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ELEMENTARY
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MUSICAL COMPOSITION
EDMONDSTOUNE DUNCAN

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Presented by: Dr. Frank

W. Asper

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Digitized by the Internet Archive


in

2012 with funding from

Brigham Young University-Idaho

http://archive.org/details/elemusicompOOduncan

ELEMENTARY
Musical Composition
IN

TEN LESSONS
BY

EDMONDSTOUNE DUNCAN
Author of "The Life of Schubert," "The Story of English Minstrf.lsv," "History of Music," "Melodies and how to Harmonize them," "The Story of the Carol," etc.

PRICE ONE SHILLING AND SIXPENCE.

G.

SCHIRMER,

LONDON
18,

NEW YORK
3,

BERNERS STREET, W.

EAST 43rd STREET.-

BOSTON: THE BOSTON MUSIC CO.


[Printed in England.]

CONTENTS.

Lesson
I.

Pack

Rhythm
Cadence

as a starting-point
in

II.

Speech translated into Song

6
9
16

III.

Early Harmony
Instrumental Beginnings

IV.

V.

Vocal Melody

20 25 29

VI.

Instrumental Patterns

VII.
VIII.
IX.

Accompaniment
Counterpoint.

An old

subject

new taught

36

Counterpoint Continued
Free Counterpoint

43 48

X.

PREFATORY NOTE.

MUSICAL COMPOSITION
^'i

is

usually

so

laxly

taught,

that a systematised group of Lessons,

which have stood

the test of experience, cannot but be


^\^a
iiBFy /^j'

welcome

to

many

students

who

are

beyond the reach of a


all

skilled master.

The
mastery.

plan of the work embraces


if

* the chief essentials

which a composer must vigorously attack


Far from

he intends to attain to
necessity
It

doing away with the


his

for

teacher,

the

book should prove


of

valuable
to

ally.

will

enable him,
the
instinct

by
of

a graduated series

lessons,

develop

directly

Invention, which

is

the motive force of Musical Composition.

The

text offers a
;

wide scope, which must appeal to a large number


lies

of students

but

it

with the teacher,


its

or,

failing

one,

with the

student himself, to apply


lines,

lessons to suit individual cases.


others

Guiding
suggested
If

essential

to

some,

to

merely irksome, are


this

throughout these pages, always with


the steps seem laboured,
difficulty
let
it

view in mind.

some of

be remembered that the great practical


to consider,
is

which a teacher has


easily

the fact that even clever

students

become disheartened
approached.

unless

many formidable
mind

techni-

calities zx% carefully

The

writer has in

a pupil

who
his

set out with enthusiasm, describing


life."

Composition as "the dream of

After a

stiff

course of lessons, founded upon some of the severe

methods of
dream.

study, the pupil was so discouraged that he gave


set

up

his

This

me
I

to
is

work

to reconsider all

my

methods.

The

present series of Lessons

the result.
say,

To
ations

the Master,

would

watch

vigilantly the earliest manifest-

of inventive faculty in a pupil.

Supplement,

check, or

even

diverge from the detailed system


*

here set

down

as

individual cases

My

scheme

in its entirety

comprises 100 Lessons.

Here are contained the

first ten.

IV

PREFATORY NOTE.
require.

may
will

too long protracted use of any system, especially that


its

of the Variation form, difficult and searching in

initial

application,

only tend to produce despondency.

Turn then
Songs,

to

the

lighter

studies,

such

as

the

composition of
all

even

Nursery

songs,
all,

Part-songs,

Dance
Pupil
to

pieces,

of which here find a place.

Above

keep the inventive

faculty,

once awakened, unceasingly employed.


Despair.

To
it

the
yield

Never

The

task

is

formidable,

but
of

will

industry.

The

ability to express

what

is

in

us,

thought, feeling, and descriptive power, comes very slowly to many.


It

must be strenuously cultivated before


gift
;

free

utterance
it

is

possible.

Everyone has some


put
it

of Music.

Some

hide

in a napkin, others
it

to

high usury
to

the humblest of us
Carefully

may make
its

a source
is

of
of

lasting

gain

himself.

cultivated,

harvest

priceless quality.

The
reach
;

sources of Inspiration

are

happily beyond

an investigator's

The soul that rises with us, our Hath had elsewhere its setting

life's

star

And cometh from But


if

afar.

the imperial

palace

itself

is

invisible

to

human
steps.

eye,

we

need not blindly grope with


it

fruitless,

unordered

Therefore

is

that a sensible consideration of


to

Method, from
field

the very beginning,

and onwards

maturity,

should

be exceedingly helpful to those


of Composition.

who

are

drawn towards the imaginative

EDMONDSTOUNE DUNCAN.
Sale, Cheshire.
July, igij.

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSmON.

LESSON

I.

LESSON IN COMPOSITION.

HE

fabric

of

Music

rests

upon a

threefold

foundation

of

Rhythm, Cadence, and Harmony.


a starting-point
for

Each of these

gives

our subject.

Rhythm determines
or

the
per-

Time,
meates
all

its

pulsation, gravity, restraint


is

impetus.

It

activity

and

a part of

life

itself.

It

would seem that the


law, synchronizing
call

human
it

heart throbbed in obedience to

some rhythmic

with health, hope and happiness.


;

This same thing we


in the

Rhythm
sea, in

reveals itself in inanimate things

ebb and flow of the


sway

a bubbling fount of sparkling water.

Forest-trees dimly
forth.
It
is

to

some

rugged
verse.

rhythm which the wind

calls
it

seen in the poet's


great

little

child
it.

moulds

to

his

wish.

The

orator

is

helpless without
Its

Musical

definition

has

become

of great

significance.

It

is

therefore of the utmost

importance

at the outset

that

our

sense

of

rhythm be gradually developed into a


In

clear

and conscious possession.


will

many young people


of,

it

grows quite spontaneously, and they

name
in,

the time-signature

or appreciate

and describe any


then

characteristic

music heard
unfamiliar

for the first time, just as easily as they will scan verses of

poetry.

Our

first

step

is

to

test
is

the

Student's
well-

appreciation

of

Time and

Rhythm.

Where

this

already
in

developed we must go
Musical Dictation.

further,

and make our lesson one


airs,

actual

group of well-contrasted

drawn from any

good national

collection, will serve our purpose.

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION

^^^
Au
I

French Romance.

SEEEE?Ez
som bre
-

=:fEi
dans Ten-cein-te
d'un bois
e

fond d' une

val

le

e,

V
r

^ -G^
-

S3:^=t =P=^
-F
-

:p
e

,.

:i?-t;i::iJ^r=:t?=d
-

,&E
Tin
-

pais,

Une hum-ble chau


I

miere

so

le

each

oit

no

p^^
cence
et
la

-^
paix.

-M

^fciS ^
vi
-

?-2:

La

voit

c'est

en

An

gle

V
f^-=N:

V
-^

ter

re,

un

me

^^m^M
le

re

dont

de

sir.

toit

de
I

lais

-9

m
la

ar

iE
-

-r=F=
ser

sa
fil
-

EEt
le

^1
et

sur

ter

se

heu-reuse,

puis

mou

rir.

An English

Air.

^^^ m

iizzti*:
The
Spring

^^=^=1 P^^JE^EEE^
is

'-'i=-V-

^^
ban
-

com- ing

re

solv'd

to

ish

The

i s$^
fai

king

of

the

ice

with

^
his

iE^
bu
-

tur

lent

train.

With

her

->i3=t2 t^=^
-

p=
ry

^^^^^^^^
bids

wand she
I

them van-

ish,

And welcomes

the sun-shine to

-^iS=P^
earth a
-

ST
gain.

=3=t3
-

-p:
win
-

-m

^
kir
-

Then maid

ens fore

go

the

try

tie,

Lace

ev-'ry

bod- ice with bright green string,

And

twine each

lat-tice

with

LESSON

I.

COMPOSITION.

:ts=qs;

:E
wreath
of

S J^^J ^
hon-our the
ad- vent

J
ful

J
Spring.

myr-tle

To

of

joy

Old
I

Air.
1

\m M_4
ri

n y

*
fr

'

*^

m ^

m
-

m ^
the

m
1 1

UJ-^ __

A m

m * P

J ^
ov
-

*
er

'

V ^
waves

Ov

er

moun-tains

And

the
I

*
Un
-

-^
der
the

i
foun- tains

-Gt-

s
Un-der

And

un

der

the

graves;

^^
floods...

-^

d
-

^^
est,

IV
ez:

V=^
bey
;

that are

deep

Which

Nep-lune

Ov
I

er

? ^
rocks that
airs

rx
steep

are

est

Love

5
find

-&out
the

will

way.

The

may be sung

or played, while the student decides both the

time and the rhythm.


dictation exercises,

Finally, let such (or similar airs)

be treated as ends of each


correct
is

should be marked.
line of

and committed to paper. The As these occur systematically


only remains

closes (or cadences)


at the

poetry,
is

it

for the teacher to see that a

definition
in the

given.

simple method of marking such closes


;

seen

where I, V and IV respectively refer to full close, half close, and close on the subdominant. A complete definition of rhythm must include time. A conductor's baton marks the primary pulsations, while the numerous subdivisions, sounded (say) by trumpets, violins, or even drums, are merely a part of the whole
examples above given

scheme

an

extension of the

common

idea.

To

state the

same thing

rhythm describes not only the regular units in all barred Music, but also the characteristic pulsations, or group of pulsations, which do not necessarily recur, and often are even antagonistic to the
differently,

regular

time.
will

To

render

the

point quite clear,

common March
is,

movement

show the two classes of rhythm * at one, that

they

coincide in equal notes.


*

Our example, which may be treated

in the

The word Time, however, satisfactorily distinguishes the regular pulsations, which Riemann describes as Metre, a term more appropriate to Prosody.

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION


same manner
for the

as those
in

which preceded

it,

offers a

Troubadour melody,

most part

equal notes.

S
^=^

-^

^
Such rhythmic movements

-us-

-Gh

fl

as the last given tend to

monotony, and

they are therefore often brought into contrast by periodic disturbance of Our next example shows a complete the ordinary pulsations. departure from the natural rhythm, in the upper part.

^ I
It

^^^ F^^ "r^r^


SS
that
in
all

^
r

^^ 3t=it
?^
is

may be observed

such cases the primary time


suggested.

invariably finally established.

few further airs are added for analysis


already

and

dictation of the simple

sort

These may of

course be supplemented or curtailed at the discretion of a master. In the course of


this

lesson, the student will prove

how

far

he

is

equipped
music.

in the
It

elementary knowledge pertaining to the writing


necessary for

down

of

may be now
at

harmony, or

case, the early

up a course of least the study of harmonization of melodies. In any ground covered by this book may be proceeded with,
to

him

take

parallel with such studies.

The Stag Chase.


I

:<2

3
-

am

jol

ly

hunts

man,

My

voice

is

shrill

and

P
I

If^l :2
clear,

-o-

Well known

to

drive the

stag,

And

the

droop-ing dogs to

m
cheer,

T^-

An

"

hunt

ing

we

will

go,

will

go,

will

I,

*:
go.

i
And
a

^-hunt
-

122:

-<s>-

z:^:

I
go.

ing

:e

will

LESSON

I.

COMPOSITION.
"Good Morrow."

^u

l^E^di

Sg^
Good
mor
-

-P=F^
row,
'tis

f=
Val
en- tine's day,

}=
-

Saint

All

m^ m
w^^^^
|-*t
in

-/

S^ ^^^i ^=E =3^s


morn
1

the

ing

piime,

And

I,

maid

at

r-

=^^=^
your

m=W=W
To
be

1=^^
-

i
-

win

dow,

your

Val

en

tine.

"In youth when

did love."

^^^ ^
In

"I

when

^
I

P
love,

:p=3C
-

youth,

i^
:^

sweet,

As

time

^^
did
re-quires for

Me

thought 'twas ve

ry

t
my
be
-

-<&-

P
be

hoof,

for

my

-=^ ^1 1
Methinks
it

^rrFTf=r^
me -thinks
it

hoof,

is

not meet, me-thinks,

is

not mert.

"Why

ask you?"
1

i F^=^
Spring

fe
be
-

2^:

#
bright
flow'rs,

guil

elh

and

of

fers

^ ?^E
Na
-

^!

V i
love

:*=i
be ours

tare smiles

and care

be-guiles, If

Why

ask

you

Paul's

Wharf.
1

iprfzifc

n ^ ]/ Vl s ^
'

<

-j^

fa)

^> 4

^
1 1

m
'

r
1

^
J
the
1

boat
off.

-'

n ^

IS

r n
1

m
'

G>
-*

Gai
H

ly

step

to

at Paul's wharf,

O
G^-

f-

f^-t-

--f=^
haste now, comrades, dip
r

EQ
*-

oars and push


;

Soft tides are

flow -ing,
1

'

~^^^^^^f^f
Slow 'gainst our row-ing, So
cross o'er the

wa

ter

with song and with laugh.

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.

LESSON

II.

CADENCE
HE

IN

SPEECH TRANSLATED INTO SONG.


way to musical composition seems to be by simply Speech into Song. Such an artificial plan as the

nearest

translating
following,

this

though not put forward as the original or inevitable process of Composition, will nevertheless commend itself for it immediately provokes the student's obvious reason inventive
;

power and gives him

definite lines

on which
that

to proceed.

Take a simple song, such as Graded Song Book (Vincent), and


music
In the
for the
first

given

on page
set

of Sawyer's

carefully scan the verses, ignoring the


result

time being.

The

should be

down on

paper.

exercises of this kind

mark

the quantities over the words,

then give an equivalent in musical notation.

Thus

Blow thy horn, hunter,

1:2:

^
:z2_

'J

__
;

Come, blow thy horn on high

In yonder

wood

there lieth a doe,

In faith she will not die.

Z2:

Come, blow thy horn, hunter,

22:

:=]

Come, blow thy horn,

jolly hunter.

mark the natural rise and fall of the voice, in Most verses are sufficiently picturesque to delivering such words. admit of such a process and while avoiding exaggeration or absurdity, Having constructed a really effective scheme may be contrived.

The

next step

is

to

a definite rhythmic scheme, place the

bar-lines

before

the strongest

accents,

and measure the music


then to

into

regular

lengths.
in

This

is

easily

done since poetry determines such measurements


plan
is

advance.

Our

move

the musical notes in accordance with the vocal

L?:SSON II. CADENCE IN

SPEECH TRANSLATED INTO SONG.


falling
lines.

cadence, indicated by the rising and


following result
:

We

then get the

i ^^iv-r w

^21

i
bun
-

Blow

thy

horn,

ter,

Come, blow

thy

horn

on

m
V
Put

-G>-

i
In

bigh;

yon

der

wood

there

lietb

doe,

In

5
faith

-S^-r
not
die.

she

will

Come,

blow

thy

born,

f=r
ter,

^
Come,
test,

^
ter.

blow
the

thy

horn,

jol

ly

bun

to

second
its

identical

process yields the following,

which, crude and

commonplace
origin in

as

it

may appear

beside an inspired

air,

has nevertheless

an

intelligent appreciation of the verses


p. 152).

which

it

reproduces.

(Sawyer's Song Book,

S N

When

SN

N S

that I

was a

little

tiny boy.

\J

SJ

^
!

^
ho
!

With a heigh

the wind

W and the

rain,

-i

A foolish

thing was but a toy,

3fe=Jzz^zJ=,UJr=^

For the

rain

it

raineth every day.

With a heigh
!

\j

'^

SSI

S S

ho

the wind and the rain,

For the

rain

it

raineth every day.

z^^J=J^J=,W=^=i
A
more
rational

Tlie conventional accentuation has been purposely taken.


this
:

one would be

When

that I

was a

little

tiny boy.

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION

zzit

^^
ti
-

-N-

?2_

-&
With a heigh
!

When that

3^
ho
!

was

ht

tie

ny

boy.

the

I
-^

^=1:
wind

>^

and the

m
1

g^j^^
A
fool
-

7*=^
but

i=qsi

m
N"
1

rain,

ish

thing

was

toy,

For the

'

frr^

m
1

J
rain,

^ r-J

'

-J--ihry

^-^ \ ^
IN
\

iday,

d'-r-*
"1
-

With a

wind and the


It will

For the

rain

it

rain

eth

ev

'ry

day.

Thus
from

in

usually be found that small developments suggest themselves. both our examples 4-4 time is a refinement of the simple
it is
I

duple upon which

based.
i

Then

the opening of

No

was changed

rn

to

because of

its

more

notes to the words " but a toy " gain considerably in their contracted

form

-^^

-<s-

in

place of
out.

^
is

effective

rhythm, and the

dozen such

experiments
nice
to

may be

usefully carried
if
its

The Metric
only the

chart may, of

course, be soon dispensed with,

the ear of the student be sufficiently


aid.
It

discriminate

without
All

principle

that

matters.

Let the relative importance of the words chosen find a just


music.
striking

words and phrases must be new word, however, does not It will often be found effective to let of necessity imply a new note. The Rhythm must be unimportant words share the same sound. Where students find difficulty in directly derived from the words. defining this in their experimental efforts they may finally be referred In any case to the musical settings in the Sojig Book employed. comparison with music which may be assumed to be of spontaneous growth, and which certainly is not the product of any artificial system, cannot fail of being both interesting and instructive. Words suitable for a continuation of the Lesson
equivalent in the
carefully reproduced in the melody.

SAW^VER^S
To
all

GRADED SCHOOL-SONG BOOK.


Page.

you

ladies

4 28 50 56 160

Hebe From Oberon


Fair

Since

first I

saw your
I

face

...

How

should

your true love

know

LESSON

III.

EARLY

HARMONY.

LESSON

III.

EARLY HARMONY.

HE

practice of adding simple chords to well-chosen melodies

should

be begun as
if

soon as possible.

It

is,

of course,

advantageous

a student has already mastered the elemen-

tary material of
it

Harmony, chords and

their progressions, but

by no means indispensable. Composition may be approached from a practical point of view ; that is to say, he who is engaged in playing, reading and hearing good music, may take a nearer way to the
is

practice of

harmony than by
basses.

following
his

the

usual

plan of

filling

up

endless

figured

Stanford's "National

of

some 200

airs

let him take C. Song Book" (Boosey), where a choice collection are effectively harmonized in simple but masterly

For

text-book,

Sir

fashion.

Our
turn,

first

step

is

to master the three

common

cadences, placing, in

each note of the chords in the

treble.

Perfect Cadences.

Imperfect Cadences.

^"^=M~^~j

^
A
I
"1

1 i i=S=i

m
I

ku=
1

L
I

^
IV

Plagal Cadences.

S
I

^
r
I

TD
IV IV

The

three cadences already enable us to harmonize every degree of

the scale, and further give us well-recognised

from one degree of the scale to another.

Their foundation

harmonic progressions is shown by

lO
the

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.

Roman numbers
If the process

which mark the Bass notes according to

their

place in the scale.

be extended and each chord-note be taken in the harmonic possibiUties are considerably widened by the admission of the Inversions. 6-3 and 6-4.
Bass,

our

Perfect Cadence.
(Inversions).

Imperfect Cadence.
(Inversions).

1^

^^
Y
I

fei
t
22:
5 3

m
6

tEE^E^.
6

6
I

Plagal Cadence.
(Inversions).

Mnz^i

T
m6

^
6
I

Z2
6 4

:ii

IV

IV

IV
the use of these few chords,
let

When some
them
be

freedom
to

is

gained
other

in

transposed

keys,

such

as

the

Dominant and

Subdominant, G major and F major. Then they must be transposed to the tonic minor C minor, a perfectly simple process, since only the 3rd and 6th notes need be flattened.! The Dominant Seventh (which in practice is merely a fuller Dominant Triad) may be added to our scheme, which is completed by the inclusion of the Supertonic and Submediant triads and their

inversions.

We

place these triads

last,

because they are


will usually

less

important

to our elementary material.


that
is

Their place
relieves
triad.

be as

relief

chords;

to say,

the

Supertonic

the

Dominant

triad,

Submediant the Subdominant


scales.
*
t

They

also belong to related

and the minor

These weak progressions are merely a matter of convenience.

An

experiment
is

in setting the key-signatures will

show

that though three flats

are employed, one

regularly corrected to form a leading-note.

LESSON

III.

EARLY

HARMONY.
Inversions ol

II

Dominant Seventh.
-G>,

Dominant Seventh.

T2L

m^M
A
j:^.
(S>-

^tp=p:

m.

Pg
-y5>-

~r:y

rr^'
SEiE
-S-

rir r

:Szi
-<s^

m ^
II

-f^:qI:
i?:^:

:P2:

-f

12:

VI

IV
neutral
in

will be found For transposition purposes, all that is necessary, to determine the key, is a major or minor 3rd in the Tonic chord which resolves all such chords. Let it be premised that single chords on strong accents are usually sufficient to determine the character of melodic or rhythmical passages, whether these move alphabetically or by skip.

The

Dominant Sevenths,

themselves,

equally effective in a minor as in a major resolution.

d=J=fd=^:
-f
6

i
I

^_

f
4
courts

Handel.
Speed
to

your

own

my

flight.

^
The
as possible,

^^^E^^%^
r
f
much freedom such turns as do not explain themselves,

secret of this process lies in allowing the air as

and

in defining all

also in avoiding any tendency to write successions of heavy chords, as


in four-part choral harmony. By constant practice, and hearing, a pupil will train himself by an almost infallible method to add effective chords to any straightforward diatonic melody. His ear will soon learn to reject the foolish mistakes, which

might be demanded
both
in playing

12

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.


tabulated in the

may be found

Harmony

books, under

the

heading

CoNSEcuTivES and Forbidden Progressions.


Air"

How Happy
^j^

could

be with either."

*TF
it

g^^^^^ ^^gC^^
:

-B^

^
ii:

-^

-^

-*4--

*
-^-

s
*

^-

ii=^

^
k n;?-^
:f:

13--

jg

^^
-^
Air

^i=f^

^^
:g2:
-^-

* t

#
3i=ez

^
:P

*'We be Soldiers three."

fc Ha

^^
:

-#

^=1^
5t3C

^^
-*^

l3E
ii:

^^geE

-^

i
I

3zz

^H

it

g
^
-=+

-*i

^
^
fg:
-R^2:

IeI^

5e

:'=l

^=-"1*

-=1-

s "f

:3:

^:|E P^

SS 23=^

5^

LESSON

III.

EARLY

HARMONY.
Air

13

"Barbara Allen."

From

the above-given

illustrations

of rudimentary harmony,

in-

tended to be played on a pianoforte, it will be seen that in the choice of such simple chords there is plenty of room for taste and skill.

To

place

them properly demands a


at

just

appreciation of the natural

cadences, and also of the rhythm and expressive power of the melody.

Always aim
to play.

making the Piano


freely

part clear, of

good

effect,

and easy
principle

Students should be encourged to experiment.

For example,

passing-notes

may be

used where

effective.

The whole

of modulation, touched upon in the transposition of perfect cadences

and dominant sevenths,

is

already within
:

his

grasp.

Witness such

a succession as the following

Blj

ruazi

rPfrfffff^

14

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.

few melodies are added suitable for harmonic treatment of the

kind shown.

These may be

usefully

Book (Vincent

Co.), Hullah's Song-book (Macmillan

supplemented from Sawyers Song & Co.), and the

author's Minstrelsy of England (2 Vols.;


Air

Augener

&

Co.).

*l-

^^^S^S^H^^^^^ i^^ ^ 2^5^


-^-

"Ye

Belles and ye Flirts."

^5=^^
liz^

s=*-

-0

~"y

'

-^

fe^s^
t u- ^
.

^^d
IS qz=J^^z=N=i^

^=^
-^1

_, 1^^ l^3S^ pg-^.^^^]^^^^^^^^ ^E ^^^s^


gqgzzji

-y^-V:

l=f-

:fc=ft=t

IN
^

^
i~"S-

Air *'0 rare Turpin."

v^
^i:

-h-

P^^:

"O'

-s-

^eS^^

^^1
Se

fc E^Ei^a

i^Ei^E^^E^

e^

Traditional Melody
XZi^

fe^;^
fc
^=^:

^E^

-*---v

:*zJ:^E*:

rjfcifj

S^^l

LESSON

III.

EARLY
Air
-H
\

HARMONY.

I5
Gossip Joan."

fBS-

^
5Ei

"Good Morrow,

iq:

ll^iE^
:33

r-

lt'=m'=^

S^=^^
-^

'^

:tt iprii:

5S
.

1_,

:^^=^:

^i:

;i

Air

"Babes

in

the Wood."

fe

:fc=^ 3ES^^3

^^gE^^g^te^^^JEEEg^^^^^g^^

:^


i6

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.

LESSON

IV.

INSTRUMENTAL BEGINNINGS.

f^^^NSTRUMENTAL
in

is

direct offshoot of

Vocal music, and

analysing essential differences

we

are conscious of lightly

retracing

some

of the steps

which ages slowly developed.

Thus, before the late Troubadours of the fifteenth century, instruments did little but reproduce measured vocal notes, rhythmless

and characterless apart from the voice. Gradually chords were broken and little ornaments introduced the compass of individual instruments was drawn upon with a view to particular expression, and vocal writing, which had dominated the whole body of instruments, including the Organ, was slowly superseded by a new and independent style, opposed,
;

in a sense, to the fabric in this gradual process,

it

replaced.

Two

principal objects were gained

namely, the birth of

Rhythm and

the emanci-

pation of Melody.

From

the simple desire of giving the instrumentalist

something appropriate to do, accompaniments grew into individuality and expressiveness. The result naturally led to the development of a distinct instrumental genre, and with the arrival of Monteverde, Music was no longer the thrall of the voice. Let us consider some of the methods by which measured notes may be intensified and galvanised, so to speak, into rhythmical life. By merely adding to the number of notes, ^that is, by quickening their rhythmical value, a distinct step is taken in the direction of
increased

animation.

This

is

seen by taking a long-sustained note

1^
:

iiztq:

i
it

which does not excite or stimulate, and comparing length of note played tremolando
Trent.

with the same

by a body of

violinists,

when

it

at

once throbs with nervous energy

LESSON
and arouses
applied
with
attention.

IV.

INSTRUMENTAL
The
principle

BEGINNINGS.
notes*

17

of repeated

may be

varying

degrees

of

speed, allowing of every variety of

rhythm, from a gentle undulatory movement to the fiercest of fortissimos.


Lento Moderato.

Sapp^Ep^pppg^^l
3
3'

3'

Maestoso andante.

^^
=^.tE^

Beethoven.

Schnell.

Schubert.

PV

-^^^^-^^^^^n
is

The
opening

powerful dramatic current of rhythm instantly set up by the


triplets in

The Erl-King
effect.

worthy of note.

Such

repetitions

of chords
pianofor/te

or

single

notes are practicable for the purposes

both of
arpeggi,
effect.

and orchestral
of &c.,
is

The

division

chords

into

groups of separate notes,


to

Alberti Bass,t

another

fruitful

source of instrumental

For good examples we may turn


there
is

the Vorspiel of Parsifal^ where

a fine series of long-drawn harp-chords,

and

to the Finale of

the Moonlight Sonata^ where the second theme, which pulsates

with

and expressive power, succeeds accompanies it.


life

in

spite of the Alberti

Bass which

By

the addition of a single grace-note, or certainly by the aid of a

few passing-notes, a distinct figure


for its basis.

If

we go

further,

may be formed having a single note whole groups of notes may be formed

Probably

first

employed by Dr. John Bull


is

in the

Fitzwilliam Virginal Book.


(at

The

Alberti Bass

identical with the pattern of

Arpeggio given

No.

3)

above.

i8

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION


particular one,

round any

and fashioned

to almost

any device.
It is

Here

then we have the very secret of Figure making.

ihe expansion

of a single sound into a well-shaped suggestive and lively idea.

Examples of Repetitions:

1
Examples of Arpeggi, &c.
(1)
:

Ornamental examples introducing an


(7)

auxiliary note
(8)

|]

|gjJjij7j^i
-m-

(9)

~0'

-0-

-m-

-m-

-m-

-m-

In the following exercises separate the chords into groups after the
pattern of each of tbe above phrases
four notes are given, one

first

usmg
In

the Repetitions, then

the Arpeggi, and finally the Ornamental phrases.

Observe that where


such
cases
there
is

may be
:

omitted.

choice of two positions, thus

:eEIy
-

Or:

3Ed^ lai

LESSON
Exercise
1.

IV.

INSTRUMENTAL

BEGINNINGS.

19

Ex.

2.

Ex.

3.

Many examples

of systematic treatment by arpeggi, &c., occur in

the works of the Old Masters.* For example, compare the first Prelude and the two Preludes in G major in Bach's 48 Preludes and Fugues. It is perhaps just worth observing that even drum rolls, which depend entirely upon rhythm, have become highly developed. Then there are the Mordents, Turns, Trills, and other such graces that are simply stereotyped figures of a sort with which this chapter is in a

degree concerned.

Nor
into
life.

are such things really inanimate since they

come back suddenly

need only to mention such examples as the long trills in Beethoven's Op. iii, last movement, and the vital turn in the Lovetheme of Berlioz's Romeo and Juliet^ as also its many characteristic uses in Wagner's Tristan.

We

If

it is

transposition into other keys

found necessary to extend the practice of this class of exercise, (and mere is not enough), Mozart's and Beethoven's Variations Jor

Pianoforte will furnish a

number

of suitable figures, which

may

be applied to any

theme
if

It is still better (and very much quicker) planned harmonic succession. a pupil can be got to extemporise such developments in the teacher's presence.

or well

20

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.

LESSON

V.

VOCAL MELODY.

LTHOUGH

primarily an expression of definite words, Vocal


in

Melody* has

some sense an

individual existence.

It is

not

to be regarded as a mechanical definition of verbal cadence, though it has much in common with it. Our first experiments

tend to show us that mere reproduction of well-moulded emphasis is There must be some charm, some grace of not in itself sufficient. expression, an attribute of Music itself that is almost indefinable,
almost elusive.

sums the
are,
is

The word Style, without lending us any real help, Melody for its own sake, a sequence essential conditions.
:

carried out, a suggestive pattern developed

these, small aids as they

have something to do with the matter. The principal of evolution One thing leads to characteristic of the invention of Melody.

another, and though words check, guide, help, restrain, they only do

so to a limited extent.
heart of Poetry,

Vocal Melody not only


its

offers us
it

good declaIt
is

mation, chaste rhythm, perfection of expression,

goes right to the


of

and

reveals

inmost emotional significance.

almost limitless expressive power, agile and free as the song of birds,
of infinitely greater sonority and compass, with a wide choice of rhythm

and an
as

ever-varying degree of intensity.


Its

It

knows no bounds save


that

those of artistic appropriateness.

place in Music, once regarded

paramount,

is

more
is

justly

co-equal

with

of

instrumental

melody.

Though
aiming
clear,

its

scope

almost

limitless,

good Vocal Melody deals

for

the most part in well-sustained phrases of definite compass.


at the

Without

production of actual subjects, such as those of instru-

mental music, the opening statement of a Song should as a rule be


definite
is

and

expressive.

Much

of the character of the whole

Song

determined

in these first

few bars.

first

practical step

is

therefore the

study of effective vocal openings, and the practice of The process is a valuable one, and its thorough forming similar ones.

Scholastic Counterpoint, considered in a later lesson, should help in the study


it

of vocal melodv since

deals in

little else.


LESSON
mastery
will
V.

VOCAL

MELODY.

21

will assist

in

forming a quick habit of thought, by which the

words of songs may be readily cast into musical shapes.

The

effort

become

so

natural that

its

very ease

will

forbid the student to


air,

overrate the value of his performances.


"
1

Take

Purcell's well-known

attempt from Love's


less

sickness "

its

beginning arrests the attention


it

no
is

because

it

is

a well-balanced musical thought than because

a finely-conceived utterance of the words.

The formation
couplet in poetry.
verse, the lengths

of a song-opening

is

very like that of a

rhymed

One verse is answered by another. may be similar or contrasted. The

In music, as in
chief considera-

and form part of one texture. In the example quoted a single line of poetry becomes a complete musical sentence. The rhythmical scheme is an extremely realistic reproduction of the
tion
is

that they cohere

poetical idea.

The

notes literally lend wings to verse.

^
1
I

attempt from Love's sickness

Dominant.
I
I I I
I

I
I I

rn

I
I

To

fly

in

vain.

Done

in the following way,

it

had been no
:

less correct,

but com-

paratively trite

and lacking
at
-

in

imagination
-

tempt from Love's sick

ness

to

fly

in

vain.

^^=id=4#^
Careful examination of the following Song-openings, which are

&c.

all

of

an

effective type,

shows that

first

phrases (of two or more bars)

may

22
either maintain a

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.

Tonic character (perhaps with a veiled perfect cadence), or turn in the direction of the Dominant. A few prefer the Subdominant direction. Minor phrases either follow the same plan or modulate to their relative majors. The balancing phrase, completing the sentence, while subject to the guidance of the words, may be of
identical or contrasted length.

As

common
Such
is

procedure

it

gravitates

towards the Dominant or Tonic close.


but there
is

the stereotyped custom,

no

real

rule,

nor anything approaching to one.

Let the
syllable,

student, however, practise with tried weapons.

He

should also content

himself with from two to three notes


since
also

(at the

most) to any single

modern custom recommend that

is

against the use of rosalias

and

fiorature.

We A

in first analyses the


for

rhythmical scheme of music

be placed side by side with the words,


few are so offered.

purposes of comparison.

zzq:
God
pros
-

X2:

per long our

no

ble King,

Our

lives

and

safe -ties

all.

Dominant.

II Ill !-<^ M J
J:
TIJ-

1_|
l!

l_ !_
1^

z:^

p:?^

C^

God

prosper long our noble King,

SUBDOMINANT.

:,|UJ=^

:!=c^:

Our

lives

and

safeties

all.

I^

4=5
Come, sweet
lass,

1^=5^=?^
This

mer

ry weath-er Let's

^
to
-

i^d
;

geth-er

E
Come,
sweet
lass,

-e>-

E
Let's

play

up

on

the

green.

Tonic

J=J:
J^I-J^N^^

-^

Come,

sweet

lass,

Dominant.

S S S N
This merry weatlier
:

Let's together

LESSON

V.

VOCAL

MELODY.

23

Tonic.

:J=J:
N S
S

WL

It^

Come,

sweet

lass,

Dominant.

N
cz:
Let's

play

upon the green.

^^?^^ :fc^
Come,
live

^^--

<^-

with

me,

and

be

my

love.

And

m=^
we
will
all

&c.

I
the plea
-

sures

prove.

Dominant.
z?:^:

i^^iut.

~^

_?z^

Come,

live

with

me and

be

my

love.

Relative Major.

-J-l J >J- _* a'_i_ _C3 =at izazziBZizaizzii^it


I
'

And we

will all the pleasures prove.

fc ii=i=fe
Who
is

^^^i^
Syl
-

Leveridge.

via

what

is

she.

That

|^^^3^E^|^Ei|
l*=r"
all

our

swain's

com

mend

her?

"^^
Tell

Bishop.

-^
my
heart,

me,

why

morn

ing

prime.

DiBDIN.

4^ ^ ^^^ ^l3Ei^E^iS?E?E^^
^
1

^-

"

1
me
from thee. &c.

A-dieu,

dieu,

my

on

ly life.

My

hon- our

calls

24

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.


Schubert.

m
P

fe3 ?3:
How
clear

-J-^-

fc:i=t=:fc^^
stars

^^i
still
-

-s>-

shine the

in

the

ness

of

night,

S:iJz=E=z3EZ
They
oft

t^^f^
11^=*:
steal our

=1:

=i^^=iv i^zzi:
a
-

^^m
way
by
their light.

slum - ber

Wagner.

*t w
ii:

S=M:
By
si
-

1^

lent

hearth

I*

fe^

'i=t

-S-

Couplets, &c., for Melodic Treatment:

How

little

do the landsmen know


sailors feel,
;

Of what we

When

waves do mount, and winds do blow But we have hearts of steel, (p. 245).

Hail, gently,

summer,

to this isle,

Where And
Come, Come,

Nature's fairest beauties smile.

breathe in every plain,

(p. 93).

mirth, call on music


frolic-filled fancy,

call

music on song
(p. 54).

bring genius along,

One summer

eve, as Celia fair


(p. 163).

Sat spinning in the shade,

Come, cheer up, my lads, to our country be firm, As kings of the ocean we'll weather each storm,

(p.

175).

The

sun, like any bridegroom gay,


to salute the spring,
(p. 67).

Rose

Vulcan, contrive

me

such a cup
(p. 13).

As Nestor

us'd of old.

Words from

the C/iotce Spin'i's

ChapUt

(G. A. Stevens) 1771.

LESSON

VI.

INSTRUMENTAL

PATERNS.

25

LESSON

VI.

INSTRUMENTAL PATTERNS.
ROUPS
briefly

of notes formed

upon

single Principal

Notes (already
together,

considered)
short

may now be
for

usefully

strung

producing
pattern.

melodic pieces of a definite such work consists


figures,

rhythmical
in a series

The

material

such as might be contrived foi In the first exercises of this kind a skeleton (or outline) a Violin. The exercises are to showing the Principal Notes may be employed.
of vigorous

and contrasted

be carried out as
selected

far as possible in

accordance with the figure-pattern

Slight modifications, however, often


figure

become

necessary, since
or at
least,

any one

exactly

maintained

may
all

lead

to harsh,

awkward
modify,

progressions.
at

The

student must, therefore, be encouraged to


strictness,

the
of

expense of
this

such phrases which


at

arise.

Specimens
a

modification

are

seen

(^),

and

in

the

second Model.

Two

models, or examples of finished exercises, and


if

These may, few outlines are given below. plemented by taking any well-defined theme,
Variations
for

necessary,

say,

be supfrom Beethoven's
also lend

Pianoforte.

Many

of the Suite

movements
student

themselves equally well to such treatment, especially the small clear-cut


pieces
of
Corelli

and

Bach.

The

enterprising

will

soon

dispense with such aids.


himself.

He

will further

begin to invent figures for

The

process

Every encouragement should be given to such invention. itself is invaluable, since it sets up the habit of mind by
short,

which melodic progressions may be broken up into


rhythmical figures.

effective

PRINCIPAL NOTES.
{a)
id)

FlGURES.

L
-Gt-

{a)

-G>-

<&-

-s>-

-^ =1:
id)

(3)

2.

ja)

26
3.

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.


{a)

4.

(a)

(i)

^-m-^-m-'
s|s

:i:

=3-*

modification of

((^).

5.

(a)

fe P^p^^=^33^^^^fl^=^^^^^
6.

(a)

lg^^=^
Or
=1C-^)

P=?=

i
-
m-

Or

T^^^
7.

P5
{-5)

^-

()

S3? l=t
8. (o)

f^

i
^

-1^

<^

^ J r^

^*

^I^PI
I
!

9.

(a)

(^)

^
10.
(a)

(^)

3=3:
11.
(^)
(^^)

12.

(a)

fi^:^^

^^^

^.ca-^


LESSON
15.
(a)

VI.

INSTRUMENTAL
(^)
/'

PATTERNS.

27

wrfffri
14.
(a)
/-^

^^f^^V^

T~l

/'

"

- ^1

V
15.
((2)

'-ri

-(^)

I ' \

1-^

-m

--m-^

1-*

^^


6
1-

16.
-j

(a)
I

1
1

("^

^^

J=t=Jz=izzn
i 1

MODEL,
iE
--

(formed upon No. 2 below).

-==

I
I

I I

1-1

1
\

n"'"n^
i I
I

ffl
1

I I

p.1^

I
I

Fh"

J=p:

^ r

^*=^:

=p:

-^

Outlines.
No.
1.

No.

2.

jp=p=

P
3^3
:o:

33
-

^-JJ

0-

No.

3.

itizB:

*i^i^

28

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.

A Second MODEL.
Ex.
3, exactly in

accordance with a figure given.

p^fejgi^
Modijiea.

Or

$ i
g=^.-^-r-g^;b

--d

^=P i^^=s^^
:p=s^

:"Ezr:

^^^
:p--%:

tr=

f^

^
LESSON

ACCOMPANIMENT.

VII.

29

LESSON

VII.

ACCOMPANIMENT.
CCOMPANIMENTS,
now
first

once extemporised or
full

filled

up on the
nothing to

spur of the moment, from mere basses or figured basses, are


invariably written out in
detail, leaving

the imagination, so that an accompanist's duties, formerly of

importance, are rendered


It

much

lighter

assistance.

has already been shown (in

by the composer's studied Lesson III) that quite simple

chords effectively support clear-cut rhythmical songs.

We
let

shall

now

begin to use broken chords and arpeggi as accompaniments to slow-

moving and sustained melodies. following little vocal example


:

For a

first

experiment

us take the

Drink to Me only with Thine Eyes

" (18th Century Version).

-V-

/^

\-\

T
19

\
f
J
f' <'

#
fl

f f

^-^-^

4 2

-4^

s~,

^
r

m k

k m m
1
-^

m
^
?

^
I

f-

>

^
r

i^

7^
;^,

i
^=f=f=^

J^Z5^

s^
y
^-

^*
^
:i

g^^i^

3^^

30

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.


Here the harmonies are fairly satisfactory, but they and sound weak and rhythmless on a pianoforte.
up,
interesting
in

are merely vocal

parts,

By

the simple
is

expedient of breaking the chords into arpeggi, a current of rhythm


set

itself, and of real support to the voice-part. good accompaniment should give a melody rhythmic support and harmonic colour, while providing a real playable part for the performer. Over-elaboration is generally a fault and in such a melody as the present, would be an error of taste. The piano part must merely hint at chaste and expressive harmonies. In composing this class of accompaniment, a student is recommended to test his work carefully on the pianoforte, rejecting anything which sounds ineffective. Finally, if possible, try his work in conjunction with the voice-part.

^^ ^^^

Andante.

|fc:?^=I^
-Jii=:4i

i^
-

1fc?= 3tZ^
the
cup,

fe^
I
I'll

m
will pledge with

Drink

to

me on
kiss

ly

with thine eyes,


-

Or

leave a

with

in

And And

not ask

for

SJ-m-

~m- -m-

-m~ -m- -- -

-X
azzi^:

-^

-^s=|=(:?:)rz
mine,, wine.

^
thirst

fcd
the

^s
doth
rise,

The

that from

soul

Doth

p^^^,^M^^^3^^^i^g^^^^

U
ask a

m
drink di
-

v=s

1^^^ F
But might
I

vine;.

of

Jove's

1 t^jjgasg^Eg^sa
d=

-M

^m

*
-r---

^^

d^
'^-


LESSON
VII.

ACCOMPANIMENT.

31

yg

f-^* ^ J ^^
nec
-

^
I

i=Efl
thine.

tar

sup,

would not change with

^o-r

l=*St
.--

:s=iq^:
'0-0-

-^-- -0'

-->

;u
-m-4^-4-.

=^
^r

:=f^

i^fl

Straightforward arpeggi suit the type of melody which

demands
in

flowing rhythm founded, perhaps, on few and regularly changing chords.

Such types
definite

will

discover themselves by the persistent

manner
afford.

which

they emphasize the Tonic or Dominant triads at the outset, and the

glimpses

illustrations

which they are given of such openings


of
:

rhythm

casually

few

xt
fc|;

Con moto.

DiBDIN.

d:
X::t:

i^^^i^i^
ly
life,

dieu,

dieu,

my

on

My

^=CZ^

p-=^=p=

P^=H^

iSE^

=M^=
-^Xrr.^

m^
i-iJ-

ZI

I
hon
-

our

calls

me

from

thee

S=a f?^ES3E3E^E^E^Efe3
^t ?

n
;o

&c.

a~r~''^:^

lz

32

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.


PURCELL.

m^BEE^EEE^E^
I

E:
were

:E
so

i
high.
i 1

saw that you

grown

EE
f
-^BEES
Repeated chords are of good
design or slight figurate relief
pattern of
carefully
effect,
rl:

41

\-

-^-

accompaniment managed.

is

some rhythmical is introduced. Both this and the former apt to degenerate into monotony unless
especially
if

Godfrey Pringle.

13^

szc
The leaves

te^e=r=
fa-ding and fal
-

of the for

est are

ling.

N-N-

gz33-JEiHs33^n t^^m^E^,

f^ [^

-N

&c.

WfHow
clear

:VNshine the
stars

SCHUBERT.

in

their

soft

^
a
-

zure

^
psfe
-s>-

Etwas geschwind.

g=f^
%-

*=:t
-m -m *3z:

9-

deeps.

:rIt=*:

3^
-^

i
4i -^

&c.

fc=e

^-


LESSON
VII.

ACCOMPANIMENT.
:

33

good

harmonic

identical chords at

background is often obtained the distance of an octave

by repeating

^ ^^^

:^
1:2.

^
your

-<5,-

&

iB

^
pp
Fed.

Gold

en

slum

bers

kiss

eyes.

%
Fed.

Pg ^
Simile.

-^

-^

ii^
^
:*=
man
?

i^^^|E3E|E^S

m^
P#

m^hear
the Spanish

^^^^^m
^^==1^
How
la
-

Will you

dy,

she woo' d
/-

an English-

ti:

f:

sosL

'A

H^-

1^

Without attempting to exhaust the materials of pianoforte accompaniment by giving stereotyped phrases since here, as in every department of musical composition, much must be left to the imagination the student may be recommended to study such examples as are quoted, and to collect effective openings of pronounced pattern. Some of these, like the following, are common property, and only by skilful use can be made individual or interesting

d2riT=

^:

^ 1^^
E5

fe^
2:lt4

&c.

-f^

34

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION

The
be

following melodies are

recommended

for practice.

They may
of

supplemented
:

from any good standard

collection

National

melodies

"Gather YE Rosebuds."

5S3!:

atzt
^;^=^

=i: :^^j=M=m:

S'

S^
hx
~ai
^
'

19fjr

~s

:P=^
-I

I'

^a
Traditional Air.
:1^

^^s^^^Mi
*

^^^.

-N-^

^-

^=^=4^-4^^^^ iidzzg:
^'=E-

"There was a Jolly Miller."

-m-

^
'w

:i=*:

-TS-^=1^

SEE

w~r

^^s

fe

:?5:

m
*

^S^h.^.

&
-?5*h

^^
-f^

"Gaily the Troubadour."

vg-

iS

:ti
^=-^
^F=*-

:[i-V::p:

I^Zit

3=

^
Minstrelsy of

Harmonised versions of most of these songs will be found in England,"' Vols. 1 and 2 (Augener & Co.).

"The

LESSON

VII.

ACCOMPANIMENT.
-

35

^
IeP^^^^^^

"Peaceful slumbering."

-F=

-m

m-m-

"Know'st thou the land.

t|:^^^4r d d
'

^^

>y-

^ ^ =t^

I,

i=^=^^S
i5

-n-

=^=5^ g3E^E^^^I?^Ei

I,

^ :d=a: ^ ^^^^^E:^^.
-<s>-

I=

q:

3Z^ i

-e>-

-^

^ si^^
-Pizz:

<:>

36

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOISITON.

LESSON

VIII.

COUNTERPOINT.*

OUNTERPOINT,

or the art of adding melodic parts to a

given theme, underlies the whole practice of Composition.

At every turn the student is faced with the necessity for such skill. Music does not reveal itself clad in full detail.
Just as in building a ship, vague plans are gradually brought to accurate

form, proportions and measurements have to be taken

the keel

is laid,

and the whole

structure rises
its

from small beginnings.

composition has

origin

perhaps in a single

So a musical theme, which needs

development, expansion, and a thousand accessories of contrapuntal

workmanship and invention before its perfect form is realised. There are two kinds of counterpoint. The first is that which may The be seen in the works of Palestrina, Bach, Beethoven and Wagner. second is of the Schools Scholastic and serves the purpose of leading It teaches self-restraint, since it deals strings to all young beginners. only in diatonic progressions, definite texture, set patterns, and is It enforces exclusive of all manner of harsh or extravagant intervals. the best use of limited opportunities, and its practice is essential to

every musician.

In connection with our scheme of Lessons, the following plan

is

Work example each day, or not less than one two days. Keep up such disciplinary exercises for upwards of twelve months. Work each Canto Fermo first in four-part first species. Make it a
recommended.
in every

a single

rule that this preliminary


It will further

example

shall

be in strong, well-knit harmony.


they
afford

be found useful to attempt several versions' of the same


in this

Canto Fermo
workings
gradually,
in

species,

since

clues

to

successful

the advanced combinations.


occasionally

Introduce the several species


three-part

returning

to

and

even

two-part

counterpoint.

There are so many excellent treatises that it seems almost unnecessary to name W. Pearce's volumes on Counterpoint, Strict and Free (Vincent Music Co.); Sir F. Bridge's Primer (Novello) Dr. Prout's "Counterpoint," Augener or Cherubini's great volume any of which may be employed.
*

Dr. C.

LESSON
C.F,
-5>-

VIII.

COUNTERPOINT.
-<^1221 5>-

37

-e>-

iq:
-<9-

-e>-

Z2:

-e^

-o-

-Q-

^^3i=^-

-0_
-(S>-

.i2_
-<s-

-G>1221

iq:

-o

i f

-<f5>-

-<s>-<5>-

:s:
-Q122:
-<s>-

-s>-

s:
-<5>-

-GS^

-Q-

-Q_

:&
-o
-5>-

:q=:i]

-s>-

C.F.

I-

-e^-<s>-

Z2:
-G>-

-e-

122:

-8-

-<5^

-G>-

-O

-S

-S)-

"g2"

:s2:

-<S>-

<^-

iSi
-<s^-

iq:

i=tg=
-5-

C2:

-<s>-

'O'
tfe-

I I

-o-

^-

^i^l^Qi

SEHEi?;

:S:

C.F.
-e?-<S>

1^21

-^^-

:q:

IsT Species.
::q.

Q_

-o-

^s-

-^o-

-e^

E
:qzz:

-1 iq;

o-

.s>-

-<s>

iq:

-<?Ea

hS^
-t^-

r^.

T^

-&-

:^:
-I
1

-^ -^

JOZL

38
C.F.

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.

Q-e>-

-9-

:a:
-s-

:q:

e>>

1st Species.

^::

.^_q?i._if!-r-^_^

:^

:p=iz:^

^-*

-F-

zj:

3rd Species.

-<s-<s>-

zzziq:
_i

G
'C?"

zzziz?^:
(S>-

^^-

- ^ P

^ii:

1:

-S>-

iq:
-<s-

-H

&^

<s>-

#1d-i
itz:

zz?2:

C.F.

Q-

-S>-rS>-

i
-e>

z=^z=.t:^-

o-

,22: -e>'

:p=

-sS>-

:q:
-<S>-

;e2

^-r

1^
-<s>-

-s>-

:^:

^^"-zot-

i^^zz:^:

:C2:
-<s>-

iftp:

iq: :q_

".q:

-tO-

i^^zz:^
r^

-GtS2_

:ftp:

-s>-

:fo=i

-S2^-

"Whilst

it

is

preferable that the

first

note of the Counterpoint shall


is

make a

perfect concord, the use of the 3rd of the chord

not considered to be an offence."

(Memorandum on

Strict Counterpoint.

I.

S. M.).


LESSON
6th Species.
VIII.


COUNTERPOINT.
:t=:

39

i
Ai-i:

-p

W=i^

^:q:

1st Species.

:q:
C.F.

s-

f='=i==? z::zt=zf_-i:
-e?-

_c?^

-^11

^- r

iztit:
-Q.
-&>-

:pzt:

EEE
-<s-

:2: '22"

:q:

-2-

--

-s>-

iff

^-L=z=tz Zg^t==^=t=EE=tEz^^
<s>-(S>-

@l

_^5>

-e>-

(^

During the gradual introduction of the several species


parts,
it

in

individual
four-part

can

scarcely

fail

to

be

noticed

how

the

early

harmonizations prove helpful.


illustrating the process
:

few

further

examples

are

given

C.F.
I

G^-

:?2:

IQZZI]
IsT Species.

o-

iq:
<s _j

iq:
^>.

;SE3
-Q.
-<s>-

1st Species.

-Q.

^f^
IsT Species,

-i;^-<s-

-e>-

rj-

-<^-

^i==

:q=iz

-Gf-

zq:

-&-

Alternative Opening.
-G>'C?"

:eE2:

i
:q:

ill

-Q
-G>

-S>-

(S>

3=^j=5

40
C.F.

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.


-s>

1022;

iq: iq:

-5>-

:z2:

^=^

->

-^s>-

-o<s>-

-CL -o:^:

<s>

5th Species.

Si^
-<5>-

^r- HS

Q-

-5>-

iq:

-Q-

^;

-o-

^^^

Z2:

:q:

:t
--r

r^

irp^v:

I
-0-iS>-

i^t

E^

-^^
:^

:p'

C.F.

-o
221

:a:
123::
-<Si-

-<^-

t-

i^^s:

-o-

^=
GT

I
:q:

^=

<5>-

-O-

-O-

-^^

nz -=^ ?21^2:

pnp?^^"^

p
^:

<^-f^-C3"
-<s>-

-s>-

:q: -o-

;ii

-<S><5>-<5-

^^

_Q.

^
t

-<S>

:&

-o^

:p2zz

q=g:

^-^-


LESSON
C.F.
VIII.

COUNTERPOINT.
e>

41

t^
*:
-<s>-

-^2:

5th Species.

1^ tF-r
I

kS>-

l^^ h-#^ a
-<s>-

-^-

rrx'
.i2-

i^Z
1st Species.

iq:

tl,

#:

32 ?

-5>-

"221

-5>-

1231

|:

-<^-

f#==^a F-* r
1
I

u T"T~r
-<s>-

-o-

Lj*

^P

w=w
r

:C2:

-Gf-

i
s>-

5*:

5th Species.
:**=P5: n:

i^
ja.
-(S>-

:d: <5^

^S a
liz*:

:zi-

1st Species.
(S*

-<>-

C.F.

m
-i^

:=1:

3=

+=:* -,_^-^^-5>-

i
-c^
22:
-ei-

-e"
"C?
^'=^

-s>-

_^l=g

(S*-

22:

\=^'==\

-e-

ilgii^^E^
-e>-

-s-

r=p-#^^'

c^-

^?pEg:

-<s-

42
5th

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.


Si'fx'ies.
hS*-

-^=^=^
~1

=J

g?
2-

1^-

1st Species, 1st Si'ecies.

-(S>-

-<s>-

-f^s:*

-o-

OC.F.
"C?-

'112:

1.J?=^=^EE^ :qz i iq:


-<s>-

122:

i^.

-s>-^=3-

-S

-Gt-

-O-

:q:

-^
i?::^:

-jC^Z

G-

-(S>-

:s3:

-<S>-

-<s>-

^F
is its

-Q-<^-

-(5>-

-o

q:
'O"
"O"

Keep

the counterpoint

very essence.
parts

and pure. Let there be no harsh


strict

Freedom

in a wise restraint

tritones or foolish intervals.

The

Mere arpeggi have no place in move with definite purpose. Ornaments and change-notes should be sparingly used. Above all, the
to
tell.

must be made

counterpoint.

Passing notes must

harmonic structure must be good. In the fifth species, a vigorous Remember that a few examples movement should be aimed at. thoroughly done are worth twenty times the number carelessly worked. With such considerations kept constantly in view, and plenty of practice, the student cannot fail to set up good and useful methods of thought, which will readily serve him in other and widely different branches of composition, which in due course we shall hope to explore.


1.ESS0N IX.

COUNTERPOINT.

43

LESSON

IX.

COUNTERPOINT
g'g^',g OUR-PART
contrast

(co?itinued).

florid scholastic Counterpoint depends upon and independence. Owing to the free movement of the three added parts, restricted only by the movement of the canto fermo and the ordinary limitations which have already received illustration, simple four-part harmonizations, though still of use, can only serve as the roughest sketches, which must often

be widely varied. The plan most serviceable


follows
:

in

mastering

florid

additions

is

as

fermo be treated in two parts the 5th then let it serve as a Bass species being added above and below adding two upper parts. Our next step is to place the canto fermo
each canto
;

Let

in

the middle;
five

finally

adding three

florid

parts.

By

this

scheme,

some
It
its
is

or six

varieties

of each example are successively worked.

far better

than hurrying to new exercises, since each theme has

possibilities

thoroughly tested.
is

An example
When
with

given of this method of study


upon

a pupil feels the strain

his inventive faculty, he should

be encouraged

to play through one of the inimitable fugues of Bach.

He

will

return to his task

promote emulation while up a true standard of taste. For this purpose we recommend 5uch Fugues as Nos. 13, 17, and 30, of the Forty-eight Preludes and Fugues, and ithe whole of the Choral Preludes for Organ.
vigour, since Bach's Counterpoint never fails to
it assists in building

new

One canto fermo


'Until proficiency
is

carried through this five-fold

process each week

attained, should serve our purpose.

C.F.

44

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.

&.

e^-

:q:

-e^-

1
_^_

^p:te
It

ie>-<&-

re= -pi=*: -o-

sometimes chances that a well-written contrapuntal part may be inverted exactly as it stands. More commonly, however, small modifications become necessary. In the example just given, we can invert every note ; but as the 5ths at " A " and " B " by this process
will

become

4ths, slight alterations are advisable, thus

A
-s>'-^'-

B
-^<s>-

-s>-

:X&c.

4th
-<S>-<S>-

4th

_Q_

I^^E
fc
r-^
-S"-(S*-

3e^Es=^-^=^^-h-

t:

rc^zz

:q:
;i]

The Same,
fcfe

modified.
-<9-

&c.

H:
:p==^z:
-o12^:

An Independent Working.

3;
C.F. -^fefe

:^=^

-&'

-Q.

-S>-

Efc

:!=^

tr
.Q_
i-fe

~i

P=tz
ir:i

-jzt.

3^:
-<s-

-&'

-jar.

-<^-

Ft
.

^^n_^ :z=q=zq fc^=*=r=z?_^^=t==^


jd.
-<G>-

-o
-<5>-

O"
-<S)-

-S>-

fl

:2:

e;

:=q:


LESSON
IX.

COUNTERPOINT.
i^

45

3^
...

<s>-

-^-

"f^

F^
-o-

:^==
#-P:

r-ci'
1^21

C.F.

-(S>-

^
i P
i^
::t
-jctz:

-^x

=1:

3^
231

ill:

':i=W
"P"

f^

^^--f yi^'T-r
-<s>-

-e>-

-^-

22:

1^'-

^^im^-^z^i
iq:

.1

n
r

:^zt

:^:

r ^
U

ro-s-

*^-

^?zc^
:^:

:^=

:pzx

-s-

-cr
-^-

:q:

'q:

Observe that in the three foregoing examples the Sequence in the Our next example canto fermo is reproduced in the Counterpoint. part, transposed for convenience gives the canto fermo in the middle
;

fc
-<&-

-&*-

1 I I

J- ir^i:
-o-

-<S>-

-&

|i9Hb:
-<5>-

22,

C.F.

E^

:t=^:

f=f=P=^
I

:q:

46

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.

:: -^"C?"

m:

p3:^33iz:jig^z=:
-<2-

:f=^

:,^ :c^

-7.

:^

:t#it

-tF^r

^^-^-

-1^-

^-

-^ ^-tie:
ii;

Or,

^^-T-^

^:

1=

:i=P

-f-P

t=F4
2i:

E^z
.Q:q:
iS-<s>-

-S>-

-r-

^1 - E
I 1

'SSSSIIi

^.^h=F

t:

ic^:

ife=c:
C.F

i^;

"rJ

-(S"jT^-

<S^

-s-

Ul
-<^-s>-

.Q_

:^Q-'

ii

?^^

i:d^=J=^
-,<S>

^
T
-1
'j=i'-

:i^=g:

^^^

~=

-o-

^2

m
1

ZZ|JS}&Ei3^^

-Gf^1

Z3:

pziz:=&zz{z=:(z--p3

"^^^

p
LESSON IX. COUNTERPOINT.

47

A
-<S>-

-litr^wzii^^iiijis.

f^f ^-

^^

-G>-

r-r
-S-

^S

-I

-^-^
1

fZZZt

^^

j__J_,

a -f^ * H

r~f
_i:2_

f^

s F

h-

'j^-^^

:tfc=^

^^^i
P
i

:*=.-i:
-<s>-

r
pHE
12:

X3s^
Id:

^
4^

^^
* Alternative
I

-s

i^s:

:^^i^
tr

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be seen that the three added parts are of equal importance, contrasted and independent. Though the flat seventh is used in the second half, the example is correct without its
In our
last

example,

it

will

aid.

An

alternative

for
part.

the

last

five

bars,

offers

more vigorous

rhythm in the upper

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48

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.

LESSON

X.

FREE COUNTERPOINT.
T
'*99 9^w9^d.

high time that a thoroughly free order of Counterpoint be admitted in Enghsh practice; a kind which allows of the
is

use

of

chromatic chords and passing-notes,

at

the
that

same
the

time admitting a broader rhythmic scheme,

so

whole system tends to bridge over the gulf fixed between scholastic counterpoint and practical composition, while it also assists in counteracting the tendency of an obsolete system in the direction of cramped

and

rigid authority.

We recommend
modulation.

the following

scheme

1st Species, as before, admitting,

however, ckromafic h3irmony B.nd

2nd

Species, as before, with the addition of chromatic passing-

notes and harmony.

3rd Species, as before, but admitting chromatic passing-notes and

harmony.
4th Species, as before, but with the chromatic system behind
5th Species, complete freedom,
shall
it.

merely stipulating that the parts

be of definite number, and the Instrument

Strings

or Voices declared.
first

Piano, Organ,

Let one such exercise be worked after a group of the regular formal
exercises.

Our

experiments serve to show that ordinary canti fermi


restricted) will serve for this preliminary practice.

(though tonally

much

Then
used.

the teacher should draw

upon the chorales Bach so commonly


is

As the object of

this

kind of exercise

to train the imagination

and

temporarily relieve the

mind

of such restraint as former contrapuntal

studies may have induced, especially the feeling which students so commonly have that strict counterpoint does not offer fair scope and is merely of arbitrary value, every possible chord or melodic passage may now be admitted. At first sight one might imagine that mere chaos

would
his

result.

But

far

from

this

being the case, though thrown upon


still

own

resources, the student will

find that he has to justify

first


LESSON
to himself
X.

FREE

COUNTERPOINT.

49

and afterwards to his teacher, progressions of harmony and melody which though no longer judged by scholastic standards are nevertheless subject to the laws of Taste, logic and common-sense.
1st Spfxies,

Free Harmonies.

C.F.

_
:q:

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Organ.
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2nd Species
C.F.

Two Inner
-(S>

Parts

1st Species Bass.

i w
Organ.
:22:

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p:

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50

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.


C.F.

Organ.

3rdSp.

'
1

^i

'
,

2nd

Sp.

-QL
-^-

^
Z5:

2nd

Sp.

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m ^^^

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Experience proves that


practical procedure to

it

is

both excellent discipline and good

work out

definite species in

FREE

Counterpoint,

preserving a consistent texture of crotchets and minims according to a


precise scheme.

Bach, in his Choral Preludes, has further shown that

much

beautiful
is

music may be constructed on


p.

this

artificial

plan.

Our

quotation

from the short organ Prelude on ^s


(Augener's edition, Vol. 17,
1006):

kommen

/^^r

ist

das

Heil uns

Theme

2nd

Species.


FREE

LESSON

X.

COUNTERPOINT.

SI

m
-5^^4f

St3-*

*t^ *r-pi-"
&c.

s ^-P p
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r
1

^
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f-i
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Our last quotation shows that arpeggios, if short and characteristic, may be admitted. The Counterpoint is principally of the 3rd Species
for

the two inner parts;

and 2nd Species, occasionally broadening


:

into the ist Species, for the Bass

C.F.

t--

^
SiBEE
The Choral
is

-W~i
pft

?^

entitled

Herr Jesic Christ


will serve for

(Vol.

17,

p.

979).
:

Such

Chorales as the following

preliminary practice

GOUDIMEL.

*4=

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52

ELEMENTARY MUSICAL COMPOSITION.


Vater unser im Himmklreich.
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FUKK NATUS
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themes in exchange for the old Cantos, which resemble mosaics and have little or nothing in common with modern work. Nearly all the old Chorales (especially the Lutheran) are ready to hand, and while being in long measured notes they also possess something of the emotional qualities which modern art requires. Where the themes are too long, take one or two hnes: The added Three parts will often serve Counterpoint need not be too elaborate. Chromatics, though admitted, should only be introas well as four. duced for effect. Though we aim so far at producing merely a musical EXERCISE, the student cannot be too ambitious in a good sense. We shall hope to continue the subject at some future time.
is

The aim

to take musical

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