual shapes could also be attributed to the Baltic group. At the
same time, there are only three nds of U-shaped Romanesque sword chapes on the territory of Belarus which
date to the 12th13th centuries. The statistics indicates the wide popularity of the Baltic type sword chapes in the
11th13th centuries. U-shaped sword chapes that appeared at the end of the 12th century could not compete
with them. V:2 type sword chapes, which make almost a half of the total number of the 11th13th century nds,
were the most popular. The demand for these sword chapes caused the emergence of their local manufacturing,
which was traced in Homel.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 507.
Sword chapes from the territory of Belarus: 1 Franopol hillfort; 2 territory of Belarus; 3 Jurovichi; 4 hillfort on rhe river Menka; 5 Drutsk; 6 Golshany (?); 7 Golshany; 8 Litvinovichi;
9 barrow cemetry Gurkovichi; 10 Novogrudok, detinets; 11 Polotsk, Upper custle; 12 Minsk
region; 13 Volkovysk, hillfort Zamchishche; 14 hillfort Maskovichi; 15 barrow cemetry Ashmianec;
16 Homel; 17 Mstislavl,; 18 Volkovysk, hillfort Swidsh mound; 19 Lukoml; 20 Novogrudok,
Okolny town; 21 Drutsk; 22 territory of Belarus; 23 Orsha; 24 Polotsk, Zapolotie; 25 Polotsk,
Zapolotie.
Fig. 2. P. 509.
The map of sword chapes nds of 10th13th centuries from the territory of Belarus.
Fig. 3. P. 511.
Types chronology of sword chapes of 10th13th centuries from the territory of Belarus.

Alexey Plokhov, Marianna Koulkova (Saint-Petersburg)

New Data about Tating Ware in the Lower Volkhov Region


The article considers the remains of Frisian (Tating) Ware, originating from the barrow 7 at the burial
ground in Plakun area and from the occupation layer of the Zemlyanoje Gorodische at Staraya Ladoga. The work
contains detailed description of the items including the technological analysis of their production, it also marks
the territory in Europe where such vessels were discovered. The article gives a review of published judgments
concerning the problem of their origins, special attention being paid to the works where methods of natural
science were used (petrography research, prompt gamma neutron activation analysis). The consideration of
published data brought the authors to the conclusion that there existed several centres of pottery making, where
Tating Ware was made.
In order to dene similarities and dierences between the fragments of Tating Ware found in the lower
Volkhov Region, to nd out their technology and to compare the nds with analogous ceramics originating
from other regions, the authors used some methods of natural science (petrographic method, X-ray uorescence analysis, X-ray phase and thermal analysis). The tests were carried out on ve samples. The results were
compared with the data obtained by English and German scientists. The comparison of the mould masses and
616 _____

Summary

chemical compounds showed that some of the Tating Ware are very close, but some of them dier signicantly from the samples taken from the West European items.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 523.
Difraction pattern of sample 127.
Fig. 2. P. 524.
Thermogram of sample 127.
Fig. 3. P. 524.
Distribution of the samples according to cluster analysis data.
Color pages:
14. Fragments of Tating vessels, Zemlyanoje Gorodische at Staraya Ladoga and a burial ground in
Plakun area.
15. Fragments of Tating vessels: 1 Zemlyanoje Gorodische at Staraya Ladoga; 24 a burial ground
in Plakun area; 5 sample 120: structure of ceramics; the polished section without analyzer, in the
polished section with crossed polarizer
16. 1 sample 127: structure of ceramics; the polished section without analyzer, in the polished
section with crossed polarizer; 2 sample 144: structure of ceramics; polished section without analyzer, the polished section with crossed polarizer; 3 sample 145: structure of ceramics; the polished
section without analyzer, the polished section with crossed polarizer; 4 sample 151: structure of
ceramics; the polished section without analyzer, the polished section with crossed polarizer.

ichail Sagaidak (Kiev)

Civil Wooden Architecture of the 10th12th Century Kiev


Based on the new archaeological data, the article gives the information on the town-planning and social and
economic aspects of the development of the town. The paper touches upon the disputable question of the origins
of the town building. The data concerning the main street of the Lower Town in Kiev (the Podil District) was
presented and a variant of its reconstruction proposed. A special part of the article presents detailed information
on the types of buildings and constructive peculiarities of the secular architecture of Kiev, such as the arrangement of the horizontal earth platforms underlying log houses, the construction of foundations made of logs of big
diameter and combined in dierent ways, the technique of walls erection and the arrangement of oors, ovens,
entrances, doors, staircases and external galleries. The information about a wooden Christian church the rst
one in the history of archaeological study of Kiev discovered during the excavations was also introduced in the
paper. The building was a part of the messuage lay-out and must have been used for religious rituals. In conclusion, the author analyzes the construction of a log dwelling house, the location of buildings on the territory of
a homestead, and the ways of historical development of the mass wooden architecture.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 532.
Map of the 10th12th century Kiev.
Fig. 2. P. 533.
Fundation platform supports.
Fig. 3. P. 534.
Fundation platform supports.
Fig. 4. P. 536.
Foundation underpinnings logs, foot blocks, piers.
Fig. 5. P. 537.
Types of corner joints in the the log walls (14). Methods of laying oors (56). Superposition of new over
older buildings (78).
Fig. 6. P. 538.
Methods of laying oors: 1 plans of log houses 4, 4, Red Square 1972; 2 log house 4, Section
along the axes A-A; 3 log houses 4 and 4, the usage of the ooring for the support of the upper log house;
4 log house 8, Red Square 1972, the system of laying the oor joists; 5 log house 8, Red Square 1972,
_____ 617

Summary

Axonometry; 6 plan of log house 7, Zhytniy Market, 1973; 7 log house 7, Zhytniy Market, 1973, Axonometry, Section along the axes C-C; 8 log house 7, Zhytniy Market, 1973, Section along the axes D-D.
Fig. 7. P. 539.
Architectural elements doors, stairs, entrances.
Fig. 8. P. 540.
Plan of a big building, Geroev Tripol'ya Street, 1972.
Fig. 9 . P. 541.
Plan of the remains of the 12th century wooden Christian church, 3/7 Mezhygorskaya Street, 2003.
Fig 10. P. 542.
Plan of two yards (A and B), Zhytniy Market, 1973 and a variant of the author's reconstruction.

Jakov Frenkel (Saint-Petersburg)

The Struggle for Barrow 7 of the Scandinavian Burial Ground Plakun


(On the Dating of the Barrow and its Synchronization
with the Cultural Strata of Zemlyanoye Gorodische at Staraya Ladoga)
The Scandinavian burial ground Plakun (9th10th centuries) is located on the right bank of the river Volkhov,
opposite the medieval settlement of Staraya Ladoga. The settlement existed since the middle of the 8th century.
Barrow 7 is one of the earliest burial mounds at Plakun. The dispute about the date of the barrow 7 started
in 1970's. The most important works are: Korzukhina 1971, 1971a; Boguslavsky 1992; Boguslavsky, Machinskaya 1993, Mikhailov 2002; Frenkel 2008. Unfortunately, the verication arguments contained in these works,
are sometimes inaccurate (Korzukhina 1971, 1971a; Mikhailov 2002). The methodological aspect of the dating procedure is more important for dating the mound. The authors of the articles (Korzukhina 1971, 1971a;
Mikhailov, 2002) used the chronological scale of Northern Europe. The authors of other articles (Boguslavsky
1992; Boguslavsky, Machinskaya 1993, Frenkel 2008) for the same purposes use simultaneously the chronological
scales of Northern Europe and the settlement of Staraya Ladoga. The chronological scales of Northern Europe
and Staraya Ladoga are not coincide with each other. Barrow 7 could be dated to 880s 920s only using the
scale of Staraya Ladoga. After the alignment of the time-scales of Northern Europe and Staraya Ladoga more
accurate dating would become possible.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 549.
Staraya Ladoga. Plakun Site. 1952. Excavations of the barrow 7.
Fig. 2. P. 551.
Chronological indicators used by G. F. Korzukhina: 1 beads made of ribbed wire, Plakun burial ground,
barrow 7; 2, 3 Tating (Frisian) ceramics: 2 Plakun, barrow 7 (reconstruction by G. F. Korzukhina); 3 Birka, Bj 551.
Fig. 3. P. 553.
Finds from burial on Eland island (krsp Vickleby, Karlevi) with ribbed beads. No scaling.
Fig. 4. P. 554.
Wire beads from Birka burials: 12 beads of smooth wire, burial Birka Bj 649; 39 beads of ribbed
wire: 37 burial Birka Bj 606, 551, 791, 1081; 8 Gnezdovo, hoard from the year 1868, 23 according
to the numeration of G. F. Korzukhina; 9 Gothland island, Felhagen, Bjerke. No scaling.
Fig. 5. P. 555.
Finds from Ladoga region type objects at the Zemlianoje Gorodishche in Staraya Ladoga (women's burials). 59 out of 77 dating types belong to the types of beads (marked with grey background).
Fig. 6. P. 556.
Staraya Ladiga. Plakun site. Barrow 7. Glass and silver beads.
Fig. 7 P. 557.
The building levels of Zemlianoje Gorodishche according to S. L. Kuz'min and A.D. Machinskaja. 1 level
IV (810 c. 840); 2 level V (c. 840 c. 865); 3 level VI (c. 865890's.), 4 level VII (890's 920's) .
Fig. 8. P. 558.
Bead Barrow7- 134 and its typological analogies: 1 Barrow7- 134; 2 type 222; 3, 4 type
536. No scaling.
618 _____

Summary

Fig. 9. P. 559.
Manual application of longitudinal corrugation on coiled bead: 1 experimental reconstruction of T. Gam;
2 modern ethnographical analogy, xed by T. Sode.
Fig. 10. P. 561.
Beads of smooth wire from the Northern Europe: 12 Norway; 3 Gothland; 4 Staraya Ladoga,
excavations in 2004 on the right bank of the Ladozhka river; 5 Ryurikovo Gorodishche; 6 Staraya Ladoga,
Zemlianoje Gorodishche; 7 Staraya Ladoga, Zemlianoje Gorodishche, occassional nd. 13 no scaling.

Ingmar Jansson (Uppsala), Mikhail Potupchik (Vinnitsa), Fjodor Androshchuk (Sigtuna)

A Scandinavian Brooch from Vinnitsa Region


This article deals with a stray nd of a large circular brooch of Scandinavian type from the Middle Viking
Period (10th century A.D.), which recently came to light in the vicinity of the village Kovalivka, Nemyrov region,
Vinnitsa, Ukraine. A detailed description of the brooch and its ornament is given, as well as the associations of
the nd with the other brooches of the same type known from both Scandinavia and Old Rus. The chronology
and cultural context of this brooch type are the main questions of the article.
Illustrations:
Fig. 1. P. 576.
Large circular brooch of type IIB2 (P116), front and back, from the Vinnitsa, Ukraine (photo by M. Potupchik).
Fig.2. P. 577.
Large circular brooch of type IIB1 (P117) from grave 750 of Birka cemetery, Sweden.

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................................................................................................................................583
Summaries ................................................................................................................................................586

Contents
Contents

CONTENTS

In place of a forword ..................................................................................................................................... 5


I. Galy Feodorovna Korzukhina: Materials to the Scholars Biography
List of publications of G.F. Korzukhina ...................................................................................................... 11
Leo Klejn. From the Hoards of Russia: G. F. Korzukhina ............................................................................ 14
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................586
ara Medvedeva. The Heritage of G.F. Korzukhina in the Materials
of the Photo Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute for the History of Material Culture ............... 24
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................586
Olga Scheglova. The Heritage of G. F. Korzoukhina in the Manuscript Archive Collection
of the Scientic Archive of the Russian Academy of Sciences Institute for the History of Material Culture .......... 31
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................587
Nadezhda Pivovarova. G.F. Korzukhina in the Russian Museum. On Some Unknown Facts
from the Scholars Biography ...................................................................................................................... 63
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................587
II. Art of Jewelry in Eastern Europe in the 3rd 8th centuries A.D.: Enamels and Antaes Antiquites
Victor Aksionov. The Objects of Slavic Type from the Saltovo Cuture Sites in the Upper Donetz Region....... 73
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................588
Vjacheslav Baranov. The Burial Complex near Sagi Farm. To the History of the Discovery
and Publication of Assemblage .................................................................................................................... 79
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................588
Alexey Vorontsov. The New Finds of the Horizon Objects of the East European Champlev Enamels
at the Sites of the Oka and Don Watershed .................................................................................................. 86
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................589
Alexey Komar. Fragments of the East European Nomads footwear, 6th 7th centuries A.D. ........................ 94
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................589
Vladimir Koulakov. Monstrse Brooches in the Baltic Sea Region ..........................................................116
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................590
Olga Khomiakova. Ringgarnitur Style in the Antiquities of the Sambian-Natangian Culture
of the Late Roman Period ..........................................................................................................................128
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................592
Ekatherina Shablavina. The Eagle-headed Buckle from A.A. Bobrinskys Collection ..................................142
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................592
Olga Scheglova. The Mystery of Dancing Little Men and the Traces of Unknown Beasts.
Anthropo- and Zoomorphous Images in Early Slavic Art-metal Craft.........................................................146
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................593
III. The Ancient Rus Art Culture in the 9th 13th Centuries: the Problems of Dierent Branches
of Jewelry and Decorative Handicraft Formation and Development in the European Context
Natalia Zhilina. The History of the Russian Metal Attire of the 9th 13th Centuries ....................................175
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................594
Irina Zajtseva. On the Problem of Organization of Jewellers Handicraft in Ancient Russian Towns ............199
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................597
Natalia Kalashnikova. Semiotics and Semantics of Old Russian Folding Bangles ........................................206
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................598
Natalia Krylasova. Flask-shaped Pierced Needle-Cases of Prikamye type ...................................................210
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................598
622 _____

Contents

Larissa Mikhailik. The Attempt of Reconstruction of the Basic Variants of Womens Burial Attire
from the 10th the early 11th centuries, according to the Materials of Kiev and Kvetoun Burial places ........216
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................599
Svetlana Novakovskaya-Boukhman. Jewelry from the Disintegrated Ancient Russian Hoards
in the Collection of M. P. Botkin ..............................................................................................................221
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................599
Vania Pavlova. Torques or Belts? ...............................................................................................................245
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................600
Liudmila Pekarskaya. The New Data about Kiev Hoard 1906 .................................................................249
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................601
Julia Podosenova. Temple Rings with Pear-Shaped Pendants in Burial Grounds and Hoards
of Perm Cis-Ural Region ...........................................................................................................................256
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................601
Liubov Pokrovskaya. Amulet-Pendants of Medieval Novgorod (Nerevsky and Troitsky Excavations) ..........259
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................601
Svetlana Riabtseva. On Grape-Like Jewellery .........................................................................................273
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................602
Marina Sergeeva. Old Russian Zoomorphic Carved Bone of the Middle Dnieper Area ................................286
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................603
Julia Stepanova. Suspension Brackets as Parts of the Old Russian Womens Burial Attire
in the Upper Volga Region ........................................................................................................................293
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................604
Olga Fetissova. On the Problem of Origins of Ancient Russian Golden Kolts Ornamented
with Cloisonn Enamels ............................................................................................................................306
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................604
IV. The Pieces of Christian Culture in Old Russia and Neighbor Countries in the 10th13th Centuries A.D.
Natalia Astashova, Tatiana Saracheva. The Chemical and Technological Investigation
of the Old Russian Relief Enkolpia from the Archaeological Collection of the State Historical Museum .....317
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................605
Georgi Atanasov. The Iconography of Saint George: Foot Soldier and Dragon-Fighter
(Semantics, Monuments, Dating) ..............................................................................................................330
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................606
Elena Veremeychyk. The Objects of Christian Cult from the 11th13th Centuries
at the Village Settlements in Chernigov Polesye..........................................................................................344
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................606
Alexander Gertsen, Tatjana Yashayeva. Ancient Rus Reliquary Crosses from South-West Crimea ...............355
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................607
Denis Jolshin. On the Reconstruction of the Original Design of the Tithe Church in Kiev ...........................363
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................608
Vladimir Zotsenko, Mikhail Yevlev. The 11th Century Bronze Casting Mold from Kiev .................................371
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................608
Mirosaw Piotr Kruk. The Ancient Russian Reliquary Crosses and Metal Icons in the Collection
of the Orthodox Department of the National Museum in Krakow ..............................................................375
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................608
Georgy Mnucu-Adameteanu, Ingrid Poll. Encolpia Crosses found in Isakcha, District Toulcha, Romania ........381
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................609
Anna Peskova, Liudmila Strokova. On the History and Composition of Khanenkos
Syrian Collection in the Collection of the National History Museum of the Ukraine...............................396
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................610
Vassily Poutsko. Saint Healers in the Stone Plastic of Vladimir-Suzdal Russia
(Iconographic and Stylistic Parallels) .........................................................................................................405
Summary ...................................................................................................................................................610
_____ 623

Contents

Ludmila Sitaya. Crosses from V.V. Tarnovskys Collection ........................................................................411


Summary ...................................................................................................................................................611
Natalia Khamayko. Old Rus Bronze Jewelry Mould from the Excavations
in the Lower Town (Podol) of Kiev .................................