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For Piping Systems proper selection of of Material of Construction alongwit Specifications! Ad erence to Codes and Standards is essential" Standardi#ation reduces cost! confusion and incon$enience" Standards are pu%lis ed %y Professional Societies! Committees and Trade Organi#ations" &t is also accepted %y 'o$ernments" T e main o%(ecti$e is to a$e Standardi#ation and Safety"

CODE ) A group of general rules or systematic procedures for Design! Fa%rication! &nstallation and &nspection met ods prepared in suc a manner t at it can %e adopted %y legal (urisdiction and made into a law" STANDARDS ) Documents prepared %y a Professional group or Committee w ic are %elie$ed to %e good and proper Engineering Practices and w ic contain mandatory re*uirement" RECOMMENDED PRACT&CES ) Documents prepared %y professional group or committee indicating 'ood Engineering Practices %ut w ic are optional"

Companies also de$elop 'uides in order to a$e consistency in t e documentation" T ese co$er $arious engineering met ods w ic are considered good practices! wit out specific recommendations or re*uirements" Codes and Standards! %esides %eing regulations! mig t also %e considered as Design Aids since t ey pro$ide guidance from e+perts" Eac country as its own Codes and Standards" On glo%al %asis! American National Standards are t e most widely used and compliance wit t ose re*uirements are accepted world o$er" &n &ndia! ot er t an American Standards! ,ritis and &ndian Standards are also used for design and selection of Piping Systems" -" AMER&CAN STANDARDS ) Not all American Standards are issued directly %y American National Standards &nstitute" T e Material Standards are co$ered under ASTM .American Society for Testing and Materials/ and Dimension Standards under ANS& .American National Standards &nstitute/" Most of t ese Standards are adapted %y ASME .American Society for Mec anical Engineers/" T e American Standards referred %y Piping Engineers are mainly t e standards %y ) o T e American Petroleum &nstitute .AP&/ ) T e Standards referred %y Piping Engineers are ) -" AP& 01 2 Specification for 1ine Pipe 3" AP& 4D 2 Pipe 1ine 5al$es! End Closures! Connectors and Swi$els 6" AP& 4F 2 Recommended Practice for Fire Test for $al$es 7" AP& 086 2 Ductile &ron Plug 5al$es 2 Flanged Ends 0" AP& 089 2 5al$e &nspection and Test 4" AP& 4:: 2 Steel 'ate 5al$es

;" AP& 4:- 2 Metallic 'as<ets for Refinery Piping 9" AP& 4:3 2 Compact Design Car%on Steel 'ate 5al$es 8" AP& 4:7 2 Ductile &ron 'ate 5al$es 2 Flanged Ends -:" AP& 4:0 2 1arge Diameter Car%on Steel Flanges --" AP& 4:; 2 Fire Test for Soft Seated ,all 5al$es -3" AP& 4:8 2 ,utterfly 5al$es -6" AP& --:7 2 Standard for =elding Pipeline and Facilities

T e American &ron and Steel &nstitute .A&S&/ ) T ese specify t e material %y its C emical and P ysical properties" = en specific model of manufacture of t e element is not to %e specified! t en t e material can %e identified %y ANS& Standards" T e most commonly used A&S& specifications are ) -" A&S& 7-: 2 -6> C romium Alloy Steel 3" A&S& 6:7 2 -9?9 Austenitic Stainless Steel 6" A&S& 6-4 2 -9?9?6 Austenitic Stainless Steel

American National Standard &nstitute .ANS&/ and T e American Society for Mec anical Engineers .ASME/ ) T e American National Standards &nstitute@s standards used in t e design of t e Piping Systems are ) -" ANS& , 6-"- 2 Power Piping 3" ANS& , 6-"3 2 Fuel 'as Piping 6" ANS& , 6-"6 2 Process Piping 7" ANS& , 6-"7 2 Pipeline Transportation System for 1i*uid Aydrocar%on and ot er 1i*uids" 0" ANS& , 6-"0 2 Refrigeration Piping 4" ANS& , 6-"9 2 'as Transmission and Distri%ution Piping System ;" ANS& , 6-"8 2 ,uilding Ser$ices Piping 9" ANS& , 6-"-- 2 Slurry Transportation Piping System 8" ANS& , 6-"' 2 Manual for determining t e remaining strengt of corroded piping 2 A supplement to ANS& ,6Of t e a%o$e! t e most commonly used code is ASME , 6-"6" Refineries and C emical Plants are designed %ased on t e same" All Power Plants are designed as per ASME ,6-"-" Ot er ma(or ANS& ? ASME Standards refereed for t e piping elements are ) -:" ANS& , -"- 2 Bnified &nc Screw T reads

--" ANS& ? ASME , -"3:"- 2 Pipe t reads for general porposes -3" ANS& ? ASME , -4"- 2 Cast &ron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings -6" ANS& ? ASME , -4"6 2 Mallea%le &ron T readed Fittings -7" ANS& ? ASME , -4"7 2 Cast &ron T readed Fittings -0" ANS& ? ASME , -4"0 2 Steel Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings -4" ANS& ? ASME , -4"8 2 Steel ,utt =elding Fittings -;" ANS& ? ASME , -4"-: 2 Face to Face and End to End dimensions of 5al$es -9" ANS& ? ASME , -4"-- 2 Forged Steel Soc<et =elding and T readed fittings -8" ANS& , -4"3: 2 Metallic 'as<ets for Pipe Flanges 2 ring (oint! spiral wound 3:" ANS& ? ASME , -4"3- 2 Non Metallic 'as<ets for Pipe Flanges 3-" ANS& ? ASME , -4"30 2 ,utt =elding Ends 33" ANS& ? ASME , -4"39 2 S ort Radius El%ows and Returns 36" ANS& ? ASME , -4"67 2 Steel 5al$es! Flanged and %utt welding ends 37" ANS& ? ASME , -4"73 2 Ductile &ron Pipe Flanges and Flanged Fittings 2 Class -0:C and 6::C 30" ANS& ? ASME , -4"7; 2 1arge Diameter Steel Flanges 2 NPS 2 34D to 4:D 34" ANS& ? ASME , -9"3 - and 3 2 S*uare and Ae+agonal ead ,olts and Nuts .&nc and mm/ 3;" ANS& ? ASME , 64"-: 2 =elded and Seamless =roug t Steel Pipes 39" ANS& ? ASME , 64"-8 2 =elded and Seamless Austinitic Stainless Steel Pipe

American Society for Testing Materials .ASTM/ ) T ese consist of -4 sections on definitions and classifications of materials of construction and Test met ods" Most of t e ASTM Standards are adapted %y ASME and are specified in ASME Section &&" T e Section && as four parts" Part A 2 Ferrous Materials Part , 2 Non2Ferrous Materials Part C 2 =elding Materials Part D 2 Properties of Materials

&n Section &&! t e materials are listed in t e inde+ %ased on t e a$aila%le forms suc as plates! castings! tu%es etc"! and also on t e numerical inde+" T e selection of ASTM Specification depends on t e manufacturer! form of material! its mec anical strengt and corrosion properties" T e specification num%er is gi$en an Alp a%etical prefi+ DAD for ferrous and D,D for non2ferrous materials" ASTM also specifies standard practice for num%ering metal and alloys as Bnified Num%ering System" Bnified Num%ering System .BNS/ esta%lis es -9 series num%ers of metals and alloys" Eac BNS num%er consists of a single letter prefi+ followed %y 0 digits" &n most cases t e alp a%et is suggesti$e of t e family of t e metal identified" A::::- 2 A88888 2 Aluminum and Aluminum alloys C::::- 2 C88888 2 Copper and Copper Alloys E::::- 2 E88888 2 Rare eart and rare eart li<e metals and alloys 1::::- 2 188888 2 1ow Melting metals and alloys M::::- 2 M88888 2 Miscellaneous non2ferrous metals and alloys N::::- 2 N88888 2 Nic<el and Nic<el Alloys P::::- 2 P88888 2 Precious Metals and Alloys R::::- 2 R88888 2 Reacti$e and Refractory metals and alloys E::::- 2 E88888 2 Einc and #inc alloys D::::- 2 D88888 2 Specified mec anical properties of Steel F::::- 2 F88888 2 Cast &ron and Cast Steel '::::- 2 '88888 2 A&S& and ASE Car%on and alloy steels A::::- 2 A88888 2 A&S& A Steels F::::- 2 F88888 2 Cast Steel G::::- 2 G88888 2 Miscellaneous Steels and Ferrous alloys S::::- 2 S88888 2 Stainless Steel T::::- 2 T88888 2 Tool Steel =::::- 2 =88888 2 =elding Filler Metals and Electrodes

American =elding Society .A=S/ ) T ese standards pro$ide information on t e welding fundamentals! weld design! welder@s training *ualifications! testing and inspection of t e welds and guidance on t e application and use of welds" &ndi$idual electrode manufacturers a$e gi$en t eir own %rand names for t e $arious electrodes and t e same are sold under t ese names"

American =ater =or<s Association .A==A/ ) T ese standards refer to t e piping elements re*uired for low pressure water ser$ices" T ese are less stringent t an ot er standards" 5al$es! Flanges etc"! re*uired for large diameter water pipelines are co$ered under t is standard and are refereed rarely %y piping engineers" C20:: ) 'ate 5al$es for =ater and sewage system C20-: ) Cast &ron Sluice 'ate 5al$es C20:7 ) Ru%%er Seated ,utterfly 5al$es C20:; ) ,all 5al$es 4D to 79D C20:9 ) Swing C ec< 5al$es 3D to 37D C20:8 ) Resilient Seated 'ate 5al$es for water and sewage

T e manufacturers Standardi#ation Society of 5al$es and Fitting &ndustry 2 Standard Practices .MSS2SP/ ) &n addition to t e a%o$e standards and material codes! t ere are standard practices followed %y manufacturers" T ese are pu%lis ed as ad$isory standards and are widely followed" T e most common MSS2SP standards referred for piping are ) MSS2SP24 ) Standard Finis es for contact surface for flanges MSS2SP230 ) Standard mar<ing system for $al$es! fittings! flanges MSS2SP273 ) Class -0: corrosion resistant gate! glo%e and c ec< $al$es MSS2SP276 ) =roug t stainless steel %uttweld fittings MSS2SP204 ) Pipe anger supports 2 Material! design and manufacture MSS2SP24- ) Pressure testing of $al$es MSS2SP24; ) ,utterfly 5al$es MSS2SP249 ) Aig Pressure off seat %utterfly $al$es MSS2SP248 ) Pipe anger supports 2 selection and applications MSS2SP2;: ) Cast iron gate $al$es MSS2SP2;- ) Cast iron c ec< $al$es MSS2SP2;3 ) ,all 5al$es MSS2SP2;9 ) Cast iron plug $al$es MSS2SP29: ) ,ron#e gate! glo%e and c ec< $al$es MSS2SP29- ) Stainless steel %onnetless <nife gate $al$es MSS2SP296 ) Pipe unions

MSS2SP290 ) Cast iron glo%e $al$es MSS2SP299 ) Diap ragm $al$es MSS2SP298 ) Pipe angers and supports 2 fa%rication and installation practices MSS2SP28: ) Pipe angers and supports 2 guidelines on terminology MSS2SP283 ) MSS $al$es user guide MSS2SP2-:9 ) Resilient seated eccentric C& plug $al$es

,R&T&SA STANDARDS ) &n many instances! it is possi%le to find a ,ritis Standard w ic may %e su%stitutes for American Standards" For e+ample! ,S 3:9: .,ritis Standard for Face to Face or End to End dimensions of $al$es/ is identical to ANS&?ASME ,-4"-:" Similarly ,S 6;88 and ANS&?ASME , -4"-- also compare" T ere are certain ,ritis Standards referred %y &ndian Manufacturers for Piping and 5al$es" T e most commonly referred ,ritis Standards in t e Piping &ndustry are )
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,S -: ) Flanges ,S 9:4 ) Pipes and Fittings for ,oilers ,S 8-4 ) ,lac< ,olts! Nuts and Screws ,S 8;: ) Steel for Forging! ,ars! Rods! $al$e steel! etc" ,S -3-3 ) Specification for Float Operated 5al$es ,S -6:4 ) Copper and Copper alooy pressure piping system ,S -7-7 ) 'ate 5al$es for Petroleum &ndustry ,S -04: ) Steel Pipe Flanges ,S -4:: ) Dimensions of Steel Pipes ,S -47: ) ,utt =elding Fittings ,S -;7: ) =roug t Steel screwed pipe fittings ,S -949 ) Steel C ec< 5al$es for Petroleum &ndustry ,S -9;6 ) Steel 'lo%e and C ec< 5al$es for Petroleum &ndustry ,S -840 ) ,utt welding pipe fittings ,S 3:9: ) Face to Face ? End to End dimensions of 5al$es ,S 3089 ) 'lass Pipelines and Fittings ,S 6:08 ) ,oiler and Super eater Tu%es ,S 6:46 ) Dimensions of 'as<ets for Pipe Flanges

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,S 669- ) Metallic Spiral =ound 'as<ets ,S 64:: ) Dimensions of =elded and Seamless Pipes and Tu%es ,S 64:- ) C"S" Pipes and Tu%es for pressure purposes at room temperature ,S 64:3 ) C"S" Pipes and Tu%es for pressure purposes at ig temperature ,S 64:6 ) C"S" and Alloy Steel Pipes and Tu%es for pressure purposes at low temperature ,S 64:7 ) Alloy Steel Pipes and Tu%es for ig temperature ,S 64:0 ) SS Pipes and Tu%es for pressure purposes ,S 6;88 ) Soc<et =eld ? Screwed Fittings ,S 68;7 ) Pipe angers! Slides and Roller type supports ,S 7674 ) P5C pressure pipe 2 (oints and fittings ,S 70:7 ) Steel! Cast &ron and Copper alloy fittings ,S 0-0: ) Cast &ron =edge and Dou%le Disc 'ate 5al$es for general purposes ,S 0-0- ) Cast &ron 'ate .parallel slide/ 5al$es for general purposes ,S 0-03 ) Cast &ron 'lo%e and C ec< 5al$es for general purposes ,S 0-06 ) Cast &ron C ec< 5al$es for general purposes ,S 0-07 ) Copper alloy 'lo%e! 'ate and C ec< 5al$es ,S 0-00 ) Cast &ron and Cast Steel ,utterfly 5al$es for general purposes ,S 0-04 ) Diap ragm 5al$es for general purposes ,S 0-0; ) Steel 'ate .parallel slide/ 5al$es for general purposes ,S 0-09 ) Cast &ron and Cast Steel Plug 5al$es for general purposes ,S 0-08 ) Cast &ron and Cast Steel ,all 5al$es for general purposes ,S 0-4: ) Flanged Steel 'lo%e and C ec< 5al$es for general purposes ,S 0-46 ) Flanged Cast &ron =edge 'ate 5al$es for general purposes ,S 060- ) Steel ,all 5al$es for Petroleum &ndustry ,S 0603 ) Steel 'ate! 'lo%e and C ec< 5al$es! smaller t an 3D N, ,S 0606 ) Specifications for Plug 5al$es

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,S 068- ) Specifications for A,S pressure pipes ,S 0683 ) Specifications for A,S fittings ,S 0766 ) Specifications for underground stop $al$es for water ser$ices ,S 079: ) Specifications for 'RP pipes and fittings ,S 4647 ) Specifications for 5al$es for Cryogenic ser$ices ,S 4;00 ) Testing of 5al$es ,S 4;08 ) Safety 5al$es

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&ND&AN STANDARDS ) ,ureau of &ndian Standards .,&S/ a$e so far not de$eloped an &ndian Standard for t e design of Piping Systems" Aence! ANS& Standards ASME 6-"- and 6-"6 are widely used for t e design" T ese standards also accept materials co$ered in ot er standards" Bnli<e American Standards! &ndian Standards co$er dimensions and material specifications under t e same standard num%er" T ere are no groupings %ased on %ranc of engineering" Some of t e most commonly referred &ndian Standards %y Piping Engineers are )
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&S 3-: ) 'rey &ron Castings &S 334 ) Structural Steel .superseded %y &S 3:43/ &S 007 ) Dimensions of Pipe T reads &S ;;9 ) Specification for Copper Alloy 'ate! 'lo%e and C ec< 5al$es &S ;9: ) Specification for Sluice 5al$es 2 0: N, to 6:: N, &S -368 .Part & and &&/ ) Specification for Mild Steel tu%es and fittings &S -646 ) Ae+agonal ,olts! Screws and nuts 2 'rade C &S -647 ) Ae+agonal ,olts! Screws and nuts 2 'rade A and , &S -64; ) Tec nical supply conditions for t readed steel fastners &S -064 ) Centrifugally Cast &ron Pipes &S -06; ) 5ertically Cast &ron Pipes &S -069 ) Cast &ron Fittings &S -9;: ) Comparison of &ndian and O$erseas Standards &S -9;8 ) Mallea%le &ron Pipe Fittings &S -8;9 ) 1ine Pipe &S -8;8 ) Aig Test 1ine Pipe &S 3::3 ) Steel Plates

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&S 3:-4 ) Plain =as ers &S 3:7- ) Steel Plates for Pressure 5essels used at moderate and low temperature &S 3:43 ) Steel for general structural purposes &S 36;8 ) Colour Code for &dentification of Pipelines &S 3;-3 ) Compressed As%estos Fi%re Fointing &S 3930 ) Code for Bnfired Pressure 5essels &S 38:4 ) Specification for Sluice 5al$es 2 60: N, to -3:: N, &S 6:;4 ) Specification for 1DPE Pipes &S 6--7 ) Code of Practice for laying pipes &S 60-4 ) Cast &ron flanges and flanged fittings for Petroleum &ndustry &S 6098 ) Seamless or ER= Pipes .-0: N, to 3::: N,/ &S 7:69 ) Specifications for Foot 5al$es &S 7-;8 ) Si#es for pressure $essels and leading dimensions &S 7906 ) Radiograp ic E+amination of ,utt =eld Foints in pipes &S 7947 to &S 79;: ) S ell Flanges for $essels and e*uipments &S 7897 ) Specification for ADPE Pipes &S 7890 ) Specification for P5C Pipes &S 06-3 ) Specification for C ec< 5al$es &S 00;3 ) Classification of Aa#ardous area for Electrical &nstallation &S 0933 ) Code of practice for laying welded steel pipes &S 4-0; ) &nspection and Testing of 5al$e &S 4394 ) Seamless and =elded pipes for Su%#ero temperatures &S 4683 ) Steel Pipe Flanges &S 446: ) Seamless alloy steel pipes for ig temperature ser$ice &S 48-6 ) Stainless Steel tu%es for food and %e$erage industry &S ;-9- ) Aori#ontally cast iron pipes &S ;37: ) Code of Proctice for Cold &nsulation &S ;7-6 ) Code of Proctice for Aot &nsulation

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&S ;;-8 ) Metallic spiral wound gas<ets &S ;9:4 ) Stainless Steel Castings &S ;988 ) Alloy Steel castings for pressure ser$ices &S 9::9 ) Specification for moulded ADPE Fittings &S 964: ) Specification for fa%ricated ADPE Fittings &S 898: ) ,all 5al$es for general purposes &S -:33- ) Code of Proctice for coating and wrapping of underground MS pipelines &S -:083 ) Eye was and safety s owers &S -:4:0 ) Steel 'lo%e 5al$es for Petroleum &ndustries &S -:4-- ) Steel 'ate 5al$es for Petroleum &ndustries &S -:;-- ) Si#e of Drawing S eets &S -:9:0 ) Foot 5al$es &S -:898 ) Cast ? Forged Steel C ec< 5al$es for Petroleum &ndustry &S -:88: ) Tec nical drawings 2 Simplified representation of pipelines &S --;8: ) Code of Proctice for preparation of ,utt welding ends for $al$es! flanges and fittings &S --;8- ) Diap ragm 5al$es for general purposes &S --;83 ) Steel ,all 5al$es for Petroleum &ndustry &S -3;:8 ) Specifications for 'RP pipes &S -6:78 ) Specifications for Diap ragm type float operated $al$es &S -6:80 ) ,utterfly 5al$es &S -630; ) Ring type (oint gas<et and groo$es for flanges

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