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Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _



Summer Training Programme


Mobile ComunicationGSM C!MA

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Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

Tra%itional mobile &er'ice $a& &tructure% &imilar to tele'i&ion broa%ca&ting( One 'er) *o$er+ul tran&mitter locate% at t,e ,ig,e&t &*ot in an area $oul% broa%ca&t in a ra%iu& o+ u* to +i+t) #ilometer&- T,e Cellular conce*t &tructure% t,e mobile tele*,one net$or# in a %i++erent $a)- In&tea% o+ u&ing one *o$er+ul tran&mitter man) lo$-*o$ere% tran&mitter $ere *lace% t,roug, out a co'erage area- .or e/am*le b) %i'i%ing metro*olitan region into one ,un%re% %i++erent area& 0cell&1 $it, lo$ *o$er tran&mitter& u&ing t$el'e con'er&ation 0c,annel&1 eac, t,e &)&tem ca*acit) coul% t,eoreticall) be increa&e% +rom t$el'e con'er&ation& u&ing one ,un%re% lo$ *o$er tran&mitter&T,e cellular conce*t em*lo)& 'ariable lo$ *o$er le'el& $,ic, allo$& cell& to be &i2e% accor%ing to &ub&criber %en&it) an% %eman% o+ a gi'en area- A& t,e *o*ulation& gro$& cell& can be a%%e% to accommo%ate t,at gro$t,- .re3uencie& u&e% in one cell clu&ter can be reu&e% in ot,er cell&- Con'er&ation& can be ,an%e% o'er +rom cell to cell to maintain con&tant *,one &er'ice a& t,e u&er mo'e& bet$een cell&T,e cellular &)&tem %e&ign $a& *ioneere% b) %uring456& b) 7ell Laboratorie& in t,e Unite% State& an% t,e initial reali2ation $a& #no$n a& AMPS 0A%'ance% Mobile P,one Ser'ice1- T,e AMPS cellular &er'ice $a& a'ailable in Unite% State& in "89:- AMPS i& e&&entiall) generation " analog cellular &)&tem in contra&t to generation ; %igital cellular &)&tem& o+ GSM an% C!MA 0"S-8<1-

A cell i& t,e ba&ic geogra*,ic unit o+ cellular &)&tem- T,e term cellular come& +rom t,e ,one)comb area& into $,ic, a co'erage region i& %i'i%e%- Cell& are ba&e &tation& tran&mitting o'er &mall geogra*,ic area& t,at are re*re&ente% a& ,e/agon&- Eac, cell &i2e 'arie& %e*en%ing u*on lan%&ca*e- 7ecau&e o+ con&traint im*o&e% b) natural terrain an% manma%e &tructure& t,e true &,a*e o+ cell i& not a *er+ect ,e/agonA grou* o+ cell& i& calle% a cluster- No +re3uencie& are reu&e% in a clu&ter.eature& o+ !igital Cellular S)&tem&: Small cells Frequency reuse Small, battery-powered handsets Performance of handovers


General Cellular ra%io &)&tem& allo$ t,e &ub&criber to *lace an% recei'e tele*,one call& o'er t,e $ire-line tele*,one net$or# $,ere e'er cellular co'erage i& *ro'i%e%- Roaming ca*abilitie& e/ten% &er'ice to u&er& tra'eling out&i%e t,eir =out&i%e> ,ome &er'ice area&;

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characteristics of digital cellular systems

T,e %i&tingui&,ing +eature& o+ %igital cellular &)&tem& com*are% to ot,er mobile ra%io &)&tem& are( Small cell& A cellular &)&tem u&e& man) ba&e &tation& $it, relati'el) &mall co'erage ra%ii 0on t,e or%er o+ a "66 m to :6 #m1 .re3uenc) reu&e T,e &*ectrum allocate% +or a cellular net$or# i& limite%- A& a re&ult t,ere i& a limit to t,e number o+ c,annel& or +re3uencie& t,at can be u&e%- .or t,i& rea&on eac, +re3uenc) i& u&e% &imultaneou&l) b) multi*le ba&e-mobile *air&- T,i& +re3uenc) reu&e allo$& a muc, ,ig,er &ub&criber %en&it) *er M?2 o+ &*ectrum t,an ot,er &)&tem&- S)&tem ca*acit) can be +urt,er increa&e% b) re%ucing t,e cell &i2e 0t,e co'erage area o+ a &ingle ba&e &tation1 %o$n to ra%ii a& &mall a& ;66 m Small batter)-*o$ere% ,an%&et& In a%%ition to &u**orting muc, ,ig,er %en&itie& t,an *re'iou& &)&tem& t,i& a**roac, enable& t,e u&e o+ &mall batter)-*o$ere% ,an%&et& $it, a ra%io +re3uenc) t,at i& lo$er t,an t,e large mobile unit& u&e% in earlier &)&tem&Per+ormance o+ ,an%o'er&

In cellular &)&tem& continuou& co'erage i& ac,ie'e% b) e/ecuting a =,an%o'er> 0t,e &eamle&& tran&+er o+ t,e call +rom one ba&e &tation to anot,er1 a& t,e mobile unit cro&&e& cell boun%arie&- T,i& re3uire& t,e mobile to c,ange +re3uencie& un%er control o+ t,e cellular net$or#-

Why frequency T,e &*ectrum allocate% +or a cellular net$or# i& limite%- A& a reuse re&ult t,ere i& a limit to t,e number o+ +re3uencie& or c,annel& t,at can be u&e%- A cellular net$or# can onl) *ro'i%e &er'ice to a large number o+ &ub&criber& i+ t,e c,annel& allocate% to it can be reu&e%- C,annel reu&e i& im*lemente% b) u&ing t,e &ame c,annel& $it,in cell& locate% at %i++erent *o&ition& in t,e cellular net$or# &er'ice areaRadio channels can be reused provided the separation between cells containing the same channel set is far enough apart so that co-channel interference can be kept below acceptable levels most of the time. Cells using the same channel set are called co-channel cells.

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T,e +igure on t,e o**o&ite *age &,o$& an e/am*le- Wit,in t,e :

Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

&er'ice area 0PLMN1 &*eci+ic c,annel &et& are reu&e% at a %i++erent location 0anot,er cell1- In t,e e/am*le t,ere are 5 c,annel &et&( A t,roug, G- Neig,boring cell& are not allo$e% to u&e t,e &ame +re3uencie&- .or t,i& rea&on all c,annel &et& are u&e% in a clu&ter o+ neig,boring cell&- A& t,ere are 5 c,annel &et& t,e PLMN can be %i'i%e% into clu&ter& o+ 5 cell& eac,- T,e +igure &,o$& t,ree clu&ter&T,e number o+ c,annel &et& i& calle% K- K i& al&o calle% t,e reu&e +actor- In t,e +igure K@5- Aali% 'alue& o+ K can be +oun% u&ing e3uation 0$,ere i an% B are integer&1( K@iCDBCDIEB E/*laining t,i& e3uation i& be)on% t,e &co*e o+ t,i& cour&eSome con&traint& to K are *ro'i%e% later in t,i& c,a*ter- Note t,at in t,e e/am*le( Cell& are &,a*e% i%eall) 0,e/agon&1- T,e %i&tance bet$een cell& u&ing t,e &ame c,annel &et i& al$a)& t,e &ame-

Other clusters


T,e +igure on t,e o**o&ite *age &,o$& &ome e/am*le& o+ *o&&ible clu&ter&- T,e more cell& in a clu&ter t,e greater t,e &e*aration bet$een co-c,annel cell& $,en Ot,er clu&ter& are %e*lo)e%- T,e i%ea i& to #ee* co-c,annel cell &e*aration t,e &ame t,roug,out t,e &)&tem area +or cell& o+ t,e &ame &i2e- Some 'ali% clu&ter &i2e& t,at allo$ t,i& are( " : F 5 8 an% ";-

Procedure for It i& al$a)& *o&&ible to +in% cell& u&ing t,e &ame c,annel &et i+ locating co- onl) t,e 'alue o+ K i& #no$n- T,e +ollo$ing *roce%ure i& u&e%channel cells In t,e +igure on t,e o**o&ite *age an e/am*le i& &,o$n $it, K @ "8Signal attenuation With distance .re3uencie& can be reu&e% t,roug,out a &er'ice area becau&e ra%io &ignal& t)*icall) attenuate $it, %i&tance to t,e ba&e &tation 0or mobile &tation1- W,en t,e %i&tance bet$een cell& u&ing t,e &ame +re3uencie& become& too &mall co-c,annel Inter+erence mig,t occur an% lea% to &er'ice interru*tion or unacce*table 3ualit) o+ &er'ice-

Ste* 1

Action U&e t,e integer 'alue& i an% B +rom t,e e3uation an% &tart F

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With the upper left cell. Through this cell, draw the j-axis. 2 Draw the i-axis. To find the starting point for the i-axis, count j cells down the j-axis. In the example, one has to count 2 cells down (j=2). The positive direction of the i-axis is always two cell faces (120 degrees) relative to the positive direction of the j-axis. Find the first co-channel cell. It is found by counting i cells in the positive i-axis direction. In the example, i = 3. Find the other co-locating cells by repeating the previous steps. The Starting *oint i& again at t,e u**er le+t cell but no$ c,oo&e anot,er Direction for the j-axis (e.g. rotate the j-axis with 60 degrees, which is one cell face). As each cell has 6 faces, one will find 6 cochannel cells around the starting cells. These are the nearest located co-channel cells.

Ca*acit)GPer+ormance Tra%e-o++& :

I+ K increa&e& t,en *er+ormance increa&e& I+ K increa&e& t,en call ca*acit) %ecrea&e& *er cell

T,e number o+ &ite& to co'er a gi'en area $it, a gi'en ,ig, tra++ic %en&it) an% ,ence t,e co&t o+ t,e in+ra&tructure i& %etermine% %irectl) b) t,e reu&e +actor an% t,e number o+ tra++ic c,annel& t,at can be e/tracte% +rom t,e a'ailable &*ectrum- T,e&e t$o +actor& are com*oun%e% in $,at i& calle% &*ectral e++icienc) o+ t,e &)&tem- Not all &)&tem& allo$ t,e &ame *er+ormance in t,i& %omain( t,e) %e*en% in *articular on t,e robu&tne&& o+ t,e ra%io tran&mi&&ion &c,eme again&t inter+erence but al&o on t,e u&e o+ a number o+ tec,nical tric#& &uc, a& re%ucing tran&mi&&ion %uring t,e &ilence& o+ a &*eec, communication- T,e &*ectral e++icienc) toget,er $it, t,e con&traint& on t,e cell &i2e %etermine& al&o t,e *o&&ible com*romi&e& bet$een t,e ca*acit) an% t,e co&t o+ t,e in+ra&tructure- All t,i& e/*lain& t,e im*ortance gi'en to &*ectral e++icienc)Man) tec,nical tric#& to im*ro'e &*ectral e++icienc) $ere concei'e% %uring t,e &)&tem %e&ign an% ,a'e been intro%uce% in GSM- T,e) increa&e t,e com*le/it) but t,i& i& balance% b) t,e economical a%'antage& o+ a better e++icienc)- T,e maBor *oint& are t,e +ollo$ing( T,e control o+ t,e tran&mitte% *o$er on t,e ra%io *at, aim& at minimi2ing t,e a'erage *o$er broa%ca&t b) mobile &tation& a& $ell a& b) ba&e &tation& $,il&t #ee*ing tran&mi&&ion 3ualit) abo'e a gi'en t,re&,ol%- T,i& re%uce& t,e le'el o+ inter+erence cau&e% to t,e ot,er communication&H RTTC Luc#no$ <

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.re3uenc) ,o**ing im*ro'e& tran&mi&&ion 3ualit) at &lo$ &*ee%& t,roug, +re3uenc) %i'er&it) an% im*ro'e& &*ectral e++icienc) t,roug, inter+erer %i'er&it)H !i&continuou& tran&mi&&ion $,ere b) tran&mi&&ion i& &u**re&&e% $,en *o&&ible allo$& a re%uction in t,e inter+erence le'el o+ ot,er communication&- !e*en%ing on t,e t)*e o+ u&er in+ormation tran&mitte% it i& *o&&ible to %eri'e t,e nee% +or e++ecti'e tran&mi&&ion- In t,e ca&e o+ &*eec, t,e mec,ani&m calle% AA! 0Aoice Acti'it) !etection1 allo$& tran&mi&&ion re3uirement& to be re%uce% b) an im*ortant +actor 0t)*icall) re%uce% b) ,al+1H T,e mobile a&&i&te% ,an%o'er $,ereb) t,e mobile &tation *ro'i%e& mea&urement& concerning neig,boring cell& enable& e++icient ,an%o'er %eci&ion algorit,m& aime% at minimi2ing t,e inter+erence generate% b) t,e cell 0$,il&t #ee*ing t,e tran&mi&&ion 3ualit) abo'e &ome t,re&,ol%1Re+erence&("- T,e GSM &)&tem +or mobile communication-Mic,el Marie- 7erna%ette PautetMoul) I

;- GSM &)&tem Engineering-A&,a Me,rotra 0Artec, ?ou&e Publi&,er1-

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A GSM &)&tem i& ba&icall) %e&igne% a& a combination o+ t,ree maBor &ub&)&tem&( t,e net$or# &ub&)&tem t,e ra%io &ub&)&tem an% t,e o*eration &u**ort &ub&)&tem- In or%er to en&ure t,at net$or# o*erator& $ill ,a'e &e'eral &ource& o+ cellular in+ra&tructure e3ui*ment GSM %eci%e% to &*eci+) not onl) t,e air inter+ace but al&o t,e main inter+ace& t,at i%enti+) %i++erent *art&- T,ere are t,ree %ominant inter+ace& namel) an inter+ace bet$een MSC an% t,e ba&e Tran&cei'er Station 07TS1 an% an Um inter+ace bet$een t,e 7TS an% MS-


E'er) tele*,one net$or# nee%& a $ell-%e&igne% &tructure in or%er to route incoming calle% to t,e correct e/c,ange an% +inall) to t,e calle% &ub&criber- In a mobile net$or# t,i& &tructure i& o+ great im*ortance becau&e o+ t,e mobilit) o+ all it& &ub&criber& K"-FL- In t,e GSM &)&tem t,e net$or# i& %i'i%e% into t,e +ollo$ing *artitione% area& GSM &er'ice areaH PLMN &er'ice areaH MSC &er'ice areaH Location areaH Cell&-

T,e GSM &er'ice i& t,e total area &er'e% b) t,e combination o+ all member countrie& $,ere a mobile can be &er'ice%- T,e ne/t le'el i& t,e PLMN &er'ice area- T,ere can be &e'eral $it,in a countr) ba&e% on it& &i2e- T,e lin#& bet$een a GSMGPLMN net$or# an% ot,er PSTN IS!N or PLMN net$or# $ill be on t,e le'el o+ international or national tran&it e/c,ange- All incoming call& +or a GSMGPLMN net$or# $ill be route% to a gate$a) MSC- A gate$a) MSC $or#& a& an incoming tran&it e/c,ange +or t,e GSMGPLMN- In a GSMGPLMN net$or# all mobile-terminate% call& $ill be route% to a gate$a) MSC- Call connection& bet$een PLMN& or to +i/e% net$or#& mu&t be route% t,roug, certain %e&ignate% MSC& calle% a gate$a) MSC- T,e gate$a) MSC contain& t,e inter$or#ing +unction& to ma#e t,e&e connection&- T,e) al&o route incoming call& to t,e *ro*er MSC $it,in t,e net$or#- T,e ne/t le'el o+ %i'i&ion i& t,e MSCGALR &er'ice area- In one PLMN t,ere can be &e'eral MSCGALR &er'ice area- MSCGALR i& a role controller o+ call& $it,in it& Buri&%iction- In or%er to route a call to a mobile &ub&criber t,e *at, t,roug, lin#& to t,e MSC in t,e MSC area $,ere t,e &ub&criber i& currentl) locate%- T,e mobile location can be uni3uel) i%enti+ie% &ince t,e MS i& regi&tere% in a ALR $,ic, i& generall) a&&ociate% $it, an MSCT,e ne/t %i'i&ion le'el i& t,at o+ t,e LA4& $it,in a MSCGALR combination- T,ere are &e'eral LA4& $it,in one MSCGALR combination- A LA i& a *art o+ t,e MSCGALR &er'ice area in $,ic, a MS ma) mo'e +reel) $it,out u*%ating location in+ormation to t,e MSCGALR e/c,ange t,at control t,e LA- Wit,in a LA a *aging me&&age i& broa%ca&t in or%er to +in% t,e calle% mobile &ub&criber- T,e LA can be i%enti+ie% b) t,e &)&tem u&ing t,e Location Area I%entit) 0LAI1- T,e LA i& u&e% b) t,e GSM &)&tem to &earc, +or a &ub&criber in a acti'e &tateLa&tl) a LA i& %i'i%e% into man) cell&- A cell i& an i%entit) &er'e% b) one 7TS- T,e MS 5

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%i&tingui&,e& bet$een cell& u&ing t,e 7a&e Station I%enti+ication co%e 07SIC1 t,at t,e cell &ite broa%ca&t o'er t,e air-

T,e MS inclu%e& ra%io e3ui*ment an% t,e man mac,ine inter+ace 0MMI1 t,at a &ub&cribe nee%& in or%er to acce&& t,e &er'ice& *ro'i%e% b) t,e GSM PLMN- MS can be in&talle% in Ae,icle& or can be *ortable or ,an%,el% &tation&- T,e MS ma) inclu%e *ro'i&ion& +or %ata communication a& $ell a& 'oice- A mobile tran&mit& an% recei'e& me&&age to an% +rom t,e GSM &)&tem o'er t,e air inter+ace to e&tabli&, an% continue connection& t,roug, t,e &)&tem !i++erent t)*e o+ MS& can *ro'i%e %i++erent t)*e o+ %ata inter+ace&- To *ro'i%e a common mo%el +or %e&cribing t,e&e %i++erent MS con+iguration >re+erence con+iguration> +or MS &imilar to t,o&e %e+ine% +or IS!N lan% &tation& ,a& been %e+ine%Eac, MS i& i%enti+ie% b) an IMEI t,at i& *ermanentl) &tore% in t,e mobile unit- U*on re3ue&t t,e MS &en%& t,i& number o'er t,e &ignaling c,annel to t,e MSC- T,e IMEI can be u&e% to i%enti+) mobile unit& t,at are re*orte% &tolen or o*erating incorrectl)Mu&t a& t,e IMEI i%entitie& t,e mobile e3ui*ment ot,er number& are u&e% to i%entit) t,e mobile &ub&criber- !i++erent &ub&criber i%entitie& are u&e% in %i++erent *,a&e& o+ call &etu*- T,e Mobile Sub&criber IS!N Number 0MSIS!N1 i& t,e number t,at t,e calling *art) %ial& in or%er to reac, t,e &ub&criber- It i& u&e% b) t,e lan% net$or# to route call& to$ar% an a**ro*riate MSC- T,e international mobile &ub&cribe i%entit) 0IMSI1 i& t,e *rimar) +unction o+ t,e &ub&criber $it,in t,e mobile net$or# an% i& *ermanentl) a&&igne% to ,im- T,e GSM &)&tem can al&o a&&ign a Tem*orar) Mobile Sub&criber I%entit) 0TMSI1 to i%entit) a mobileT,i& number can be *erio%icall) c,ange% b) t,e &)&tem an% *rotect t,e &ub&criber +rom being i%enti+ie% b) t,o&e attem*ting to monitor t,e ra%io c,annelRTTC Luc#no$ 9

Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

Fu ct!" s "# MS T,e *rimar) +unction& o+ MS are to tran&mit an% recei'e 'oice an% %ata o'er t,e air inter+ace o+ t,e GSM &)&tem- MS *er+orm& t,e &ignal *roce&&ing +unction o+ %igiti2ing enco%ing error *rotecting encr)*ting an% mo%ulating t,e tran&mitte% &ignal&- It al&o *er+orm& t,e in'er&e +unction& on t,e recei'e% &ignal& +rom t,e 7SIn or%er to tran&mit 'oice an% %ata &ignal& t,e mobile mu&t be in &)nc,roni2ation $it, t,e &)&tem &o t,at t,e me&&age& are t,e tran&mitte% an% recei'e% b) t,e mobile at t,e correct in&tant- To ac,ie'e t,i& t,e MS automaticall) tune& an% &)nc,roni2e& to t,e +re3uenc) an% T!MA time&lot &*eci+ie% b) t,e 7SC- T,i& me&&age i& recei'e% o'er a %e%icate% time&lot &e'eral time& $it,in a multi+rame *erio% o+ <" +rame&- We &,all %i&cu&& t,e %etail& o+ t,i& in t,e ne/t c,a*ter- T,e e/act &)nc,roni2ation $ill al&o inclu%e a%Bu&ting t,e timing a%'ance to com*en&ate +or 'ar)ing %i&tance o+ t,e mobile +rom t,e 7TST,e MS monitor& t,e *o$er le'el an% &ignal 3ualit) %etermine% b) t,e 7ER +or #no$n recei'er bit &e3uence& 0&)nc,roni2ation &e3uence1 +rom bot, it& current 7TS an% u* to &i/ &urroun%ing 7TS&- T,i& %ata i& recei'e% on t,e %o$nlin# broa%ca&t control c,annelT,e MS %etermine& an% &en% to t,e current 7TS a li&t o+ t,e &i/ be&t-recei'e% 7TS &ignal&T,e mea&urement re&ult& +rom MS on %o$nlin# 3ualit) an% &urroun%ing 7TS &ignal le'el& are &ent to 7SC an% *roce&&e% $it,in t,e 7SC- T,e &)&tem t,en u&e& t,i& li&t +or be&t cell ,an%o'er %eci&ion&MS #ee*& t,e GSM net$or# in+orme% o+ it& location %uring bot, national an% international roaming e'en $,en it i& inacti'e- T,i& enable& t,e S)&tem to *age in it& *re&ent LA-

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Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

T,e MS inclu%e& an e3uali2er t,at com*en&ate& +or multi-*at, %i&tortion on t,e recei'e% &ignal- T,i& re%uce& inter-&)mbol inter+ace t,at $oul% ot,er$i&e %egra%e t,e 7ER.inall) t,e MS can &tore an% %i&*la) &,ort recei'e% al*,anumeric me&&age& on t,e li3ui% cr)&tal %i&*la) 0LC!1 t,at i& u&e% to &,o$ call %ialing an% &tatu& in+ormation- T,e&e me&&age& are limite% to "J6 c,aracter& in lengt,P"$er Le%els T,e&e are +i'e %i++erent categorie& o+ mobile tele*,one unit& &*eci+ie% b) t,e Euro*ean GSM &)&tem( ;6W 9W <W ;W an% 6-9W- T,e&e corre&*on% to F:-%7m :8%7m :5-%7m ::-%7m an% ;8-%7m *o$er le'el&- T,e ;6-W an% 9-W unit& 0*ea# *o$er1 are eit,er +or 'e,icle-mounte% or *ortable &tation u&eT,e MS *o$er i& a%Bu&table in ;-%7 &te*& +rom it& nominal 'alue %o$n to ;6mW 0": %7m1- T,i& i& %one automaticall) un%er remote control +rom t,e 7TS $,ic, monitor& t,e recei'e% *o$er an% a%Bu&t& t,e MS tran&mitter to t,e minimum *o$er &etting nece&&ar) +or reliable tran&mi&&ionSIM C&r' A& %e&cribe% in t,e +ir&t c,a*ter GSM &ub&criber& are *ro'i%e% $it, a SIM car% $it, it& uni3ue i%enti+ication at t,e 'er) beginning o+ t,e &er'ice- 7) %i'orcing t,e &ub&criber I! +rom t,e e3ui*ment I! t,e &ub&criber ma) ne'er o$n t,e GSM mobile e3ui*ment &et- T,e &ub&criber i& i%enti+ie% in t,e &)&tem $,en ,e in&ert& t,e SIM car% in t,e mobile e3ui*mentT,i& *ro'i%e& an enormou& amount o+ +le/ibilit) to t,e &ub&criber& &ince t,e) can no$ u&e an) GSM-&*eci+ie% mobile e3ui*ment- T,u& $it, a SIM car% t,e i%ea o+ =Per&onali2e> t,e e3ui*ment currentl) in u&e an% t,e re&*ecti'e in+ormation u&e% b) t,e net$or# 0location "6

RTTC Luc#no$

Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

in+ormation1 nee%& to be u*%ate%- T,e &mart car% SIM i& *ortable bet$een Mobile E3ui*ment 0ME1 unit&- T,e u&er onl) nee%& to ta#e ,i& &mart car% on a tri*- ?e can t,en rent a ME unit at t,e %e&tination e'en in anot,er countr) an% in&ert ,i& o$n SIM- An) call& ,e ma#e& $ill be c,arge% to ,i& ,ome GSM account- Al&o t,e GSM &)&tem $ill be able to reac, ,im at t,e ME unit ,e i& currentl) u&ingT,e SIM i& a remo'able SC t,e &i2e o+ a cre%it car% an% contain& an integrate% circuit c,i* $it, a micro*roce&&or ran%om acce&& memor) 0RAM1 an% rea% onl) memor) 0ROM1- It i& in&erte% in t,e MS unit b) t,e &ub&criber $,en ,e or &,e $ant& to u&e t,e MS to ma#e or recei'e a call- A& &tate% a SIM al&o come& in a mo%ular +rom t,at can be mounte% in t,e &ub&criber4& e3ui*mentW,en a mobile &ub&criber $ant& to u&e t,e &)&tem ,e or &,e mount& t,eir SIM car% an% *ro'i%e t,eir Per&onal I%enti+ication Number0PIN1 $,ic, i& com*are% $it, a PIN &tore% $it,in t,e SIM- I+ t,e u&er enter& t,ree incorrect PIN co%e& t,e SIM i& %i&able%- T,e PIN can al&o be *ermanentl) b)*a&&e% b) t,e &er'ice *ro'i%er i+ re3ue&te% b) t,e &ub&criber!i&abling t,e PIN co%e &im*li+ie& t,e call &etu* but re%uce& t,e *rotection o+ t,e u&er4& account in t,e e'ent o+ a &tolen SIMI ter &t!" &l M"(!le Su(scr!(er I'e t!t)* An IMSI i& a&&igne% to eac, aut,ori2e% GSM u&er- It con&i&t& o+ a mobile countr) co%e 0MSC1 mobile net$or# co%e 0MNC1 an% a PLMN uni3ue mobile &ub&criber i%enti+ication number 0MSIN1- T,e IMSI i& not ,ar%$are-&*eci+ic- In&tea% it i& maintaine% on a SC b) an aut,ori2e% &ub&criber an% i& t,e onl) ab&olute i%entit) t,at a &ub&criber ,a& $it,in t,e GSM &)&tem- T,e IMSI con&i&t& o+ t,e MCC +ollo$e% b) t,e NMSI an% &,all not e/cee% "< %igit&-


A TMSI i& a MSC-ALR &*eci+ic alia& t,at i& %e&igne% to maintain u&er con+i%entialit)It i& a&&igne% onl) a+ter &ucce&&+ul &ub&criber aut,entication- T,e correlation o+ a TMSI to an IMSI onl) occur& %uring a mobile &ub&criber4& initial tran&action $it, an MSC 0+or e/am*le location u*%ating1- Un%er certain con%ition 0&uc, a& tra++ic &)&tem %i&ru*tion an% RTTC Luc#no$ ""

Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

mal+unctioning o+ t,e &)&tem1 t,e MSC can %irect in%i'i%ual TMSI& to *ro'i%e t,e MSC $it, t,eir IMSI-


T,e MS international number mu&t be %iale% a+ter t,e international *re+i/ in or%er to obtain a mobile &ub&criber in anot,er countr)- T,e MSIS!N number& i& com*o&e% o+ t,e countr) co%e 0CC1 +ollo$e% b) t,e National Signi+icant Number 0N0S1N1 $,ic, &,all not e/cee% "< %igit&T,e Mobile Station Roaming Number 0MSRN1 T,e MSRN i& allocate% on tem*orar) ba&i& $,en t,e MS roam& into anot,er numbering area- T,e MSRN number i& u&e% b) t,e ?LR +or rerouting call& to t,e MS- It i& a&&igne% u*on %eman% b) t,e ?LR on a *er-call ba&i&- T,e MSRN +or PSTNGIS!N routing &,all ,a'e t,e &ame &tructure a& international IS!N number& in t,e area in $,ic, t,e MSRN i& allocate%- T,e ?LR #no$& in $,at MSCGALR &er'ice area t,e &ub&criber i& locate%- At t,e rece*tion o+ t,e MSRN ?LR &en%& it to t,e GMSC $,ic, can no$ route t,e call to t,e MSCGALR e/c,ange $,ere t,e calle% &ub&criber i& currentl) regi&tere%-


T,e IMEI i& t,e uni3ue i%entit) o+ t,e e3ui*ment u&e% b) a &ub&criber b) eac, PLMN an% i& u&e% to %etermine aut,ori2e% 0$,ite1 unaut,ori2e% 0blac#1 an% mal+unctioning 0gra)1 GSM ,ar%$are- In conBunction $it, t,e IMSI it i& u&e% to en&ure t,at onl) aut,ori2e% u&era are grante% acce&& to t,e &)&tem- An IMEI i& ne'er &ent in ci*,er mo%e b) MS-


T,e 7SS i& a &et o+ 7S e3ui*ment 0&uc, a& tran&cei'er& an% controller&1 t,at i& in 'ie$ b) t,e MSC t,roug, a &ingle A inter+ace a& being t,e entit) re&*on&ible +or communicating $it, MS& in a certain area- T,e ra%io e3ui*ment o+ a 7SS ma) be com*o&e% o+ one or more cell&- A 7SS ma) con&i&t o+ one or more 7S- T,e inter+ace bet$een 7SC an% 7TS i& %e&igne% a& an A-bi& inter+ace- T,e 7SS inclu%e& t$o t)*e& o+ mac,ine&( t,e 7TS in contact $it, t,e MS& t,roug, t,e ra%io inter+ace an% t,e 7SC t,e latter being in contact $it, t,e MSC- T,e +unction &*lit i& ba&icall) bet$een tran&mi&&ion e3ui*ment t,e 7TS an% managing e3ui*ment at t,e 7SC- A 7TS com*are& ra%io tran&mi&&ion an% rece*tion %e'ice& u* to an% inclu%ing t,e antenna& an% al&o all t,e &ignal *roce&&ing &*eci+ic to t,e ra%io inter+ace- A &ingle tran&cei'er $it,in 7TS &u**ort& eig,t ba&ic ra%io c,annel& o+ t,e &ame T!M +rame- A 7SC i& a net$or# com*onent in t,e PLMN t,at +unction +or control o+ one or more 7TS- It i& a +unctional entit) t,at ,an%le& common control +unction& $it,in a 7TSA 7TS i& a net$or# com*onent t,at &er'e& one cell an% i& controlle% b) a 7SC- 7TS i& t)*icall) able to ,an%le t,ree to +i'e ra%io carrie& carr)ing bet$een ;F an% F6 &imultaneou& communication- Re%ucing t,e 7TS 'olume i& im*ortant to #ee*ing %o$n t,e co&t o+ t,e cell &ite&An im*ortant com*onent o+ t,e 7SS t,at i& con&i%ere% in t,e GSM arc,itecture a& a *art o+ t,e 7TS i& t,e Tran&co%erGRate A%a*ter Unit 0TRAU1- T,e TRAU i& t,e e3ui*ment in $,ic, co%ing an% %eco%ing i& carrie% out a& $ell a& rate a%o*tion in ca&e o+ %ata- Alt,oug, t,e &*eci+ication& con&i%er t,e TRAU a& a &ub*art o+ t,e 7TS it can be &ite% a$a) +rom t,e 7TS 0at MSC1 an% e'en bet$een t,e 7SC an% t,e MSCRTTC Luc#no$ ";

Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

T,e inter+ace bet$een t,e MSC an% t,e 7SS i& a &tan%ar%i2e% SS5 inter+ace 0Ainter+ace1 t,at a& &tate% be+ore i& +ull) %e+ine% in t,e GSM recommen%ation&- T,i& allo$& t,e &)&tem o*erator to *urc,a&e &$itc,ing e3ui*ment +rom one &u**lier an% ra%io e3ui*ment an% t,e controller +rom anot,er- T,e inter+ace bet$een t,e 7SC an% a remote 7TS li#e$i&e i& a &tan%ar% t,e A-bi&- In &*litting t,e 7SS +unction& bet$een 7TS an% 7SC t,e main *rinci*le $a& t,at onl) &uc, +unction& t,at ,a% to re&i%e clo&e to t,e ra%io tran&mitter&Grecei'er& &,oul% be *lace% in 7TS- T,i& $ill al&o ,el* re%uce t,e com*le/it) o+ t,e 7TSFu ct!" s "# BTS A& &tate% t,e *rimar) re&*on&ibilit) o+ t,e 7TS i& to tran&mit an% recei'e ra%io &ignal& +rom a mobile unit o'er an air inter+ace- To *er+orm t,i& +unction com*letel) t,e &ignal& are enco%e% encr)*te% multi*le/e% mo%ulate% an% t,en +e% to t,e antenna &)&tem at t,e cell &ite- Tran&-co%ing to bring ":-#b*& &*eec, to a &tan%ar% %ata rate o+ "J #b*& an% t,en combining +our o+ t,e&e &ignal& to JF #b*& i& e&&entiall) a *art o+ 7TS t,oug, it can be %one at 7SC or at MSC- T,e 'oice communication can be eit,er at a +ull or ,al+ rate o'er logical &*eec, c,annel- In or%er to #ee* t,e mobile &)nc,roni2e% 7TS tran&mit& +re3uenc) an% time &)nc,roni2ation &ignal& o'er +re3uenc) correction c,annel 0.CC? an% 7CC? logical c,annel&- T,e recei'e% &ignal +rom t,e mobile i& %eco%e% %ecr)*te% an% e3uali2e% +or c,annel im*airment&Ran%om acce&& %etection i& ma%e b) 7TS $,ic, t,en &en%& t,e me&&age to 7SCT,e c,annel &ub&e3uent a&&ignment i& ma%e b) 7SC- Timing a%'ance i& %etermine% b) 7TS- 7TS &ignal& t,e mobile +or *ro*er timing a%Bu&tment- U*lin# ra%io c,annel mea&urement corre&*on%ing to t,e %o$nlin# mea&urement& ma%e b) MS ,a& to be ma%e b) 7TS-

T,ere are &e'eral 7TS-7SC con+iguration&( &ingle &iteH &ingle cellH &ingle &iteH multicellH an% multi&ite multicell- T,e&e con+iguration& are c,o&en ba&e% on t,e rular or urban a**lication- T,e&e con+iguration& ma#e t,e GSM &)&tem economical &ince t,e o*eration ,a& o*tion& to a%a*t t,e be&t la)out ba&e% on t,e tra++ic re3uirement- T,u& in &ome &en&e &)&tem o*timi2ation i& *o&&ible b) t,e *ro*er c,oice o+ t,e con+iguration- T,e&e inclu%e omni %irectional rural con+iguration $,ere t,e 7SC an% 7TS are on t,e &ame &iteH c,ain an% multi%ro* loo* con+iguration in $,ic, &e'eral 7TS& are controlle% b) a &ingle remote 7SC $it, a c,ain or ring connection to*olog)H rural &tar con+iguration in $,ic, &e'eral 7TS& are connecte% b) in%i'i%ual line& to t,e &ame 7SCH an% &ectori2e% urban con+iguration in $,ic, t,ree 7TS& &,are t,e &ame &ite am% are controlle% b) eit,er a collocate% or remote 7SCIn rural area& mo&t 7S& are in&talle% to *ro'i%e ma/imum co'erage rat,er t,en ma/imum ca*acit)Tr& sc"'er !e*en%ing on t,e relati'e co&t& o+ a tran&mi&&ion *lant +or a *articular cellular o*erator t,ere ma) be &ome bene+it +or larger cell& an% certain net$or# to*ologie& in ,a'ing t,e tran&co%er eit,er at t,e 7TS 7SC or MSC location- I+ t,e tra&co%er i& locate% at MSC t,e) are &till con&i%ere% +unctionall) a *art o+ t,e 7SS- T,i& a**roac, allo$& +or t,e RTTC Luc#no$ ":

Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

ma/imum o+ +le/ibilit) an% inno'ation in o*timi2ing t,e tran&mi&&ion bet$een MSC an% 7TST,e tran&co%er i& t,e %e'ice t,at ta#e& ":-Kb*& &*eec, or :-JGJG";-Kb*& %ata multi*le/e& an% +our o+ t,em to con'ert into &tan%ar% JF-Kb*& %ata- .ir&t t,e ": Kb*& or t,e %ata at :-JGJG"; Kb*& are broug,t u* to t,e le'el o+ "J K*b& b) in&erting a%%itional &)nc,roni2ing %ata to ma#e u* t,e %i++erence bet$een a ":-Kb*& &*eec, or lo$er rate %ata an% t,en +our o+ t,em are combine% in t,e tran&co%er to *ro'i%e JF K*b& c,annel $it,in t,e 7SS- .our tra++ic c,annel can t,en be multi*le/e% on one JF-K*b& circuit- T,u& t,e TRAU out*ut %ata rate i& JF K*b&- T,en u* to :6 &uc, JF-K*b& c,annel& are multi*le/e% onto a ;-6F9 M*b& i+ a CEPT" c,annel i& *ro'i%e% on t,e A-bi& inter+ace- T,i& c,annel can carr) u* to ";6-0"J/ ";61 tra++ic an% control &ignal&- Since t,e %ata rate to t,e PSTN i& normall) at ; Mb*& $,ic, i& t,e re&ult o+ combining :6-Kb*& b) JF-Kb*, c,annel& or ";6- Kb*& b) "JK*b& c,annel&-

T,e 7SC a& %i&cu&&e% i& connecte% to t,e MSC on one &i%e an% to t,e 7TS on t,e ot,er- T,e 7SC *er+orm& t,e Ra%io Re&ource 0RR1 management +or t,e cell& un%er it& control- It a&&ign& an% relea&e +re3uencie& an% time&lot& +or all MS& in it& o$n area- T,e 7SC *er+orm& t,e intercell ,an%o'er +or MS& mo'ing bet$een 7TS in it& control- It al&o reallocate& +re3uencie& to t,e 7TS& in it& area to meet locall) ,ea') %eman%& %uring *ea# ,our& or on &*ecial e'ent&- T,e 7SC control& t,e *o$er tran&mi&&ion o+ bot, 7SS& an% MS& in it& area- T,e minimum *o$er le'el +or a mobile unit i& broa%ca&t o'er t,e 7CC?- T,e 7SC *ro'i%e& t,e time an% +re3uenc) &)nc,roni2ation re+erence &ignal& broa%ca&t b) it& 7TS&- T,e 7SC al&o mea&ure& t,e time %ela) o+ recei'e% MS &ignal& relati'e to t,e 7TS cloc#- I+ t,e recei'e% MS &ignal i& not centere% in it& a&&igne% time&lot at t,e 7TS T,e 7SC can %irect t,e 7TS to noti+) t,e MS to a%'ance t,e timing &uc, t,at *ro*er &)nc,roni2ation ta#e& *lace- T,e +unction& o+ 7SC are a& +ollo$&T,e 7SC ma) al&o *er+orm tra++ic concentration to re%uce t,e number o+ tran&mi&&ion line& +rom t,e 7SC to it& 7TS& a& %i&cu&&e% in t,e la&t &ection-


T,e net$or# an% t,e &$itc,ing &ub&)&tem toget,er inclu%e t,e main &$itc,ing +unction& o+ GSM a& $ell a& t,e %ataba&e& nee%e% +or &ub&criber %ata an% mobilit) management 0ALR1- T,e main role o+ t,e MSC i& to manage t,e communication& bet$een t,e GSM u&er& an% ot,er telecommunication net$or# u&er&- T,e ba&ic &$itc,ing +unction o+ *er+orme% b) t,e MSC $,o&e main +unction i& to coor%inate &etting u* call& to an% +rom GSM u&er&- T,e MSC ,a& inter+ace $it, t,e 7SS on one &i%e 0t,roug, $,ic, MSC ALR i& in contact $it, GSM u&er&1 an% t,e e/ternal net$or#& on t,e ot,er 0IS!NGPSTNGPSP!N1- T,e main %i++erence bet$een a MSC an% an e/c,ange in a +i/e% net$or# i& t,at t,e MSC ,a& to ta#e into account t,e im*act o+ t,e allocation o+ RR& an% t,e mobile nature o+ t,e &ub&criber& an% ,a& to *er+orm in a%%ition at lea&t acti'itie& re3uire% +or t,e location regi&tration an% ,an%o'erT,e MSC i& a tele*,on) &$itc, t,at *er+orm& all t,e &$itc,ing +unction& +or MS& locate% in a geogra*,ical area a& t,e MSC area- T,e MSC mu&t al&o ,an%le %i++erent t)*e& o+ RTTC Luc#no$ "F

Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

number& an% i%entitie& relate% to t,e &ame MS an% containe% in %i++erent regi&ter&( IMSI TMSI IS!N number an% MSRN- In general i%entitie& are u&e% in t,e inter+ace bet$een t,e MSC an% t,e MS $,ile number& are u&e% in t,e +i/e% *art o+ t,e net$or# &uc, a& +or routing-

A& &tate% t,e main +unction o+ t,e MSC i& to coor%inate t,e &et u* o+ call& bet$een GSM mobile an% PSTN u&er&- S*eci+icall) it *er+orm& +unction& &uc, a& *aging re&ource allocation location regi&tration an% encr)*tionS*eci+icall) t,e call-,an%ling +unction o+ *aging i& controlle% b) MSC- MSC coor%inate& t,e &et u* o+ call to an% +rom all GSM &ub&criber& o*erating in it& area&- T,e %)namic& allocation o+ acce&& re&ource& i& %one in coor%ination $it, t,e 7SS- More &*eci+icall) t,e MSC %eci%e& $,en an% $,ic, t)*e& o+ c,annel& &,oul% be a&&igne% to $,ic, MS- T,e c,annel i%entit) an% relate% ra%io *arameter& are t,e re&*on&ibilit) o+ t,e 7SS T,e MSC *ro'i%e& t,e control o+ inter$or#ing $it, %i++erent net$or#&- It i& tran&*arent +or t,e &ub&criber aut,entication *roce%ure- T,e MSC &u*er'i&e& t,e connection tran&+er bet$een %i++erent 7SS& +or MS& $it, an acti'e call mo'ing +rom one call to anot,er- T,i& i& en&ure% i+ t,e t$o 7SS& are connecte% to t,e &ame MSC but al&o $,en t,e) are not - In t,i& latter ca&e t,e *roce%ure i& more com*le/ &ince more t,en one MSC in in'ol'e%- T,e MSC *er+orm& billing on call& +or all &ub&criber& ba&e% in it& area&- W,en t,e &ub&criber i& roaming el&e$,ere t,e MSC obtain& %ata +or t,e call billing +rom t,e 'i&ite% MSC- Encr)*tion *arameter& tran&+er& +rom ALR to 7SS to +acilitate ci*,ering on t,e ra%io inter+ace are %one b) MSC- T,e e/c,ange o+ &ignaling in+ormation on t,e 'ariou& inter+ace to$ar% t,e ot,er net$or# element& an% t,e management o+ t,e inter+ace t,em&el'e& are all controlle% b) t,e MSC- .inall) t,e MSC &er'e& a& a SMS gate$a) to +or$ar% SMS me&&age& +rom S,ort Me&&age Ser'ice Center& 0SMSC1 to t,e &ub&criber& an% +rom t,e &ub&criber& to t,e SMSC&It t,u& act& a& a me&&age mailbo/ an% %eli'er) &)&tem-

T,e ALR i& collocate% $it, an MSC- A MS roaming in an MSC area i& controlle% b) t,e ALR re&*on&ible +or t,at area- W,en a MS a**ear& in a LA it &tart& a regi&tration *roce%ure- T,e MSC +or t,at area notice& t,i& regi&tration an% tran&+er& to t,e ALR t,e i%enti+) o+ t,e LA $,ere t,e MS i& &ituate%- A ALR ma) be in c,arge o+ one or &e'eral MSC LA4&- T,e ALR con&titute& t,e %ataba&e& t,at &u**ort t,e MSC in t,e &torage an% retrie'al o+ t,e %ata o+ &ub&criber& *re&ent in it& area- W,en an MS enter& t,e MSC area bor%er& it &ignal& it& arri'al to t,e MSC t,at &tore& it& i%enti+) in t,e ALR- T,e in+ormation nece&&ar) to manage t,e MS i& containe% in t,e ?LR an% i& tran&+erre% to t,e ALR &o t,at t,e) can be ea&il) retrie'e% i+ &o re3uire%-


T,e %ata containe% in t,e ALR an% in t,e ?LR are more or le&& t,e &ameNe'ert,ele&& t,e %ata are *re&ent in t,e ALR onl) a& long a& t,e MS i& regi&tere% in t,e area relate% to t,at ALR- !ata a&&ociate% $it, t,e mo'ement o+ mobile are IMSI MSIS!N MSRN an% TMSI- T,e term& *ermanent an% tem*orar) in t,i& ca&e are meaning+ul onl) %uring t,at time inter'al- Some %ata are man%ator) ot,er& are o*tional"<

RTTC Luc#no$

Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _


T,e ?LR i& a %ataba&e t,at *ermanentl) &tore& %ata relate% to a gi'en &et o+ &ub&criber&- T,e ?LR i& t,e re+erence %ataba&e +or &ub&criber *arameter&- Aariou& i%enti+ication number& an% a%%re&&e& a& $ell a& aut,entication *arameter& &er'ice& &ub&cribe% an% &*ecial routing in+ormation are &tore%- Current &ub&criber &tatu& inclu%ing a &ub&criber4& tem*orar) roaming number an% a&&ociate% ALR i+ t,e mobile i& roaming are maintaine%T,e ?LR *ro'i%e& %ata nee%e% to route call& to all MS-SIM& ,ome ba&e% in it& MSC area e'en $,en t,e) are roaming out o+ area or in ot,er GSM net$or#&- T,e ?LR *ro'i%e& t,e current location %ata nee%e% to &u**ort &earc,ing +or an% *aging t,e MS-SIM +or incoming call& $,ere'er t,e MS-SIM ma) be- T,e ?LR i& re&*on&ible +or &torage an% *ro'i&ion o+ SIM aut,entication an% encr)*tion *arameter& nee%e% b) t,e MSC $,ere t,e MS-SIM i& o*erating- It obtain& t,e&e *arameter& +rom t,e AUCT,e ?LR maintain& recor% o+ $,ic, &u**lementar) &er'ice eac, u&er ,a& &ub&cribe% to an% *ro'i%e& *ermi&&ion control in granting &er'ice&- T,e ?LR &tore& t,e i%enti+ication o+ SMS gate$a)& t,at ,a'e me&&age& +or t,e &ub&criber un%er t,e SMS until t,e) can be tran&mitte% to t,e &ub&criber an% recei*t i& #no$le%geSome %ata are man%ator) ot,er %ata are o*tional- 7ot, t,e ?LR an% t,e ALR can be im*lemente% in t,e &ame e3ui*ment in an MSC 0collocate%1- A PLMN ma) contain one or &e'eral ?LR&-

T,e AUC &tore& in+ormation t,at i& nece&&ar) to *rotect communication t,roug, t,e air inter+ace again&t intru&ion& to $,ic, t,e mobile i& 'ulnerable- T,e legitimac) o+ t,e &ub&criber i& e&tabli&,e% t,roug, aut,entication an% ci*,ering $,ic, *rotect& t,e u&er in+ormation again&t un$ante% %i&clo&ure- Aut,entication in+ormation an% ci*,ering #e)& are &tore% in a %ataba&e $it,in t,e AUC $,ic, *rotect& t,e u&er in+ormation again&t un$ante% %i&clo&ure an% acce&&In t,e aut,entication *roce%ure t,e #e) Ki i& ne'er tran&mitte% to t,e mobile o'er t,e air *at, onl) a ran%om number i& &ent- In or%er to gain acce&& to t,e &)&tem t,e mobile mu&t *ro'i%e t,e correct Signe% Re&*on&e 0SRES1 in an&$er to a ran%om number 0RAN!1 generate% b) AUCAl&o Ki an% t,e ci*,er #e) Kc are ne'er tran&mitte% acro&& t,e air inter+ace bet$een t,e 7TS an% t,e MS- Onl) t,e ran%om c,allenge an% t,e calculate% re&*on&e are tran&mitte%T,u& t,e 'alue o+ Ki an% Kc are #e*t &ecure- T,e ci*,er #e) on t,e ot,er ,an% i& tran&mitte% on t,e SS5 lin# bet$een t,e ,ome ?LRGAUC an% t,e 'i&ite% MSC $,ic, i& a *oint o+ *otential 'ulnerabilit)- On t,e ot,er ,an% t,e ran%om number an% ci*,er #e) i& &u**o&e% to c,ange $it, eac, *,one call &o +in%ing t,em on one call $ill not bene+it u&ing t,em on t,e ne/t callT,e ?LR i& al&o re&*on&ible +or t,e =aut,entication> o+ t,e &ub&criber eac, time ,e ma#e& or recei'e& a call- T,e AUC $,ic, actuall) *er+orm& t,i& +unction i& a &e*arate GSM entit) t,at $ill o+ten be *,)&icall) inclu%e% $it, t,e ?LR- 7eing &e*arate it $ill u&e &e*arate *roce&&ing e3ui*ment +or t,e AUC %ataba&e +unction&RTTC Luc#no$ "J

Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _


EIR i& a %ataba&e t,at &tore& t,e IMEI number& +or all regi&tere% ME unit&- T,e IMEI uni3uel) i%enti+ie& all regi&tere% ME- T,ere i& generall) one EIR *er PLMN- It inter+ace& to t,e 'ariou& ?LR in t,e PLMN- T,e EIR #ee*& trac# o+ all ME unit& in t,e PLMN- It maintain& 'ariou& li&t& o+ me&&age- T,e %ataba&e &tore& t,e ME i%enti+ication an% ,a& not,ing %o $it, &ub&criber $,o i& recei'ing or originating call- T,ere are t,ree cla&&e& o+ ME t,at are &tore% in t,e %ataba&e an% eac, grou* ,a& %i++erent c,aracteri&tic& W,ite Li&t( contain& t,o&e IMEI& t,at are #no$n to ,a'e been a&&igne% to 'ali% MS4&- T,i& i& t,e categor) o+ genuine e3ui*ment7lac# Li&t( contain& IMEI& o+ mobile& t,at ,a'e been re*orte% &tolenGra) Li&t( contain& IMEI& o+ mobile& t,at ,a'e *roblem& 0+or e/am*le +ault) &o+t$are $rong ma#e o+ t,e e3ui*ment1- T,i& li&t contain& all ME& $it, +ault& not im*ortant enoug, +or barring-

GSM *ro'i%e% a $i%e range o+ %ata &er'ice& to it& &ub&criber&- T,e GSM &)&tem inter+ace $it, t,e 'ariou& +orm& o+ *ublic an% *ri'ate %ata net$or#& currentl) a'ailable- It i& t,e Bob o+ t,e IW. to *ro'i%e t,i& inter+acing ca*abilit)-

T,e IW. $,ic, in e&&ence i& a *art o+ MSC *ro'i%e& t,e &ub&criber $it, acce&& to %ata rate an% *rotocol con'er&ion +acilitie& &o t,at %ata can be tran&mitte% bet$een GSM !ata Terminal E3ui*ment 0!TE1 an% a lan%-line !TE-

EC i& u&e% on t,e PSTN &i%e o+ t,e MSC +or all 'oice circuit&- T,e EC i& re3uire% at t,e MSC PSTN inter+ace to re%uce t,e e++ect o+ GSM %ela) $,en t,e mobile i& connecte% to t,e PSTN circuit- T,e total roun%-tri* %ela) intro%uce% b) t,e GSM &)&tem $,ic, i& t,e re&ult o+ &*eec, enco%ing %eco%ing an% &ignal *roce&&ing i& o+ t,e or%er o+ "96 m&Normall) t,i& %ela) $oul% not be an anno)ing +actor to t,e mobile e/ce*t $,en communicating to PSTN a& it re3uire& a t$o-$ire to +our-$ire ,)bri% tran&+ormer in t,e circuit- T,i& ,)bri% i& re3uire% at t,e local &$itc,ing o++ice becau&e t,e &tan%ar% local loo* i& a t$o-$ire circuit- !ue to t,e *re&ence o+ t,i& ,)bri% &ome o+ t,e energ) at it& +our-$ire recei'e &i%e +rom t,e mobile i& cou*le% to t,e +our-$ire tran&mit &i%e an% t,u& retran&mitte% to t,e mobile- T,i& cau&e& t,e ec,o $,ic, %oe& not e++ect t,e lan% &ub&criber but i& an anno)ing +actor to t,e mobile- T,e &tan%ar% EC cancel& about 56 m& o+ %ela)!uring a normal PSTN 0lan%-to-lan% call1 no ec,o i& a**arent becau&e t,e %ela) i& too &,ort an% t,e lan% u&er i& unable to %i&tingui&, bet$een t,e ec,o an% t,e normal tele*,one =&i%e tone&> ?o$e'er $it, t,e GSM roun%-tri* %ela) a%%e% an% $it,out t,e EC t,e e++ect $oul% be irritating to t,e MS &ub&criberOPERATION AND MAINTENANCE CENTER
T,e OMC *ro'i%e& alarm-,an%ling +unction& to re*ort an% log alarm& generate% b) t,e ot,er net$or# entitie&- T,e maintenance *er&onnel at t,e OMC can %e+ine t,at criticalit) o+ t,e alarm- Maintenance co'er bot, tec,nical an% a%mini&trati'e action& to maintain an% correct t,e &)&tem o*eration or to re&tore normal o*eration& a+ter a brea#%o$n in t,e &,orte&t *o&&ible time-

T,e +ault management +unction& o+ t,e OMC allo$ net$or# %e'ice& to be manuall) or automaticall) remo'e% +rom or re&tore% to &er'ice- T,e &tatu& o+ net$or# %e'ice& can be RTTC Luc#no$ "5

Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

c,ec#e% an% te&t& an% %iagno&tic& on 'ariou& %e'ice& can be in'o#e%- .or e/am*le %iagno&tic& ma) be initiate% remotel) b) t,e OMC- A mobile call trace +acilit) can al&o be in'o#e%- T,e *er+ormance management +unction& inclu%e% collecting tra++ic &tati&tic& +rom t,e GSM net$or# entitie& an% arc,i'ing t,em in %i&# +ile& or %i&*la)ing t,em +or anal)&i&7ecau&e a *otential to collect large amount& o+ %ata e/i&t& maintenance *er&onal can &elect $,ic, o+ t,e %etaile% &tati&tic& to be collecte% ba&e% on *er&onal intere&t& an% *a&t e/*erienceA& a re&ult o+ *er+ormance anal)&i& i+ nece&&ar) an alarm can be &et remotel)T,e OMC *ro'i%e& &)&tem c,ange control +or t,e &o+t$are re'i&ion& an% con+iguration %ata ba&e& in t,e net$or# entitie& or u*loa%e% to t,e OMC- T,e OMC al&o #ee*& trac# o+ t,e %i++erent &o+t$are 'er&ion& running on %i++erent &ub&)&tem o+ t,e GSM-

RTTC Luc#no$


Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

It i& im*ortant to note t,at all t,e GSM &er'ice& $ere not intro%uce% &ince t,e a**earance o+ GSM but t,e) ,a'e been intro%uce% in a regular $a)- T,e GSM Memoran%um o+ Un%er&tan%ing 0MoU1 %e+ine% +our cla&&e& +or t,e intro%uction o+ t,e %i++erent GSM &er'ice&( E"( intro%uce% at t,e &tart o+ t,e &er'iceE;( intro%uce% at t,e en% o+ "88"E,( intro%uce% on a'ailabilit) o+ ,al+-rate c,annel&A( t,e&e &er'ice& are o*tionalT,ree categorie& o+ &er'ice& can be %i&tingui&,e%( Tele&er'ice&7earer &er'ice&Su**lementar) Ser'ice&-

- Tele*,on) 0E"N E,1- .ac&imile grou* : 0E"1- Emergenc) call& 0E"N E,1- Telete/S,ort Me&&age Ser'ice& 0E" E; A1 U&ing t,e&e &er'ice& a me&&age o+ a ma/imum o+ "J6 al*,anumeric c,aracter& can be &ent to or +rom a mobile &tation- I+ t,e mobile i& *o$ere% o++ t,e me&&age i& &tore%- Wit, t,e SMS Cell 7roa%ca&t 0SMS-C71 a me&&age o+ a ma/imum o+ 8: c,aracter& can be broa%ca&t to all mobile& in a certain geogra*,ical area- .a/ mail- T,an#& to t,i& &er'ice t,e &ub&criber can recei'e +a/ me&&age& at an) +a/ mac,ine- Aoice mail- T,i& &er'ice corre&*on%& to an an&$ering mac,ine-

Bearer services
A bearer &er'ice i& u&e% +or tran&*orting u&er %ata- Some o+ t,e bearer &er'ice& are li&te% belo$( A&)nc,ronou& an% &)nc,ronou& %ata :66-8J66 b*& 0E"1Alternate &*eec, an% %ata :66-8J66 b*& 0E"1A&)nc,ronou& PA! 0*ac#et-&$itc,e% *ac#et a&&emblerG%i&&embler1 acce&& :66-8J66 b*& 0E"1RTTC Luc#no$ "8

Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

S)nc,ronou& %e%icate% *ac#et %ata acce&& ;F66-8J66 b*& 0E;1-

Supplementary Services
- Call .or$ar%ing 0E"1- T,e &ub&criber can +or$ar% incoming call& to anot,er number i+ t,e calle% mobile i& bu&) 0C.71 unreac,able 0C.NRc1 or i+ t,ere i& no re*l) 0C.NR)1Call +or$ar%ing can al&o be a**lie% uncon%itionall) 0C.U1- Call 7arring- T,ere are %i++erent t)*e& o+ Ocall barringP &er'ice&( 7arring o+ All Outgoing Call& 7AOC 0E"17arring o+ Outgoing International Call& 7OIC 0E"17arring o+ Outgoing International Call& e/ce*t t,o&e %irecte% to$ar% t,e ?ome PLMN Countr) 7OIC-e/?C 0E"17arring o+ All Incoming Call& 7AIC 0E"1 7arring o+ incoming call& $,en roaming 0A1Call ,ol%& 0E;1 *ut& an acti'e call on ,ol%-

- Call Waiting CW 0E;1 in+orm& t,e u&er %uring a con'er&ation about anot,er incoming call- T,e u&er can an&$er reBect or ignore t,i& incoming call- A%'ice o+ C,arge AoC 0E;1 *ro'i%e& t,e u&er $it, online c,arge in+ormation- Multi*art) &er'ice 0E;1 Po&&ibilit) o+ e&tabli&,ing a multi*art) con'er&ation- Clo&e% U&er Grou* CUG 0A1- It corre&*on%& to a grou* o+ u&er& $it, limite% *o&&ibilitie& o+ calling 0onl) t,e *eo*le o+ t,e grou* an% certain number&1- Calling Line I%enti+ication Pre&entation CLIP 0A1- It &u**lie& t,e calle% u&er $it, t,e IS!N o+ t,e calling u&er- Calling Line I%enti+ication Re&triction CLIR 0A1- It enable& t,e calling u&er to re&trict t,e *re&entation- Connecte% Line i%enti+ication Pre&entation CoLP 0A1- It &u**lie& t,e calling u&er $it, t,e %irector) number ,e get& i+ ,i& call i& +or$ar%e%- Connecte% Line i%enti+ication Re&triction CoLR 0A1- It enable& t,e calle% u&er to re&trict t,e *re&entation- O*erator %etermine% barring 0A1- Re&triction o+ %i++erent &er'ice& an% call t)*e& b) t,e o*erator-

RTTC Luc#no$


Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _


STK i& SIM Tool Kit in $,ic, 'ariou& &er'ice& are a'ailable to &ub&criber &uc, a& rail$a) en3uir) ne$& cric#et an% man) more- T,e&e &er'ice& can be acce&&e% +rom CELLONE menuProce%ure o+ STK &er'ice&( Eac, 7SNL SIM ,a& an o*tion Cellone in t,e menu- T,i& o*tion contain& 'ariou& Aalue a%%e% Ser'ice& in %i++erent Menu&GSubmenu&- W,ene'er a cu&tomer $ant& to u&e an) o+ t,e &er'ice& ,eG&,e ,a& to &im*l) na'igate t,roug, t,e corre&*on%ing MenuGSubmenu reac, t,e concerne% &er'ice an% &elect itT,e &)&tem automaticall) con'ert& it to an SMS &en%& it to t,e AAS *ro'i%er an% get& t,e re*l)- T,e o*tion& in t,i& menu can be u*%ate% %irectl) b) t,e AAS *ro'i%er $it,out inter'ention o+ t,e cu&tomer b) u&ing O'er T,e Air 0OTA1 e3ui*mentTari++ +or STK &er'ice&(

Sr- Name o+ content un%er STK MenuNo 6" Plain te/t(-Ne$& A&trolog) .inance Cric#et TA Sc,e%ule Career Entertainment 0!ating G Bo#e& G Conte&t GGame&1 Mo'ie G re'ie$& .la&, SMS G cit) Gui%e Airline in+o an% Mi&cellaneou&-

En% u&er *rice 0R&1 ;-66

6;- Premium Te/t(-Rail$a)- Ser'ice& 6: Premium Non te/t !o$nloa%&(-Ring tone& *icture me&&age&G logo& etc-

;-66 <-66 < 5 "6 "< ;6

6F- Picture me&&age (- Logo& Animate% SMS

RTTC Luc#no$


Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

Li&t o+ &er'ice& on "J K SIM CAR!

Li&t o+ &er'ice& on "J K SIM CAR!

USS!(Un&tructure% &er'ice &u**lementar) %ata .eature& o+ USS!( Se&&ion oriente% A menu ba&e% &er'ice .le/ible to %e&ign %)namic menu& Acce&&ible %irectl) +rom *,one &creen
RTTC Luc#no$ ;;

Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

E/tremel) u&er +rien%l) Almo&t 5 time& +a&ter t,an con'entional SMS Q A me&&age o+ a ma/imum o+ "9; c,aracter& USS! ,a& a %ialogue conce*t but no &tore I +or$ar% 7ene+it& o+ USS!( No clogging inbo/ &ince t,ere i& no &toring mec,ani&m .a&ter Non intru&i'e alert& can be recei'e% $it,out +illing u* )our SMS inbo/ t,e) are,e%4 on t,e mobile &creen

Customers can register for this service by dialling the activation code *456#and select the subjects of their choice for which they need information.



De&ct!%&t! " C"'e EF<JE;;S EF<JE85S EF<JE5;S EF<JE";S EF<JEJ:5S EF<JE:;S EF<JE68S EF<JE98S

N" "# t!5es ! #"r5&t!" $!ll (e 7!%e 4er '&) 3 2 . 0 -

R&te 4er 5" t6 Rs*01/+ Rs*-./+ Rs*01/+ Rs*01/+ Rs*01/+ Rs*01/+ Rs*01/+ Rs*-./+

A&trolog) Automobile 7,aga$a% Gita Cric#et ?ealt, Care Ne$& On Gan%,iBi Wor% o+ t,e %a)

Note: Cylinder booking service to start shortly through USSD.

T Mobile TA( T,e &ub&criber& $ill be able to $atc, bot, Li'e TA an% On !eman% Ai%eo $,ile on mo'eT !eli'er& $i%e 'arietie& o+ content& +or mobile TA I 'i%eo &olution to 7SNL4& E!GEGGPRSG:G Cu&tomer&T 7SNL along $it, APALUA Tec,nologie& *ro'i%e& $orl% cla&& TA t,roug, GSM mobile ?an%&et& to 7SNL4& E!GEGGPRSG:G cu&tomer& V M)mobi TAT Proce%ure o+ acti'ation( To a'ail t,i& &er'ice ;G &ub&criber& ,a'ing E!GEGGPRS nee%& to &en% an SMS MYT, to ..99: an% %o$nloa% 5!5"(!*t% a**lication- :G &ub&criber& nee%& to &en% an SMS MY0GT, to ..99: an% %o$nloa% 5!5"(!*t% a**lication-

RTTC Luc#no$


Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

T Uou can al&o %o$nloa% t,e a**lication +rom ,tt*(GG<8-"J;-"JJ-;"6(9696GOTAG!o$nloa%MimobiTAG T To regi&ter +or MIMO7I-TA %o$nloa% MIMO7I-TA client- T,en MIMO7I-TA icon $ill be a'ailable in )our *,one an% clic# it to go t,roug, t,e regi&tration *roce&&- Go to o*tion& button an% &elect t,e &ub&cri*tion Plan eit,er Mont,l) Plan or Pa)-Per-Aie$ *lanT .rom "<t, Se* ;668 on$ar%& 7ro$&ing C,arge& in accor%ance $it, ;G !ata Plan& I :G !ata Plan& $ill be a**licable- !etail& regar%ing c,ange in APN &etting& $ill be intimate% later b) Wone&T Aariou& TA c,annel& a'ailable on RMobile TA4 A**lication o+ 7SNL are a& +ollo$&( 0a1 Non Premium C,annel&(- N!TA AAMTAK CARTOON NETWORK TIMES NOW WOOM 7IN!ASS IN!IA TA CNN-Mobile0b1 Premium C,annel&(- Si%%,iAina)a# ?ari#ri&,na Ka&,i ?aBiAli S,ir%i .a&,ionTA etc0c1 Regional C,annel&(- ETA 7angla RAM TA MAUA TA MAUA Plu& ETA; TA8 In%ia Ai&ion etc .or late&t u*%ate& on content& get in touc, $it, 2one& lateron

Pac ages offered

MIMOBI. ! is o""ered in "ive di""erent #ackages.
Pr!ce 4"! ts R& "6GR& :6GR& 88GR& <6GR&"<6GPl& s Per %a) *er c,annel- $atc, an) c,annel 0PremiumGnon*remiumGregionalGnon regional1 unlimite% 'ie$ing +or one +ull %a) Mont,l) &ub&cri*tion +or one non *remiumGnon regional c,annel out o+ :< Non *remiumG non-regional c,annel& Mont,l) &ub&cri*tion +or bou3uet o+ "; non *remiumG nonregional c,annel& out o+ :< Non *remiumG non-regional c,annel& Mont,l) &ub&cri*tion +or one regionalG*remium c,annel out o+ "; regionalG*remium c,annel&Mont,l) &ub&cri*tion +or "< &*eci+ie% non *remium c,annel& 0inclu%ing &ome regional c,annel&1-

RTTC Luc#no$


Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

T General *ac#et ra%io &er'ice 0 GPRS 1( I& t,e gro$t, in GSM to$ar%& :GGUMTS-Intro%uce% +or %ata connecti'it) to GSM u&er&- T,i& can *ro'i%e u*to "5"-;KbG& t,eoreticall) an% *racticall) aroun% :6-F6KbG&T .eature& o+ GPRS( "- Su**ort& Circuit &$itc,ing an% Pac#et &$itc,ing ;- MS utili2e& ARX at %ata lin# la)er :- Multi*le time&lot& can be a&&igne% to a &ingle u&erF- One time&lot can be allotte% to &e'eral u&er& <- C,arging i& 'olume ba&e%GPRS SER,ICES: T C"55u !c&t!" s+E-mail +a/ intranetG internet 7SNL Li'e acce&&T ,&lue &''e' ser%!ces +In+ormation &er'ice& game& Entertainment &er'ice&T L"c&t!" +(&se' &44l!c&t!" s ;Re&ource training Management &er'ice *eo*le +in%er T A'%ert!s! 7 + re&taurant recei'ing +la&,e& o+ a%'erti&ement etcGPRS sett! 7s < us&7e: !o$nloa% t,e &etting& 0automatic or manual1 Sub&cribe +or GPRS &er'ice an% bro$&e t,e &ite I &tart u&ing t,e &er'ice&- 7ro$&ing o+ Internet +rom La*to*& an% !e&#to* com*uter& i& *o&&ible b) connecting t,e com*uter $it, t,e GPRS enable% mobile ,an%&et t,roug, a %ata cable or In+rare% connecti'it)Multime%ia Ser'ice&( Multime%ia Me&&aging Ser'ice 0MMS1 i& a &tore an% +or$ar% me&&aging &er'ice t,at allo$& mobile &ub&criber& to e/c,ange multime%ia me&&age& $it, ot,er mobile &ub&criber&- P,otogra*,& Picture& *o&tcar%& greeting car%& *re&entation I &tatic $eb *age& can be &ent an% recei'e% li#e +i/e% tele*,one- Picture& 'i%eo cli*& can be &ent to internet &ite or +rien%& t,roug, :G mobile %e'ice-

RTTC Luc#no$


Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

Multime%ia Me&&aging - An) combination o+ me%ia t)*e&

I5&7 es
H! Gr& '5&=


!tt! 7 B&()s "$> r r t"5"

,!'e" & ' Au'!"


T MMS me&&aging &er'ice&( P;P communication an% M;P communicationT Bl&c?(err) i& a Mobile *,one $,ic, allo$& )ou to get in&tant e-mail& on )our 7lac#7err) ,an%,el%- T,e&e e-mail& are *u&,-ba&e% e-mail& an% acce&& i& a'ailable to e-mail& $,ile roaming nationall) an% Internationall) in &elect location&- T,e&e e-mail& can be )our o++icial email& an% al&o )our *er&onal e-mail&- 7lac#berr) al&o allo$& )ou to &ur+ t,e internet- 7lac#berr) $or#& on t,e 7SNL4& GSM net$or# ,a'ing GPRS GE!GE G :G %ata enable% net$or#- Aia t,e 7SNL4& %ata net$or# )our mail& are &ent an% recei'e% +rom )our 7lac#berr) ,an%,el%-7lac#berr) $or#& on t,e 7SNL4& GPRS G E!GE G :G *lat+orm7lac#berr) $or#& on t,e Pu&, tec,nolog)-In Y Pu&, tec,nolog)Y - t,e mail once reac,e& ,i& G ,er mail &er'erG mailbo/ $ill be automaticall) in%icate% on t,e ,an%,el% o'er t,e GPRS G E!GE G :G net$or#- In t,i& t,e cu&tomer nee% not log in or go t,roug, t,e abo'e *roce%ure- ?e ,a& to log in once at t,e time o+ initiation o+ ,i& accountG&er'ice an% t,en ,e i& =Al$a)& ON Al$a)& connecte%Y to get ,i& mail $,ere'er GPRS G E!GE G :G &er'ice i& a'ailable-

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Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

Overview of WLL
INTRODUCTION : -Telecom Sector i& a%'ancing %a) b) %a) $it, ne$ &er'ice& an% ne$ +acilitie& +or cu&tomer&- Wit, t,e intro%uction o+ %igital tec,nolog) bot, in &$itc,ing an% tran&mi&&ion area&?o$e'er one &igni+icant area $,ic, ,a& not c,ange% muc, i& =Local Loo* or Acce&& Net$or#>- T,i& area $,ic, connect& t,e cu&tomer to tele*,one E/c,ange #no$n a& =La&t mile connecti'it)> mo&tl) remain& on co**er net$or#- Recent tren%& are to intro%uce eit,er .I7RE or WIRELESS in t,i& area-

COPPER BASED LOCAL LOOP : -Local Loo* &tart& +rom t,e Main !i&tribution +rame 0M!.1 o+ t,e Tele*,one E/c,ange an% *a&&e& t,roug, &e'eral +le/ibilit) *oint& li#e Cabinet Pillar an% !i&tribution Point in UGG Cable& an% +rom !P to cu&tomer *remi&e& on o'er,ea% in&ulate% co**er $ire 0!ro* Wire1-

DISADVANTAGES OF COPPER NET OR! : -" Co**er i& co&tl) an% t,e re&ource +or co**er ma#e& it co&tlier e'er) %a); In&tallation o+ net$or# i& time con&uming- In ca&e o+ la)ing o+ cable&: Co**er ba&e% net$or# i& *rone to +ault& electromagnetic inter+erence etcF Maintenance i& al&o %i++icult an% time con&uming< Recon+iguration i& not *o&&ibleJ E/*an&ion i& al&o *o&e& a ,ur%le &ince la)ing o+ a%%itional cable& al$a)& cau&e& conge&tion in M!. an% ot,er +le/ibilit) *oint&5 7an%$i%t, o+ o*eration in co**er i& limite% e'en t,oug, !SL tec,nologie& 0$,ic, are %i&tance limite%1 tr) to en,ance t,e ban%$i%t,9 Co&t *er line i& %e*en%ent on t,e %i&tance-

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Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

"rele## $a# %ot t$e &ollo'"n% a()anta%e# : -"- T,e co&t o+ local loo* b) $ire line& man) time& more t,an t,e co&t o+ local loo* b) WLL &)&tem;- T,e co&t o+ $ireline net$or# i& 'er) co&tl) %ue to u&e o+ co**er:- T,e co&t o+ $ireline i& %e*en% on %i&tance an% t,i& +actor i& not a++ecte% in WLL &)&temF- I+ t,e cu&tomer $i%ra$ ,i& &re'ice& t,e e/*en%iture +or t,e &ame i& lo&t in t,e $ireline &)&tem but in WLL &)&tem &im*l) CPE are ta#en bac# an% in&talle% at anot,er *lace< In $ireline &)&tem man) termination *oint& in t,e e/ternal *lant cau&e& +ault& time to time an% t,i& +actor i& not a++ecte% in WLL &)&temJ- WLL &)&tem ma) *ro'i%e& mobilit) +a/ internet an% %ata tran&mi&&ion to all cu&tomer but in $ireline &)&tem t,e&e +acilitie& ma) be *ro'i%e% to IS!N cu&tomer onl)5- Wll &)&tem i& 'er) u&e+ul $,ere cable la)ing i& not *o&&ible-


LL S*STE+ : --

,A- LL Cor DECT : -- Cor i& t,e monogram o+ t,e manu+acturer I !ECT &tan% +or !igital En,ance% Car%le&& Telecommunication- It i& an Uro*ean &)&tem an% ba&e% on .!MAGT!MAGT!! Tec,nolog),B- LL CD+A : -- It $a& lanc,e% b) E&cort Aen%or LG an% ba&e% on Co%e !i'i&ion Multi*le Acce&&- Some time it i& calle% .i/e% CellularBASIC ARCHITECTURE OF WLL@COR DECTA :


Connecti'it) bet$een LE 0local e/c,ange1 an% 7SC 07a&e Station Controller1 can be eit,er on A<-; or R;M. or CCS5 %e*en%ing on 7SC +unctioning in RLU mo%e or in%e*en%ent &$itc, re&*ecti'el)7SC i& connecte% to &e'eral 7TS& an% eac, connection i& generall) ;Mb*&- T,i& connecti'it) i& calle% =Abi&>-7TS i& connecte% to Mobile or .i/e% Wirele&& Terminal 0.WT1 b) air inter+ace calle% =Um>-

INTRODUCTION TO CD+A./// : -T,e +ir&t o*erational cellular communication &)&tem $a& %e*lo)e% in t,e Nor$a) in "89" an% $a& +ollo$e% b) &imilar &)&tem& in t,e US an% UK- T,e&e
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Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

+ir&t generation &)&tem& *ro'i%e% 'oice tran&mi&&ion& b) u&ing +re3uencie& aroun% 866 M?2 an% analogue mo%ulationT,e &econ% generation 0;G1 o+ t,e $irele&& mobile net$or# $a& ba&e% on lo$-ban% %igital %ata &ignaling- W,ile GSM an% ot,er T!MA-ba&e% &)&tem& ,a'e become t,e %ominant ;G $irele&&e& tec,nologie& C!MA tec,nolog) IS 8<A i& recogni2e% a& *ro'i%ing clearer 'oice 3ualit) $it, le&& bac#groun% noi&e +e$er %ro**e% call& en,ance% &ecurit) greater reliabilit) an% greater net$or# ca*acit)T,e Secon% Generation 0;G1 $irele&& net$or#& mentione% abo'e are al&o mo&tl) ba&e% on circuit-&$itc,e% tec,nolog) are %igital an% e/*an% t,e range o+ a**lication& to more a%'ance% 'oice &er'ice&- ;G $irele&& tec,nologie& can ,an%le &ome %ata ca*abilitie& &uc, a& +a/ an% &,ort me&&age &er'ice at t,e %ata rate o+ u* to 8-J #b*& but it i& not &uitable +or $eb bro$&ing an% multime%ia a**lication&- In t,e $orl% o+ ;G 'oice remain& #ing $,ile %ata i& alrea%) %ominant in $ire line communication&- An% +i/e% or $irele&& all are a++ecte% b) t,e ra*i% gro$t, o+ t,e Internet?ence in mobile $orl% al&o t,e aim $a& to ac,ie'e ,ig,er %ata &*ee%ITU al&o *ro*o&e% t,e conce*tual :G0G OR IMT+-111: International Mobile Telecommunication&-;666 0IMT-;6661 i& t,e o++icial International Telecommunication Union name +or :G an% i& an initiati'e inten%e% to *ro'i%e $irele&& acce&& to global telecommunication in+ra&tructure t,roug, bot, &atellite an% terre&trial &)&tem& &er'ing +i/e% an% mobile *,one u&er& 'ia bot, *ublic an% *ri'ate tele*,one net$or#&- To%a)P& :G &*eci+ication& call +or "FF KbG& $,ile t,e u&er i& on t,e mo'e in an automobile or train :9F KbG& +or *e%e&trian& an% u*& to ; MbG& +or &tationar) u&er&- T,at i& a big &te* u* +rom ;G ban%$i%t, u&ing 9 to ": KbG& *er c,annel to tran&*ort &*eec, &ignal&7ut no &ingle tec,nolog) coul% be e'ol'e% a& :G-

THIRD GENERATION STANDARDS C!MA;666G.!!-MC Z C!MA;666 u&ing .re3uenc) !i'i&ion !u*le/ing-Multicarrier 0.!!-MC1 mo%e- ?ere multicarrier im*lie& N / "-;< M?2 c,annel& o'erlai% on N e/i&ting IS-8< carrier& or %e*lo)e% on unoccu*ie% &*ectrum- C!MA;666 inclu%e&( "/ Zu&ing a &*rea%ing rate o+ "-;;99 Mc*&
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Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

:/ Zu&ing a &*rea%ing rate o+ : / "-;;99 Mc*& or :-J9JF Mc*& "/EA-!O 0"/ E'olution V !ata O*timi2e%1Zu&ing a &*rea%ing rate o+ "-;;99 Mc*& o*timi2e% +or %ata WC!MAG.!!-!S ZWi%eban% C!MA 0WC!MA1 .re3uenc) !i'i&ion !u*le/ing-!irect Se3uence &*rea%ing 0.!!-!S1 mo%e- T,i& ,a& a &ingle < M?2 c,annel- WC!MA u&e& a &ingle carrier *er c,annel an% em*lo)& a &*rea%ing rate o+ :-9F Mc*&UTRA T!!G T!-SC!MA Z Uni'er&al Mobile Tele*,one Ser'ice& Terre&trial Ra%io Acce&& 0UTRA1 an% T!-SC!MA- T,e&e are Time !i'i&ion !u*le/e% 0T!!1 &tan%ar%& aime% *rimaril) at a&)mmetric &er'ice& u&e% in un*aire% 0i-e- no &e*arate u*lin# an% %o$nlin#1 ban%&- T!-SC!MA i& ba&e% on a &)nc,ronou& Time !i'i&ion &c,eme +or T!! an% $irele&& local loo* a**lication&- T,e +rame an% &lot &tructure are t,e &ame a& W-C!MA- ?o$e'er in T!! mo%e eac, &lot can be in%i'i%uall) allocate% eit,er t,e u*lin# or t,e %o$nlin#-

ADVANTAGES OF CD+A.///:-C!MA;666 i& bac#$ar% com*atible $it, IS-8<- T,u& a net$or# t,at i& con'erte% to C!MA;666 +rom IS-8< $ill &u**ort u&er& $it, IS-8< ,an%&et&- A moti'ating +actor +or migration to C!MA;666-enable% ,an%&et& i& t,at it *ermit& u&e o+ en,ance% %ata &er'ice an% increa&e& t,e 'oice ca*acit) o+ t,e net$or#- T,e 'oice ca*acit) o+ a C!MA;666 net$or# increa&e& a& t,e *ercentage o+ &ub&criber& $it, C!MA;666 ,an%&et& increa&e&- IS-8< ,an%&et& %o not contribute to t,i& ca*acit) im*ro'ementIt reu&e& an% buil%& on t,e +ull com*lement o+ e/i&ting C!MA air inter+ace an% net$or# &tan%ar%&- 7ot, IS-8< an% C!MA;666 e3ui**e% mobile& can o*erate on t,e &ame +re3uenc) a&&ignment- E/i&ting IS-8< net$or#& can be con'erte% to C!MA;666 $it,out im*act to e/i&ting IS-8< mobile&- Net$or# can =e'ol'e> a& u&er& migrate +rom IS-8< mobile& to C!MA;666 mobile&NEW CONCEPTS IN THE CDMA-111 PHYSICAL LAYER: T,e +ollo$ing are t,e ne$ a%%ition& in C!MA ;666 +rom IS8<" S*rea%ing Rate " 0"/1 an% S*rea%ing Rate : 0:/1 ; Logical C,annel& : Ra%io Con+iguration& F Man) ne$ P,)&ical C,annel& < Tran&mit !i'er&it) Pilot C,annel&
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Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

J En,ance% Acce&& C,annel *roce%ure& 5 Re'er&e Lin# Pilot C,annel S4re&'! 7 R&tes C!MA;666 &u**ort& t$o %i++erent &*rea%ing rate&( " S*rea%ing Rate "Z al&o calle% ="/> 7ot, .or$ar% an% Re'er&e C,annel& u&e a &ingle %irect-&e3uence &*rea% carrier $it, a c,i* rate o+ "-;;99 Mc*&; S*rea%ing Rate :Z al&o calle% =:/> or MC 0Multi-Carrier1 .or$ar% C,annel& u&e t,ree %irect-&e3uence &*rea% carrier& eac, $it, a c,i* rate o+ "-;;99 Mc*&- Re'er&e C,annel& u&e a &ingle %irect-&e3uence &*rea% carrier $it, a c,i* rate o+ :-J9JFMc*&A& &uc, SR: a**ear& to be e/tinctP6)s!c&l & ' L"7!c&l C6& els: In IS 8<A in t,e +or$ar% lin# Pilot S)nc Paging an% Tra++ic C,annel& e/i&t $,erea& in re'er&e lin# Acce&& an% tra++ic c,annel are a'ailable- All o'er,ea% in+ormation i& carrie% on t,e Paging C,annel- !uring con'er&ation or in %e%icate% mo%e t,e &ignaling in+o i& e/c,ange% b) eit,er +ull) or *artiall) clearing t,e tra++ic- C!MA;666 tec,nolog) %e+ine& ne$ P,)&ical an% Logical C,annel& +or t,e tran&*ort o+ u&er %ata an% &ignaling in+ormationA P$0#"cal C$annel i& a communication *at, bet$een t,e mobile an% t,e 7a&e Station %e&cribe% in term& o+ t,e %igital co%ing an% R. c,aracteri&tic&A Lo%"cal C$annel i& a communication *at, $it,in t,e *rotocol la)er& o+ eit,er t,e 7a&e Station or t,e mobile- In+ormation i& grou*e% onto a Logical C,annel ba&e% on criteria &uc, a& t,e&e( : I& it +or a &ingle u&er or +or multi*le u&er&[ F I& it &ignaling or u&er %ata[ < I& t,e %irection o+ t,e tran&+er .or$ar% or Re'er&e[ T,e in+ormation on a Logical C,annel i& ultimatel) carrie% on one or more P,)&ical C,annel&- Mappings are %e+ine% bet$een P,)&ical an% Logical C,annel&- T,e&e ma**ing& ma) be *ermanent or ma) be %e+ine% onl) +or t,e
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Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

%uration o+ a call- 0e-g1 T,e .or$ar% Common Signaling C,annel 0+-c&c,1 carrie& in+ormation t,at ma) ultimatel) be ma**e% onto t,e .or$ar% S)nc C,annel 0.-SUNC?1 t,e .or$ar% Paging C,annel 0.-PC?1 an% t,e .or$ar% 7roa%ca&t Control C,annel 0.-7CC?1CDMA-111 PHYSICAL CHANNEL NAMING

CDMA-111 LOGICAL CHANNEL NAMING A Logical C,annel name con&i&t& o+ t,ree lo$erca&e letter& +ollo$e% b) =c,> 0c,annel1A ,)*,en i& u&e% a+ter t,e +ir&t letter- Logical C,annel name& are %i++erentiate% b)( " !irection 0.or$ar% or Re'er&e1 ; W,et,er t,e in+ormation i& &,are% b) all u&er& 0common1 or &*eci+ic to an in%i'i%ual u&er 0%e%icate%1 : W,et,er t,e in+ormation i& control in+ormation 0&ignaling1 or u&er in+ormation .or Common Signaling C,annel& t,e ma**ing& &,o$n a&&ume t,at all Common Signaling P,)&ical C,annel& are &u**orte% 0.-7CC? .-CCC? .PC? R-EAC? an% R-AC?1- I+ t,e 7a&e Station i& con+igure% to &u**ort onl) t,e TIAGEIA-8< com*atible common c,annel& t,en t,e .-7CC? .-CCC? an% R-EAC? c,annel are not *re&ent in t,e ma**ing.or !e%icate% C,annel& t,e ma**ing i& e&tabli&,e% +or eac, call a& a +unction o+ $,at &er'ice& are in u&e 0'oice circuit-&$itc,e% %ata *ac#et %ata1R&'!" C" #!7ur&t!" s: A Radio Configuration 0RC1 %e+ine& t,e +ollo$ing c,aracteri&tic& o+ a .or$ar% or Re'er&e Tra++ic C,annel Ai2 Rate Set S*rea%ing Rate C,annel Co%ing 0Turbo or con'olutional1 C,annel Co%ing Rate Mo%ulation 0XPSK or 7PSK1an% Tran&mit !i'er&it) Allo$e%IS-;666 %e+ine& Ra%io Con+iguration&( V RC" an% RC; corre&*on% to IS-8< AG7 Rate Set " an% Rate Set ; re&*ecti'el)
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Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

V RC: t,roug, RC8 on t,e .or$ar% lin# V RC: t,roug, RCJ on t,e Re'er&e lin# Forward Link radio configuration: Reverse Link radio configuration: ,&r!&(le Le 7t6 W&ls6 C"'es: Wal&, Co%e u&e% in IS8< i& JF c,i*& long- C!MA;666"/ can u&e Wal&, Co%e& u* to ";9 C,i*& long- ?ig,er %ata rate c,annel& u&e &,orter lengt, Wal&, co%e& to maintain a con&tant c,i* rate- U&ing one o+ t,e &,orter Wal&, co%e& *reclu%e& u&ing all longer co%e& t,at contain t,e bit *attern o+ t,e &,orter co%eF"r$&r' L! ? C"'e C6& els:

T,e .or$ar% Pilot S)nc an% Paging C,annel& are com*atible $it, TIAGEIA-8<AG7- In Ra%io Con+iguration& " an% ; t,e .un%amental an% Su**lemental C,annel& are bac#$ar% com*atible- In t,e&e con+iguration& t,e ma/imum number o+ Su**lemental C,annel& i& &e'en $,ic, allo$& t,e tran&mi&&ion rate to reac, u* to ""<-; #b*&A& in TIAGEIA-8<AG7 t,e Po$er Control Sub c,annel i& a&&ociate% $it, t,e .un%amental C,annel +or Ra%io Con+iguration& " an% ;T,e .or$ar% Lin# C,annel& are a&&igne% a& +ollo$&( " W6 JF re&er'e% +or .or$ar% Pilot C,annel ; W:; JF re&er'e% +or S)nc C,annel : W" JF to W5 JF re&er'e% +or Paging C,annel& Wn JF ma) be u&e% +or Ra%io Con+iguration& " an% ; .un%amental an% Su**lemental C,annel& +or 6 \ n \ JF e/ce*t +or t,o&e c,annel& u&e% +or S)nc an% Paging C,annel&

Ne$ C"55" C6&


C!MA;666 intro%uce& &e'eral ne$ .or$ar% Lin# Common C,annel&(

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Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

" Pilot C,annel& V I+ tran&mit %i'er&it) i& &u**orte%H one or more Pilot& ma) be u&e%-T,e au/iliar) Pilot C,annel& ma) be u&e% +or &mart antenna a**lication&; Xuic# Paging C,annel V T,i& c,annel *ro'i%e& +or im*ro'e% &lotte% mo%e o*eration an% im*ro'e% batter) li+e +or t,e mobileWal&, co%e& W96 WF9 an% W""; are re&er'e% +or Xuic# Paging C,annel& i+ t,e 7a&e Station &u**ort& Xuic# Paging C,annel&: Common Control C,annel V T,i& c,annel carrie& mobile-%irecte% me&&age& +or C!MA;666 com*atible mobile&F 7roa%ca&t C,annel V T,i& c,annel carrie& broa%ca&t me&&age& +or C!MA;666 com*atible mobile& inclu%ing o'er,ea% me&&age& an% broa%ca&t S,ort Me&&age Ser'ice 0SMS1 me&&age&< Common Po$er Control C,annel V T,i& c,annel i& u&e% $it, En,ance% Acce&& C,annel Proce%ure& 0Re&er'ation Mo%e1 to &en% *o$er control bit& to t,e mobile &o t,at Acce&& C,annel me&&age& ma) be &ent un%er *o$er controlJ Common A&&ignment C,annel V T,i& c,annel i& u&e% $it, En,ance% Acce&& C,annel Proce%ure& 0Re&er'ation Mo%e1 to a&&ign t,e Re'er&e Common Control C,annel 0R-CCC?1 an% Common Po$er Control Sub c,annelNe$ De'!c&te' C6& els: C!MA;666 intro%uce& &e'eral ne$ .or$ar% Lin# !e%icate% C,annel&( " .or$ar% .un%amental C,annel V T,i& c,annel i& u&e% +or t,e tran&mi&&ion o+ u&er an% &ignaling in+ormation to a &*eci+ic mobile %uring a call- Eac, .or$ar% Tra++ic C,annel ma) contain one .or$ar% .un%amental C,annel; .or$ar% !e%icate% Control C,annel V T,i& c,annel i& u&e% +or tran&mi&&ion o+ u&er an% &ignaling in+ormation to a &*eci+ic mobile %uring a call- Eac, .or$ar% Tra++ic C,annel ma) contain one .or$ar% !e%icate% Control C,annel: .or$ar% Su**lemental C,annel 0'ali% +or Ra%io Con+iguration& : t,ro 81 T,i& c,annel i& u&e% +or t,e tran&mi&&ion o+ u&er in+ormation to a &*eci+ic mobile %uring a call- T,i& i& t)*icall) u&e% +or ,ig,-&*ee% %ata a**lication&- Eac, .or$ar% Tra++ic C,annel ma) contain u* to t$o Su**lemental C,annel&F Po$er Control Subc,annel V T,i& &ubc,annel i& t)*icall)
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Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

a&&ociate% $it, t,e .un%amental C,annel but i+ t,e .-.C? i& not u&e% +or a gi'en call t,en it i& a&&ociate% $it, t,e !e%icate% Control C,annel 0.-!CC?1< All o+ t,e C!MA;666 %e%icate% c,annel& can be e&tabli&,e% u&ing t,e TIAGEIA Paging 0.-PC?1 an% Acce&& 0R-AC?1 C,annel&Re%erse L! ? C6& els:

T,e C!MA;666 Re'er&e Lin# C,annel& are( " ] Acce&& C,annel 0R-AC?1 ; ] Re'er&e Pilot C,annel 0R-PIC?1 : ] En,ance% Acce&& C,annel 0R-EAC?1 F ] Re'er&e Common Control C,annel 0R-CCC?1 < ] Re'er&e% !e%icate% Control C,annel 0R-!CC?1 J ] Re'er&e .un%amental C,annel 0R-.C?1 5 ] Re'er&e Su**lemental C,annel 0R-SC?1 9 ] Re'er&e Su**lemental Co%e C,annel 0R-SCC?1 T,e Acce&& C,annel an% Re'er&e Su**lemental C,annel are retaine% +or bac#$ar% com*atibilit) $it, TIAGEIA-8<AG7- .or Ra%io Con+iguration& " an% ; t,e c,annel &tructure +or t,e Re'er&e .un%amental C,annel an% Re'er&e Su**lemental C,annel i& t,e &ame a& t,e c,annel &tructure o+ Rate Set " an% Rate Set ; u&e% in TIAGEIA-8<AG7Re%erse C"55" & ' De'!c&te' C6& els

Re'er&e Lin# Common C,annel& are u&e% b) multi*le mobile& *rimaril) +or a brie+ e/c,ange o+ in+ormation bet$een a mobile an% a 7a&e Station- T,e Re'er&e Lin# Common C,annel& are( " ] Acce&& C,annel 0R-AC?1 ; ] En,ance% Acce&& C,annel 0R-EAC?1 : ] Re'er&e Common Control C,annel 0R-CCC?1 Re'er&e Lin# !e%icate% C,annel& are a&&igne% to a &ingle mobile +or t,e %uration o+ a call- T,e Re'er&e Lin# !e%icate% C,annel& inclu%e( " ] Re'er&e !e%icate% Control C,annel 0R-!CC?1
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Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

; ] Re'er&e .un%amental C,annel 0R-.C?1 : ] Re'er&e Su**lemental C,annel 0R-SC?1 F ] Re'er&e Su**lemental Co%e C,annel 0R-SCC?1 T,e Re'er&e Pilot C,annel i& u&e% $it, bot, Common an% !e%icate% C,annel&-

DATA MULTIPLEBING C!MA;666 can multi*le/ %ata +rom multi*le &ource& 0e-g- &ignaling 'oice an% %ata1 onto one or more P,)&ical C,annel&- !ata can be multi*le/e% in one or t$o Su**lemental C,annel&-






I+ t,e mobile monitor& t,e Paging C,annel 0.-PC?1 t,en it& acce&& attem*t& are ma%e on t,e Acce&& C,annel 0R-AC?1- T,e&e *roce%ure& are i%entical to TIAGEIA-8< AG7 acce&& *roce%ure&CDMA-111 ENHANCED ACCESS CHANNEL PROCEDURES I+ t,e mobile monitor& t,e .or$ar% Common Control C,annel 0.-CCC?1 an% 7roa%ca&t Control C,annel 0.-7CC?1 t,en it& acce&& attem*t& are ma%e on t,e En,ance% Acce&& C,annel 0R-EAC?1 u&ing t,e C!MA;666 en,ance% acce&& *roce%ure-

RTTC Luc#no$


Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

T,ere ,a& been a tremen%ou& gro$t, in $irele&& communication tec,nolog) o'er t,e *a&t %eca%e- T,e &igni+icant increa&e in &ub&criber& an% tra++ic ne$ ban%$i%t, con&uming a**lication& &uc, a& gaming mu&ic %o$n loa%ing an% 'i%eo &treaming $ill *lace ne$ %eman%& on ca*acit)- T,e an&$er to t,e ca*acit) %eman% i& t,e *ro'i&ion o+ ne$ &*ectrum an% t,e %e'elo*ment o+ a ne$ tec,nolog) V Wi%eban% C!MA or ,ereina+ter re+erre% to a& WC!MA- WC!MA $a& %e'elo*e% in or%er to create a global &tan%ar% +or real time multime%ia &er'ice& t,at en&ure% international roaming- Wit, t,e &u**ort o+ ITU 0International Telecommunication Union1 a &*eci+ic &*ectrum $a& allocate% V ;G?2 +or :G telecom &)&tem&- T,e $or# $a& later ta#en o'er b) t,e :GPP 0:r% Generation Partner&,i* ProBect1 $,ic, i& no$ t,e WC!MA &*eci+ication bo%) $it, %elegate& +rom all o'er t,e $orl%- Eric&&on ,a& +or a long time *la)e% a 'er) acti'e role in bot, ITU an% :GPP an% i& a maBor contributor to WC!MA an% t,e +ul+illment o+ t,e 'i&ion o+ a global mobile telecommunication &)&tem-


Naturall) t,ere are a lot o+ %i++erence& bet$een WC!MA an% GSM &)&tem& but t,ere are man) &imilaritie& a& $ell- T,e GSM 7a&e Station Sub&)&tem 07SS1 an% t,e WC!MA Ra%io Acce&& Net$or# 0RAN1 are bot, connecte% to t,e GSM core net$or# +or *ro'i%ing a ra%io connection to t,e ,an%&et- ?ence t,e tec,nologie& can &,are t,e &ame core net$or#.urt,ermore bot, GSM 7SS an% WC!MA RAN &)&tem& are ba&e% on t,e *rinci*le& o+ a cellular ra%io &)&tem- T,e GSM 7a&e Station Controller 07SC1 corre&*on%& to t,e WC!MA Ra%io Net$or# Controller 0RNC1- T,e GSM Ra%io 7a&e Station 0R7S1 corre&*on%& to t,e WC!MA R7S an% t,e A-inter+ace o+ GSM $a& t,e ba&i& o+ t,e %e'elo*ment o+ t,e Iuinter+ace o+ WC!MA $,ic, mainl) %i++er& in t,e inclu&ion o+ t,e ne$ &er'ice& o++ere% b) WC!MA- T,e &igni+icant %i++erence& a*art +rom t,e lac# o+ inter+ace bet$een t,e GSM 7SC& an% an in&u++icientl) &*eci+ie% GSM Abi&-inter+ace to *ro'i%e multi-'en%or o*erabilit) are more o+ a &)&temic matter- T,e GSM &)&tem u&e& T!MA 0Time !i'i&ion Multi*le Acce&&1 tec,nolog) $it, a lot o+ ra%io +unctionalit) ba&e% on managing t,e time&lot&- T,e WC!MA &)&tem on t,e ot,er ,an% u&e& C!MA a& %e&cribe% belo$ $,ic, mean& t,at bot, t,e ,ar%$are an% t,e control +unction& are %i++erent- E/am*le& o+ WC!MA&*eci+ic +unction& are +a&t *o$er control an% &o+t ,an%o'er-

Code Division

ultiple !ccess and WCD !

Co%e !i'i&ion Multi*le Acce&& 0C!MA1 i& a multi*le acce&& tec,nolog) $,ere t,e u&er& are &e*arate% b) uni3ue co%e& $,ic, mean& t,at all u&er& can u&e t,e &ame +re3uenc) an% tran&mit at t,e &ame time- Wit, t,e +a&t %e'elo*ment in &ignal *roce&&ing it ,a& become +ea&ible to u&e t,e tec,nolog) +or $irele&& communication al&o re+erre% to a& WC!MA an% C!MA;666- In c%maOne an% C!MA;666 a "-;< M?2 $i%e ra%io &ignal i& multi*lie% b) a &*rea%ing &ignal 0$,ic, i& a *&eu%o-noi&e co%e &e3uence1 $it, a ,ig,er rate t,an t,e %ata rate o+ t,e me&&age- T,e re&ultant &ignal a**ear& a& &eemingl) ran%om but i+ t,e inten%e% reci*ient ,a& t,e rig,t co%e t,i& *roce&& i& re'er&e% an% t,e original &ignal i& e/tracte%- U&e :5

RTTC Luc#no$

Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

o+ uni3ue co%e& mean& t,at t,e &ame +re3uenc) i& re*eate% in all cell& $,ic, i& commonl) re+erre% to a& a +re3uenc) re-u&e o+ "WC!MA i& a &te* +urt,er in t,e C!MA tec,nolog)- It u&e& a < M?2 $i%e ra%io &ignal an% a c,i* rate o+ :-9F Mc*& $,ic, i& about t,ree time& ,ig,er t,an t,e c,i* rate o+ C!MA;666 0"-;; Mc*&1- T,e main bene+it& o+ a $i%eban% carrier $it, a ,ig,er c,i*rate are( T Su**ort +or ,ig,er bit rate& T ?ig,er &*ectrum e++icienc) t,an#& to im*ro'e% trun#ing e++icienc) 0i-e- a better &tati&tical a'eraging1 T ?ig,er XoS .urt,er e/*erience +rom &econ%-generation &)&tem& li#e GSM an% c%maOne ,a& enable% im*ro'ement& to be incor*orate% in WC!MA- .ocu& ,a& al&o been *ut on en&uring t,at a& muc, a& *o&&ible o+ WC!MA o*erator&4 in'e&tment& in GSM e3ui*ment can be reu&e%- E/am*le& are t,e re-u&e an% e'olution o+ t,e core net$or# t,e +ocu& on co-&iting an% t,e &u**ort o+ GSM ,an%o'er- In or%er to u&e GSM ,an%o'er t,e &ub&criber& nee% %ual mo%e ,an%&et&-


.or o*timal o*eration o+ a com*lete $irele&& &)&tem i-e- +rom ,an%&et to ra%io acce&& net$or# 0RAN1 &e'eral +unction& are nee%e% to control t,e ra%io net$or# an% t,e man) ,an%&et& u&ing it- All +unction& %e&cribe% in t,i& &ection e/ce*t +or ?an%o'er to GSM are e&&ential an% t,ere+ore nece&&ar) +or a WC!MA &)&tem-

Po"er control
RTTC Luc#no$ :9

Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

T,e *o$er control regulate& t,e tran&mit *o$er o+ t,e terminal an% ba&e &tation $,ic, re&ult& in le&& inter+erence an% allo$& more u&er& on t,e &ame carrier- Tran&mit *o$er regulation t,u& *ro'i%e& more ca*acit) in t,e net$or#- Wit, a +re3uenc) re-u&e o+ " it i& 'er) im*ortant to ,a'e e++icient *o$er control in or%er to #ee* t,e inter+erence at a minimum- .or eac, &ub&criber &er'ice t,e aim i& t,at t,e ba&e &tation &,all recei'e t,e &ame *o$er le'el +rom all ,an%&et& in t,e cell regar%le&& o+ %i&tance +rom t,e ba&e &tation- I+ t,e *o$er le'el +rom one ,an%&et i& ,ig,er t,an nee%e% t,e 3ualit) $ill be e/ce&&i'e ta#ing a %i&*ro*ortionate &,are o+ t,e re&ource& an% generating unnece&&ar) inter+erence $it, t,e ot,er &ub&criber& in t,e net$or#- On t,e ot,er ,an% i+ *o$er le'el& are too lo$ t,i& $ill re&ult in *oor 3ualit)- In or%er to #ee* t,e recei'e% *o$er at a &uitable le'el WC!MA ,a& a +a&t *o$er control t,at *%ate& *o$er le'el& "<66 time& e'er) &econ%- 7) oing t,at t,e ra*i% c,ange in t,e ra%io c,annel i& ,an%le%- To en&ure goo% *er+ormance *o$er control i& im*lemente% in bot, t,e u*-lin# an% t,e %o$n-lin# $,ic, mean& t,at bot, t,e out*ut *o$er& o+ t,e ,an%&et an% t,e ba&e &tation are +re3uentl) u*%ate%- Po$er control al&o gi'e& ri&e to a *,enomenon calle% =cell breat,ing>- T,i& i& t,e tra%e-o++ bet$een co'erage an% ca*acit) $,ic, mean& t,at t,e &i2e o+ t,e cell 'arie& %e*en%ing on t,e tra++ic loa%- W,en t,e number o+ &ub&criber& in t,e cell i& lo$ 0lo$ loa%1 goo% 3ualit) can be ac,ie'e% e'en at a long %i&tance +rom t,e ba&e &tation- On t,e ot,er ,an% $,en t,e number o+ u&er& in t,e cell i& ,ig, t,e large number o+ &ub&criber& generate& a ,ig, inter+erence le'el an% &ub&criber& ,a'e to get clo&er to t,e ba&e &tation to ac,ie'e goo% 3ualit)-

Soft and softer handover

Wit, &o+t ,an%o'er +unctionalit) t,e ,an%&et can communicate &imultaneou&l) $it, t$o or more cell& in t$o or more ba&e &tation&- T,i& +le/ibilit) in #ee*ing t,e connection o*en to more t,an one ba&e &tation re&ult& in +e$er lo&t call& $,ic, i& 'er) im*ortant to t,e o*erator- To ac,ie'e goo% &)&tem *er+ormance $it, a +re3uenc) re-u&e o+ " an% *o$er control &o+t an% &o+ter ,an%o'er i& re3uire%- So+t an% &o+ter ,an%o'er enable& t,e ,an%&et to maintain t,e continuit) an% 3ualit) o+ t,e connection $,ile mo'ing +rom one cell to anot,er!uring &o+t or &o+ter ,an%o'er t,e ,an%&et $ill momentaril) a%Bu&t it& *o$er to t,e ba&e &tation t,at re3uire& t,e &malle&t amount o+ tran&mit *o$er an% t,e *re+erre% cell ma) c,ange 'er) ra*i%l)- T,e %i++erence bet$een &o+t an% &o+ter ,an%o'er i& t,at %uring &o+t ,an%o'er t,e ,an%&et i& connecte% to multi*le cell& at %i++erent ba&e &tation& $,ile %uring &o+ter ,an%o'er t,e ,an%&et i& connecte% to multi*le cell& at t,e &ame ba&e &tation- A %ra$bac# $it, &o+t ,an%o'er i& t,at it re3uire& a%%itional ,ar%$are re&ource& on t,e net$or# &i%e a& t,e ,an%&et ,a& multi*le connection&- In a $ell-%e&igne% ra%io net$or# :6VF6 ^ o+ t,e u&er& $ill be in &o+t or &o+ter ,an%o'er-

RTTC Luc#no$


Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

#andover to GS

$inter-system handover%

W,en WC!MA $a& &tan%ar%i2e% a #e) a&*ect $a& to en&ure t,at e/i&ting in'e&tment& coul% be re-u&e% a& muc, a& *o&&ible- One e/am*le i& ,an%o'er bet$een t,e ne$ RTTC Luc#no$ F6

Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

0WC!MA1 net$or# an% t,e e/i&ting 0GSM1 net$or# $,ic, can be triggere% b) co'erage ca*acit) or &er'ice re3uirement&- ?an%o'er +rom WC!MA to GSM +or co'erage rea&on& i& initiall) e/*ecte% to be 'er) im*ortant &ince o*erator& are e/*ecte% to %e*lo) WC!MA gra%uall) $it,in t,eir e/i&ting GSM net$or#- W,en a &ub&criber mo'e& out o+ t,e WC!MA co'erage area a ,an%o'er to GSM ,a& to be con%ucte% in or%er to #ee* t,e connection?an%o'er bet$een GSM an% WC!MA can al&o ,a'e a *o&iti'e e++ect on ca*acit) t,roug, t,e *o&&ibilit) o+ loa% &,aring- I+ +or e/am*le t,e number& o+ &ub&criber& in t,e GSM net$or# i& clo&e to t,e ca*acit) limit in one area ,an%o'er o+ &ome &ub&criber& to t,e WC!MA net$or# can be *er+orme%- Anot,er +unction t,at i& relate% to inter-&)&tem ,an%o'er i& t,e com*re&&e% mo%e- W,en *er+orming ,an%o'er to GSM mea&urement& ,a'e to be ma%e in or%er to i%enti+) t,e GSM cell to $,ic, t,e ,an%o'er $ill be ma%e- T,e com*re&&e% mo%e i& u&e% to create t,e mea&urement *erio%& +or t,e ,an%&et to ma#e t,e re3uire% mea&urement&T,i& i& t)*icall) ac,ie'e% b) tran&mitting all t,e in+ormation %uring t,e +ir&t < milli&econ%& o+ t,e +rame $it, t,e remaining < milli&econ%& being u&e% +or mea&urement& on t,e ot,er &)&tem&-

&nter-frequency handover $intra-system handover%


RTTC Luc#no$

Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

T,e nee% +or inter-+re3uenc) ,an%o'er occur& in ,ig, ca*acit) area& $,ere multi*le < M?2 WC!MA carrier& are %e*lo)e%- Inter-+re3uenc) ,an%o'er $,ic, i& ,an%o'er bet$een WC!MA carrier& on %i++erent +re3uencie& ,a& man) &imilaritie& $it, GSM ,an%o'er +or e/am*le t,e com*re&&e% mo%e +unctionalit)-

Channel type s"itching

In WC!MA t,ere are %i++erent t)*e& o+ c,annel& t,at can be u&e% to carr) %ata in or%er to ma/imi2e t,e total tra++ic t,roug,*ut- T,e t$o mo&t ba&ic one& are common c,annel& an% %e%icate% c,annel&- C,annel t)*e &$itc,ing +unctionalit) i& u&e% to mo'e &ub&criber& bet$een t,e common an% t,e %e%icate% c,annel %e*en%ing on ,o$ muc, in+ormation t,e &ub&criber nee%& to tran&mit- T,e %e%icate% c,annel i& u&e% $,en t,ere i& muc, in+ormation to tran&mit &uc, a& a 'oice con'er&ation or %o$nloa%ing a $eb *age- It utili2e& t,e ra%io re&ource& e++icientl) a& it &u**ort& bot, *o$er control an% &o+t ,an%o'er- T,e common c,annel on t,e ot,er ,an% i& le&& &*ectrum e++icient- One bene+it i& t,at t,e common c,annel re%uce& %ela)& a& man) &ub&criber& can &,are t,e &ame re&ource- ?ence it i& t,e *re+erre% c,annel +or t,e tran&+er o+ 'er) limite% in+ormation-

!dmission control
A& t,ere i& a 'er) clear tra%e-o++ bet$een co'erage an% ca*acit) in WC!MA &)&tem& t,e a%mi&&ion control +unctionalit) i& u&e% to a'oi% &)&tem o'erloa% an% to *ro'i%e t,e *lanne% co'erage- W,en a ne$ &ub&criber &ee#& acce&& to t,e net$or# a%mi&&ion control e&timate& t,e net$or# loa% an% ba&e% on t,e ne$ e/*ecte% loa% t,e &ub&criber i& eit,er a%mitte% or bloc#e% out- 7) t,i& t,e o*erator can ma/imi2e t,e net$or# u&age $it,in a &et o+ net$or# 3ualit) le'el& i-e- le'el& %e*en%ing on $,at #in% o+ &er'iceGin+ormation t,e &ub&criber $ant& to u&e-

Congestion control
E'en t,oug, an e++icient a%mi&&ion control i& u&e% o'erloa% ma) &till occur $,ic, i& mainl) cau&e% b) &ub&criber& mo'ing +rom one area to anot,er area- I+ o'erloa% occur& +our %i++erent action& can be ta#en- .ir&t conge&tion control i& acti'ate% an% re%uce& t,e bit rate o+ non real-time a**lication& to re&ol'e t,e o'erloa%- Secon% i+ t,e re%uce% bit rate acti'it) i& not &u++icient t,e conge&tion control trigger& t,e inter- or intra-+re3uenc) ,an%o'er $,ic, mo'e& &ome &ub- &criber& to le&& loa%e% +re3uencie&- T,ir% ,an%o'er o+ &ome &ub&criber& to GSM an% +ort, action i& to %i&continue connection& an% t,u& *rotect t,e 3ualit) o+ t,e remaining connection&-

One o+ t,e ba&ic re3uirement& $,en WC!MA $a& &tan%ar%i2e% $a& to a'oi% %e*en%ence on e/ternal &)&tem& +or accurate &)nc,roni2ation o+ ba&e &tation&- T,i& ,a& been ac,ie'e% b) a mec,ani&m $,ere t,e ,an%&et $,en nee%e% mea&ure& t,e &)nc,roni2ation o++&et bet$een t,e cell& an% re*ort& t,i& to t,e net$or#- In a%%ition t,ere i& al&o an o*tion to u&e an e/ternal &ource &uc, a& GPS +or &)nc,roni2ing t,e no%e& i-e- to al$a)& *ro'i%e t,e be&t &olution bot, a&)nc,ronou& an% &)nc,ronou& no%e& are &u**orte%


RTTC Luc#no$ F;

Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

In t,i& &ection &ome +un%amental 'ie$& o+ t,e WC!MA Ra%io Acce&& Net$or# $ill be *re&ente%- T,i& inclu%e& t,e WC!MA RAN arc,itecture it&el+ t,e ra%io inter+ace *rotocol arc,itecture t,e Ra%io Acce&& 7earer conce*t an% t,e role o+ t,e tran&*ort net$or# in a WC!MA RAN-

(adio !ccess )et"or* $(!)% !rchitecture

T,e main *ur*o&e o+ t,e WC!MA Ra%io Acce&& Net$or# i& to *ro'i%e a connection bet$een t,e ,an%&et an% t,e core net$or# an% to i&olate all t,e ra%io i&&ue& +rom t,e core net$or#- T,e a%'antage i& one core net$or# &u**orting multi*le acce&& tec,nologie&- T,e WC!MA Ra%io Acce&& Net$or# con&i&t& o+ t$o t)*e& o+ no%e&(

Ra%io 7a&e Station 0No%e 71

T,e Ra%io 7a&e Station ,an%le& t,e ra%io tran&mi&&ion an% rece*tion toG+rom t,e ,an%&et o'er t,e ra%io inter+ace 0Uu1- It i& controlle% +rom t,e Ra%io Net$or# Controller 'ia t,e Iub inter+ace- One Ra%io 7a&e Station can ,an%le one or more cell& Ra%io Net$or# Controller 0RNC1

RTTC Luc#no$


Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

T,e Ra%io Net$or# Controller i& t,e no%e t,at control& all WC!MA Ra%io Acce&& Net$or# +unction&- It connect& t,e WC!MA Ra%io Acce&& Net$or# to t,e core net$or# 'ia t,e Iu inter+ace- T,ere are t$o %i&tinct role& +or t,e RNC to &er'e an% to control- T,e Ser'ing RNC ,a& o'erall control o+ t,e ,an%&et t,at i& connecte% to WC!MA Ra%io Acce&& Net$or#It control& t,e connection on t,e Iu inter+ace +or t,e ,an%&et an% it terminate& &e'eral *rotocol& in t,e contact bet$een t,e ,an%&et an% t,e WC!MA Ra%io Acce&& Net$or#- T,e Controlling RNC ,a& t,e o'erall control o+ a *articular &et o+ cell& an% t,eir a&&ociate% ba&e &tation&W,en a ,an%&et mu&t u&e re&ource& in a cell not controlle% b) it& Ser'ing RNC t,e Ser'ing RNC mu&t a&# t,e Controlling RNC +or t,o&e re&ource&- T,i& re3ue&t i& ma%e 'ia t,e Iur inter+ace $,ic, connect& t,e RNC& $it, eac, ot,er- In t,i& ca&e t,e Controlling RNC i& al&o &ai% to be a !ri+t RNC +or t,i& *articular ,an%&et- T,i& #in% o+ o*eration i& *rimaril) nee%e% to be able to *ro'i%e &o+t ,an%o'er t,roug,out t,e net$or#Ra%io Acce&& 7earer& T,e main &er'ice o++ere% b) WC!MA RAN i& t,e Ra%io Acce&& 7earer 0RA71- To e&tabli&, a call connection bet$een t,e ,an%&et an% t,e ba&e &tation a RA7 i& nee%e%- It& c,aracteri&tic& are %i++erent %e*en%ing on $,at #in% o+ &er'iceGin+ormation to be tran&*orte%T,e RA7 carrie& t,e &ub&criber %ata bet$een t,e ,an%&et an% t,e core net$or#- It i& com*o&e% o+ one or more Ra%io Acce&& 7earer& bet$een t,e ,an%&et an% t,e Ser'ing RNC an% one Iu bearer bet$een t,e Ser'ing RNC an% t,e core net$or#- :GPP ,a& %e+ine% +our %i++erent 3ualit) cla&&e& o+ Ra%io Acce&& 7earer&( T Con'er&ational 0u&e% +or e-g- 'oice tele*,on)1 V lo$ %ela) &trict or%ering T Streaming 0u&e% +or e-g- $atc,ing a 'i%eo cli*1 V mo%erate %ela) &trict or%ering T Interacti'e 0u&e% +or e-g- $eb &ur+ing1 V mo%erate %ela) T 7ac#groun% 0u&e% +or e-g- +ile tran&+er1 V no %ela) re3uirement

RTTC Luc#no$


Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

7ot, t,e Con'er&ational an% Streaming RA7& re3uire a certain re&er'ation o+ re&ource& in t,e net$or# an% are *rimaril) meant +or real-time &er'ice&- T,e) %i++er mainl) in t,at t,e Streaming RA7 tolerate& a ,ig,er %ela) a**ro*riate +or one-$a) real-time &er'ice&T,e Interacti'e an% 7ac#groun% RA7& are &o calle% Rbe&t e++ort4 i-e- no re&ource& are re&er'e% an% t,e t,roug,*ut %e*en%& on t,e loa% in t,e cell- T,e onl) %i++erence i& t,at t,e Interacti'e RA7 *ro'i%e& a *riorit) mec,ani&m- T,e RA7 i& c,aracteri2e% b) certain Xualit) o+ Ser'ice 0XoS1 *arameter& &uc, a& bit rate an% %ela)- T,e core net$or# $ill &elect a RA7 $it, a**ro*riate XoS ba&e% on t,e &er'ice re3ue&t +rom t,e &ub&criber an% a&# t,e RNC to *ro'i%e &uc, a RA7-

Transport in WCD ! (adio !ccess )et"or*

T,e WC!MA Ra%io Acce&& Net$or# no%e& communicate $it, eac, ot,er o'er a tran&*ort net$or#- T,e :GPP &*eci+ication *ro'i%e& a 'er) clear &*lit bet$een ra%io relate% 0WC!MA1 +unctionalit) an% t,e tran&*ort tec,nolog) meaning t,at t,ere i& no *articular bia& to an) tec,nolog)- T,e tran&*ort net$or# i& initiall) ba&e% on ATM but IP $ill &oon be inclu%e% a& an o*tion-

(adio &nterface Overvie"

T,e *rotocol &tac# o+ t,e ra%io inter+ace bet$een WC!MA Ra%io Acce&& Net$or# an% t,e ,an%&et con&i&t& o+ a number o+ *rotocol la)er& eac, gi'ing a &*eci+ic &er'ice to t,e ne/t la)er abo'e- T,e main *ur*o&e $it, eac, la)er i& a& +ollo$&( La)er :( Signaling to control t,e connection to t,e ,an%&etRTTC Luc#no$ F<

Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

La)er ;( I+ t,ere i& time +or it to retran&mit *ac#et& $,ic, ,a& been recei'e% in errorLa)er "( To tran&mit an% recei'e %ata o'er t,e ra%io inclu%ing ba&ic *rotection again&t bit error&-

T,e P,)&ical La)er 0La)er "1 o++er& Tran&*ort C,annel& to t,e MAC la)er- T,ere are %i++erent t)*e& o+ tran&*ort c,annel& $it, %i++erent c,aracteri&tic& o+ t,e tran&mi&&ionCommon tran&*ort c,annel& can be &,are% b) multi*le ,an%&et& 0e-g- .AC? RAC? !SC? 7C? PC?1- !e%icate% tran&*ort c,annel& 0!C?1 are a&&igne% to onl) one ,an%&et at a timeT,e tran&mi&&ion +unction& o+ t,e *,)&ical la)er inclu%e c,annel co%ing an% interlea'ing multi*le/ing o+ tran&*ort c,annel& ma**ing to *,)&ical c,annel& &*rea%ing mo%ulation an% *o$er am*li+ication $it, corre&*on%ing +unction& +or rece*tion- A +re3uenc) an% a co%e c,aracteri2e a *,)&ical c,annel- T,e &*eci+ication& inclu%e t$o mo%e&( t,e .!! mo%e 0.re3uenc) !i'i&ion !u*le/1 an% t,e T!! mo%e 0Time !i'i&ion !u*le/1- T,e .!! mo%e i& t,e main&tream mo%e t,at o*erator& are no$ %e*lo)ing in WC!MA- T,e T!! mo%e ma) e'entuall) be %e*lo)e% a& $ell a& a com*lement to t,e .!! mo%e- T,i& %ocument %oe& not %e&cribe t,e T!! mo%e- T,e Me%ium Acce&& Control 0MAC1 *rotocol 0La)er ;1 o++er& logical c,annel& to t,e la)er& abo'e- T,e logical c,annel& are %i&tingui&,e% b) t,e %i++erent t)*e o+ in+ormation t,e) carr) an% t,u& inclu%e t,e !e%icate% Control C,annel 0!CC?1 Common Control C,annel 0CCC?1 !e%icate% Tra++ic C,annel 0!TC?1 Common Tra++ic C,annel 0CTC?1 7roa%ca&t Control C,annel 07CC?1 an% t,e Paging Control C,annel 0PCC?1- T,e MAC la)er *er+orm& &c,e%uling an% ma*- *ing o+ logical c,annel %ata onto t,e tran&*ort c,annel& *ro'i%e% b) t,e *,)&ical la)er- Al&o +or common tran&*ort c,annel& t,e RTTC Luc#no$ FJ

Cellular Concept __________________________________________________________________________________ _

MAC la)er a%%& a%%re&&ing in+ormation to %i&tingui&, %ata +lo$& inten%e% +or %i++erent ,an%&et&- One maBor %i++erence to GSM i& t,e *o&&ibilit) to %)namicall) &$itc, one logical c,annel 0%ata +lo$1 onto %i++erent tran&*ort c,annel t)*e& e-g- ba&e% on t,e acti'it) o+ t,e &ub&criber- T,i& i& calle% c,annel t)*e &$itc,ing-

T,e Ra%io Lin# Control 0RLC1 *rotocol 0La)er ;1 o*erate& in one o+ t,ree mo%e&( tran&*arent unac#no$le%ge% or ac#no$le%ge% mo%e- It *er+orm& &egmentationGre-a&&embl) +unction& an% in ac#no$le%ge% mo%e *ro'i%e& an a&&ure% mo%e %eli'er) &er'ice b) u&e o+ retran&mi&&ion- RLC *ro'i%e& a &er'ice bot, +or t,e RRC &ignaling 0t,e Signaling Ra%io 7earer1 an% +or t,e u&er %ata tran&+er 0t,e Ra%io Acce&& 7earer1T,e Ra%io Re&ource Control 0RRC1 *rotocol 0La)er :1 *ro'i%e& control o+ t,e ,an%&et +rom t,e RNC- It inclu%e& +unction& to control ra%io bearer& *,)&ical c,annel& ma**ing o+ t,e %i++erent c,annel t)*e& ,an%o'er mea&urement an% ot,er mobilit) *roce%ure&- 7ecau&e o+ t,e +le/ibilit) o+ t,e WC!MA ra%io inter+ace t,i& i& a +airl) com*le/ *rotocol-

RTTC Luc#no$