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Guidelines for Transcription of English Consonants and Vowels 1.

Phonemic (or broad) transcription is indicated by slanted brackets: / / Phonetic (or narrow) transcription is indicated by square brackets: [ ] Unless otherwise indicated, you will be transcribing phonemically and should use slanted brackets around your transcriptions. For example: single phonemes: / k / one word: / tIp/ utterance: / kQn ju rid DIs /

2. Do not use capital letters or punctuation marks. The IPA does not follow conventional writing rules and makes use of some capitals and punctuation marks as symbols indicating specific sounds or properties of sounds. For example, a / G / is the symbol for a voiced uvular stop; a colon after a symbol indicates length, / i: /; and an apostrophe following a symbol indicates that the sound is an ejective, / p /. 3. Do not use the letters x, c, or q in the transcription of English. These are symbols for sounds that occur in other languages. / x / is a voiceless velar fricative, / c / is a voiceless palatal stop, and / q/ is a voiceless uvular stop. The sounds that the letters represent in English are transcribed as follows: x represents either / ks / or / gz / as in fix and exactly, respectively; c represents either /k/ or /s/ as in car and since, respectively; and q represents the sound /k/ as in quick or risqu. 4. Be careful to distinguish your symbols properly. Be especially careful not to confuse / / with / /, / D / with / T /, / / with / /. 5. If there are double letters in the spelling of a word, do not use double consonants in a transcription. For example, rabbit is transcribed / rQbIt /. Remember that spelling is a totally different system from that of transcription. Rely on your ears rather than your eyes. 6. In speech there are actually no gaps between words. In transcription you will find that some words seem to stick together and you should transcribe them as such. For example, is a in the phrase is a cat would be transcribed / Iz kQt /. 7. Be careful when transcribing / r /, / l /, / m /, and / n / when they occur at the end of a word. In most instances, they can form a syllable on their own in this position. You would transcribe these syllabic consonants with a tick mark under the symbol to indicate this. For example, puddle / pdl` /, deeper / dip` / and golden / goUldn` /.

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Guidelines for Transcription of English Consonants and Vowels 8. Use these various sounds like rules in transcribing vowels before nasals and / r /: Words that contain ank and and, like tank, thank, bank, hand, band, tanned , should be transcribed with the vowel [ Q] and the appropriate nasal consonant: tQNk, TQNk, bQNk, hQnd, bQnd, tQnd. Words that contain ing or ink, like thing, ring, singer , think, blink, should be transcribed with the vowel [I] and the appropriate nasal consonant: TIN, rIN, sIN, TINk, blINk. The only tense vowels used before [] in the same syllable are [] and [A]. Follow these rules: If it sounds like or its [] as in tore, lore, four, score. If it sounds like are its [A] as in car, far, bar, star. If it sounds like ear its [I] as in fear, leer, sneer, beer. If it sounds like air its [E] as in bare, stare, fair, care. If it sounds like lure its [U] as in tour, poor. **Your dialect may have [] for these words.

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Guidelines for Transcription of English Consonants and Vowels STOPS Description / pH / /p/ /b/ / tH / /t/ /d/ / kH / /k/ /g/ voiceless aspirated bilabial stop voiceless unaspirated bilabial stop voiced bilabial stop voiceless aspirated alveolar stop voiceless unaspirated alveolar stop voiced alveolar stop voiceless aspirated velar stop voiceless unaspirated velar stop voiced velar stop Examples put, apart spout, captain, cup but, abandon, cub tab, attack, try stick, catwalk, put done, edit, pad cat, accuse, crisp skip, action, break get, begging, drag

FRICATIVES (Alts stands for alternative symbol) Description /f/ /v/ /T/ /D/ /s/ /z/ /S/ /Z/ /h/ voiceless labiodental fricative voiced labiodental fricative voiceless dental fricative voiced dental fricative voiceless alveolar fricative voiced alveolar fricative voiceless palato-alveolar fricative voiced palato-alveolar fricative voiceless glottal fricative Examples fly, co ffee, cal f verb, cave, having thin, moth, both this, wither, bathe sing, blessing, cats z inc, breez e, rose ship, brushing, crush measure, sei z ure, rouge hope, ahead / s& / / z& / Alts

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Guidelines for Transcription of English Consonants and Vowels AFFRICATES (Alts stands for alternative symbol) Description / tS / / dZ / voiceless palato-alveolar affricate voiced palato-alveolar affricate Examples chalk, catching, clutch jump, digest, rage Alts / c& / / j& /

NASALS Description /m/ / m` / /n/ / n` / /N/ voiced bilabial nasal syllabic voiced bilabial nasal voiced alveolar nasal syllabic voiced alveolar nasal voiced velar nasal Examples mint, examine, drum botto m, random nut, money, can butto n, hidden finger, drink, sing

APPROXIMANTS Description /l/ / l8 / / l / / l` / / / / 8 / / ` / voiced alveolar lateral approximant voiceless alveolar lateral approximant voiceless velarized lateral approximant syllabic voiced alveolar lateral approx. voiced alveolar approximant voiceless alveolar approximant syllabic voiced alveolar approximant Examples lie, slip plate, clap feel, pull, milk bottle, middle roast, pouring, sto re pride, crow, trick teacher, number

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Guidelines for Transcription of English Consonants and Vowels APPROXIMANTS (continued) (Alts stands for alternative symbol) Description /w/ / w8 / /j/ / j8 / voiced labio-velar approximant voiceless labio-velar approximant voiced palatal approximant voiceless palatal approximant Examples watch, await, sweet twin, quick yacht, c_ube, f_ew p_ew, ac_ute /y/ Alts

LAX VOWELS (Alts stands for alternative symbol) Description /I/ /E/ / Q/ // // /U/ high-mid front unrounded mid-low front unrounded low front unrounded mid-low central unrounded, reduced mid-low central unrounded, full/stressed mid-high back rounded Examples bit, wish, in ge t, m e ss, e nter ash, bad sofa, about, suppose putt, luck put, foot, book /U/ Alts /I/ /E/

RHOTACIZED VOWELS (Alts stands for alternative symbol) Description / / mid central rhotacized, unstressed/reduced Examples father, lawyer, campers ascertain, concern / / mid central rhotacized, stressed purse, further, person Alts / / / ` /* / /

* alternate only in word-final position following another consonant

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Guidelines for Transcription of English Consonants and Vowels TENSE VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS (Alts stands for alternative symbol) Description /i/ / eI / / u/ / oU / / / /A/ / I / / aU/ / aI / high front unrounded mid-high front unrounded high back rounded mid-high back rounded mid-low back rounded low back unrounded mid back rounded low central rounded low central unrounded Examples bead, three cl ay, weigh crude, shoe boat, toe caught, paw father, octopus, hot boy, toil cow, blouse m y, height /a/ / oy / / j / / aw / / AU / / au / / aj / / AI / / ai / Alts / ij / /iy/ / ei / / ej / / uw / / ou/ / ow /

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