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15

35 The diagram shows how the pH of an industrial waste changes when substance X is added to it.

7
pH

before X
is added

after X
is added

What is substance X?
A

coal

lime

salt

water

36 The diagram shows a model of an organic compound.

key
carbon atom
hydrogen atom
What is the name of this compound?
A

ethane

ethanoic acid

ethanol

ethene

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16
37 Bitumen is a substance obtained from the fractional distillation of petroleum.
What are the boiling points and the sizes of the molecules in bitumen?
boiling points

sizes of molecules

high

large

high

small

low

large

low

small

38 Which hydrocarbons in the table are members of the same homologous series?
hydrocarbon

state at room
temperature

gas

gas

liquid

liquid

reaction with oxygen

burns

burns

burns

burns

aqueous reaction
with bromine

decolourises
bromine

no reaction

decolourises
bromine

no reaction

1 and 2

1 and 3

3 and 4

1, 2, 3 and 4

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17
39 Which of the molecules shown can be polymerised?
H
A

H
C
H

H
D

O
C

40 Which conditions are necessary to ferment sugar into ethanol?


yeast

temperature/ C

absent

30

absent

70

present

30

present

70

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18
BLANK PAGE

0620/01/M/J/03

10
4

Catalytic cracking is carried out by oil companies to produce high grade petrol.
The process is carried out using an aluminium oxide catalyst.
The reaction is a type of thermal decomposition.
(a) Explain the meaning of
(i)

thermal decomposition.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................

(ii)

catalyst.
...................................................................................................................................
..............................................................................................................................[2]

(b) A typical cracking reaction is

C10H22

C8H18

C2H4

State the name of the unsaturated compound in this equation.


......................................................................................................................................[1]
(c) The table shows some of the products obtained by cracking 100g of different fractions
under the same conditions.

products obtained / g per 100g of fraction cracked

(i)

fraction
cracked

hydrogen

methane

ethene

petrol

ethane

10

75

paraffin

15

30

23

diesel

20

17

Which fraction is the best source of fuel for cars?


...................................................................................................................................

(ii) Calculate the amount of paraffin fraction needed to make 600g of methane.

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For
Examiners
Use

11
(iii) Complete the equation for the cracking of ethane to produce hydrogen and ethene.

C2H6

For
Examiners
Use

[4]

(d) Ethene can be polymerised to form poly(ethene).


(i)

(ii)

Complete the equation below to show the structure of two units in the
poly(ethene) molecule.
H

State the name given to this type of polymerisarion.


...............................................................................................................................[2]

A precipitate may be formed when two aqueous solutions are mixed. The colour of these
precipitates may be used to identify particular aqueous ions.
(a) Complete the following table.

ion under test

solution to be added to
test for the ion

colour of precipitate

iron(II)

iodide

chloride

sulphate
[8]

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5
(b) Describe the reactions, if any, of zinc and copper(II) ions with an excess of aqueous
sodium hydroxide.
(i)

For
Examiners
Use

zinc ions
addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide .....................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
excess sodium hydroxide ..........................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................

(ii)

copper(II) ions
addition of aqueous sodium hydroxide .....................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
excess sodium hydroxide ..........................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[4]

(c) Each tablet contains the same number of moles of CaCO3 and MgCO3. One tablet
reacted with excess hydrochloric acid to produce 0.24 dm3 of carbon dioxide at r.t.p.
CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + CO2 + H2O
MgCO3 + 2HCl MgCl2 + CO2 + H2O
(i)

Calculate how many moles of CaCO3 there are in one tablet.


=

..............

number of moles of CaCO3 and MgCO3 =

..............

..............

number of moles CO2

number of moles of CaCO3


(ii)

[3]

Calculate the volume of hydrochloric acid, 1.0 mol / dm3, needed to react with one
tablet.
number of moles of CaCO3 and MgCO3 in one tablet
Use your answer to (c)(i).

..............

number of moles of HCl needed to react with one tablet =

..............

volume of hydrochloric acid, 1.0 mol / dm3, needed to


react with one tablet

..............

[2]

0620/03/M/J/03

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14
35 Gas is released in all of the examples below.

WINE

acid rain on a
limestone statue

a candle
burning

a dog panting

Which gas do they all produce?


A

carbon dioxide

hydrogen

methane

oxygen

36 What is formed when calcium carbonate is heated?


A

calcium and carbon

calcium and carbon dioxide

calcium oxide and carbon

calcium oxide and carbon dioxide

37 Which compound contains three elements?


A

ethanol

ethene

methane

poly(ethene)

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fermenting
grapes

15
38 Four fractions obtained from crude oil (petroleum) are listed below.
Which fraction is paired with a correct use?
fraction

use

bitumen

making waxes

diesel

fuel for aircraft

lubricating

making roads

paraffin

fuel for oil stoves

39 The structures of three compounds are shown.


H

H
C

Why do these substances all belong to the same homologous series?


A

They all contain an even number of carbon atoms.

They all contain the same functional group.

They are all hydrocarbons.

They are all saturated.

40 The table shows some suggested reactions involving ethanol.


Which suggestions about the reactants and products are correct?
reaction

reactants

products

ethanol and oxygen

carbon dioxide and water

ethene and steam

ethanol and hydrogen

glucose and oxygen

ethanol and carbon dioxide

glucose and water

ethanol and oxygen

UCLES 2004

0620/01/M/J/04

For
Examiners
Use

9
4

Organic substances have many uses.


(a) Match the substances in the boxes on the left with the descriptions in the boxes on the
right. The first one has been done for you.

methane

liquid used as a solvent

ethanol

used for making roads

ethene

gas used as a fuel

bitumen

gas used in making


polymers
[3]

(b) Which one of the following would be least likely to be obtained from the fractional
distillation of petroleum? Put a ring around the correct answer.
bitumen

UCLES 2004

ethane

ethanol

0620/02/M/J/04

methane

[1]

[Turn over

For
Examiners
Use

10
(c) Some reactions of organic compounds are shown below.
( CH2

CH2 )

n CH2=CH2

C3H8 + 5O2

3CO2 + 4H2O

C6H12O6
glucose

2CO2 + 2C2H5OH

C8H18

C6H14 + C2H4

(i) Which one of the reactions, A, B, C or D, shows fermentation?

(ii) Which one of the reactions, A, B, C or D, shows polymerization?

(iii) Which one of the reactions, A, B, C or D, shows combustion?

(iv) Which one of the reactions, A, B, C or D, shows cracking?


[4]

(d) The hydrocarbon C8H18 is an alkane.


(i) What is meant by the term hydrocarbon?

(ii) Explain why this hydrocarbon is an alkane.


[2]

UCLES 2004

0620/02/M/J/04

For
Examiners
Use

9
6

In 2002, Swedish scientists found high levels of acrylamide in starchy foods that had been
cooked above 120 oC. Acrylamide, which is thought to be a risk to human health, has the
following structure.
H

H
C

CONH2

(a) (i) It readily polymerises to polyacrylamide. Draw the structure of this polymer.

[2]
(ii) Starch is formed by polymerisation. It has a structure of the type shown below.
Name the monomer.
O

[1]
(iii) What are the differences between these two polymerisation reactions, one forming
polyacrylamide and the other starch?

[2]

(b) Acrylamide hydrolyses to form acrylic acid and ammonium ions.


(i) Describe the test for the ammonium ion.
test

result

[2]

(ii) Given an aqueous solution, concentration 0.1 mol / dm3, how could you show that
acrylic acid is a weak acid.

[2]
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For
Examiners
Use

10
(c)

The structural formula of acrylic acid is shown below. It forms compounds called
acrylates.

COOH
C

(i) Acrylic acid reacts with ethanol to form the following compound.

COOCH2CH3
C

C
H

Deduce the name of this compound. What type of organic compound is it?
name
type of compound

[2]

(ii) Acrylic acid is an unsaturated compound. It will react with bromine. Describe the
colour change and draw the structural formula of the product of this addition
reaction.
colour change
structural formula of product

[2]

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0620/03/M/J/04

13
34 The presence of nitrates in soil can be shown by warming the soil with aqueous sodium
hydroxide and aluminium foil.
Which gas is given off?
A

ammonia

carbon dioxide

nitrogen

nitrogen dioxide

35 Dolomite is a rock that contains magnesium carbonate.


A piece of dolomite is heated strongly in air.
Which word equation correctly describes the reaction that takes place?
A

magnesium carbonate + water magnesium hydroxide + carbon dioxide

magnesium carbonate + oxygen magnesium oxide + carbon dioxide + water

magnesium carbonate + oxygen magnesium oxide + water

magnesium carbonate magnesium oxide + carbon dioxide

36 Which two compounds have molecules in which there is a double bond?


A

ethane and ethanoic acid

ethane and ethanol

ethene and ethanoic acid

ethene and ethanol

37 Which substance is found in crude oil?


A

bitumen

ethanol

ethanoic acid

poly(ethene)

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14
38 Which statement about a family of organic compounds describes an homologous series?
All compounds in the family have the same
A

functional group.

physical properties.

relative molecular mass.

structural formula.

39 Which column describes ethane and which column describes ethene?


hydrocarbon

state at room temperature


reaction with oxygen
reaction with
aqueous bromine
A

1 (ethane) and 2 (ethene)

1 (ethane) and 3 (ethene)

2 (ethene) and 3 (ethane)

3 (ethane) and 4 (ethene)

gas

gas

liquid

liquid

burns

burns

burns

burns

no reaction

decolourises
bromine

no reaction

decolourises
bromine

40 Which of the products C12H24 and H2 could be formed by cracking dodecane, C12H26?
C12H24

H2

UCLES 2005

0620/01/M/J/05

9
4

For
Examiner's
Use

Poly(ethene) is a plastic which is made by polymerizing ethene, C2H4.


(a) Which one of the following best describes the ethene molecules in this reaction?
Put a ring around the correct answer.
alcohols

alkanes

monomers

polymers

products

[1]

(b) The structure of ethane is shown below.

Explain, by referring to its bonding, why ethane cannot be polymerized.


[1]

(c) Draw the structure of ethene, showing all atoms and bonds.

[1]
(d) Ethene is obtained by cracking alkanes.
(i) Explain the meaning of the term cracking.

[1]

(ii) What condition is needed to crack alkanes?


[1]

(iii) Complete the equation for cracking decane, C10H22.


C10H22

UCLES 2005

C2H4 + .................

0620/02/M/J/05

[1]

[Turn over

10

For
Examiner's
Use

(e) Some oil companies crack the ethane produced when petroleum is distilled.
(i) Complete the equation for this reaction.
C 2H 6

C2H4 + .................

[1]

(ii) Describe the process of fractional distillation which is used to separate the different
fractions in petroleum.

[2]

(iii) State a use for the following petroleum fractions.


petrol fraction
lubricating fraction

UCLES 2005

[2]

0620/02/M/J/05

5
3

A South Korean chemist has discovered a cure for smelly socks. Small particles of silver are
attached to a polymer, poly(propene), and this is woven into the socks.
(a) (i) Give the structural formula of the monomer.

[1]
(ii) Draw the structural formula of the polymer.

[2]
(iii) Suggest which one, monomer or polymer, will react with aqueous bromine and why?

[2]

(b) To show that the polymer contains silver the following test was carried out.
The polymer fibres were chopped into small pieces and warmed with nitric acid. The
silver atoms were oxidised to silver(I) ions. The mixture was filtered. Aqueous sodium
chloride was added to the filtrate and a white precipitate formed.
(i) Why was the mixture filtered?
[1]
(ii) Explain why the change of silver atoms to silver ions is oxidation.
[1]

(iii) Give the name of the white precipitate.


[1]

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For
Examiner's
Use

6
(c) The unpleasant smell is caused by carboxylic acids. Bacteria cause the fats on the skin
to be hydrolysed to these acids. Silver kills the bacteria and prevents the hydrolysis of
the fats.
(i) Fats are esters. Give the name and structural formula of an ester.
name

[1]

structural formula

[1]
(ii) Complete the word equation.
carboxylic acid
Ester + water

[1]

(d) Propanoic acid is a weak acid.


(i) The following equation represents its reaction with ammonia.
CH3 CH2 COO + NH4+

CH3 CH2 COOH + NH3

Explain why propanoic acid behaves as an acid and ammonia as a base.

[3]
(ii) Explain the expression weak acid.
[1]

UCLES 2005

0620/03/M/J/05

For
Examiner's
Use

14
34 The diagram shows the pH values of the soil in X and Y, two parts of the garden of a house.

X
pH 7.0

Y
pH 5.5

The house owner wishes to use lime to neutralise the soil in one part of the garden.
To which part should the lime be added, and why?
part of garden

because lime is

acidic

basic

acidic

basic

35 In the molecule shown, the two OH groups are numbered.

O
1

O
C
O

2
H

Which of these OH groups react with aqueous sodium hydroxide?


1

UCLES 2006

0620/01/M/J/06

15
36 When a suitable catalyst is used, ethene reacts with steam.
What is the structure of the compound formed?
A

C
O

H
H

O
O

37 The diagram shows the separation of crude oil into fractions.

petrol

X
Y
crude oil

bitumen

What could X, Y and Z represent?


X

diesel

lubricating oil

paraffin

lubricating oil

diesel

paraffin

lubricating oil

paraffin

diesel

paraffin

diesel

lubricating oil

UCLES 2006

0620/01/M/J/06

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16
38 Which of the compounds shown are used as fuels?

H
O

C
O

39 Which set of diagrams shows three substances that are all in the same homologous series?

H
A

H
H

C
H

UCLES 2006

H
H

H
C

H
H

O
C

H
C

H
H

H
C

H
C

0620/01/M/J/06

H
C
H

17
40 The diagram shows the structure of a small molecule.
CH3
C

H
C

Which chain-like molecule is formed when these small molecules link together?
A

CH3 H

CH3 H

CH3 H

UCLES 2006

CH3 H

CH3 H

CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3

CH3 H

CH3 H

CH3 H

CH3 CH3 CH3 CH3

CH3 H

0620/01/M/J/06

C
CH3

[Turn over

8
4

For
Examiner's
Use

Coal gas is made by heating coal in the absence of air.


The table shows the composition of coal gas.
name of gas

% of gas in coal gas

hydrogen

50

methane

30

carbon monoxide

carbon dioxide

nitrogen

ethene

oxygen

(a) (i) Which element in this table is a highly flammable gas?


[1]
(ii) Which compound in the table is an alkene?
[1]
(iii) Which compound in the table turns limewater milky?
[1]

(b) Describe a test you can use to distinguish between ethene and methane.
test
result with ethene
result with methane

UCLES 2006

[3]

0620/02/M/J//06

For
Examiner's
Use

(c) Molecules of ethene can react with each other to make poly(ethene).
(i) What is the name given to this type of reaction?
[1]
(ii) Which formula below best represents a molecule of poly(ethene)?
Tick one box.

CH3

[1]
(d) Ethene can be manufactured by breaking down hydrocarbons into smaller molecules
using high temperatures and a catalyst.
State the name given to this type of reaction.
[1]
(e) A liquid is also formed when coal is heated in the absence of air.
This liquid contains a high percentage of ammonia.
(i) Describe a test for ammonia.
test
result

[2]

(ii) Ammonia has the formula NH3.


Calculate the relative molecular mass of ammonia.

[1]
(f) Coal contains a small amount of sulphur.
Explain why burning coal is harmful to the environment.

[2]

UCLES 2006

0620/02/M/J//06

[Turn Over

14
7

The fractional distillation of crude oil usually produces large quantities of the heavier
fractions. The market demand is for the lighter fractions and for the more reactive alkenes.
The heavier fractions are cracked to form smaller alkanes and alkenes as in the following
example.
C8H18
octane

C4H10
butane

C4H8
butenes

(a) (i) Write a different equation for the cracking of octane.

C8H18

[1]

(ii) The cracking of octane can produce isomers with the molecular formula C4H8.
Draw the structural formulae of two of these isomers.

[2]
(b) (i) Give the essential condition for the reaction between chlorine and butane.
[1]
(ii) What type of reaction is this?
[1]
(iii) This reaction produces a mixture of products. Give the names of two products
that contain four carbon atoms per molecule.
and

UCLES 2006

0620/03/M/J/06

[2]

For
Examiner's
Use

15
(c) Alkenes are more reactive than alkanes and are used to make a range of organic
chemicals. Propene, CH3CH=CH2, is made by cracking. Give the structural formula
of the addition product when propene reacts with the following.

For
Examiner's
Use

(i) water

[1]
(ii) bromine

[1]
(d) Propene reacts with hydrogen iodide to form 2 - iodopropane.
CH3CH=CH2

HI

CH3CHICH3

1.4 g of propene produced 4.0 g of 2 - iodopropane.


Calculate the percentage yield.

moles of CH3CH=CH2 reacted =

maximum moles of CH3CHICH3 that could be formed =


mass of one mole of CH3CHICH3 = 170 g

maximum mass of 2 - iodopropane that could be formed =

percentage yield

[4]

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.
University of Cambridge International Examinations is part of the University of Cambridge Local Examinations Syndicate (UCLES), which is itself a department
of the University of Cambridge.

UCLES 2006

0620/03/M/J/06

14
36 When limestone is heated very strongly in air, lime is made.
What is the formula of limestone and of lime?
limestone

lime

CaCO3

CaO

CaCO3

Ca(OH)2

CaO

CaCO3

Ca(OH)2

CaCO3

37 Bromine and steam each react with ethene.


Which of these reactions need a catalyst?
Br2 / ethene

steam / ethene

38 What are formed when glucose is fermented?


A

ethanol and carbon dioxide

ethanol and oxygen

ethene and carbon dioxide

ethene and oxygen

39 Which formula represents a compound that dissolves in water to form an acidic solution?
A

UCLES 2007

0620/01/M/J/07

O H

O
C
O

15
40 Butane reacts as shown.
butane

catalyst
and heat

butene

hydrogen

What is this type of reaction?


A

combustion

cracking

polymerisation

reduction

Permission to reproduce items where third-party owned material protected by copyright is included has been sought and cleared where possible. Every
reasonable effort has been made by the publisher (UCLES) to trace copyright holders, but if any items requiring clearance have unwittingly been included, the
publisher will be pleased to make amends at the earliest possible opportunity.

UCLES 2007

0620/01/M/J/07

7
3

For
Examiner's
Use

Hydrogen is a fuel which can be obtained from water by electrolysis.


Petrol is a fuel obtained by the fractional distillation of petroleum.
(a) (i) Complete the equation for the burning of hydrogen.

H2 + O2

H2O

[1]

(ii) Suggest why hydrogen is a renewable source of energy.


[1]

(iii) When hydrogen is burnt, heat is given off. State the name of the type of reaction
which gives off heat.
[1]

(b) Petrol is a mixture of alkanes.


One of the alkanes in petrol is octane, C8H18.
What products are formed when octane is completely burnt in air?
[2]

(c) Petrol is only one of the fractions obtained from the fractional distillation of petroleum.
State the name of two other fractions obtained from the distillation of petroleum. Give a
use for each of these fractions.

fraction
use
fraction
use

UCLES 2007

[4]

0620/02/M/J/07

[Turn over

For
Examiner's
Use

(d) More petrol can be made by cracking less useful petroleum fractions.
(i) What do you understand by the term cracking?
[1]

(ii) State two conditions needed for cracking.


[2]

(iii) Alkenes can be formed by cracking. The simplest alkene is ethene.


Draw a diagram to show the structure of ethene.
Show all atoms and bonds.

[1]
[Total: 13]

UCLES 2007

0620/02/M/J/07

11
7

Esters, fats and polyesters all contain the ester linkage.

For
Examiner's
Use

(a) The structural formula of an ester is given below.


H
H

O
C

Name two chemicals that could be used to make this ester and draw their structural
formulae. Show all bonds.

names

and

[2]

structural formulae

[2]
(b) (i) Draw the structural formula of a polyester such as Terylene.

[2]
(ii) Suggest a use for this polymer.
[1]

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12
(c) Cooking products, fats and vegetable oils, are mixtures of saturated and unsaturated
esters.
The degree of unsaturation can be estimated by the following experiment. 4 drops of
the oil are dissolved in 5 cm3 of ethanol. Dilute bromine water is added a drop at a time
until the brown colour no longer disappears. Enough bromine has been added to the
sample to react with all the double bonds.
mass of saturated fat in
100 g of product / g

mass of
unsaturated fat in
100 g of product / g

number of drops of
bromine water

margarine

35

35

butter

45

28

corn oil

10

84

12

soya oil

15

70

10

lard

38

56

cooking
product

(i) Complete the one blank space in the table.

[1]

(ii) Complete the equation for bromine reacting with a double bond.
C

+ Br2

[2]
(iii) Using saturated fats in the diet is thought to be a major cause of heart disease.
Which of the products is the least likely to cause heart disease?
[1]

UCLES 2007

0620/03/M/J/07

For
Examiner's
Use

13
(d) A better way of measuring the degree of unsaturation is to find the iodine number of the
unsaturated compound. This is the mass of iodine that reacts with all the double bonds
in 100 g of the fat.
Use the following information to calculate the number of double bonds in one molecule
of the fat.
Mass of one mole of the fat is 884 g.
One mole of I2 reacts with one mole

The iodine number of the fat is 86.2 g.


Complete the following calculation.

100 g of fat reacts with 86.2 g of iodine.


884 g of fat reacts with

g of iodine.

One mole of fat reacts with

moles of iodine molecules.

Number of double bonds in one molecule of fat is

[3]
[Total:14]

UCLES 2007

0620/03/M/J/07

For
Examiner's
Use

14
37 Cholesterol occurs naturally in the body.
Its name indicates that it has the same functional group as
A

H
H

C
H

38 Which fuel is a mixture of hydrocarbons?


A

coal

methane

petroleum

wood

39 In the diagram, which substance could be ethene?


State at room temperature
gas

liquid

Is it saturated?

Is it saturated?

yes

yes

no

40 Which properties do butane, propene and ethanol all have?


burn

polymerise

UCLES 2008

0620/01/M/J/08

no

O
C
O

12
6

Petroleum is separated into useful fractions by distillation.

For
Examiner's
Use

fractions
fuel gas

petrol
paraffin

diesel

lubricating fraction
petroleum

bitumen

(a) (i) What do you understand by the term fraction?

[1]
(ii) Which fraction has the lowest boiling point?
[1]
(iii) Describe how distillation is used to separate these fractions.

[2]
(iv) State a use for
the paraffin fraction,
the bitumen fraction.

UCLES 2008

[2]

0620/02/M/J/08

13
(b) Ethene can be made by cracking certain hydrocarbon fractions.

For
Examiner's
Use

(i) Explain what is meant by the term cracking.

[1]

(ii) Complete the equation for the cracking of tetradecane, C14H30.


C14H30

+ C2H4

[1]

(c) Ethanol is formed when steam reacts with ethene at high pressure and temperature. A
catalyst of phosphoric acid is used.
ethene + steam

ethanol

(i) What is the function of the catalyst?


[1]
(ii) What is the meaning of the symbol

?
[1]

(iii) Ethanol is also formed when yeast grows in sugar solution.


What is this process called?
Put a ring around the correct answer.

addition

combustion

fermentation

neutralisation

[1]

(iv) Phosphoric acid is a typical acid. State what you would observe when a solution of
phosphoric acid is added to
blue litmus,
a solution of sodium carbonate.

[2]
[Total: 13]

UCLES 2008

0620/02/M/J/08

[Turn over

8
(c) The fermentation of glucose is catalysed by enzymes from yeast. Yeast is added to
aqueous glucose, the solution starts to bubble and becomes cloudy as more yeast
cells are formed.
C6H12O6(aq)

2C2H5OH(aq) + 2CO2(g)

The reaction is exothermic.


Eventually the fermentation stops when the concentration of ethanol is about 12%.
(i) What is an enzyme?
[1]
(ii) Pasteur said that fermentation was respiration in the absence of air. Suggest a
definition of respiration.

[2]
(iii) On a large scale, the reaction mixture is cooled. Suggest a reason why this is
necessary.
[1]
(iv) Why does the fermentation stop? Suggest two reasons.

[2]

(v) When the fermentation stops, there is a mixture of dilute aqueous ethanol and
yeast. Suggest a technique which could be used to remove the cloudiness due to
the yeast.
[1]

Name a technique which will separate the ethanol from the ethanol / water mixture.
[1]
[Total: 14]

UCLES 2008

0620/31/M/J/08

For
Examiner's
Use

13
35 The diagram shows stages in the purification of water.
Which stage uses chlorine?
water at pH9
+ bacteria
+ large solids
+ fine solids

water at pH9
+ bacteria
+ fine solids

B
water at pH9
+ bacteria
C

pure water
at pH7

water at pH7
+ bacteria

36 Which element is not added to a fertiliser?


A

aluminium

nitrogen

phosphorus

potassium

37 A compound has the formula CH3CH2CH=CH2.


Which row in the table shows the type of compound and the colour change when aqueous
bromine is added?
type of compound

colour change

saturated

brown to colourless

saturated

colourless to brown

unsaturated

brown to colourless

unsaturated

colourless to brown

UCLES 2009

0620/11/M/J/09

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14
38 The diagram shows an industrial process. Substance M is one of the substances produced by
this process and is used as aircraft fuel.

substance M

What is this process and what is substance M?


process

substance M

fractional distillation

paraffin

fractional distillation

petrol

thermal decomposition

paraffin

thermal decomposition

petrol

39 The structures of three compounds are shown.


H

H
C

Why do these substances all belong to the same homologous series?


A

They all contain an even number of carbon atoms.

They all contain the same functional group.

They are all hydrocarbons.

They are all saturated.

40 Which bond is not in a molecule of ethanoic acid?


A

CO

UCLES 2009

C=O

C=C

0620/11/M/J/09

OH

7
3

Petroleum is a mixture of hydrocarbons which can be separated into fractions such as


petrol, paraffin and diesel.

For
Examiner's
Use

(a) State the name of the process used to separate these fractions.
[1]
(b) Name two other fractions which are obtained from petroleum .
and

[2]

(c) Give one use for the paraffin fraction.


[1]
(d) Many of the compounds obtained from petroleum are alkanes.
Which two of the following structures are alkanes?
A

H
H

H
H

H
H

[1]
(e) Use words from the list below to complete the following sentence.
ethane

ethene
reactive

hydrogen
unreactive

Alkanes such as
be burnt in

nitrogen

are generally
to form carbon dioxide and

oxygen
water

but they can


[4]

(f) Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons.


What do you understand by the terms
(i) saturated,

(ii) hydrocarbon?
[2]
[Total: 11]
UCLES 2009

0620/02/M/J/09

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12
8

Lactic acid can be made from corn starch.


CH3

CH

For
Examiner's
Use

COOH

OH
lactic acid

It polymerises to form the polymer, polylactic acid (PLA ) which is biodegradable.


(a) Suggest two advantages that PLA has compared with a polymer made from petroleum.

[2]

(b) The structure of PLA is given below.

CH3

CH

CH3
O

CH

(i) What type of compound contains the group that is circled?


[1]
(ii) Complete the following sentence.
Lactic acid molecules can form this group because they contain both an
group and an

group.

[2]

(iii) Is the formation of PLA, an addition or condensation polymerisation? Give a


reason for your choice.

[2]

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0620/31/M/J/09

13
(c) When lactic acid is heated, acrylic acid is formed.

OH

lactic acid

H
C

COOH

For
Examiner's
Use

C
COOH

acrylic acid

(i) Complete the word equation for the action of heat on lactic acid.
lactic acid

[1]

(ii) Describe a test that would distinguish between lactic acid and acrylic acid.
test
result for lactic acid
result for acrylic acid

[3]

(iii) Describe a test, other than using an indicator, which would show that both
chemicals contain an acid group.
test
result
[2]

[Total: 13]

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0620/31/M/J/09

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13
35 To grow roses, a fertiliser containing nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium is needed.
For the best flowers, the fertiliser should contain a high proportion of potassium.
Which fertiliser is best for roses?
proportion by mass

fertiliser

25

13

13

20

29

29

15

36 The diagram shows three types of item.

cutlery

instruments used
in hospitals

cooking pan

Which method of rust prevention can be used for all three types of item?
A

coating with plastic

covering with grease

galvanising

using stainless steel

37 Which structure is incorrect?


A

UCLES 2010

0620/11/M/J/10

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14
38 Which structure shows a compound that belongs to a different homologous series to propane?
A

B
H

H
H

H
C

H
H

H
H

H
H

39 A macromolecule is a very large molecule.


Macromolecules can be made by joining smaller molecules together. This is called
polymerisation.
Which row in the table describes the formation of a polymer?
monomer

polymer

ethane

poly(ethane)

ethene

poly(ethene)

ethane

poly(ethene)

ethene

poly(ethane)

40 Diesel, petrol and bitumen are all


A

fuels.

hydrocarbons.

lubricants.

waxes.

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0620/11/M/J/10

12
7

Petroleum is a mixture of hydrocarbons.


Two of the processes carried out in an oil refinery are fractional distillation of petroleum and
cracking of hydrocarbon fractions.
(a) Which property of hydrocarbons is used to separate petroleum into fractions?
Tick one box.
boiling point
chemical reactivity
electrical conductivity
melting point
[1]
(b) Match the fractions on the left with their uses on the right.
The first one has been done for you.
bitumen

fuel for home heating

fuel oil

making roads

kerosene

waxes and polishes

lubricating fraction

making chemicals

naphtha

jet fuel
[4]

UCLES 2010

0620/21/M/J/10

For
Examiners
Use

13
(c) Cracking is used to break down long chained alkanes into shorter chained alkanes and
alkenes.
(i)

For
Examiners
Use

State two conditions needed for cracking.


1. ................................................................................................................................
2. .......................................................................................................................... [2]

(ii)

The hydrocarbon, C14H30, can be cracked to make ethene and one other
hydrocarbon.
Complete the equation for this reaction.
C14H30 C2H4 + ...............
[1]

(iii)

Draw the full structure of ethene showing all atoms and bonds.

[1]
(d) State the name of the polymer formed from ethene.
..................................................................................................................................... [1]
(e) Ethene is used to make ethanol.
(i)

Which substance is needed for this reaction?


Put a ring around the correct answer.
ammonia

hydrogen

oxygen

steam
[1]

(ii)

Phosphoric acid is a catalyst in this reaction.


What do you understand by the term catalyst?
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
[Total: 12]

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0620/21/M/J/10

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6
(ii)

For
Examiners
Use

What is the meaning of the symbol (II) in iron(II)?


Tick one box.
the number of outer shell electrons
the difference between the
neutron and proton number
the oxidation state
the type of isotope
[1]

(iii)

Tannins are polymers.


What do you understand by the term polymer?
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(d) One of the carboxylic acids present in ink is gallic acid.


The structure of gallic acid is shown below.
O

OH
C

HO

OH
OH

(i)

On the structure above, put a ring around the carboxylic acid functional group.

(ii)

Gallic acid is a good reducing agent.


What do you understand by the term reduction?

[1]

.............................................................................................................................. [1]
[Total: 9]

UCLES 2010

0620/22/M/J/10

8
For
Examiners
Use

(d) The structure of some organic compounds found in plant leaves are shown below.
A

B
H

H
C

C
H

H
(i)

C
H

C
O
H

C
O

D
O
H

C
O

Which one of these compounds is an unsaturated hydrocarbon?


............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii)

Describe a chemical test for an unsaturated hydrocarbon.


test .............................................................................................................................
result .................................................................................................................... [2]

(iii)

What do you understand by the term hydrocarbon?


.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(iv)

State the name of compound B.


.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(v)

To which homologous series does compound D belong?


............................................................................................................................. [1]
[Total: 12]

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0620/22/M/J/10

12
(e) Coal is a fuel containing carbon.
When coal is burnt, carbon dioxide is produced.
Explain how the increase in carbon dioxide concentration in the atmopshere affects the
worlds climate.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [2]
(f) Coal also contains small amounts of sulfur.
Explain how burning coal leads to acid rain.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [2]
(g) Methane is a fuel.
(i)

Which one of the following is a natural source of methane?


Tick one box.
waste gases from respiration in plants
waste gases from digestion in animals
gases from photosynthesis in plants
gases from forest fires
[1]

UCLES 2010

0620/22/M/J/10

For
Examiners
Use

13
(ii)

Draw a diagram to show the arrangement of the electrons in a molecule of methane,


CH4.

For
Examiners
Use

Use
for an electron from a carbon atom
for an electron from a hydrogen atom

[1]
(iii)

Methane belongs to the alkane homologous series.


Name one other alkane.
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
[Total: 13]

UCLES 2010

0620/22/M/J/10

[Turn over

6
4

For
Examiners
Use

Hydrolysis is used in chemistry to break down complex molecules into simpler ones.
O
(a) Compounds containing the group

or

COO

are esters.

O
(i)

Give the names and formulae of the two compounds formed when the ester ethyl
propanoate is hydrolysed.
O
CH3

CH2

C
O

CH2

CH3

name ......................................................

name ......................................................

formula

formula

[4]
(ii)

Fats are naturally occurring esters. They can be hydrolysed by boiling with aqueous
sodium hydroxide.
C17H35COOCH2
C17H35COOCH

CH2OH
+ 3NaOH 3C17H35COONa + CHOH

C17H35COOCH2

CH2OH

fat
What type of compound has the formula C17H35COONa and what is its main use?
type of compound ................................................................................................ [1]
use ....................................................................................................................... [1]
(iii)

Name a synthetic polyester.


.............................................................................................................................. [1]

UCLES 2010

0620/31/M/J/10

7
For
Examiners
Use

(b) The structure of a typical protein is drawn below.

(i)

What is the name of the polymer linkage?


.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii)

Draw the structural formula of a man-made polymer with the same linkage.

[3]
(iii)

A protein can be hydrolysed to a mixture of amino acids which are colourless.


Individual amino acids can be identified by chromatography. The Rf value of the
amino acid glycine is 0.5. Describe how you could show that glycine was present on
a chromatogram.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [3]
[Total: 14]

Carbon and silicon are elements in Group IV. Both elements have macromolecular
structures.
(a) Diamond and graphite are two forms of the element carbon.
(i)

Explain why diamond is a very hard substance.


....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(ii)

Give one use of diamond.


.............................................................................................................................. [1]

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0620/31/M/J/10

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5
(i) What type of reaction is reaction 1? .................................................................... [1]

For
Examiners
Use

(ii) Deduce the name of the colourless gas mentioned in reaction 1.


.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(iii) What is the name of the iron compound formed in reaction 2?
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(iv) Balance the equation for reaction 3.
..........Fe(OH)2 + O2 + ..........H2O ..........Fe(OH)3
[1]
(v) Explain why the change Fe(OH)2 to Fe(OH)3 is oxidation.
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(vi) Explain why iron in electrical contact with a piece of zinc does not rust.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [3]
[Total: 13]

But-1-ene is a typical alkene. It has the structural formula shown below.


CH3

CH2

CH

CH2

The structural formula of cyclobutane is given below.


H

H
H

H
H

(a) These two hydrocarbons are isomers.


(i) Define the term isomer.
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
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6
For
Examiners
Use

(ii) Draw the structural formula of another isomer of but-1-ene.

[1]
(iii) Describe a test which would distinguish between but-1-ene and cyclobutane.
reagent ......................................................................................................................
result with but-1-ene ..................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
result with cyclobutane ..............................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [3]
(b) Describe how alkenes, such as but-1-ene, can be made from alkanes.
...........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [2]
(c) Name the product formed when but-1-ene reacts with:
bromine, ...................................................................................................................... [1]
hydrogen, .................................................................................................................... [1]
steam. ......................................................................................................................... [1]
[Total: 11]

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0620/32/M/J/10

14
36 Compounds containing five carbon atoms in a molecule may have names beginning with pent.
What is the name of the compound shown?
key
= carbon
= oxygen
= hydrogen

pentane

pentanoic acid

pentanol

pentene

37 Which industrial process is shown in the diagram?


waste
gases

petrol
paraffin
diesel
crude
oil vapour

lubricating
oils

bitumen

cracking

fermentation

fractional distillation

polymerisation

UCLES 2011

0620/11/M/J/11

15
38 The diagram shows the structures of three compounds.

O
H

Why do these three compounds belong to the same homologous series?


A

They all contain carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

They all contain the same functional group.

They are all carbon based molecules.

They are all flammable liquids.

39 What is the main constituent of natural gas?


A

carbon dioxide

ethane

hydrogen

methane

40 What is not essential for the formation of ethanol by fermentation?


A

light

sugar

yeast

water

UCLES 2011

0620/11/M/J/11

6
4

For
Examiners
Use

The structures of some organic compounds are shown below.


A

Br

Br

H
n

(a) Which one of these structures represents


(i) a polymer,
(ii) an unsaturated hydrocarbon,
(iii) the product of the catalytic addition of steam to ethene,
(iv) a product of the addition of aqueous bromine to ethene?
[4]
(b) (i) Balance the equation for the complete combustion of compound A, C3H8.
C3H8 + ............O2 3CO2 + ............H2O
[2]
(ii) State the name of two substances formed when compound A undergoes incomplete
combustion.
......................................................... and .........................................................

[2]

(c) Complete the structure of ethanoic acid to show all atoms and bonds.
H
H

C
H

[1]
[Total: 9]
UCLES 2011

0620/21/M/J/11

7
4

For
Examiners
Use

Ethanol can be produced by fermentation or by the catalytic addition of steam to ethene.


(a) (i) Complete the word equation for fermentation.
glucose ............................................... + ethanol
[1]
(ii) State the conditions needed for fermentation.
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
(b) (i) Complete the equation for the catalytic addition of steam to ethene by drawing the
structures of water and ethanol in the boxes.
C 2H 4

H2O

C2H5OH

[2]
(ii) Ethene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon.
Describe a test for an unsaturated hydrocarbon.
test .............................................................................................................................
result .................................................................................................................... [2]
(c) Ethanol can be used as a fuel.
State the names of the products formed when ethanol undergoes complete
combustion.
......................................................... and .........................................................

[2]

(d) Complete these sentences using words from the list.


different

functional

homologous

similar

unreactive

unsaturated

Ethanol is a member of the alcohol ............................... series.


All alcohols have .......................... chemical properties because they contain the same
.......................... group.

[3]
[Total: 12]

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0620/22/M/J/11

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6
(d) 20.0 cm3 of aqueous sodium hydroxide, 2.00 mol / dm3, was placed in a beaker. The
temperature of the alkali was measured and 1.0 cm3 portions of hydriodic acid were
added. After each addition, the temperature of the mixture was measured. Typical results
are shown on the graph.

temperature

18.0 cm3

volume of
acid added

NaOH(aq) + HI(aq) NaI(aq) + H2O(l)


(i) Explain why the temperature increases rapidly at first then stops increasing.
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
(ii) Suggest why the temperature drops after the addition of 18.0 cm3 of acid.
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(iii) In another experiment, it was shown that 15.0 cm3 of the acid neutralised 20.0 cm3 of
aqueous sodium hydroxide, 1.00 mol / dm3. Calculate the concentration of the acid.
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
[Total: 12]

The structural formula of a butanol is given below.


CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 OH
(a) Butanol can be made from petroleum and also by fermentation.
(i) Describe the chemistry of making butanol from petroleum by the following route.
petroleum butene butanol
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [3]

UCLES 2011

0620/31/M/J/11

For
Examiners
Use

7
For
Examiners
Use

(ii) Explain, in general terms, what is meant by fermentation.


....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [3]
(b) Butanol can be oxidised to a carboxylic acid by heating with acidified potassium
manganate(VII). Give the name and structural formula of the carboxylic acid.
name ........................................................................................................................... [1]
structural formula

[1]
(c) Butanol reacts with ethanoic acid to form a liquid, X, which has the sweet smell of
bananas. Its empirical formula is C3H6O and its Mr is 116.
(i) What type of compound is liquid X?
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(ii) Give the molecular formula of liquid X.
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(iii) Draw the structural formula of X. Show all the individual bonds.

[2]
[Total: 12]

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0620/31/M/J/11

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9
8

For
Examiners
Use

There are two types of polymerisation - addition and condensation.


(a) Explain the difference between them.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [2]
(b) Poly(dichloroethene) is used to package food. Draw its structure. The structural formula
of dichloroethene is shown below.
Cl

H
C

Cl

[2]
(c) The polymer known as PVA is used in paints and adhesives. Its structural formula is
shown below.
CH2

CH

CH2

OOCCH3

CH
OOCCH3

Deduce the structural formula of its monomer.

[1]

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0620/31/M/J/11

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10
For
Examiners
Use

(d) A condensation polymer can be made from the following monomers.


HOOC(CH2)4COOH and H2N(CH2)6NH2
Draw the structural formula of this polymer.

[3]
[Total: 8]

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0620/31/M/J/11

8
6

(a) Methanol can be made from a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
CO(g) + 2H2(g)

CH3OH(g)

The forward reaction is exothermic.


(i) Explain why the concentration of methanol at equilibrium does not change.
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
(ii) Suggest conditions, in terms of temperature and pressure, which would give a high
yield of methanol.
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
(iii) How would the conditions used in practice compare with those given in (ii)? Give an
explanation of any differences.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
(b) Biodiesel is made from a vegetable oil by the following reaction.
C17H35

CO2

CH2

C17H35

CO2

CH

C17H35

CO2

CH2

vegetable oil

CH2OH
+

3CH3OH

3C17H35COOCH3 + CHOH
CH2OH

methanol

biodiesel

glycerol

(i) What type of compound are vegetable oil and biodiesel?


.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(ii) What other useful product is made from vegetable oil by heating it with aqueous
sodium hydroxide?
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(iii) Suggest an explanation why making and using biodiesel has a smaller effect on
the percentage of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere than using petroleum-based
diesel.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]

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0620/32/M/J/11

For
Examiners
Use

9
For
Examiners
Use

(c) Petroleum-based diesel is a mixture of hydrocarbons, such as octane and octene.


(i) Oct means eight carbon atoms per molecule. Draw a structural formula of an octene
molecule.

[1]
(ii) Describe a test which would distinguish between octane and octene.
test .............................................................................................................................
result with octane .......................................................................................................
result with octene ................................................................................................. [3]
[Total: 14]

Chlorine reacts with phosphorus to form phosphorus trichloride.


(a) Draw a diagram showing the arrangement of the valency electrons in one molecule of
the covalent compound, phosphorus trichloride.
Use x to represent an electron from a phosphorus atom.
Use o to represent an electron from a chlorine atom.

[2]
(b) Phosphorus trichloride reacts with water to form two acids.
(i) Balance the equation for this reaction.
PCl 3 + .......H2O .......HCl + H3PO3
[1]
(ii) Describe how you could show that phosphorus acid, H3PO3, is a weaker acid than
hydrochloric acid.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [3]

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10
(iii) Two salts of phosphorus acid are its sodium salt, which is soluble in water, and its
calcium salt which is insoluble in water. Suggest a method of preparation for each of
these salts from aqueous phosphorus acid. Specify any other reagent needed and
briefly outline the method.
sodium salt ................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
calcium salt ................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
[Total: 10]
8

Hydrocarbons are compounds which contain only carbon and hydrogen.


(a) 20 cm3 of a gaseous hydrocarbon was burned in 120 cm3 of oxygen, which is in excess.
After cooling, the volume of the gases remaining was 90 cm3. Aqueous sodium hydroxide
was added to remove carbon dioxide, 30 cm3 of oxygen remained. All volumes were
measured at r.t.p..
(i) Explain why it is essential to use excess oxygen.
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
(ii) Carbon dioxide is slightly soluble in water. Why does it dissolve readily in the alkali,
sodium hydroxide?
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(iii) Complete the following.
volume of gaseous hydrocarbon = ...............cm3
volume of oxygen used = .............cm3
volume of carbon dioxide formed = .............cm3

[2]

(iv) Use the above volume ratio to find the mole ratio in the equation below and hence
find the formula of the hydrocarbon.
........CxHy(g) + ........O2(g) ........CO2(g) + ........H2O(l)
hydrocarbon formula = ................................................ [2]
UCLES 2011

0620/32/M/J/11

For
Examiners
Use

11
(b) Alkanes are hydrocarbons and are generally unreactive. Their reactions include
combustion, substitution and cracking.
(i) Chlorine reacts with butane in a substitution reaction.
CH3 CH2 CH2 CH3 + Cl 2 CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 Cl + HCl
Give the structural formula of another possible product of this reaction.

[1]
(ii) What is the essential condition for this reaction?
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(iii) Explain what is meant by cracking. Give an example of a cracking reaction and
explain why the process is used.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [4]
[Total: 13]

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0620/32/M/J/11

For
Examiners
Use

13
33 Air containing an acidic impurity was neutralised by passing it through a column containing
substance X.

substance X

neutralised air

acidic air

What is substance X?
A

calcium oxide

sand

sodium chloride

concentrated sulfuric acid

34 The structure of a compound is shown.

O
C
O

Which functional groups are present in this compound?


alcohol

alkene

carboxylic acid

35 Which fraction from the fractional distillation of petroleum does not match its correct use?
fraction

use

fuel oil

domestic heating

kerosene

jet fuel

naphtha

making roads

refinery gas

for heating and cooking

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14
36 The diagram shows apparatus used to separate petroleum into four fractions.

thermometer

petroleum
on rock wool
water
heat
fraction

Which fraction contains the smallest hydrocarbon molecules?


fraction

boiling point range / C

up to 70

70 to 120

120 to 170

over 170

37 When a long chain hydrocarbon is cracked, the following products are produced.
1

C3H8

C2H4

C3H6

C2H6

Which products would decolourise bromine water?


A

1 and 4

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0620/11/M/J/12

3 only

15
38 PVA is a polymer. The monomer has the structure shown.
H

O
C

To which homologous series does this compound belong?


alcohols

alkenes

39 Which equation represents incomplete combustion of ethane?


A

C2H6 + O2 2CO + 3H2

C2H6 + 2O2 2CO2 + 3H2

2C2H6 + 5O2 4CO + 6H2O

2C2H6 + 7O2 4CO2 + 6H2O

40 Ethanol is an important chemical produced by the 1 of 2 .


Which words correctly complete gaps 1 and 2?
1

combustion

ethane

combustion

glucose

fermentation

ethane

fermentation

glucose

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For
Examiners
Use

(e) (i) Complete the table below to show:

the molecular formula for ethanoic acid


the full structural formula for ethanol.
ethanoic acid
H

full structural formula

C
H

ethanol

O
C
O

molecular formula

C 2 H6 O
[2]

(ii) Ethanol can be manufactured by the catalytic addition of steam to ethene. Complete
the equation for this reaction.
............ + .......... C2H5OH
[1]
[Total: 14]

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8
4

For
Examiners
Use

Fractional distillation is used to separate petroleum into different fractions.


Each fraction has a particular use.
(a) Match the fractions on the left with their uses on the right.
The first one has been done for you.
gas oil

heating

bitumen

fuel for ships

lubricating fraction

surfacing roads

refinery gases

waxes and polishes

naphtha

making chemicals
[4]

(b) Petroleum fractions contain hydrocarbons.


What do you understand by the term hydrocarbon ?
..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) Methane, CH4, is a hydrocarbon.


(i) Draw the structure of methane, showing all atoms and bonds.

[1]
(ii) Complete the following equation for the burning of methane in excess oxygen.
CH4 + .....O2 .......... + 2H2O
[2]

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For
Examiners
Use

(iii) Methane belongs to a homologous series called the alkanes.


What do you understand by the term homologous series ?
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
(iv) Name the second member of the alkane homologous series.
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
[Total: 11]

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10
6

The diagram shows a fractionating column used to separate different hydrocarbon fractions
in an oil refinery.
fractions
refinery gas

gasoline
A
kerosene
diesel oil
fuel oil
lubricating oil

petroleum

bitumen
(a) On the diagram, draw an X to show the place in the column where the temperature is the
highest.
[1]

(b) State the name of the fraction labelled A.


..................................................................................................................................... [1]

(c) State a use for


the kerosene fraction, .......................................................................................................
the diesel oil fraction. .................................................................................................. [2]

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11
(d) Complete the following sentences about fractional distillation using words from the list
below.
boiling

condenses

cooled

heated

higher

lower

melting

mixture

pressure

vaporises

For
Examiners
Use

Petroleum is a ............................ of hydrocarbons. This mixture is ............................


and the hydrocarbons vaporise. The temperature in the fractionating column is
............................ at the top than at the bottom. As the vapours move up the column,
each hydrocarbon fraction ............................ when the temperature in the column falls
below the ............................ point of the hydrocarbon fraction.

[5]

(e) The structures of four hydrocarbons, A, B, C and D, are shown below.


A

H
H

H
C

H
(i) Which two of these structures A, B, C or D have the same relative molecular mass?
.......................................................... and .......................................................... [1]
(ii) Which two of these structures A, B, C or D will decolourise aqueous bromine?
.......................................................... and .......................................................... [2]
[Total: 12]

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5
(c) Vanadium(V) oxide is used to catalyse the exothermic reaction between sulfur dioxide
and oxygen in the Contact Process.
2SO2 + O2

For
Examiners
Use

2SO3

The rate of this reaction can be increased either by using a catalyst or by increasing the
temperature. Explain why a catalyst is used and not a higher temperature.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [2]
(d) The oxidation states of vanadium in its compounds are V(+5), V(+4), V(+3) and V(+2).
The vanadium(III) ion can behave as a reductant or an oxidant.
(i) Indicate on the following equation which reactant is the oxidant.
2V3+ + Zn 2V2+ + Zn2+
[1]
(ii) Which change in the following equation is oxidation?
Explain your choice.
V3+ + Fe3+ V4+ + Fe2+
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
[Total: 8]

Reactive metals tend to have unreactive compounds. The following is part of the reactivity
series.
sodium
calcium
zinc
copper
silver

most reactive

least reactive

(a) Sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate do not decompose when heated.
The corresponding calcium compounds do decompose when heated.
Complete the following equations.

calcium carbonate

....................................
....................................

Ca(OH)2 ................ + ................

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....................................
+

0620/31/M/J/12

....................................

[2]

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6
For
Examiners
Use

(b) All nitrates decompose when heated.


(i) The equation for the thermal decomposition of silver(I) nitrate is given below.
2AgNO3 2Ag + 2NO2 + O2
What are the products formed when copper(II) nitrate is heated?
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(ii) Complete the equation for the action of heat on sodium nitrate.
..........NaNO3 ........................ + ........................
[2]
(c) Which of the metals in the list on page 5 have oxides which are not reduced by carbon?
..................................................................................................................................... [1]
(d) Choose from the list on page 5, metals whose ions would react with zinc.
..................................................................................................................................... [2]
[Total: 8]
6

Butane is an alkane. It has the following structural formula.

(a) The equation for the complete combustion of butane is given below. Insert the two
missing volumes.
2C4H10(g) + 13O2(g) 8CO2(g) + 10H2O(g)
..........

..........

40

volume of gas / cm3


[2]

(b) Butane reacts with chlorine to form two isomers of chlorobutane.


(i) What type of reaction is this?
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(ii) Explain the term isomer.
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]

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For
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(iii) Draw the structural formulae of these two chlorobutanes.

[2]
(c) One of the chlorobutanes reacts with sodium hydroxide to form butan-1-ol. Butan-1-ol
can be oxidised to a carboxylic acid.
(i) State a reagent, other than oxygen, which will oxidise butan-1-ol to a carboxylic acid.
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(ii) Name the carboxylic acid formed.
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(iii) Butan-1-ol reacts with ethanoic acid to form an ester. Name this ester and give its
structural formula showing all the individual bonds.
name ................................................................................................................... [1]
structural formula

[2]
[Total: 12]

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8
7

For
Examiners
Use

Plastics are polymers. They are formed from their monomers by polymerisation.
(a) Two methods for the disposal of waste plastics are

burning
recycling.

Describe one advantage and one disadvantage of each method.


burning ..............................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
recycling ...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [4]
(b) (i) There are two types of polymerisation reaction. Give their names and explain the
differences between them.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [4]
(ii) Give the structural formula of a polymer which is formed from two different monomers.

[2]
[Total: 10]

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8
7

The alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons. They form a homologous series, the members of
which have similar chemical properties:

easily oxidised
addition reactions
polymerisation
combustion.

(a) All the alkenes have the same empirical formula.


(i) State their empirical formula.
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(ii) Why is the empirical formula the same for all alkenes?
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(b) Alkenes can be oxidised to carboxylic acids by boiling with aqueous potassium
manganate(VII).
(i) Pent-2-ene, CH3CH2CH=CHCH3, oxidises to CH3CH2COOH and CH3COOH.
Name these two acids.
CH3CH2COOH .......................................................................................................
CH3COOH ............................................................................................................ [2]
(ii) Most alkenes oxidise to two carboxylic acids. Deduce the formula of an alkene which
forms only one carboxylic acid.

[1]
(c) Complete the following equations for the addition reactions of propene.
(i) CH3CH=CH2 + Br2 ....................................

[1]

(ii) CH3CH=CH2 + H2O ....................................

[1]

(d) Draw the structural formula of poly(propene)

[2]

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9
(e) 0.01 moles of an alkene needed 2.4 g of oxygen for complete combustion. 2.2 g of carbon
dioxide were formed. Determine the following mole ratio.

For
Examiners
Use

moles of alkene : moles of O2 : moles of CO2

From this ratio determine the formula of the alkene.


..................................................................................................................................... [3]
Write an equation for the complete combustion of this alkene.
..................................................................................................................................... [1]
[Total: 13]

Ethylamine, CH3CH2NH2, is a base which has similar properties to ammonia.


(a) In aqueous ethylamine, there is the following equilibrium.
CH3CH2NH2 + H2O

CH3CH2NH3+ + OH

Explain why water is behaving as an acid in this reaction.


..................................................................................................................................... [1]
(b) Given aqueous solutions of ethylamine and sodium hydroxide, describe how you could
show that ethylamine is a weak base like ammonia and not a strong base like sodium
hydroxide.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [3]
(c) Ethylamine, like ammonia, reacts with acids to form salts.
CH3CH2NH2 + HCl CH3CH2NH3Cl
ethylammonium chloride
Suggest how you could displace ethylamine from the salt, ethylammonium chloride.
...........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [2]

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13
34 Two uses of oxygen are
1

burning acetylene in welding,

helping the breathing of hospital patients.

Which of these uses form carbon dioxide?


use 1

use 2

35 Lime is used to treat an industrial waste.

untreated
waste

treated
waste

lime
Which pH change occurs in the treatment?
untreated waste
A

acidic

alkaline

alkaline

neutral

treated waste
neutral
acidic
neutral
acidic

36 A compound Q has the structure shown.


H H H H H H H
H C C C C C C C O H
H H H H H H H
What is the name of Q?
A

heptane

heptanoic acid

heptanol

heptene
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14
37 A student sets up the apparatus shown to separate petroleum into its different liquid parts.

themometer

cold
water

petroleum
on rock wool

heat
Why does this method of separation work?
The liquids in petroleum have different
A

boiling points,

densities,

functional groups,

melting points.

38 Which row in the table correctly shows properties of decane?

burns

is unsaturated

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15
39 The equation shows the cracking of a hydrocarbon.
H H H H
H C C C C H
H H H H

H H
C = C C H
H
H

H
H C H
H
Z

Which compounds are unsaturated?


A

X only

Y only

40 A student states that


ethanol reacts with water to form beer and wine;
ethanol and water are used as solvents in industry.
Which of the underlined words are correct?
reacts

solvents

0620/1/O/N/02

X and Z

Y and Z

For
Examiners
Use

8
4

Some organic compounds found in ripe fruits are shown below.


H

H
C

CH3CO2H

CH3CH2CH2CO2H

C
H

CH3CH2OH

CH3CH2CHO

(a) What do you understand by the term organic compound?

[1]

(b) Which two of the compounds belong to the same homologous series?
compound

and compound

[1]

(c) Which one of these compounds is an unsaturated hydrocarbon?


[1]
(d) Which one of these compounds is an alcohol?
[1]
(e) Which one of these compounds can be formed directly by cracking the paraffin fraction
from petroleum?
[1]
(f) Compound D burns readily.
(i)

Burning is an exothermic reaction.


Explain the meaning of the term exothermic.
[1]

(ii)

State the products formed when D burns in excess air.


[2]

0620/2 Nov02

For
Examiners
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9
(iii)

Name the carbon compound formed when D undergoes incomplete


combustion.
[1]

(g) Write down the molecular formula of compound C.


[1]
(h) Calculate the relative molecular mass of compound C.
[1]
(i)

Many fruits contain a variety of different coloured compounds.


What separation technique can you use to separate these different coloured
compounds?
[1]

0620/2 Nov 2002

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8
5

Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons. They show structural isomerism. Alkenes take part
in addition reactions and form polymers.
(a) Structural isomers have the same molecular formula but different structural formulae.
Give an example of structural isomerism.
molecular formula .............................................................................................................
two structural formulae

[3]
(b) Ethene reacts with each of the following. Give the name and structural formula of each
product.
(i)

steam
name of product ..........................................................
structure of product

[2]
(ii)

hydrogen
name of product ...........................................................
structure of product

[2]

0620/3/O/N/02

For
Examiners
Use

For
Examiners
Use

9
(c) Alkenes polymerise by addition.
(i)

Explain the term polymerise.


...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(ii)

What is the difference between addition polymerisation and condensation


polymerisation?
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(iii)

Poly(dichloroethene) is used extensively to package food. Draw its structure. The


structural formula of dichloroethene is drawn below.
Cl

H
C
H

C
Cl

[2]
(d) Steel may be coated with another metal, eg zinc or chromium, or with a polymer, eg
poly(chloroethene), to prevent rusting.
(i)

Suggest a property of poly(chloroethene) that makes it suitable for this purpose.


...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

Explain why the steel will rust when the protective coating of chromium or polymer
is broken.
...............................................................................................................................[1]

(iii)

When the protective layer of zinc is broken, the steel still does not rust.
Suggest an explanation.
...................................................................................................................................
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

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15
34 Two processes are listed.
1

treating acidic soil with slaked lime

using limestone to extract iron

In which of these processes is carbon dioxide produced?


1

35 Organic compounds may have names ending in ane, -ene, -ol or oic acid.
How many of these endings indicate the compounds contain double bonds in their molecules?
A

36 Which compound is unsaturated and forms a neutral solution in water?


A

CH2OH

CH2OH

C
CO2H

CO2H

CH

CH2

CH

CH2

CH

CH2

CH

CH2

CH2OH

CH2OH

CO2H

CO2H

37 Which fraction produced by the distillation of petroleum is used as aircraft fuel?


A

bitumen

diesel

paraffin

petrol

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38 The diagram shows the structures of two compounds.

The two compounds have similar chemical properties.


Why is this?
Their molecules have the same
A

functional group.

number of carbon atoms.

number of oxygen atoms.

relative molecular mass.

0620/01 O/N/03

For
Examiners
Use

3
(b) State the name given to the method of separation shown in
(i)

diagram A, .................................................................................................................

(ii)

diagram B. .................................................................................................................
[2]

(c) Method A can be modified to separate petroleum into useful fractions.


The diagram below shows the different fractions obtained from a fractionating column.
fractions
fuel gas

petrol

paraffin

light gas oil


diesel
lubricating fraction
crude oil

bitumen
(i)

Which of these fractions has the lowest boiling point?


...................................................................................................................................

(ii)

State one use for each of the following fractions.


paraffin ......................................................................................................................
bitumen .....................................................................................................................
[3]

(d) Petroleum is a mixture of organic compounds.


Which one of the following best describes the compounds found in petroleum?
Put a ring around the correct answer.
acids

alcohols

carbohydrates

hydrocarbons
[1]

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For
Examiners
Use

4
(e) Before petroleum is fractionated, it is often heated to remove dissolved natural gas.
Most of this natural gas is methane, CH4.
Draw a diagram to show how the electrons are arranged in methane.
show hydrogen electrons as
show carbon electrons as

[2]
(f)

Methane, ethane and propane belong to a particular homologous series of compounds.


State the name of the homologous series to which these three compounds belong.
..........................................................................................................................................
[1]

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Examiners
Use

5
(ii) How could you show that this reaction is photochemical?
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[1]
(c) Photosynthesis is another example of a photochemical reaction. Glucose and more
complex carbohydrates are made from carbon dioxide and water.
(i)

Complete the equation.


6CO2 + 6H2O

C6H12O6

+ ..

[2]

(ii) Glucose can be represented as


HO

OH

Draw the structure of a more complex carbohydrate that can be formed from
glucose by condensation polymerisation.

[2]

Zinc blende is the common ore of zinc. It is usually found mixed with an ore of lead and
traces of silver.
(a) (i)

Describe how zinc blende is changed into zinc oxide.


...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(ii)

Write an equation for the reduction of zinc oxide by carbon.


...............................................................................................................................[2]

(iii)

The boiling point of lead is 1740 C and that of zinc is 907 C. Explain why, when
both oxides are reduced by heating with carbon at 1400 C, only lead remains in
the furnace.
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

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7
4

Esters occur naturally in plants and animals. They are manufactured from petroleum. Ethyl
ethanoate and butyl ethanoate are industrially important as solvents.
(a) (i)

For
Examiners
Use

Explain the term solvent.


...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

Give the formula of ethyl ethanoate.

[1]
(iii)

Ethyl ethanoate can be made from ethanol and ethanoic acid. Describe how these
chemicals can be made.
ethanol from ethene
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]
ethanoic acid from ethanol
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

(iv)

Name two chemicals from which butyl ethanoate can be made.


...............................................................................................................................[1]

(b) The following equation represents the alkaline hydrolysis of a naturally occurring ester.

(i)

C17H35

CO2

CH2

C17H35

CO2

CH

C17H35

CO2

CH2

CH2OH
+ 3NaOH

3C17H35COONa + CHOH
CH2OH

Which substance in the equation is an alcohol? Underline the substance in the


equation above.
[1]

(ii)

What is the major use for compounds of the type C17H35COONa ?


...............................................................................................................................[1]
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8
(c) A polymer has the structure shown below.

(i)

What type of polymer is this?


...............................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

Complete the following to give the structures of the two monomers from which the
above polymer could be made.

[2]
(d) Esters are frequently used as solvents in chromatography. A natural macromolecule
was hydrolysed to give a mixture of amino acids. These could be identified by
chromatography.
(i)

What type of macromolecule was hydrolysed?


..................................................................................................................................[1]

(ii)

What type of linkage was broken by hydrolysis?


..................................................................................................................................[1]

(iii)

Explain why the chromatogram must be sprayed with a locating agent before the
amino acids can be identified.
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[1]

(iv)

Explain how it is possible to identify the amino acids from the chromatogram.
...................................................................................................................................
...............................................................................................................................[2]

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33 Which statement explains why iron is used as the catalyst in the manufacture of ammonia?
A

More ammonia is produced in a given time.

The catalyst is unchanged at the end of the reaction.

The catalyst neutralises the ammonia.

The purity of the ammonia is improved.

34 A sample of acid rainwater (pH = 4) is passed down a glass column packed with marble chippings
(calcium carbonate). The water coming from the bottom of the column is collected in a beaker.
The pH is now 6.
rainwater

marble
chippings

water

What causes the change in pH?


A

The acid has been filtered.

The acid has been neutralised.

The acid is made more concentrated.

The acid is precipitated.

35 What are the products when limestone (calcium carbonate) is strongly heated?
A

calcium hydroxide and carbon dioxide

calcium hydroxide and carbon monoxide

calcium oxide and carbon dioxide

calcium oxide and carbon monoxide

36 Which compound is ethanol?


A

H
H

C
H

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H
O

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H

15
37 What is petroleum?
A

an aircraft fuel

a central heating fuel

a mixture of carbohydrates

a mixture of hydrocarbons

38 Methanol and ethanol belong to the same homologous series.


What does this mean?
A

Their molecules contain atoms only of carbon and hydrogen.

Their molecules have the same number of carbon atoms.

They have the same functional group.

They have the same relative molecular mass.

39 Which substances can be obtained by cracking hydrocarbons?


A

ethanol and ethene

ethanol and hydrogen

ethene and hydrogen

ethene and poly(ethene)

40 The apparatus shown may be used to study the products of fermentation.

aqueous
calcium
hydroxide

fermenting
solution

What is the purpose of the aqueous calcium hydroxide?


A

to absorb any excess of yeast

to condense the ethanol produced

to prevent air entering the system

to show that carbon dioxide is produced

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2

For
Examiners
Use

The structures of some compounds found in plants are shown below.

H
C

H
H

C
H
O

D
H
H

O
C
O

E
H

C
C

O
C

(a) Which two of these compounds are unsaturated hydrocarbons?


[1]

(b) Which two of these compounds contain a carboxylic acid functional group?
[1]

(c) Write the molecular formula for compound D.


[1]

(d) Draw the structure of the product formed when compound A reacts with bromine.
Show all atoms and all bonds.

[1]

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(e) Strawberry fruits produce compound A (ethene) naturally.


A scientist left some green strawberry fruits to ripen.
The scientist measured the concentration of ethene and carbon dioxide produced by
the strawberry fruits over a ten day period.
The graph below shows the results.
400

300
concentration
of gas/parts
per million
(ppm)

200
carbon dioxide
ethene

100

0
0

10

days

(i) Between which two days does the rate of ethene production increase most rapidly?
[1]

(ii) What is the name given to the process in which carbon dioxide is produced by
living organisms?
Put a ring around the correct answer.
acidification

combustion

neutralization

respiration
[1]

(iii) Carbon dioxide concentration over 350 ppm has an effect on ethene production by
the fruits.
What effect is this?
[1]
(iv) Ethene gas spreads throughout the fruit by a random movement of molecules.
What is the name given to the random movement of molecules?
Put a ring around the correct answer.
aeration

diffusion

evaporation

ionisation
[1]

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(v) Ethene gas promotes the ripening of strawberry fruits.


Ripening of strawberries is slowed down by passing a stream of nitrogen over the
fruit.
Suggest why this slows down the ripening process.

[1]
(vi) Enzymes are involved in the ripening process.
What is an enzyme?

[2]

(f) Plants make a variety of coloured pigments.


A student extracted red colouring from four different plants, R, S, T and U.
The student put a spot of each colouring on a piece of filter paper.
The filter paper was dipped into a solvent and left for 30 minutes.
The results are shown below.
start of experiment

result after 30 minutes

filter paper

R S T U

R S T U
solvent

(i) What is name given to the process shown in the diagram?


[1]
(ii) Which plant contained the greatest number of different pigments?
[1]
(iii) Which two plants contained the same pigments?
[1]

UCLES 2004

0620/02/O/N/04

14

For
Examiners
Use

(f) The hydrogen obtained by electrolysis can be used in the manufacture of margarine.

Ni
CO2H

+ H2

CO2H

(i) Complete the following sentences about this reaction using words from the list.
catalyst
inhibitor
monomeric
saturated
unsaturated

Hydrogen gas is bubbled through


using a nickel

carbon compounds
which speeds up the reaction.

The margarines produced are

compounds.

[3]

(ii) State one other use of hydrogen.


[1]

UCLES 2004

0620/02/O/N/04

5
3

The simplest alcohol is methanol.

For
Examiners
Use

(a) It is manufactured by the following reversible reaction.


CO (g) + 2H2 (g)

CH3OH (g)
300 C
30atm
o

(i) Reversible reactions can come to equilibrium. Explain the term equilibrium.

[1]
(ii) At 400 oC, the percentage of methanol in the equilibrium mixture is lower than at
300 oC. Suggest an explanation.

[2]
(iii) Suggest two advantages of using high pressure for this reaction.
Give a reason for each advantage.

advantage
reason

advantage
reason
[5]

UCLES 2004

0620/03/O/N/04

[Turn over

6
(b) (i) Complete the equation for the combustion of methanol in an excess of oxygen.
CH3OH +

O2

For
Examiners
Use

[2]

(ii) Complete the word equation.


methanol + ethanoic acid

+
[2]

(iii) Methanol can be oxidised to an acid. Name this acid.


[1]

UCLES 2004

0620/03/O/N/04

10
6

Polymers are extensively used in food packaging. Poly(dichloroethene) is used because


gases can only diffuse through it very slowly. Polyesters have a high thermal stability and
food can be cooked in a polyester bag.
(a) (i) The structure of poly(dichloroethene) is given below.
H

Cl

Cl

Draw the structural formula of the monomer.

[1]
(ii) Explain why oxygen can diffuse faster through the polymer bag than carbon
dioxide can.

[2]
(b) (i) A polyester can be formed from the monomers HO-CH2CH2-OH and
HOOC-C6H4-COOH. Draw the structure of this polyester.

[2]

UCLES 2004

0620/03/O/N/04

For
Examiners
Use

11
(Ii)

Name a naturally occurring class of compounds that contains the ester linkage.

For
Examiners
Use

[1]
(iii)

Suggest what is meant by the term thermal stability.

[1]

(c) (i)

Describe two environmental problems caused by the disposal of plastic (polymer)


waste.

[2]
(ii)

The best way of disposing of plastic waste is recycling to form new plastics. What
is another advantage of recycling plastics made from petroleum?
[1]

UCLES 2004

0620/03/O/N/04

[Turn over

13
8

The alkenes are a homologous series of unsaturated hydrocarbons.


(a) The table below gives the names, formulae and boiling points of the first members of
the series.
name

formula

boiling point / oC

ethene

C2H4

-102

propene

C3H6

-48

butene

C4H8

-7

pentene

C5H10

30

For
Examiners
Use

hexene

(i) Complete the table by giving the formula of hexene and by predicting its boiling
point.
[2]
(ii) Deduce the formula of the alkene which has a relative molecular mass of 168.
Show your working.

[2]
(b) Describe a test that will distinguish between the two isomers, but-2-ene and cyclobutane.

test
result with but-2-ene
result with cyclobutane

UCLES 2004

[3]

0620/03/O/N/04

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14
(c) Alkenes undergo addition reactions.

For
Examiners
Use

(i) What class of organic compound is formed when an alkene reacts with water?
[1]
(ii) Predict the structural formula of the compound formed when hydrogen chloride
reacts with but-2-ene.

[1]

(iii) Draw the structure of the polymer formed from but-2-ene.

[2]

UCLES 2004

0620/03/O/N/04

14
34 Some students are asked to draw the structure of propanol.
Which diagram should the students draw?

H
C
H

O
C
O

35 Acetylene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon used with oxygen in a welding torch.


Which diagram shows a molecule of acetylene?
A

D
key
=C
=H
=O

UCLES 2005

0620/01/O/N/05

15
36 The table shows the composition of natural gas.
gas

% of natural gas

93.1

ethane

3.4

nitrogen

2.3

What is X?
A

ethanol

ethene

methane

propane

37 Which pair of compounds belong to the same homologous series?


A

CH3CH3 and CH3CH2CH3

CH3CH2OH and CH3OCH2CH3

CH2CHCH2CH3 and CH3CH2CH2CH3

CH3CH2OH and CH2CHCH2OH

38 The diagram shows the structure of an important product.


H

This product is formed by ..1.. of an ..2..


Which words correctly complete gaps 1 and 2?
1

addition polymerisation

alkane

addition polymerisation

alkene

cracking

alkane

cracking

alkene

UCLES 2005

0620/01/O/N/05

[Turn over

16
39 An organic compound has the structure shown.
H
H
H
H

H
H

C
C

C
C

H
H

H
H
H

From knowledge of the properties of alkanes and alkenes, which reactions would be predicted for
this compound?
burn

decolourise aqueous bromine

40 Ethanol can be formed by


1

fermentation,

reaction between steam and ethene.

Which of these processes uses a catalyst?


1

UCLES 2005

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11
5

For
Examiner's
Use

The structures of some organic compounds are shown below.

H
H

C
H

H
H

O
C
O

(a) Name compound A.


[1]

(b) Which two of the compounds A to E belong to the same homologous series?
[1]

(c) (i) Which one of the compounds A to E has the same functional group as ethanol?
[1]
(ii) Draw the structure of ethanol, showing all atoms and bonds.

[2]
(iii) Describe how ethanol is made in industry from ethene.

[2]

UCLES 2005

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12

For
Examiner's
Use

(d) (i) Which one of the compounds A to E is an unsaturated hydrocarbon?


[1]
(ii) Describe a chemical test for an unsaturated hydrocarbon.
test
result

[2]

(e) Compound E is acidic.


(i) State the name of compound E.
[1]
(ii) Describe a test to show that compound E is acidic.
test
result

UCLES 2005

[2]

0620/02/O/N/05

13
34 The diagram shows a kiln used to heat limestone.

limestone
waste gases

gas burners

air
product
What is the product and what waste gas is formed?
product

waste gas

lime

carbon monoxide

lime

carbon dioxide

slaked lime

carbon monoxide

slaked lime

carbon dioxide

35 The structures of three compounds are shown.


O
CH3

CH

CH2

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH

CH3

CH2

CH2

C
O

CH3
Y

What are X, Y and Z?


X

alkane

alkene

alcohol

alkane

alkene

carboxylic acid

alkene

alkane

alcohol

alkene

alkane

carboxylic acid

UCLES 2006

0620/01/O/N/06

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14
36 How many oxygen atoms and double bonds are there in one molecule of ethanoic acid?
number of oxygen atoms

number of double bonds

37 Compounds R and S occur naturally.


R is C6H14 and S is C6H12O6.
Which of the terms hydrocarbon and occurs in crude oil describe R and S?
hydrocarbon

occurs in crude oil

R only

R only

R only

S only

S only

R only

S only

S only

38 The diagram shows an ethane molecule.

Which compound has chemical properties similar to those of ethane?


A

H
C

UCLES 2006

H
H

C
H

C
O
H

C
O

0620/01/O/N/06

15
39 The diagram shows the first four members of a homologous series.
H
H

What is the difference in molecular formula between one member and the next in the series?
A

CH

CH2

CH3

CH4

40 The diagram shows part of a polymer.


H

Which compound is used as the monomer?


A

C2H4

C2H6

C6H12

C6H14

UCLES 2006

0620/01/O/N/06

[Turn over

12
8

The three types of food are carbohydrates, proteins and fats.

For
Examiner's
Use

(a) Aqueous starch is hydrolysed to maltose by the enzyme amylase.


The formula of maltose is:

HO

OH

Starch is hydrolysed by dilute sulphuric acid to glucose.


HO

OH

(i) What is an enzyme?


[1]
(ii) Draw the structure of starch.

[1]
(iii) Name the technique that would show that the products of these two hydrolyses are
different.
[1]

(b) Proteins have the same linkage as nylon but there is more than one monomer in the
macromolecule.
(i) Draw the structure of a protein.

[2]
(ii) What class of compound is formed by the hydrolysis of proteins?
[1]

UCLES 2006

0620/03/O/N/06

13
(c) Fats are esters. Some fats are saturated, others are unsaturated.

For
Examiner's
Use

(i) Write the word equation for the preparation of the ester, propyl ethanoate.
[2]
(ii) Deduce the structural formula of this ester showing each individual bond.

[2]
(iii) How could you distinguish between these two fats?
Fat 1 has the formula
CH2 CO2 C17H33
CH CO2 C17H33
CH2 CO2 C17H33

Fat 2 has the formula


CH2 CO2 C17H35
CH CO2 C17H35
CH2 CO2 C17H35

test
result with fat 1
result with fat 2

[3]

(iv) Both of these fats are hydrolysed by boiling with aqueous sodium hydroxide. What
type of compounds are formed?
and

UCLES 2006

0620/03/O/N/06

[2]

16
37 Which statements about all polymers are correct?
1

They are compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen.

They are large molecules made from many smaller molecules.

They occur in nature.


1

38 Properties of some organic compounds include:


1

they burn;

they dissolve in water;

they polymerise.

Which of these properties does ethanol have?


1

39 Which two molecules contain the same number of hydrogen atoms?


A

ethane and ethanoic acid

ethane and ethene

ethanoic acid and ethanol

ethanoic acid and ethene

UCLES 2007

0620/01/O/N/07

17
40 The structures of two compounds are shown.
CH3

CH

CH2

CH3

CH3

CH2

CH

CH3
P

Which line in the table is correct?


polymerises

reacts readily
with bromine

UCLES 2007

0620/01/O/N/07

CH2

8
6

The alcohols form a homologous series. The first four members are methanol, ethanol,
propan-1-ol and butan-1-ol.
(a) One characteristic of a homologous series is that the physical properties vary in a
predictable way. The table below gives the heats of combustion of the first three
alcohols.
alcohol

formula

heat of combustion in kJ / mol

methanol

CH3OH

-730

ethanol

CH3-CH2-OH

-1370

propan-1-ol

CH3-CH2-CH2-OH

-2020

butan-1-ol

CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-OH

(i) The minus sign indicates that there is less chemical energy in the products than in
the reactants. What form of energy is given out by the reaction?
[1]
(ii) Is the reaction exothermic or endothermic?
[1]
(iii) Complete the equation for the complete combustion of ethanol.
C2H5OH +

UCLES 2007

O2

0620/03/O/N/07

[2]

For
Examiner's
Use

9
(iv) Determine the heat of combustion of butan-1-ol by plotting the heats of combustion
of the first three alcohols against the number of carbon atoms per molecule.

number of carbon atoms per molecule


1

700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
heat of 1700
combustion /
kJ / mol 1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
2300
2400
2500
2600
2700
2800
The heat of combustion of butan-1-ol =
UCLES 2007

0620/03/O/N/07

kJ / mol

[3]

[Turn over

For
Examiner's
Use

10
(v) Describe two other characteristics of homologous series.

For
Examiner's
Use

[2]
(b) Give the name and structural formula of an isomer of propan-1-ol.
structural formula

name

[2]

(c) Methanol is made from carbon monoxide.


CO(g) + 2H2(g)

CH3OH(g)

the forward reaction is exothermic

(i) Describe how hydrogen is obtained from alkanes.

[2]
(ii) Suggest a method of making carbon monoxide from methane.
[2]
(iii) Which condition, high or low pressure, would give the maximum yield of methanol?
Give a reason for your choice.
pressure
reason

[2]

(d) For each of the following predict the name of the organic product.
(i) reaction between methanol and ethanoic acid
[1]
(ii) oxidation of propan-1-ol by potassium dichromate(VI)
[1]
(iii) removal of H2O from ethanol (dehydration)
[1]
[Total: 20]

UCLES 2007

0620/03/O/N/07

14
37 When added in turn to four solutions, aqueous sodium carbonate gives the following results.
Which solution is acidic?
solution

result

a blue precipitate forms

a white precipitate forms

bubbles of gas form

no visible reaction occurs

38 Which products are obtained by the cracking of an alkane?


alkene

hydrogen

water

39 A compound takes part in an addition reaction.


How does its name end?
A

..ane

..ene

..ol

..oic acid

40 When glucose is fermented, ethanol is formed together with


A

carbon dioxide.

ethene.

methane.

oxygen.

UCLES 2008

0620/01/O/N/08

5
4

Across the world, food safety agencies are investigating the presence of minute traces of
the toxic hydrocarbon, benzene, in soft drinks. It is formed by the reduction of sodium
benzoate by vitamin C.

For
Examiner's
Use

INGREDIENTS
Orange juice,
sodium benzoate,
vitamin C

(a) Sodium benzoate is a salt, it has the formula C6H5COONa. It can be made by the
neutralisation of benzoic acid by sodium hydroxide.
(i) Deduce the formula of benzoic acid.
[1]
(ii) Write a word equation for the reaction between benzoic acid and sodium hydroxide.
[1]
(iii) Name two other compounds that would react with benzoic acid to form
sodium benzoate.
[2]
(b) Benzene contains 92.3% of carbon and its relative molecular mass is 78.
(i) What is the percentage of hydrogen in benzene?
[1]
(ii) Calculate the ratio of moles of C atoms: moles of H atoms in benzene.

[2]
(iii) Calculate its empirical formula and then its molecular formula.
The empirical formula of benzene is
The molecular formula of benzene is

UCLES 2008

0620/31/O/N/08

[2]

[Turn over

6
(c) The structural formula of Vitamin C is drawn below.
O
O

C
C

HO

For
Examiner's
Use

OH

OH H
OH

(i) What is its molecular formula?


[1]
(ii) Name the two functional groups which are circled.
[2]
[Total: 12]

UCLES 2008

0620/31/O/N/08

10
7

The alkanes are generally unreactive. Their reactions include combustion, substitution and
cracking.
(a) The complete combustion of an alkane gives carbon dioxide and water.
(i) 10 cm3 of butane is mixed with 100 cm3 of oxygen, which is an excess. The mixture
is ignited. What is the volume of unreacted oxygen left and what is the volume of
carbon dioxide formed?
C4H10(g) + 6 21 O2(g)

4CO2(g) + 5H2O(l)

Volume of oxygen left =

cm3

Volume of carbon dioxide formed =

cm3

[2]

(ii) Why is the incomplete combustion of any alkane dangerous, particularly in an


enclosed space?

[2]
(b) The equation for a substitution reaction of butane is given below.
CH3CH2CH2CH3 + Cl2

CH3CH2CH2CH2 Cl + HCl

(i) Name the organic product.


[1]
(ii) This reaction does not need increased temperature or pressure.
What is the essential reaction condition?
[1]
(iii) Write a different equation for a substitution reaction between butane and chlorine.
[1]

UCLES 2008

0620/31/O/N/08

For
Examiner's
Use

11
(c) Alkenes are more reactive and industrially more useful than alkanes.
They are made by cracking alkanes.
C7H16
heptane

For
Examiner's
Use

CH3CH=CH2 + CH3CH2CH=CH2 + H2
propene
but1ene

(i) Draw the structural formula of the polymer poly(propene).

[2]
(ii) Give the structural formula and name of the alcohol formed when but-1-ene reacts
with steam.
name

[1]

structural formula

[1]
(iii) Deduce the structural formula of the product formed when propene reacts with
hydrogen chloride.

[1]
[Total: 12]

UCLES 2008

0620/31/O/N/08

14
37 The apparatus shows an experiment used to test gas X.
gas X

orange bromine
solution

The bromine solution quickly becomes colourless.


What is the structure of gas X?
A

H
H

C
H

H
H

C
H

H
H

38 Which statement about petroleum is not correct?


A

It can be separated into useful substances by fractional distillation.

It consists mainly of hydrocarbons.

It is found underground in many parts of the world.

Its main use is for making lubricants and polishes.

39 Butene and hexene belong to the same homologous series.


What is the same for butene and hexene?
A

boiling point

functional group

number of hydrogen atoms per molecule

relative molecular mass

UCLES 2009

0620/01/O/N/09

15
40 The table shows the formulae of members of the alkane series.
name of compound

formula

methane

CH4

ethane

C2H6

propane

butane

C4H10

pentane

C5H12

What is the formula of propane?


A

C2H8

UCLES 2009

C3H7

C3H8

0620/01/O/N/09

C3H9

8
5

The first three elements in Group IV are carbon, silicon and germanium.
The elements and their compounds have similar properties.

For
Examiner's
Use

(a) The compound, silicon carbide, has a macromolecular structure similar to that of
diamond.
(i) A major use of silicon carbide is to reinforce aluminium alloys which are used in
the construction of spacecraft. Suggest three of its physical properties.

[3]
(ii) Complete the following description of the structure of silicon carbide.
Each carbon atom is bonded to four
Each silicon atom is bonded to

atoms.
carbon atoms.

[2]

(b) Germanium(IV) oxide, GeO2, has the same macromolecular structure as silicon(IV)
oxide. Draw the structural formula of germanium(IV) oxide.

[3]

UCLES 2009

0620/31/O/N/09

9
(c) Germanium forms a series of hydrides comparable to the alkanes.
(i) Draw the structural formula of the hydride which contains four germanium atoms
per molecule.

For
Examiner's
Use

[1]
(ii) Predict the products of the complete combustion of this hydride.
[2]

[Total: 11]

UCLES 2009

0620/31/O/N/09

[Turn over

11
(b) Sulfuric acid was first made in the Middle East by heating the mineral, green vitriol,
FeSO4.7H2O. The gases formed were cooled.
FeSO4.7H2O(s)
green crystals

2FeSO4(s)

FeSO4(s)
+
yellow powder

For
Examiner's
Use

7H2O(g)

Fe2O3(s) + SO2(g) + SO3(g)

On cooling
SO3 + H2O H2SO4 sulfuric acid
SO2 + H2O H2SO3 sulfurous acid
(i) How could you show that the first reaction is reversible?

[2]
(ii) Sulfurous acid is a reductant. What would you see when acidified potassium
manganate(VII) is added to a solution containing this acid?

[2]
(iii) Suggest an explanation why sulfurous acid in contact with air changes into sulfuric
acid.
[1]
(c) 9.12 g of anhydrous iron(II) sulfate was heated. Calculate the mass of iron(III) oxide
formed and the volume of sulfur trioxide, at r.t.p., formed.
2FeSO4(s) Fe2O3(s) + SO2(g) + SO3(g)
mass of one mole of FeSO4 = 152 g
number of moles of FeSO4 used
number
formed

of

moles

of

Fe2O3
=

mass of one mole of Fe2O3

mass of iron(III) oxide formed

number of moles of SO3 formed

volume of sulfur trioxide formed

dm3
[6]
[Total: 16]

UCLES 2009

0620/31/O/N/09

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12
7

Butan-1-ol is used as a solvent for paints and varnishes, to make esters and as a fuel.
Butan-1-ol can be manufactured from but-1-ene, which is made from petroleum.

For
Examiner's
Use

Biobutanol is a fuel of the future. It can be made by the fermentation of almost any form of
biomass - grain, straw, leaves etc.
(a) But-1-ene can be obtained from alkanes such as decane, C10H22, by cracking.
(i) Give the reaction conditions.

[2]
(ii) Complete an equation for the cracking of decane, C10H22, to give but-1-ene.
C10H22

[2]

(iii) Name the reagent that reacts with but-1-ene to form butan-1-ol.
[1]

(b) (i) Balance the equation for the complete combustion of butan-1-ol.
C4H9OH +

O2

CO2 +

H2O

[2]

(ii) Write a word equation for the preparation of the ester butyl methanoate.
[2]

UCLES 2009

0620/31/O/N/09

15
37 The diagram shows the structure of a compound.

To which classes of compound does this molecule belong?


alkane

alkene

alcohol

no

no

no

no

yes

yes

yes

no

yes

yes

yes

yes

38 Which structures show compounds that are members of the same homologous series?
1

1 and 2

4
H

1 and 4

2 and 3

3 and 4

39 Ethene reacts with Y to produce ethanol.


ethene + Y ethanol
What is Y?
A

hydrogen

oxygen

steam

yeast

UCLES 2010

0620/11/O/N/10

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16
40 In an oil refinery, crude oil is separated into useful fractions.
The diagram shows some of these fractions.
refinery gases
gasolene
X
pre-heat

diesel

400 C

Y
Z

What are fractions X, Y and Z?


X

fuel oil

bitumen

paraffin (kerosene)

fuel oil

paraffin (kerosene)

bitumen

paraffin (kerosene)

bitumen

fuel oil

paraffin (kerosene)

fuel oil

bitumen

UCLES 2010

0620/11/O/N/10

8
5

For
Examiners
Use

Monomers polymerise to form polymers or macromolecules.


(a) (i)

Explain the term polymerise.


....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(ii)

There are two types of polymerisation - addition and condensation. What is the
difference between them?
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) An important monomer is chloroethene which has the structural formula shown below.
H

H
C

C
Cl

H
It is made by the following method.

C2H4 + Cl 2 C2H4 Cl 2 dichloroethane


This is heated to make chloroethene.
C2H4Cl 2 C2H3Cl + HCl
(i)

Ethene is made by cracking alkanes. Complete the equation for cracking


dodecane.
C12H26 .................... + 2C2H4
[1]
Another method of making dichloroethane is from ethane.
C2H6 + 2Cl 2 C2H4Cl 2 + 2HCl

(ii)

Suggest a reason why the method using ethene is preferred.


....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [1]

(iii)

Describe an industrial method of making chlorine.


....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]

UCLES 2010

0620/31/O/N/10

9
(iv)

For
Examiners
Use

Draw the structural formula of poly(chloroethene).


Include three monomer units.

[2]
[Total: 9]

UCLES 2010

0620/31/O/N/10

[Turn over

9
6

For
Examiners
Use

The alcohols form an homologous series.


(a) Give three characteristics of an homologous series.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [3]

(b) The following two alcohols are members of the series and they are isomers.
CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 OH

and

(CH3)2CH CH2OH

(i) Explain why they are isomers.


....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
(ii) Give the structural formula of another alcohol which is also an isomer of these
alcohols.

[1]

UCLES 2010

0620/32/O/N/10

[Turn over

10
For
Examiners
Use

(c) Copper(II) oxide can oxidise butan-1-ol to liquid X whose pH is 4.


mineral wool
soaked in butan-1-ol

copper(II) oxide

heat
liquid X
formed by
oxidation of
butan-1-ol.

(i) Name another reagent which can oxidise butan-1-ol.


.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(ii) What type of compound is liquid X and what is its formula?
type of compound ............................................................................................... [1]
formula of liquid X

[1]

UCLES 2010

0620/32/O/N/10

13
34 Which combination of chemical compounds could be used to produce the fertiliser shown?

N P K
21 : 16 : 8

SUPERGROW

NH4NO3, Ca3(PO4)2

NH4NO3, CO(NH2)2

NH4NO3, K2SO4, (NH4)2SO4

(NH4)3PO4, KCl

35 Which pollutant gas is produced by the decomposition of vegetation?


A

carbon monoxide

methane

nitrogen oxide

sulfur dioxide

36 The diagram represents the molecule of an organic compound.


key
= carbon
= oxygen
= hydrogen

What is the name of the compound?


A

ethane

ethanoic acid

ethanol

ethene

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14
37 Petroleum is a very important raw material that is separated into more useful products.
Which terms describe petroleum and the method used to separate it?
petroleum is a

method used to
separate petroleum

compound

cracking

compound

fractional distillation

mixture

cracking

mixture

fractional distillation

38 Which pair of compounds are members of the same homologous series?


A

H
C

UCLES 2011

C
H

C
H

C
H

D
H

H
n

0620/11/O/N/11

H
OH

C
H

O
C
OH

15
39 The table shows the composition of four different types of petroleum (crude oil).
fraction

Arabian Heavy
/%

Arabian Light
/%

Iranian Heavy
/%

North Sea
/%

gasoline

18

21

21

23

kerosene

11.5

13

13

15

diesel

18

20

20

24

fuel oil

52.5

46

46

38

Which type of petroleum is best for the motor vehicle industry?


A

Arabian Heavy

Arabian Light

Iranian Heavy

North Sea

40 When glucose is fermented, ethanol is formed together with


A

carbon dioxide.

ethene.

methane.

oxygen.

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12
6

For
Examiners
Use

Structural formulae are an essential part of Organic Chemistry.


(a) Draw the structural formula of each of the following. Show all the bonds in the structure.
(i) ethanoic acid

[1]
(ii) ethanol

[1]
(b) (i) Ethanoic acid and ethanol react to form an ester.
What is the name of this ester?
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(ii) The same linkage is found in polyesters. Draw the structure of the polyester which
can be formed from the monomers shown below.
HOOC C6H4 COOH and HO CH2 CH2 OH

[3]
(iii) Describe the pollution problems caused by non-biodegradable polymers.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]

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13
For
Examiners
Use

(c) Two macromolecules have the same amide linkage.


Nylon, a synthetic polymer, has the following structure.
O

O
N

Protein, a natural macromolecule, has the following structure.


N

How are they different?


...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [2]
[Total: 10]

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6
5

The alcohols form a homologous series. Two characteristics of a homologous series are
that the physical properties of the members vary in a predictable way and they have similar
chemical properties.
(a) Complete the table.

name

mass of one
mole / g

formula

boiling point
/ C

methanol

CH3 OH

32

64

ethanol

CH3 CH2 OH

46

78

propan-1-ol

CH3 CH2 CH2 OH

60

98

butan-1-ol

CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 OH

74

118

pentan-1-ol
hexan-1-ol

138
CH3 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 CH2 OH

102
[3]

(b) Give two other characteristics of a homologous series.


...........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [2]
(c) Draw a diagram showing the arrangement of the valency electrons in one molecule of
the covalent compound methanol.
Use x to represent an electron from a carbon atom.
Use o to represent an electron from an oxygen atom.
Use to represent an electron from a hydrogen atom.

[3]

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For
Examiners
Use

7
(d) Alcohols can be oxidised to carboxylic acids by heating with acidic potassium
manganate(VII).

For
Examiners
Use

(i) Draw the structural formula of the carboxylic acid formed by the oxidation of
propan-1-ol. Show all the bonds.

[1]
(ii) Describe how ethanol could be oxidised to ethanoic acid by fermentation.
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
(e) Propan-1-ol and ethanoic acid react together to form an ester. Give its name and structural
formula.
name ........................................................................................................................... [1]
formula

[1]
[Total: 13]

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10
7

Petrol is a mixture of hydrocarbons and additives. The combustion of petrol in car engines is
a major source of air pollution. This is reduced by catalytic converters.
(a) Petrol is obtained from the gasoline fraction, boiling point range 40 C to 100 C, from the
distillation of petroleum. Explain the term fraction.
...........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [2]
(b) In many countries, a lead compound of the type Pb(C2H5)n used to be added to petrol to
improve its combustion. After combustion, lead oxide was formed.

LEADED
98 OCTANE

(i) Octane is a constituent of petrol. Write the equation for the complete combustion of
octane.
C8H18 + ...............O2 ............... + ...............

[2]

(ii) Dibromoethane was added to petrol to remove the lead oxide from inside the engine.
Lead bromide was formed which escaped into the environment through the exhaust.
Leaded petrol cannot be used with a catalytic converter. Give another reason why
leaded petrol is no longer used.
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(iii) What does each of the following tell you about the structure of dibromoethane?
dibromo ......................................................................................................................
eth ..............................................................................................................................
ane ....................................................................................................................... [2]
(iv) What additional information is needed to draw the structural formula of
dibromoethane?
.............................................................................................................................. [1]

UCLES 2011

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For
Examiners
Use

11
(c) An analysis of the compound, Pb(C2H5)n , showed that 0.026 moles of Pb was combined
with 0.104 moles of C2H5 groups.
What is the value of n? Show how you arrived at your answer.
...........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [2]
(d) Some of the pollutants emitted by vehicle exhausts are carbon monoxide, oxides of
nitrogen and unburnt hydrocarbons. Explain how the emission of these gases is reduced
by a catalytic converter.
...........................................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [3]
[Total: 13]

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For
Examiners
Use

13
34 A student is asked to draw a diagram showing the uses of limestone.
making
cement

making lime
1

2
limestone
3

added, with hematite,


to a blast furnace

Which numbered lines show a correct use of limestone?


A

1 and 2 only

1 and 3 only

2 and 3 only

1, 2 and 3

35 Which structure is correctly named?


A

ethanoic acid

ethene

H
O

ethanol

propane

36 Which properties of the different compounds in petroleum enable its separation into fractions?

boiling point

chain length

chemical reactivity

solubility in water

1 and 2

1 and 3

2 and 4

3 and 4

C3H6

C6H6

37 Alkenes have the general formula CnH2n.


Which of the following is an alkene?
A

CH2

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CH4

0620/11/O/N/12

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14
38 Bitumen is a substance obtained from the fractional distillation of petroleum.
Which row describes its boiling point and the size of its molecules?
boiling point

size of molecules

high

large

high

small

low

large

low

small

39 A hydrocarbon X is cracked to make Y and hydrogen.


Compound Z is formed by the addition polymerisation of Y.
To which homologous series do X, Y and Z belong?
alkane

alkene

X, Y and Z

X and Y

X and Z

Y and Z

40 Which row is correct for ethanol?


burns

made by
fermentation

UCLES 2012

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6
4

Silicon(IV) oxide, SiO2, and zirconium(IV) oxide, ZrO2, are both macromolecules.
They have similar physical properties but silicon(IV) oxide is acidic and zirconium(IV) oxide
is amphoteric.
(a) Define the term macromolecule.
...........................................................................................................................................
..................................................................................................................................... [1]
(b) (i) Predict three physical properties of these two oxides.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [3]
(ii) Name an element which has the same physical properties as these two oxides.
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(c) (i) Name a reagent that reacts with the oxides of both elements.
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(ii) Name a reagent that reacts with only one of the oxides.
reagent ......................................................................................................................
oxide which reacts ............................................................................................... [2]
[Total: 8]

UCLES 2012

0620/31/O/N/12

For
Examiners
Use

4
3

Many organic compounds which contain a halogen have chloro, bromo or iodo in their name.
(a) The following diagram shows the structure of 1-chloropropane.

Cl

(i) Draw the structure of an isomer of this compound.

[1]
(ii) Describe how 1-chloropropane could be made from propane.
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
(iii) Suggest an explanation why the method you have described in (ii) does not produce
a pure sample of 1-chloropropane.
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]

(b) Organic halides react with water to form an alcohol and a halide ion.
CH3CH2I + H2O CH3CH2OH + I
(i) Describe how you could show that the reaction mixture contained an iodide ion.
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
(ii) Name the alcohol formed when 1-chloropropane reacts with water.
.............................................................................................................................. [1]

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For
Examiners
Use

5
(c) The speed (rate) of reaction between an organic halide and water can be measured by
the following method.

For
Examiners
Use

A mixture of 10 cm3 of aqueous silver nitrate and 10 cm3 of ethanol is warmed to 60 C.


Drops of the organic halide are added and the time taken for a precipitate to form is
measured.
Silver ions react with the halide ions to form a precipitate of the silver halide.
Ag+(aq) + X(aq) AgX(s)
Typical results for four experiments, A, B, C and D, are given in the table.
experiment

organic halide

number of drops

time / min

bromobutane

bromobutane

chlorobutane

80

iodobutane

0.1

(i) Explain why it takes longer to produce a precipitate in experiment A than in B.


....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
(ii) How does the order of reactivity of the organic halides compare with the order of
reactivity of the halogens?
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
(iii) Explain why the time taken to produce a precipitate would increase if the experiments
were repeated at 50 C.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [3]
[Total: 15]

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11
7

The alcohols form a homologous series. The first member of this series is methanol, CH3OH.

For
Examiners
Use

(a) (i) Give the general formula of the alcohols.


.............................................................................................................................. [1]
(ii) The mass of one mole of an alcohol is 116 g. What is its formula?
Show your reasoning.
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]
(iii) Draw a diagram showing the arrangement of the outer (valency) electrons in one
molecule of methanol.
Use x to represent an electron from a carbon atom.
Use o to represent an electron from a hydrogen atom.
Use to represent an electron from an oxygen atom.

[3]

(b) Methanol is manufactured using the following method.


CH4(g) + H2O(g) CO(g) + 3H2(g)
CO(g) + 2H2(g)

CH3OH(g)

reaction 1
reaction 2

The conditions for reaction 2 are:


pressure
catalyst
temperature

100 atmospheres
a mixture of copper, zinc oxide and aluminium oxide
250 C

The forward reaction is exothermic.


(i) Why is high pressure used in reaction 2?
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [2]

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12
(ii) Explain why using a catalyst at 250 C is preferred to using a higher temperature of
350 C and no catalyst.
....................................................................................................................................
....................................................................................................................................
.............................................................................................................................. [3]

(c) Methanol is oxidised by atmospheric oxygen. This reaction is catalysed by platinum.


(i) The products of this reaction include a carboxylic acid. Give its name and structural
formula.
name .......................................................
structural formula showing all bonds

[2]
(ii) Deduce the name of the ester formed by the reaction of methanol with the carboxylic
acid named in (i).
.............................................................................................................................. [1]
[Total: 14]

UCLES 2012

0620/32/O/N/12

For
Examiners
Use