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Name: Helen Fentress Class: Hokie Horizons MW 4:00-5:15pm Title: How To Improve Lon -Term Memor!

Wit" t"e #se o$ Mnemoni% &!stems an' (i%to rap"s In approa%"in t"is assi nment) I was ori inall! oin to resear%" t"e e$$e%tiveness o$ keepin a 'iar! as a ps!%"olo i%al treatment* However) I %ame a%ross a topi% in m! intro'+%tor! ps!%"olo ! %o+rse t"at sparke' m! interest an' seeme' to ,e more relevant an' "elp$+l to s+%%ee'in in %olle e: "ow to improve lon -term memor!* (ersonall!) I alwa!s $in' it a %"allen e to %ram ever! ,it o$ ne%essar! knowle' e into m! ,rain in or'er to 'o well on a te-t* I 'e%i'e' t"at resear%"in t"is .+estion wo+l' per"aps provi'e me wit" some +se$+l met"o's $or st+'!in an' remem,erin in$ormation* /e%a+se t"is is a resear%"-,ase' in.+ir!) I knew t"at m! so+r%es m+st ,e %re'i,le) a%%+rate) relevant to t"e topi%) an' %ite' %orre%tl!* I %"ose to +se m! ps!%"olo ! te-t,ook as one o$ m! so+r%es as well as an arti%le t"at I $o+n' +sin 0oo le &%"olar* 1s I learne' in o+r s%"olarl! so+r%e %ras"-%o+rse in Newman Li,rar!) it is essential to narrow t"e in.+ir! an' si$t t"ro+ " ea%" o$ t"e %re'i,le res+lts ,e$ore sele%tin t"e so+r%es $or t"e resear%" pie%e* I +se' a %om,ination o$ sear%" terms in%l+'in 2improvin 1N3 lon -term memor!4) 2lon -term memor! 1N3 mnemoni% 'evi%es4) an' 2lon -term memor! 1N3 pi%to rap"s4* 5vent+all!) a$ter assessin several 'i$$erent arti%les $or relevan%e) I %"ose an arti%le a,o+t pi%to rap"s $rom &%ien%e3ire%t* M! $in'in s are as $ollows* Masterin skills t"at %an "elp improve lon -term memor! is a,sol+tel! essential to t"e s+%%ess o$ %olle e st+'ents* Co+rses in %olle e o$ten ,om,ar' st+'ents wit" in$ormation t"at t"e! m+st tr! to remem,er in or'er to 'o well on e-ams* However) t"ere are two te%"ni.+es t"at ma! "elp to improve one6s lon -term memor! t"at %an ,e +tilize' ,ot" w"ile rea'in material $or t"e $irst time) an' also w"ile st+'!in $or a .+iz or e-am* T"e $irst te%"ni.+e is t"e +se o$ mnemoni%

s!stems to remem,er in$ormation in a wa! t"at 2$its into t"e %onte-t o$ w"at we alrea'! know4 7Harrison8* T"e se%on' te%"ni.+e emplo!s t"e +se o$ simple pi%to rap"s t"at represent t"e in$ormation t"at a st+'ent is tr!in to %onsoli'ate into "is or "er lon -term memor!* 1 mnemoni% s!stem is 'e$ine' as 2a spe%ial te%"ni.+e or strate ! %ons%io+sl! +se' in an attempt to improve memor!4 7Harrison8* T"e i'ea o$ a mnemoni% s!stem is to intro'+%e vivi'ness an' %onte-t into t"e in$ormation to make it more personal or memora,le 7Harrison8* 9ne e-ample o$ a mnemoni% s!stem is t"e method of loci) in w"i%" 2items to ,e remem,ere' are mentall! asso%iate' wit" spe%i$i% p"!si%al lo%ations4 7Harrison8* For e-ample) i$ a pl+m,er was oin to t"e "ar'ware store to p+r%"ase several items $or a :o,) s+%" as %a+lk) pipin ) a wren%") et%*) t"en "e or s"e mi "t tr! to remem,er t"ese items ,! asso%iatin ea%" wor' wit" it6s +s+al lo%ation in "is or "er tool kit* 1not"er e-ample o$ a mnemoni% s!stem is t"e peg-word method) in w"i%" one %reates a r"!me or p"rase in or'er to remem,er a set o$ in$ormation 7Harrison8* (i%to rap"s are 'e$ine' simpl! as 2pi%t+res t"at represent i'eas4 7Ho+ts8* 1 st+'! o$ twent!-one :+nior %olle e st+'ents was %on'+%te' to test t"e positive e$$e%t t"at pi%to rap"s %an "ave on lon -term memor! 7Ho+ts8* 9ne ro+p o$ parti%ipants listene' to t"irt!-ei "t me'i%al instr+%tions w"ile vis+al ima e were 'ispla!e' to o wit" ea%" instr+%tion 7Ho+ts8* T"e %ontrol ro+p was onl! provi'e' wit" t"e a+'i,le instr+%tions* /ot" ro+ps were later teste' $or memor! o$ t"e items) an' t"e res+lt was t"at t"e ro+p provi'e' wit" pi%to rap"s remem,ere' t"e instr+%tions more %orre%tl! t"an t"e %ontrol ro+p) s"owin t"at t"is te%"ni.+e %an ,e "i "l! e$$e%tive in improvin lon -term memor! 7Ho+ts8* T"is met"o' %o+l' ,e easil! +tilize' ,! 'rawin a simple pi%t+re or 'ia ram t"at represents ea%" pie%e o$ in$ormation to ,e learne' on a w"ite,oar' or in a note,ook ri "t a$ter rea'in t"ro+ " t"e notes on ea%" parti%+lar pie%e o$ in$ormation*

I "ave personall! +se' ,ot" o$ t"ese te%"ni.+es on several o%%asions to ai' in t"e st+'!in pro%ess $or a lar e test or e-am* Most re%entl!) w"ile st+'!in $or t"e $irst ps!%"olo ! e-am) I 'rew pi%to rap"s o$ t"e lo,es o$ t"e ,rain in or'er to "elp me remem,er w"ere ea%" one is lo%ate' in t"e ,rain* In t"e pro%ess o$ st+'!in I also +se' an a mnemoni% s!stem known as a acronym to remem,er t"e lo,es in t"e ,a%k "al$ o$ t"e "+man ,rain as (-9-T) or parietal) o%%ipital) an' temporal* T"ese met"o's prove' to ,e e-tremel! "elp$+l) as I "a' no tro+,le re%allin t"e names an' lo%ations o$ t"e lo,es '+rin t"e ps!%"olo ! e-am* 9verall) I am please' wit" t"e $in'in s stemmin $rom m! in.+ir! an' %on$i'ent in t"e vali'it! o$ m! so+r%es* I ,elieve t"at ever! st+'ent6s %olle e %areer an' ra'e point avera e %o+l' ,e improve' ,! +sin one or more o$ t"ese met"o's to st+'! $or ea%" .+iz an' e-am* Instea' o$ ,lin'l! rea'in in$ormation over an' over) t"ese te%"ni.+es %an "elp a st+'ent $eel more prepare' in a''ition to improvin t"e amo+nt o$ in$ormation t"at is trans$erre' into lon term memor!*

Works Cite'

Harrison) 3avi' W*) 5* &%ott 0eller) et al* Psychology: The Science of Experience* ;n' e'* /oston: (earson Learnin &ol+tions) ;01<* <;=-<;>* (rint*

Ho+ts) (eter &*) ?e,e%%a /a%"ra%") @+'it" T* Witmer) Carol 1* Trin ali) @+lia 1* /+%"er) an' ?+ssel 1* Lo%alio* A#sin (i%to rap"s to 5n"an%e ?e%all o$ &poken Me'i%al Instr+%tions*A (atient an' 5'+%ation Co+nselin <5 71BBC8: C<-CC* &%ien%e3ire%t* Dir inia Te%" Li,raries) /la%ks,+r * > 9%t* ;01<*