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Thermal and Fluids Engineering I

Exam #2 Fall 2011

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You will have 1.5 hour = 90 minutes = 5400 seconds to complete this exam. Please budget your time to allow for completion of all the problems. Remember every item has dimensions and units associated with it. Using those units during your calculations will help prevent errors. Grading Problem 1 Problem 2 Problem 3 30 pts. 40 pts. 30 pts.

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Please think about the problem and be clear and logical in crafting your answer. If we cannot understand what you wrote, we will refuse to grade it!

Name:

1. An open water manometer is used to measure the pressure in a tank. The tank is half filled with 50,000 kg of a liquid chemical that is not miscible (cannot mix) with water. The manometer tube is filled with liquid chemical. What is the pressure in the tank relative to the atmospheric pressure?

Pressure on both sides of red line must be equal P1 = P2. Line must cut both arms of manometer through a continuous path of fluid

Fluid Density ! 4$ Vtank = # & ' r 3 + ' r 2 L ( 2r = 108.9 m3 !#"#$ " 3% !" # # $ Center

Ends

)=

m fluid V fluid

50000 kg = 918.3 3 ! 1$ m 108.9 # & " 2%

Pin + ! fluid gh fluid = Patm + ! water ghwater Pin " Pwater = ! water ghwater " ! fluid gh fluid = 1000 9.8 0.4 " 0.05 " 918.3 9.8 0.225 = 1407 Pa

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( )

A reducer in a piping system is shown. The internal volume of the reducer is 0.2 m3 and its mass is 25 kg. Evaluate the total force that must be provided by the surrounding pipes to support the reducer. The fluid is water. 2.

From conservation of mass we have:

!1v1 A1 = ! 2 v 2 A2
v2 = v1 A1 v1d12 = 2 A2 d2 3 ( 0.4 )
2

!1 = ! 2

v2 =

( 0.2 )

= 12

m s

From conservation of momentum in the x-direction we have:

!F = R

! 1v1 + m ! 2 v2 + Fsurface, x + Fbody, x = " m

No body force (weight) in x-direction Rx + Fsurface, x = Rx + P1 A1 " P2 A2 = # v1 A1 ( v 2 " v1 )


Now we plug in the numbers: 5

Rx = ! v1 A1 ( v 2 " v1 ) " P1 A1 + P2 A2 Rx = 1000 ( 3) Rx = "3732 N

# # # ( 0.4 ) 2 (12 " 3) " ( 58.7 $ 10 3 ) ( 0.4 ) 2 + (109 " 101)10 3 % ( 0.2 ) 2 ( ' * & ) 4 4 4
3

For the y-direction we have:

!F = R

! 1v1y + m ! 2 v2 y = 0 + Fsurface, y + Fbody, y = " m

No surface force (pressure) in y-direction Ry + Fbody, x = Ry " mg " #Vg = 0 Ry = mg + #Vg = 25 ( 9.81) + 1000 ( 9.81) ( 0.2 ) = 2207 N
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3. A plastic tube of 50-mm diameter is used to siphon water from the large tank as shown below. If the pressure on the outside of the tube is 25 kPa greater than the pressure within the tube, the tube will collapse and the siphon will stop. a. b. Where is the pressure in the tube lowest? Please prove it? If the viscous effects are negligible, determine the minimum value of h allowed without the siphon stopping.

The pressure in the bubble is lowest at point 2. If we write Bernoullis equation from point 1 to 2 or from point 2 to point 3 we can show this.

P2 V22 P V2 + + z2 = 3 + 3 + z3 !g 2g !g 2g
Let our datum be point 1. Then:

z2 = 2 V2 = V3
Plugging in gives:

z 3 = !(4 ! h )

P2 P P = 3 " (4 " h) " 2 = 3 " 6 + h !g !g !g

and we can see that P2 is less than P3 and since P3 and P1 are both at atmospheric pressure, P2 < P1. For the siphon to stop we need to have V2 = V3 = 0. Going back to our Bernoulli equation, we have:

P2 V22 P V2 + + z2 = 3 + 3 + z3 !g 2g !g 2g P2 P + z2 = 3 + z3 !g !g z3 = " ( 4 " h ) = P2 " P3 + z2 !g

h= 4+2+

P2 " ( P2 + 25000 ) = 3.45 1000 ( 9.81)