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Aluminium Titanate

Chemical Formula
Al2TiO5 or Al2O3.TiO2

Aluminium titanate is synthesized by solid state reaction of alumina and titania at >1350C. The powder produced may be sintered at 1400C - 1600C in air depending on its reactivity. Aluminium titanate forms a psuedobrookite crystal structure. Ceramics manufactured from aluminium titanate exhibit extremely good resistance to thermal shock. This is due largely to the very low thermal expansion coefficient, which arises from significant anisotropy in the material's properties. Expansion in the a- and b-axes direction is positive whereas in the c-axis direction thermal expansion is negative. In addition to generating almost zero thermal expansion, this has the effect of causing micro cracks to form in the sintered material resulting in the relatively low strength of the material. Additives such as SiO2 and MgO are used to minimize strength degradation and strengths up to 100MPa have been quoted for experimental materials.

Key Properties
Key properties of aluminium titanate are summarized in table 1. Table 1. typical physical properties for aluminium titanate. Property Density Modulus of Rupture @ RT Modulus of Rupture @ 1000C Young's modulus Thermal expansion (20-600C) Thermal expansion (600-1000C) Thermal conductivity (RT-1000C) Maximum service temperature Thermal shock resistance Resistance to molten metals

3 - 3.4 g.cm-3 30MPa 60MPa 20GPa 0 -1 x10-6 K-1 1-2 x 10-6 K-1 < 2W.m.K-1 1000C continuous 1100C intermittent Excellent Good

The excellent thermal shock resistance and low thermal conductivity coupled with good

chemical resistance to molten metals (particularly aluminium) result in the material fulfilling several metal contact applications in the foundry industry including: Crucibles Launders Pouring spouts Ladles Riser tubes Plugs etc

Components made from aluminium titanate exhibit significantly longer operating life than competing materials such as calcium silicate and fused silica. Aluminium titanate is also used in the automotive industry as an insulating liner for exhaust manifolds where there is a need to minimize heat loss in advance of a turbocharger. In this application the metal exhaust manifold is cast around the shaped aluminium titanate liner. The thermal expansion mismatch between the steel manifold and the aluminium titanate during cooling maintains the ceramic in compression thereby overcoming the problems of its low strength.

Aluminum titanate ceramics

Aluminum titanate is a ceramic material consisting of a mixture of alumina (Al2O3) and titania (TiO2) forming solid solution with stoichiometric proportion of the components: Al2O3*TiO2 orAl2TiO5. Aluminium titanate is prepared by heating of a mixture of alumina and titania at temperature above 2460F (1350C). The powder is then sintered at a temperature in the range 2550 - 2910F (1400 1600C) in air atmosphere. Pure Aluminum Titanate is unstable at the temperatures above 1380F (750C) when the solid solution decomposes into two separate phases Al2O3 and TiO2. Aluminum Titanate ceramics are doped with MgO, SiO2 and ZrO2in order to stabilize the solid solution structure. The distinctive property of Aluminum Titanate ceramics is their high thermal shock resistance which is a result of very low coefficient of thermal expansion. The following characteristics are typical for Aluminum Titanate Ceramics:

Low coefficient of thermal expansion; Low Modulus of Elasticity; High Thermal Shock Resistance; Low Thermal Conductivity; Low wet ability in molten non-ferrous metals;

Good chemical resistance;

Good wear resistance. Disadvantage of Aluminum Titanate ceramics is relatively low mechanical strength caused by micro-cracks formed as a result of anisotropy of thermal expansion along the three primary axes of the crystal lattice (a single crystal of Aluminum Titanate expands along two axes and contract along the third axis when heated). Aluminum Titanate ceramic materials ceramics are used for manufacturing crucibles, launders, nozzles, riser tubes, pouring spouts and thermocouples for non-ferrous metallurgy, port-liner and cylinder liners in automotive engines, master moulds in the glass industry, spacing rings of catalytic converters.

Zirconia - Physical and Mechanical Property Comparison of the Different Types of Zirconias Background
The fundamental properties of Zirconia ceramics which are of interest to the engineer or designer are: High strength, High fracture toughness, High hardness, Wear resistance, Good frictional behavior, Non-magnetic, Electrical insulation, Low thermal conductivity, Corrosion resistance in acids and alkalis, Modulus of elasticity similar to steel, Coefficient of thermal expansion similar to iron.

Types of Zirconias
There are many different types of zirconias. These have evolved as researchers and manufacturers sought to exploit the different properties of the various phases. Some of the phases are stable at high temperatures and need to be frozen in such that

they can be used at room temperatures, while others exploit toughening mechanisms that are only found in these and few other materials. Some of these materials are listed below along with their typical abbreviations. Table 1. The different types of zirconias. Material Tetragonal Zirconia Polycrystals Partially Stabilised Zirconia Fully Stabilised Zirconia Transformation Toughened Ceramics Zirconia Toughened Alumina Transformation Toughened Zirconia Abbrev. TZP PSZ FSZ TTC ZTA TTZ

Materials (oxides) added to stabilize or toughen the Zirconia will also be noted as a prefix to the abbreviations listed in table 1. They will sometimes be used in conjunction with numbers which indicate the amount of the stabilizing agent added. Typical examples include Y, Ce, Mg and A which correspond to yttria (Y2O3), ceria (CeO2), magnesia (MgO) and alumina (Al2O3) respectively. So a material denoted as 3Y-TZP would tetragonal Zirconia poly crystal with an addition of 3mol% Y2O3 as a stabilizer.

Property Comparison
Table 2. lists properties for various grades of Zirconia and has been compiled from a variety of sources. However, as with most ceramic materials properties are dependent on many factors such as starting powders and fabrication techniques. Most ceramic fabrication techniques have been applied to zirconias such as dry pressing, iso static pressing, injection moulding, extrusion and tape casting. Addition of impurities during processing may also introduce flaws and degrade properties. Table 2. Typical properties of various types of Zirconia. Property Density (g.cm-3) Hardenss (HV30) Bend Str. (MPa) Compressive Str. (MPa) Youngs Modulus (GPa) Poissons Ratio Fracture Toughness (MPa.m-1/2) Thermal Exp. Co-Eff (x10-6 C-1) Thermal Conductivity (W.m-1.K1 ) Y-TZP 6.05 1350 1000 2000 205 0.3 9.5 10 2 Ce-TZP 6.15 900 350 215 15-20 8 2 ZTA 4.15 1600 500 380 4-5 8 23 Mg-PSZ 5.75 1020 800 2000 205 0.23 8-15 10 1.8 3Y20A 5.51 1470 2400 260 6 9.4 3

Zirconia Alumina Composites

RocCera Zirconia Toughened Alumina (RZTA) is a ceramic that exhibits excellent wear
and corrosion resistance, high strength and superior toughness. Below are some typical properties:

Chemical Composition Crystal Structure Density Color Young's Modulus @ RT Flexural Strength @ RT Fracture Toughness Vicker's Hardness Weibull Modulus Thermal Conductivity(RT) Coeff. of Linear Thermal Expansion (40-400 C)
cal/cm.sec. C /C psi (MPa) psi (MPa) MPam 500 g load gram/cc

80% alumina, 20% zirconia Tetragonal, alpha, monoclinic 4.3 White 36 million (320) 120,000 (812) 6 1500 VHN 8 0.025 5x10-6

RocCera Alumina Toughened Zirconia (RATZ) is a ceramic that also exhibits excellent
wear and corrosion resistance properties. Below are some typical properties:

Chemical Composition Crystal Structure Density Color Young's Modulus @ RT Flexural Strength @ RT Fracture Toughness Vicker's Hardness Weibull Modulus Thermal Conductivity(RT) Coeff. of Linear Thermal Expansion (40-400 C)
500 g load cal/cm.sec. C /C psi (MPa) psi (MPa) MPam gram/cc

85% zirconia, 15% alumina Tetragonal, monoclinic, alpha 5.7 white 36 million (320) 120,000 (812) 6 1500 VHN 8 0.012 8x10-6

2618 Aluminum Alloy

A 2618 aluminum alloy has a higher overall strength and can ultimately take a bit more abuse than 4032 alloys. A 2618 piston is ideal for forced-induction engines that experience higher temperatures and/or any racing application. In comparison to the 4032 alloys, 2618 with its low-silicon alloy requires larger

piston-to-wall clearances due to its higher coefficient of thermal expansion, which causes the piston to grow more when exposed to heat. Pros

Fatigue life High-temperature strength Conductivity (heat transfer) High strength


High expansion rate (more clearance required) Poor wear index (lower silicon content) Piston rattle or slap due to larger piston-to-wall clearance

4032 Aluminum Alloy A 4032 aluminum alloy is designed for high-performance applications where a strong and quiet piston is required. A 4032-alloy piston requires less initial piston-to-wall clearance than 2618 due to its higher silicon content, and is ideal for street/strip applications. Pros

Wear index (good at resisting wear due to higher silicon) Low expansion rate (less clearance required) Low density (lightweight)


Limited temperature strength (lower strength at high temperatures) Notch sensitivity (brittle) Deltalloy 4032 Chemical Analysis Liquidus Temperature: 1060F Density: 0.097 lb./ in.3 Percent Weight Si Minimum Maximum 11.0 13.5 Fe 1.0 Cu .50 1.3 Mn Mg .8 1.3 Elements Cr .10 Ni .50 1.3 Zn .25 Ti Other Others sEach Total Aluminum .05 .15 Remainder Solidus Temperature: 990F

Average Coefficient of Thermal Expansion (68 to 212 F) = 10.8 x 10-6 (inch per inch per F)