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Просмотров: 145 стр.This paper investigates power allocation algorithms
for OFDM-based cognitive radio systems, where the intra-system
channel state information (CSI) of the secondary user (SU) is
perfectly known. However, due to loose cooperation between the
SU and the primary user (PU), the inter-system CSI is only
partially available to the SU transmitter. Two types of PUs are
considered to have different capabilities. One is a dumb (Peak
Interference-Power tolerable) system that can tolerate a certain
amount of peak interference at each subchannel. The other
is a more sophisticated (Average Interference-Power tolerable)
system that can tolerate the interference from the SU as long
as the average interference over all subchannels is within a
certain threshold. Accordingly, we introduce an interference
power outage constraint, with which the outage is maintained
within a target level. The outage is here defined as the probability
that peak or average interference power to the PU is greater
than a given threshold. With both this interference-power outage
constraint along with a transmit-power constraint, we propose
optimal and suboptimal algorithms to maximize the capacity of
the SU. We evaluate the spectral efficiency through extensive
simulations and show that the SU can achieve higher performance
(up to two times) with the more sophisticated PU than with the

Dec 11, 2013

© Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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This paper investigates power allocation algorithms
for OFDM-based cognitive radio systems, where the intra-system
channel state information (CSI) of the secondary user (SU) is
perfectly known. However, due to loose cooperation between the
SU and the primary user (PU), the inter-system CSI is only
partially available to the SU transmitter. Two types of PUs are
considered to have different capabilities. One is a dumb (Peak
Interference-Power tolerable) system that can tolerate a certain
amount of peak interference at each subchannel. The other
is a more sophisticated (Average Interference-Power tolerable)
system that can tolerate the interference from the SU as long
as the average interference over all subchannels is within a
certain threshold. Accordingly, we introduce an interference
power outage constraint, with which the outage is maintained
within a target level. The outage is here defined as the probability
that peak or average interference power to the PU is greater
than a given threshold. With both this interference-power outage
constraint along with a transmit-power constraint, we propose
optimal and suboptimal algorithms to maximize the capacity of
the SU. We evaluate the spectral efficiency through extensive
simulations and show that the SU can achieve higher performance
(up to two times) with the more sophisticated PU than with the

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Просмотров: 14

This paper investigates power allocation algorithms
for OFDM-based cognitive radio systems, where the intra-system
channel state information (CSI) of the secondary user (SU) is
perfectly known. However, due to loose cooperation between the
SU and the primary user (PU), the inter-system CSI is only
partially available to the SU transmitter. Two types of PUs are
considered to have different capabilities. One is a dumb (Peak
Interference-Power tolerable) system that can tolerate a certain
amount of peak interference at each subchannel. The other
is a more sophisticated (Average Interference-Power tolerable)
system that can tolerate the interference from the SU as long
as the average interference over all subchannels is within a
certain threshold. Accordingly, we introduce an interference
power outage constraint, with which the outage is maintained
within a target level. The outage is here defined as the probability
that peak or average interference power to the PU is greater
than a given threshold. With both this interference-power outage
constraint along with a transmit-power constraint, we propose
optimal and suboptimal algorithms to maximize the capacity of
the SU. We evaluate the spectral efficiency through extensive
simulations and show that the SU can achieve higher performance
(up to two times) with the more sophisticated PU than with the

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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Chunsheng Xin

Dept. of Computer Science

Norfolk State Univ.

Norfolk, VA 23504

cxin@nsu.edu

Min Song

ECE Dept.

Old Dominion Univ.

Norfolk, VA 23517

msong@odu.edu

Liangping Ma

Argon ST, Inc.

San Diego, CA 92121

lma@argonst.como

Sachin Shetty

ECE Dept.

Tennessee State Univ.

Nashville, TN. 37209

sshetty@tnstate.edu

Chien-Chung Shen

Dept. of CIS

Univ. of Delaware

Newark, DE 19716

cshen@cis.udel.edu

AbstractDynamic spectrum access (DSA) promises to resolve

spectrum scarcity and low spectrum utilization caused by todays

static spectrum access (SSA) policy. In DSA, secondary users

dynamically search and access spectrum bands that are tem-

porarily unused by primary users. In this paper, we propose a

control-free DSA algorithm for cognitive radio networks (CRN).

Our algorithm enables each CRN node to select its operation

band without coordination and exchange of control messages

with neighbors. The contribution of our algorithm is that such

an independently selected band can reach neighbors with high

probability, while streamlining control complexity and overhead

in DSA. We develop an analytical model to evaluate performance.

Numerical results show that our control-free DSA algorithm can

achieve very good performance.

I. INTRODUCTION

Todays static spectrum access (SSA) policy grants a xed

spectrum band to each licensed user for exclusive access.

With the rapidly proliferated wireless services, SSA is ex-

hausting the radio spectrum and leaves little spectrum for

future demands, a problem known as spectrum scarcity. On

the other hand, a large number of licensed spectrum bands is

considerably under-utilized in both time and spatial domains.

These two issues have motivated the development of dynamic

spectrum access (DSA) policy, allowing secondary user (SU)

to dynamically detect idle licensed bands that have no primary

user (PU) activity and temporarily access them, through cog-

nitive radio. In this paper, we refer to a spectrum band as a

channel.

Recently there have been many research efforts on DSA

(e.g., see [1][6] and references therein). In the literature, an

SU may be referred to as a communication session between

a pair of transmiting and receiving nodes, or one single node

in cognitive radio networks (CRNs). For the latter case, an

important problem is that when an SU (transmitter) wants to

send trafc to another SU (receiver), how the former nds

the latter since every SU dynamically changes the operation

channel (due to the dynamic availability of spectrum bands).

This is known as channel selection problem in multi-channel

MAC protocols. There have been quite a few MAC protocols

proposed for DSA in CRN (e.g., see [7][11]). These efforts

assumed a common control channel, used by neighboring

nodes to negotiate a data channel for packets transmission.

This work was supported in part by NSF grants CNS-0721313 (Xin), CNS-

0644247 (Song), CNS-0721230 (Ma), and CNS-0721361 (Shen).

In this paper we propose a channel selection algorithm

without relying on coordination and exchange of control

messages between CRN nodes. Our motivation is two folds.

First, using a common control channel for coordination may

not be feasible in certain scenarios. For instance, the ISM

band that is suggested by some studies as control channel can

get crowded in urban areas, since it is an unlicensed band

and thus shared by many wireless services. Second, using a

data channel for coordination is difcult for DSA and likely

results in large overhead, as data channels are dynamically and

temporarily accessible. Our contribution is that our algorithm

does not need coordination, not even through data channels,

and thus there is literally no control overhead. Furthermore,

our algorithm can be used as a supplement for control-based

channel selection algorithms when the control channel is

congested or jammed, or nodes lose contact with each other in

the case that data channels are used for coordination. In next

section, we describe the network model. In Sections III and

IV, we present the algorithm and develop an analytical model.

Section V presents numerical results.

II. NETWORK MODEL

From the perspective of SU, a channel (randomly) alternates

between accessible (no PU activity) and inaccessible (with

PU activity) states. We assume that SUs (CRN nodes) operate

in time slotted mode, while PUs may or may not operate in

slotted mode. In the case that PUs operate in non-slotted mode,

the operation channel of a CRN node may become inaccessible

within a time slot due to appearance of PU activity, and

the CRN node has to stop using the channel or switches

to another channel. We assume that the channel accessible

duration is much larger than time slot duration, and therefore,

the percentage of such interrupted slots is expected small,

and the analysis results in the ensuing discussion are not

signicantly affected.

Each node has a single cognitive radio for communication,

and a fast wideband spectrum sensor for spectrum analysis

(e.g., the spectrum sensor in [12] can sense/analyze a spectrum

band of 528 MHz in the order of 20 s). A node uses its

spectrum sensor to detect accessible channels in each time

slot, and selects one of them as its operation channel using the

algorithm in next section. Then this node switches its cognitive

radio to the selected channel. If there are two or more CRN

978-1-4244-6404-3/10/$26.00 2010 IEEE

This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2010 proceedings

nodes switched to the same accessible channel, then these

nodes use some existing multiple access MAC protocol (e.g.,

CSMA/CA) to access this channel and communicate with each

other. The time synchronization between nodes is performed

when they meet in the same channel.

As in several studies (e.g., [2]), we assume that a node

always has trafc to each neighbor and aim to examine the

achievable maximum capacity/throughput. Our performance

metric is the number of channels that are utilized for SU

communication. The packet-level throughput can be obtained

using the existing analytical models of MAC protocols (e.g.,

[13]) by conditioning on the number of utilized channels

obtained by our model.

III. CONTROL-FREE DSA

We propose a control-free channel/band selection algorithm

for DSA based on the receiver-directed technique. There

have been quite a few studies on receiver-directed channel

selection for conventional wireless networks (e.g., see [14]

and references therein). These studies assumed two radios

per node, with one radio on a xed receiving channel and

the other dynamically switching to the receiving channel of

other nodes to send packets. Like other MAC protocols for

conventional wireless networks, the existing receiver-directed

algorithms cannot handle dynamic channels. In the following

we describe our proposed algorithm that can nicely work on

dynamic channels in CRN, and needs only a single cognitive

radio to save cost (cognitive radio is expected costly).

Let N denote the number of nodes in the network. Let

M denote the total number of channels in the spectrum

sensing range of CRN nodes, and M denote the number of

accessible channels in the current time slot. We denote the

accessible channels as {1, . . . , M}. Due to sensing errors (e.g.,

miss-detection and false alarm) or partial coverage of some

channels, a node may have not detected all M accessible

channels, and different nodes may have detected different sets

of accessible channels. Let C

i

(1 i N) denote the set of

accessible channels detected by node i. We assume that each

channel in C

i

is randomly detected by node i with a probability

p, called channel detection probability in this paper.

At each time slot, each node selects an accessible channel

to listen for incoming packets, referred to as home channel in

this paper. Algorithm 1 describes a function Q(i, C) which is

used by node i to select its home channel

i

, where M is the

total number of both accessible and inaccessible channels in

the system, known to every node in advance. The algorithm

utilizes a pseudo-random number generator Z(y) to get a

random subscript, to obtain a candidate home channel H(k),

the kth channel in set H.

In existing receiver-directed channel selection algorithms,

a node stays on its home channel to receive packets. When

it wants to transmit packets to another node, it switches to

the home channel of that node. Nevertheless, since in our

algorithm, each node uses only one radio, this will result in a

situation that when a node, say i, wants to transmit to another

node, say j, in the current slot, node i does not know whether

Algorithm 1 Q(i, C), to compute home channel for node i

1. Set i as the seed for the pseudo-random number generator

Z().

2. Let H = {1, . . . , M}

3. repeat

4. k = Z(|H|) // Generate k such that 1 k |H|

5. h = H(k) // H(k) is kth channel in H

6. H = H\{h} // Remove h from H

7. until h C

8.

i

= h // Selected home channel

node j is in its home channel or has switched to some other

channel. To resolve this problem, we let a node either stay on

its home channel or switch to the home channel of other nodes

by a pre-set rule. Specically, node i uses a function g(i, t)

to compute its state in time slot t. If g(i, t) = 1, then node i

stays on its home channel at time slot t, and we say that node

i is a passive node at time slot t. Otherwise, if g(i, t) = 0,

node i is an active node and switches to home channels of

passive nodes for packet transmission in time slot t. With this

approach, node i can easily know whether node j is at the

home channel in slot t, by locally calling the function g(j, t).

The function g() should be designed to make a node change

its state over different time slots, e.g., using a random number

generator.

A major benet of our algorithm is that when node j wants

to switch to the home channel of node i, we do not require that

node j obtains the accessible channel set (or other information)

of node i in advance to determine the home channel of node

i

1

. In fact, we do not require any communication between

nodes i and j before node j has actually switched to the home

channel of node i. Our approach works as follows. Node j calls

Algorithm 1 with node is ID, but node js accessible channel

set C

j

, to get the home channel of node i from the point of

view of node j, denoted as

i

(j) = Q(i, C

j

), and then node j

switches to channel

i

(j). Certainly

i

(j) may not be the real

home channel of node i (

i

), since usually C

j

= C

i

. However,

we will show in Section V that Algorithm 1 ensures that if

there is a large percentage of common channels in C

i

and C

j

,

then the probability of

i

(j) =

i

is high and thus node j

can successfully switch to the real home channel of node i.

In the case of

i

(j) =

i

, after node j switches to channel

i

(j), node j can detect that it is a wrong channel, and then

switches to the home channel of another node, waiting for the

next time slot to switch to node is operation channel.

IV. ANALYSIS OF CONTROL-FREE DSA

We dene an accessible channel as a utilized channel if

it contains at least one active node and one passive node,

i.e., a pair of transmitter and receiver. This is because the

nodes on such a channel can send packets to each other (as

described earlier, we assume that a node always has trafc to

1

Note that node j might have met node i in some past time slot t

0

and has

obtained the accessible channel set of node i, C

i

, but C

i

may have changed

and thus cannot be used in this time slot.

This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2010 proceedings

each neighbor). In this section, we aim to derive the number

of utilized channels for our control-free channel selection

algorithm, given N, M, and p. It can be shown that M follows

binomial distribution, and thus we can eliminate M if needed.

A. Success Probability of Channel Estimation

We call the probability Pr(

i

(j) =

i

) as success probability

of channel estimation. In Algorithm 1, we can see that the

algorithm actually searches a random sequence of channels

h

1

, h

2

. . . based on the node ID, with each channel h

x

selected

among the M channels, until a channel is found belonging to

the channel set C which is supplied as input parameter. Thus

the two executions of Q() by node i for getting

i

= Q(i, C

i

)

and by node j for getting

i

(j) = Q(i, C

j

) will search the

same sequence of channels h

1

, h

2

. . ., since they use the same

node ID i, and in this sequence, there must exist a number

R 1 such that h

1

, . . . , h

R1

/ C

i

C

j

and h

R

C

i

C

j

,

since Step 6 of Algorithm 1 ensures that there is no repeated

channels in this sequence. This is similar to drawing a red ball

from an urn with |C

i

C

j

| red balls and M |C

i

C

j

| black

balls (|| denotes cardinality). Furthermore, h

R

must fall into

three cases: 1) h

R

C

i

\C

j

, i.e., h

R

C

i

but h

R

/ C

j

; 2) h

R

C

j

\C

i

; 3) h

R

C

i

C

j

. In the last case, h

R

=

i

=

i

(j). Due

to the random channel search of Algorithm 1, R is a random

variable. Let K = |C

i

C

j

| denote the number of common

channels of C

i

and C

j

. Let W = |C

i

C

j

| denote the total

number of unique channels in C

i

and C

j

. For 1KWM,

Pr(

i

=

i

(j), R = r | K=k,W =w)

= Pr(h

1

, . . . , h

r1

/ C

i

C

j

, h

r

C

i

C

j

| K=k,W =w)

=

k(Mw)r1

(M)r

, (1)

where (Y )

r

= Y (Y (r 1)) and r Mw + 1.

Next we obtain

Pr(

i

=

i

(j) | K=k,W =w) =

Mw+1

r=1

k(Mw)r1

(M)r

=

k

w

(2)

Remark: To avoid co-channel interference, it is desirable

for different nodes to have different home channels. As such,

in our algorithm, each node randomly selects an accessible

channel as the home channel. Nevertheless, we cannot let it be

completely random, because if so, node j would have difculty

to estimate the home channel of node i. To see this, let us

consider a simple scenario of C

i

= C

j

. If node i randomly

picks one channel from C

i

as its home channel

i

, and node

j also randomly picks one channel from C

j

as the estimation

of node is home channel

i

(j), then the success probability

that node j correctly estimates the home channel of node i is

1

|Ci|

. On the other hand, by Eq. (2), the success probability

of channel estimation using our algorithm is

|CiCj|

|CiCj|

= 1.

Therefore, instead of using a pure random algorithm, we use

an intentionally designed pseudo-random algorithm to estimate

the home channel of a node.

Next we derive Pr(K=k,W =w). We dene

D(k, w | u, v) = Pr(K = k, W = w | |C

i

| = u, |C

j

| = v).

Since the channels in C

i

and C

j

are randomly detected,

then they are randomly distributed among the M accessible

channels. This is similar to a situation that from an urn with

M balls, rst draw u balls, label them and return them back to

the urn. Then draw v balls from the urn. The probability that

the second draw gets k labelled balls (which have appeared in

the rst draw), and the two draws get total w unique balls is

D(k, w | u, v). Hence we have

D(k, w | u, v) =

_

_

_

_

u

k

__

Mu

vk

_

_

M

v

_ , if w = u + v k

0, otherwise

, (3)

where 0 u, v M, and max(0, u + v M) k

min(u, v), since k = u + v w u + v M. Note

that D(k, w | u, v) > 0 only if k + w = u + v since

w = |C

i

C

j

| = |C

i

| +|C

j

| |C

i

C

j

| = u + v k.

The number of channels in C

i

follows a binomial distri-

bution with parameters M and p, denoted as B(u; M, p) =

Pr(|C

i

| = u). Let D(k, w) (0 k w M) denote

Pr(K = k, W = w). We have

D(k, w) =

u,v

D(k, w | u, v) Pr(|C

i

| = u, |C

j

| = v)

=

u,v

D(k, w | u, v)B(u; M, p)B(v; M, p). (4)

By Eq. (3), D(k, w | u, v) > 0 only if u and v are correlated

such that u + v = k + w. Therefore, in Eq. (4), we only

need to summate over u, with v implicitly determined as v =

k+wu. Furthermore, D(k, w | u, v) > 0 only if k u w.

Therefore, Eq. (4) becomes

D(k, w) =

w

u=k

_

u

k

__

Mu

vk

__

M

u

_

p

u+v

(1 p)

2M(u+v)

= p

k+w

(1 p)

2M(k+w)

_

M

w

_

w

u=k

_

u

k

__

w

u

_

= p

k+w

(1 p)

2M(k+w)

_

M

w

_

w

u=k

_

wk

uk

__

w

k

_

= p

k+w

(1 p)

2M(k+w)

_

M

w

__

w

k

_

2

wk

.

In the second step, we substitute u +v by k +w and v k

by w u, and use the formula

_

Mu

wu

__

M

u

_

=

_

M

w

__

w

u

_

. In the

third step, we use the formula

_

u

k

__

w

u

_

=

_

wk

uk

__

w

k

_

.

For convenience, denote q = (1 p). Then we have

Pr(

i

(j) =

i

) =

1kwM

Pr(

i

=

i

(j) | K=k,W =w)D(k,w)

=

1kwM

k

w

p

k+w

(1 p)

2M(k+w)

_

M

w

__

w

k

_

2

wk

= q

2M

M

w=1

_

M

w

_

1

w

_

2p

q

_

w

w

k=1

k

_

w

k

_

_

p

2q

_

k

= q

2M

M

w=1

_

M

w

_

1

w

_

2p

q

_

w

w

p

2q

_

1 +

p

2q

_

w1

=

p q

2M

2q + p

M

w=1

_

M

w

_

_

2p

q

_

1 +

p

2q

__

w

=

p q

2M

2q + p

_

q

2M

1

_

=

p

2p

_

1(1p)

2M

_

. (5)

This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2010 proceedings

Eq. (5) shows that the success probability of channel esti-

mation depends on M and p only, not on specic node and

channel, i and j.

B. Number of Home Channels

Let

N denote the number of passive nodes in a time slot.

These

N nodes each randomly selects a home channel from

its accessible channel set using Algorithm 1. To avoid co-

channel interference, it is desirable that the home channels are

all different so that passive nodes listen on different channels.

With our algorithm, some nodes might select the same home

channel. In the following, we derive the number of (unique)

home channels in a time slot.

Theorem 1: Let Z

ij

denote the event that node i selects

channel j as its home channel using Algorithm 1. Then the

probability of Z

ij

is

Pr(Z

ij

) =

1

M

_

1 (1 p)

M

_

. (6)

Proof: The home channel selection of a node has been

discussed in Section IV-A. Specically, node i uses Algo-

rithm 1 to search a random sequence of channels h

1

, h

2

. . .,

until a channel h

R

belongs to C

i

. In order to make Z

ij

happen,

we must have h

R

= j. Similar to the derivation of Eq. (2),

we have

Pr(Z

ij

, R = r | j C

i

, |C

i

| = v) =

(Mv)

r1

(M)

r

,

since in the rth ball drawing, there is only one choice to make

h

r

= j. Then we have

Pr(Z

ij

| j C

i

, |C

i

| = v)

=

M+1

r=1

Pr(Z

ij

, R = r | j C

i

, |C

i

| = v)

=

M+1

r=1

(Mv)

r1

(M)

r

=

1

v

.

The probability that j C

i

and |C

i

| = v (1 v M) is the

probability that node i successfully detect channel j, together

with additional v 1 channels. Thus we have

Pr(j C

i

, |C

i

| = v) =

_

p B(v 1; M1, p), if v 1

0, if v = 0

.

Then we can compute

Pr(Z

ij

)=

M

v=0

Pr(Z

ij

| j C

i

,|C

i

| =v) Pr(j C

i

,|C

i

| =v)

=

M

v=1

1

v

p

_

M1

v1

_

p

v1

(1 p)

Mv

=

1

M

_

1 (1 p)

M

_

.

Let

j

= 1 or 0 depending on whether channel j is a

home channel of some passive node(s) in the current time

slot. Let =

M

j=1

j

denote the number of unique home

channels. Channel j is not a home channel of any node iff

events Z

1,j

, . . . , Z

N,j

are all false. Moreover, for a xed j,

the events Z

1,j

, . . . , Z

N,j

are independent. Thus we have

Pr(

j

= 0)= Pr(

Z

1j

, . . . ,

Z

Nj

) =

N

i=1

(1Pr(Z

i,j

)). (7)

Then the mean number of (unique) home channels is

E() =

M

j=1

E(

j

) =

M

j=1

(1 Pr(

j

= 0)) (8)

= M

_

1

_

1

1

M

_

1 (1 p)

M

_

N

_

. (9)

C. Number of Utilized Channels

In each time slot, every active node selects a passive node

and switches to the home channel of the selected node for

packet transmission. In this paper, we consider two schemes

for an active node to select its intended passive node:

Random node selection (RNS), i.e., randomly picking a

passive node.

Trafc load oriented node selection (TNS). A passive

node i is selected if the active node has more packets

to node i than to any other node in the current time slot.

The RNS can be seen as a special case of TNS in that if the

trafc load between all node pairs is uniform, then an active

node has the same probability to select each passive node. Let

ki

denote the trafc load from node k to node i. Let A and P

denote the set of active and passive nodes, respectively, in the

current time slot. Let

ki

denote the probability that an active

node k (k A) selects passive node i (i P) for packet

transmission in the current time slot. The

ki

is computed

based on

ki

as follows.

ki

=

_

ki

iP

ki

, for k A, i P

0, otherwise

Note that in the case of RNS, we simply have

ki

=

1

|P|

for

k A and i P. Let V

ki

denote the event that active node k

selects passive node i and successfully switches to the home

channel of node i, i.e.,

i

(k) =

i

. Then we have

Pr(V

ki

) =

ki

Pr(

i

(k) =

i

),

where Pr(

i

(k) =

i

) is the success probability of channel

estimation, which does not depend on i and k (see Eq. (5)).

Let Z

ij

(i P, 1 j M) denote the event that passive

node i selects channel j as its home channel

i

, and there

is at least one active node k that selects node i for packet

transmission, and node k successfully switches to the home

channel of node i. We have

Pr(Z

ij

) = Pr(Z

ij

kA

V

ki

))

= Pr(Z

ij

)

_

1

kA

Pr(

V

ki

)

_

= Pr(Z

ij

)

_

1

kA

_

1

ki

Pr(

i

(k) =

i

)

__

where

V

ki

is the complement event of V

ki

, and Z

ij

has been

dened in Theorem 1.

With Pr(Z

ij

), the mean number of utilized channels can

be computed similarly as the mean number of home channels.

This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2010 proceedings

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

10 20 30 40 50

P

r

o

b

a

b

i

l

i

t

y

Number of Accessible Channels (M)

ana, p=1

sim, p=1

ana, p=0.95

sim, p=0.95

ana, p=0.9

sim, p=0.9

Fig. 1. Success probability of channel estimation

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

5.5

6

6.5

10 20 30 40 50

#

o

f

U

t

i

l

i

z

e

d

C

h

a

n

n

e

l

s

Number of Accessible Channels (M)

ana, p=1

sim, p=1

ana, p=0.95

sim, p=0.95

ana, p=0.9

sim, p=0.9

(a) 20-node CRN, N = 20,

N = 10

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10 20 30 40 50

#

o

f

U

t

i

l

i

z

e

d

C

h

a

n

n

e

l

s

Number of Accessible Channels (M)

ana, p=1

sim, p=1

ana, p=0.95

sim, p=0.95

ana, p=0.9

sim, p=0.9

(b) 30-node CRN, N = 30,

N = 15

Fig. 2. Mean number of utilized channels

Specically, substituting Pr(Z

ij

) in Eq. (7) by Pr(Z

ij

), and

applying Eq. (7)(9), we get the mean number of utilized

channels.

V. NUMERICAL RESULTS

To verify the analytical model, we have simulated two

single-hop CRNs, with 20 and 30 nodes, respectively. The

simulation time is 5000 seconds and the time slot is assumed

10 milliseconds. At the beginning of every slot, each node

randomly selects the operation state (active or passive), and

independently detects accessible channels with probability p.

Each active node picks a passive node as intended receiver

through the RNS scheme. For the analysis results, we assume

half of nodes as passive nodes, i.e., 10 and 15 passive nodes

in the two CRNs, respectively. To make simulation results be

comparable to analysis results, we collect statistics data only

in time slots where the number of passive nodes is half of

total nodes.

We plot the success probability of channel estimation in

Fig 1, where ana indicates analytical results, and sim

indicates simulation results (averaged over time slots). The

analytical results match simulation results quite well. The

gure shows that the success probability of channel estimation

is almost not affected by M. This can be seen from Eq. (5),

where for reasonably large M, the term (1p)

2M

vanishes and

thus Pr(

i

=

i

(j))

p

2p

. Another observation is that if p is

reasonably high, e.g., p > 0.9, then Pr(

i

=

i

(j)) > 0.818,

which means that on average an active node can reach a

specic passive node in less than

1

0.818

1.2 time slots

(it follows geometric distribution). In other words, if the

accessible channel sets of two nodes have a large percentage

of common channels

2

, then an active node can easily reach an

intended passive node.

Fig. 2 shows the mean number of utilized channels. When

there are abundant accessible channels, in the 20-node CRN,

10 active nodes go into approximately 6 channels to send

packets to passive nodes, while in the 30-node CRN, 15

active nodes go into around 9 channels to send packets. Based

on the results of many experiments with various parameters

(not shown due to space limit), we have observed that our

algorithm can achieve approximately 60% of the theoretical

2

The p indirectly determines the percentage of common channels.

maximum performance (which is 10 utilized channels for 20-

node CRN and 15 utilized channels for the 30-node CRN) that

requires a dedicated common control channel (and likely a

second radio). Furthermore, the performance of our algorithm

can be improved if we let an active node continue to select

another passive node and switch channel, if after a channel

switching, the node nds that the current channel does not

have a passive node, or already has an active node. We will

study such improvements as future work and aim to achieve

80% of the maximum performance.

REFERENCES

[1] N. Chang and M. Liu, Competitive analysis of opportunistic spectrum

access strategies, in Proc. IEEE Infocom, 2008, pp. 15351542.

[2] S. Huang, X. Liu, and Z. Ding, Opportunistic spectrum access in

cognitive radio networks, in Proc. IEEE Infocom, 2008, pp. 14271435.

[3] Q. Zhao, S. Geirhofer, L. Tong, and B. Sadler, Opportunistic spectrum

access via periodic channel sensing, IEEE Trans. Signal Process.,

vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 785 796, Feb. 2008.

[4] B. Wang, Z. Ji, and K. Liu, Primary-prioritized Markov approach for

dynamic spectrum access, in Proc. IEEE DySPAN, 2007, pp. 507515.

[5] Y. Shi and T. Hou, A distributed optimization algorithm for multi-hop

cognitive radio networks, in Proc. IEEE Infocom, 2008, pp. 12921300.

[6] Q. Zhao, L. Tong, A. Swami, and Y. Chen, Decentralized cognitive

MAC for opportunistic spectrum access in ad hoc networks: A POMDP

framework, IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 589600,

Apr. 2007.

[7] B. Hamdaoui and K. Shin, OS-MAC: An efcient MAC protocol for

spectrum-agile wireless networks, IEEE Trans. Mobile Comput., vol. 7,

no. 8, pp. 915930, Aug. 2008.

[8] J. Jia, Q. Zhang, and X. Shen, HC-MAC: A hardware-constrained

cognitive MAC for efcient spectrum management, IEEE J. Sel. Areas

Commun., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 106117, Jan. 2008.

[9] M. Timmers, A. Dejonghe, L. van der Perre, and F. Catthoor, A

distributed multichannel MAC protocol for cognitive radio networks

with primary user recognition, in Proc. Crowncom, 2007, pp. 216223.

[10] H. Su and X. Zhang, Cross-layer based opportunistic MAC protocols

for qos provisionings over cognitive radio wireless networks, IEEE J.

Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 118129, Jan. 2008.

[11] Y. Yuan, P. Bahl, R. Chandra, P. Chou, J. Ferrell, T. Moscibroda,

S. Narlanka, and Y. Wu, KNOWS: Cognitive radio networks over white

spaces, in Proc. IEEE DySPAN, 2007, pp. 416427.

[12] S. Mishra, S. Brink, R. Mahadevappa, and R. Brodersen, Cognitive

radio technology for ultra-wideband/wimax coexistence, in Proc. IEEE

DySPAN, 2007, pp. 179186.

[13] F. Cali, M. Conti, and E. Gregori, IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN: Capacity

analysis and protocol enhancement, in Proc. Infocom, 2003, pp. 139

150.

[14] P. Kyasanur and N. H. Vaidya, Routing and link-layer protocols for

multi-channel multi-interface ad hoc wireless networks, ACM SIGMO-

BILE Mobile Computing and Communications Review, vol. 10, no. 1,

pp. 3143, Jan. 2006.

This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE ICC 2010 proceedings

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