Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 15

SUMMARY 1.

Background This report describes environmental work carried out in conjunction with the Master Plan Study on Integrated Development and Management of the Walanae-Cenranae River Basin in central Southern Sulawesi. The project was conducted for the Directorate General of Water Resources of the Indonesian Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure, funded through a loan from the Japanese Bank for International Co-operation. The project ran from September 2002 to December 2003 and the environmental work was carried out between October 2002 and July 2003. This is one of the main rice growing areas of Indonesia and most of the land is devoted to paddy farming, served by extensive technical and rain-fed irrigation systems. Production is limited by insufficient water in the dry season and flooding in the rains, when the floodplain lake in the centre of the basin expands and rivers overflow. Various studies since 1980 have recommended measures to manage water resources to improve agricultures, raise living standards and reduce flooding, and the aim of this project was to review these proposals and develop an integrated Master Plan for water resources development. The aim of the environmental study was to identify existing problems and constraints in the basin, assess the environmental impacts of the proposed water management measures, prepare an Environmental Protection Plan defining how adverse impacts will be mitigated, and prepare Environmental Conservation Guidelines to ensure that future development is sustainable and environmentally acceptable. 2. Approach Existing data on the environment of the basin was obtained from previous reports and from government and NGOs, and new data was collected via surveys and provided by experts working on other aspects of the project (hydrology, agriculture, forestry, etc). Land use was determined from satellite imagery, and all spatial data was entered into a GIS. Maps were produced illustrating the main features, and a written description of existing environmental conditions was prepared. Environmental problems were identified by analysing baseline data, and solutions were proposed and included in the Spatial Plan for land use development. An Environmental Resources Conservation Plan described the problems, reasons for their occurrence and proposed solutions, and an Action Plan for Environmental Management and Protection set out the action necessary, and a programme for implementation. Environmental Impacts of the proposed water management and development measures were assessed, and mitigation was devised to reduce or avoid adverse impacts. The means of achieving mitigation was discussed with the project engineers and defined in an Environmental Protection Plan, together with the necessary environmental monitoring. Environmental Conservation Guidelines were produced comprising simple criteria that can be applied to future projects to avoid environmentally damaging activities. The results of all studies were described in an Environmental Sector Report (this document).

ix

3. The Existing Environment Topography: The study area includes the basins of the Walanae River and tributaries in the south, the Bila and tributaries in the north, numerous smaller rivers in the west, Lake Tempe in the centre into which all of these rivers flow, and the Cenranae River that drains the lake into the Bay of Bone in the east. It also includes the unconnected Gilirang River in the north-east. Most of the area is flat and low lying (4-10 m above sea level), rising to hills of 1,500-3,000 m in the north, south and west. Geology: The uplands in the north consist of hard sedimentary rocks formed in the Tertiary period and metamorphic rocks from the Pre-Tertiary, with lower slopes of mudstone, sandstone and conglomerate deposits from the Pliocene. Tempe depression in the centre is a flat plain of alluvial soft clay and un-cemented sand, with levees and marshes around the rivers. In the south, limestone mountains are separated by the Walanae depression, which includes hills and alluvial plains and terraces. Soils: There are four main types of soil. Eutric Fluvisols with a deep effective depth and fine texture occur on alluvial plains around the lake and rivers and support a wide range of crops. Eutric Gleysols are found in depressions with a high water table, and are used in paddy cultivation, and Chromic Vertisols with high clay content extend over flat low land and are also used for paddy farming. Eutric Cambisols occur on terraces in the north and are shallow, eroded and used for perennial crops or cassava. Climate: The rainy season extends from March-July and the dry season from August-February, although September and October are the only really dry months. The mountains receive the most rain (2-4,000 mm/yr) and Lake Tempe the least (1,500 mm/yr), and in the lowlands there are 200 mm of rain per month in the wet season and <100 mm in the dry. Average air temperature is 2728C through the year and varies by 5-8C between night and day. Humidity is 76-83%, wind speed is low, and there are 4-7 hours of sunshine each day. Water Resources: Walanae is the largest river, with a catchment of 3,170 km2. It rises in the southern mountains and flows 100 km north through a channel with a carrying capacity of 4002,300 m3/sec and joins the Cenranae at Sengkang. The Bila has a 1,611 km2 catchment and flows from the northern mountains, 100 km south into Lake Tempe through a channel with a capacity of 340-1,130 m3/sec. The Cenranae drains the lake into the Bay of Bone, via a 69 km channel with a capacity of 250-650 m3/sec. The Gilirang has a catchment of 518 km2 and also rises in the north, and runs 20 km south before turning east into Bone Bay via a channel with a capacity of 490 m3/sec. Hydrology: The Walanae has two high flow seasons (January-February, May-June) and one low flow season (August-November), and average monthly flow is 84 m3/sec, with a maximum of 240 m3/sec and minimum of 20 m3/sec. High flow in the Bila occurs in April-July and low flows in October-February, and average monthly flow is 54 m3/sec, with a maximum of 142 m3/sec and minimum of 11 m3/sec. Discharge from the Walanae flows east down the Cenranae except when water at the confluence is higher than in the lake, when Walanae water flows west into the lake. High flows in the Cenranae occur between December and August and low flows in SeptemberNovember, and the average rate is 211 m3/sec, with a maximum of 483 m3/sec and a minimum of 68 m3/sec. Flooding: The amount of water entering the lake in the rainy season far exceeds the capacity of the Cenranae, so the lake expands to 28,000-40,000 ha and 8m in depth and many rivers overflow. This is exacerbated by erosion of soil from riverbanks and deforested hillslopes, which collects in the lake at a rate of 560,000 m3/yr, reducing its depth by 0.38 cm/yr. In the dry season the lake recedes and splits into three. The two northern lakes (Sidenreng and Buaya) often dry out completely, and Lake Tempe shrinks to 10,000 ha and 1.5 m in depth (<1,000 ha and 0.5m in some years).

Water Quality: Over the past 25 years water in the lake and rivers has been generally suitable for use in fisheries, agriculture and irrigation. Manganese, Iron, Lead, Copper and Arsenic have exceeded Health Ministry standards at some locations, and rivers are high in suspended solids, nitrogen and organic matter because riparian communities with inadequate sanitation use rivers to dispose of sewage and other waste. In November 2002 BOD in the lake exceeded national minimum standards by 12 times, dissolved oxygen was dangerously low (0.3 ppm), and iron, zinc, manganese and coliform bacteria were also high. Surface water is now suitable only for irrigation, and should not be drunk, even after boiling. Terrestrial Ecology: Clearance of vegetation to provide land for agriculture has removed almost all natural habitat, leaving an area low in biodiversity, dominated by animals able to live near man. Upland forest above 1,000 m includes native conifer, maple and oak, but is mainly commercially planted, and supports few of its former inhabitants such as anoa (wild buffalo), tarsiers and Sulawesi hornbill. Dryland farming is practiced on hills and lowlands without irrigation, which are planted with tree crops (cocoa, coconut, jack fruit), maize, and vegetables. Rice paddies cover the area between the drylands and the lake, where land has been flattened, terraced and irrigated, forming an artificial habitat that supports many insects, snails, fish, frogs, crabs and birds. Aquatic Ecology: Lake Tempe is heavily polluted with organic matter, very low in oxygen, and in the dry season shrinks to less than 20% of its wet season volume. Despite severe environmental pressures it supports a thriving fishery based on 20 species, over half of which have been introduced, and internationally important populations of waterbirds, sufficient to qualify the lake as a Ramsar site (wetland of international importance for waterbirds). In 1989, 55 species were recorded, including 5,000 Glossy Ibis, 10,000 Garganey and 26,000 Great or Clamorous ReedWarblers. Population: The study area includes six Kabupaten (districts) inhabited by a million people, at an average of 139 persons/km2, compared with 109/km2 for all of Indonesia. The main population centres are the towns of Watansoppeng, Sengkang and Pankajene arranged in a triangle around Lake Tempe, although over 60% of the people live in the many scattered villages. Socio-economics: Agriculture is the main occupation, supporting 150,000 households and 800,000 people. Most farms are small and include rice paddy, and non-paddy areas planted with palawija (beans, corn, vegetables) and tree crops (coconut, cocoa, bananas). Irrigation has increased productivity allowing double cropping of rice in many areas, but most farmers remain poor, with an income of Rp 3,500,000 per year (US$ 400). Fishing supports over 14,000 households, of whom over half are engaged in aquaculture and 3,000 fish in Lake Tempe. Average income is Rp 4,000,000 (US$ 450), of which 25% is left net of living expenses. Land use: Agriculture dominates land use (and landscape) with 30% of the area being paddy fields and 22% used for other forms of farming. Paddies are mainly on alluvial plains around the rivers and lake, and dry farming occurs on land between the paddies and hillslopes. 15% of the area is forest, but most of this is planted for timber, and natural forest is mainly restricted to the uplands. Coastal mangrove has been destroyed to provide land for fishponds, and the lake is the only significant natural habitat, comprising 3% of the area (10% in some wet seasons). Infrastructure: 22 irrigation schemes divert water from rivers through concrete primary and secondary canals and earth dug tertiary canals into 78,500 ha of paddy. Asphalt roads are maintained by Kabupatens, and a two-lane highway encircles the lake and continues out of the basin in the north and south. Other roads are short, unpaved, and passable only by 4WD vehicle in the rains. Piped water is available in towns, but in villages people use wells or river water. There is no sewerage system and although some houses have cesspits, in villages people defecate on land, in the river or in a family privy, which often also drains into the river. There is no waste disposal system outside the towns, and solid waste is burnt or thrown into the river.

xi

Socio-culture: Like most of the rest of southern Sulawesi the population are mostly of the Bugis ethnic group and follow the Muslim religion. The mosque is thus the main cultural building in the community and often the dominant structure. There are several mosques in the towns and larger villages and other important buildings including government and village offices, schools, town museums, etc. There are primary schools in the larger villages and secondary schools in the towns, but under-education is a significant problem, with 20% of people not having completed primary school. Public Health: There is a Public Health Centre in each Kecamatan, staffed by at least one doctor and one nurse, and small clinics in many of the villages. There is at least one hospital in each Kabupaten, and on average each doctor serves 10,000 people. The paucity of health facilities and inadequate domestic sanitation results in a birth rate that is lower than the national average, and a death rate that is higher. Tourism: The bird populations of Lake Tempe attract a few thousand foreign tourists each year, who stay in hotels in Sengkang and hire fishing boats to travel on the lake to view the birds. There are a few other attractions that draw mainly domestic visitors, including hot springs, waterfalls, silk weaving and a small number of nature parks. Agriculture: Agriculture is the major occupation in the basin, and the mainstay of the economy. Average farm size is 2.38 ha, comprising 1 ha of paddy and 1.3 ha dry farmed, and the average household is 5 persons. Most activities are manual, although hand tractors and threshers are also used. Men provide most of the labour, and additional hands may be hired for land preparation, planting and harvesting. Rice is the main crop, followed by maize, mungbeans, cassava, soybean and groundnuts. Farmers keep only a few cows or buffalo and often a horse for transport and to work on the farm. Goats and poultry feed on scraps and domestic ducks forage in the fields. Double cropping of rice is only assured in well-irrigated areas (although farmers elsewhere often attempt a second crop), and in rain-fed fields the main pattern is paddy and palawija. Paddies are planted in April and harvested in September, re-planted in October and harvested in March. Paddy rice produces the highest yields (5.2 tons/ha; 1.5 million tons total), followed by maize (2.9; 200,000) and soybean (1.5; 12,000), but 30-40% of the crop can be lost during flooding. Crops are sold to collectors at the fields when harvested, and sold on to wholesalers, rice millers or state or private rice farms. Current market prices per kg are Rp 15,000 for chicken, Rp 8,000 for chilli pepper, Rp 5-6,000 for soybean and peanut, and Rp 3,000 for rice. Fishing: There are 25,000 fishermen in the study area, from 14,400 households. Aquaculture occupies 8,000 households (4,500 in paddy fields, 2,300 in brackish ponds, 1,000 in freshwater ponds). There are 17,000 ha of brackish ponds, where milkfish, tiger prawns and seaweed are the main species, plus 1,000 ha of paddy culture and 800 ha of freshwater ponds. 6,500 households engage in capture fishing (3,000 in Lake Tempe, 1,800 in the sea, 1,400 in swamps), and gill nets are the most common method. Bungka toddo are large circles of bamboo tripods in Lake Tempe, on which are grown aquatic plants to attract fish. When water levels fall bungka are surrounded by bamboo fences, vegetation is removed, and the fish are harvested. Palawang are 1m tall bamboo fences enclosing large semi-circles of water at the lake edge. The fences emerge as water level falls, trapping fish that have entered. Lake Tempe is the main fishery, producing 15-22,000 tons annually, with introduced spotted gouramy, carp and tilapia being the main species. Brackish production was 17,000 tons in 2001 and the marine fishery 16,000 tons, including large pelagic tuna, plus sardine, mackerel, grouper and red snapper. The river and swamp fishery produces 8,000 tons per year, and paddy and freshwater culture 1,000 and 400 tons. 80% of the fish is consumed locally, sold by fishermen to their employer or a merchant, and then to the consumer. Current prices per kg are Rp 5,500 for

xii

snakehead and shrimp, Rp 4,500 for carp and Rp 4,000 for kissing gouramy, which are 30-70% above the prices paid to the fisherman. 4. Environmental Problems and Constraints The main environmental problem in the basin is the unevenly distributed and inadequately managed water resource, where excess water in the rainy season floods large areas and flows out to sea, whilst in the dry season a lack of water limits production of many farms. This is addressed by the water management measures of this project, so no further action on water resources is necessary. The baseline data revealed 12 other problems, four related to the important but fragile lake environment: ! ! ! ! Continuing reduction in depth of the lake by settlement of soil eroded from hillslopes and river banks and washed in by rivers; Severe organic pollution of rivers and the lake because riparian communities with inadequate sanitation defecate and throw rubbish into rivers; Lack of roosting and breeding sites for lake birds because natural vegetation, particularly trees, has been removed; Lack of safe nursery areas where juvenile fish can live and grow, again because of a lack of lakeside vegetation

Four other problems relate to the ecology of the basin as a whole: ! ! ! ! Large populations of waterbirds are found only on the lake because there are no other large areas of permanent water, swamp and mudflat; The freshwater fishery is limited because Lake Tempe and the Cenranae River are the only areas containing water throughout the year; Because of reduced rainfall and extraction of water for irrigation, there is very little water in rivers in the dry season, and thus little or no permanent ecology; There is also limited terrestrial ecology and biodiversity because most of the natural habitat has been removed to provide land for agriculture.

The remaining four problems relate to the human environment: ! ! ! ! People living at proposed reservoir sites are likely to oppose such schemes, which should not proceed unless communities can be relocated voluntarily; Piped water is only available in and around the towns, so most villages have to rely on wells or rivers for their domestic supply; Riparian communities risk their health by using rivers for defecation and as a source of domestic water, even when toilets and piped water are available; Widespread poverty in the basin is exacerbated by the lack of alternative employment because there are few opportunities for outside investment.

Action was proposed to address each problem, shown in Table I. Although there are risks and constraints to achieving solutions, with the necessary will and investment, mainly on the part of the Indonesian Government, all of the problems could be solved. 5. Action Plan for Environmental Management and Protection

Because the ecology of Lake Tempe is internationally important and the fishery supports large numbers of people, then action to improve the environment and ecosystem of the lake should be a high priority. Table I shows that such action is to:

xiii

! ! ! ! !

Implement the Upland Forestry Plan proposed by the forestry sector study, to reduce: soil erosion, suspended sediment in rivers and siltation of the lake; Provide riparian villages not subject to flooding, with piped water and toilets draining into septic tanks, to reduce the amount of sewage entering rivers; Educate riparian communities on the health risks of poor sanitation to ensure use of facilities provided, improving health and reducing pollution; Create five 100 ha reserves around the lake, planted with lowland swamp forest to provide breeding and roosting habitat for birds; Create a permanent Bungka Reserve in the centre of the lake from which fish are not harvested, providing a safe nursery where fry can grow into adults.

Voluntary resettlement of people living at proposed reservoir sites is similarly important, as without this such schemes should not be pursued. This action is to: ! Consult affected communities thoroughly, provide improved land and housing, offer financial incentives if necessary and agree a Voluntary Resettlement Plan

Medium priority action includes two measures to improve the environment of the lake that are less critical than those discussed above. These are to: ! ! Protect severely eroding riverbanks by bank realignment and other sustainable soft engineering, to further reduce pollution and sedimentation of the lake; Determine the feasibility of providing a solid waste collection and disposal system for villages, to prevent waste from being thrown into rivers.

Action to improve the ecology of the study area is also of medium priority, as it will improve biodiversity and increase eco-tourism potential of the basin, but does not relate to the most important feature. This action is to: ! ! ! ! Develop habitat in the new reservoirs, including shallow mudflats, reedbeds and lakeside trees, to attract greater numbers of waterbirds and new species; Stock reservoirs with appropriate numbers and species of fish to develop a fishery, attracting birds and providing income for local people; Create two 1000 ha National Nature Reserves, one in the uplands and one in the lowlands, stocked with vegetation and animals previously found in the area Determine the feasibility of allowing sufficient water to flow down the main rivers to maintain permanent water and ecology in the lower reaches.

xiv

Table I Action Plan for Environmental Management and Protection


Problem Siltation reduces depth of Lake Tempe and may cause lake to expand after barrage is built Solution Upland Forestry Plan proposed by forestry sector study Priority High Action Identify suitable land Consult landowners and local community Agree purchase and acquire land Prepare planting and maintenance plan Prepare ground, plant trees Maintain trees Identify severely eroding areas Consider feasibility of soft engineering options Design erosion protection Construct Identify riverside areas that will not flood Select villages to be provided with infrastructure Estimate cost Government allocation of budget Design infrastructure Construct Identify suitable land Consult landowners and local community Agree purchase and acquire land Prepare planting and maintenance plan Prepare ground and plant trees Establish Nature Protection Service, appoint wardens Maintain trees, patrol reserves Consult kabupatens, community and fishermen Agree creation and protection of Bungka Reserve Enact legislation for creation and protection of reserve Design and construct Bungka Reserve Patrols by Nature Protection Service wardens Conduct research to determine features required Design appropriate features Construct reservoir with ecological features Stock water with appropriate flora and fauna Monitor water quality and ecology Time of action (years) Now 0-2 2-5

5-10

10-25

Protect severely eroding banks via setback and other soft engineering approaches

Medium

Very high organic loads pollute Lake Tempe and reduce oxygen to very low levels, causing death of some animals in dry season Lack of natural roosting and breeding sites for birds inhabiting Lake Tempe

Provide piped water and toilets draining into septic tanks in riverside villages not subject to flooding

High

Create five 100 ha reserves around the lake and plant with trees typical of lowland swamp forest

High

Few natural nursery areas in Lake Tempe where fish fry can live and grow

Create permanent Bungka Reserve in centre of lake, from which fish are not harvested

High

Extensive bird populations are found on Lake Tempe only

Include areas of waterbird habitat in Walimpong and Gilirang reservoirs, including shallow mudflats, reedbeds and lakeside trees

Medium

} } Dependent on construction programme }

xv

Freshwater fishery is limited by lack of suitable habitat Poor sanitary practice in riverside villages Communities dispose of solid waste into rivers Area is lacking in natural terrestrial habitat and low in biodiversity

Stock reservoirs with exploitable freshwater fish and allow development of a fishery Community education programme on dangers of poor sanitation Provide solid waste collection and disposal system to villages Create two 1000 ha National Nature Reserves in upland and lowland, with native vegetation and animals

Medium

High Medium

Medium

Communities inhabiting reservoir sites are likely to be opposed to schemes and unwilling to relocate Communities remaining near reservoirs may gain little from the schemes

Consult communities at reservoir sites, offer improved land and housing nearby, and agree voluntary resettlement Use reservoirs as source of potable water and supply to local villages via a piped system

High

Medium

Incomes are limited by lack of alternative employment Ecology of rivers is severely damaged by removal of water for irrigation

Eco-tourism would stimulate economy if suitable facilities and attractions were developed Determine feasibility of restoring permanent water and ecology to lower reaches of main rivers, and implement if shown to be possible

Low

Medium

Conduct research to determine species and stock density Introduce fish into reservoir Organise fishery development, license fishermen Monitor fish stocks and catches Appoint community education agency, prepare programme Deliver programme to villages Prepare ToR for Integrated Waste Disposal Study Obtain Government approval and budget Appoint consultants, conduct study Identify suitable land Consult landowners and local community Enact national and local legislation establishing Reserves Agree purchase and acquire land Research to determine species and densities, prepare plan Establish Reserve Management Centre, appoint staff Obtain flora and fauna, prepare ground and infrastructure Plant and maintain vegetation, introduce animals Monitor survival, manage Reserves, patrols by wardens Consult affected communities, agree Relocation Plan Obtain land at agreed site, build houses and infrastructure Agree purchase of land at reservoir site, acquire land Organise and implement relocation Monitor resettlement, provide further assistance Estimate cost of water treatment plant and infrastructure Government allocation of budget Design infrastructure Construct Prepare ToR for Eco-tourism Feasibility Study Obtain Government approval and budget Appoint consultants, conduct study Include fish passes in all structures in lower reaches Calculate irrigation water needs and amount of surplus Determine how to spread surplus flow throughout year Calculate water needed to support ecology in lower reaches Assess environmental impacts of structures and actions Design structures and O&M procedures Construct Monitor water quantity, quality, ecology in lower reaches

} } Dependent on construction programme }

} } } Dependent on construction programme } }

xvi

The remaining medium priority action is to provide communities near reservoirs with a direct benefit by: ! Using reservoirs as a source of potable water for communities in the vicinity, by providing a water treatment plant and piped infrastructure.

Action relating to eco-tourism is of low priority because any venture is constrained by a lack of international quality hotels and a need for investment by government or entrepreneurs from outside the region. As a first step it was proposed to: ! Determine the feasibility of developing viable, sustainable eco-tourism enterprises, focusing on participation by the local community.

6.

Proposed River Basin Management Plan

The Master Plan developed by this project included seven principal measures: Walimpong Multipurpose Dam: Proposed by the 1980 JICA Master Plan Study to store 705 x 106 m3 of water in an area of 5,000 ha, provide perennial irrigation for the 26,000 ha Walanae Irrigation Project, mitigate flood damage and generate 148 x 106 kWh per year for rural electrification. Located on the Walanae River 2 km upstream of the Mario confluence, the dam would be 900 m long and 71 m high, with a mudstone core and rock protection at a 1:30 slope upstream and 1:20 downstream. There would be a 125 m wide spillway on one side and three piped tunnels on the other, carrying water for hydropower, irrigation and river flow. The dam will be built in the dry by diverting the river through a channel or tunnels, after which mudstone, rock and aggregate will be quarried upstream and delivered in trucks, and stone will be crushed and cement mixed in a batching plant on site. 50.00 cm diameter holes will be drilled 30 and 10 m deep, and 2,100 m3 of chemical grouting and 22,500 ton of cement inserted to form a barrier. The mudstone core will be formed by bulldozers, and stone armour will be tipped from trucks and positioned by crane or hand. Construction will take 3-4 years, after which water will flow over the spillway throughout the rains, but in the dry season only from the hydropower tunnel when electricity is generated, that is roughly 8 hours per day. Gilirang Dam: Proposed by the JICA 1980 study to provide water for the 10,000 ha Gilirang Irrigation Project, and subject to feasibility study in 1995 and detailed design in 2001. The dam would be at Paselloreng, 55 km from the river mouth, and would be 310 m long, 44.5 m high, storing 138 x 106 m3 of water in 1,250 ha. The mudstone core will be protected by rock at a 1:3 slope upstream and 1:2 downstream, and there will be a 70 x 20 m spillway on one side, two concrete-lined gated tunnels through the base of the dam discharging water into the river, and a 240 m earth saddle dam nearby, 13.5 m high and 10 m wide at the crest. Headworks downstream will consist of a stone faced earth dyke across the river, and 35 m wide concrete canal with a weir, diverting water through a feeder canal into the irrigation system. Construction will be similar to the Walimpong Dam, and the spillway and headwork canals and weir will be built by pouring concrete into sections of metal reinforcing encased in wooden shuttering, which is removed when concrete has set. Lake Tempe Barrage: This was proposed by the 1997 study of management of the lake water resource, to provide a more constant water level, reduce flooding, and improve the lake environment and fishery. The barrage would be 100 m long and 18 m wide, located on the Cenranae 600 m upstream of Tampangeng Bridge. It would include six concrete pillars, 20 m tall and 2.5 m wide, five separated by 17.5 x 5 m (tall) steel gates, with a 5 m wide gated navigation lock on one side to allow passage of vessels, and a 3m wide fish ladder on the other for fish migration.

xvii

The river will be diverted through a channel, and 20,036 ln.m pre-cast, pre-stressed concrete piles (500 mm diameter, 19 and 21 m long) will be driven into the river bed by large hydraulic hammer. Concrete slabs and blocks will be cemented on top to form the base of the barrage and an apron extending 15 m upstream and 90 m downstream. Pillars will be formed from reinforcing encased in wooden shuttering, concrete will be poured into each, and blockbuilt control towers constructed on top. Steel gates will be welded on site and fixed in place by crane, after which the hydraulic lifting system will be fitted. Gates will be lowered in the dry season to maintain water level at 5 m asl, and raised in the rains allowing water to exit at 749 m3/sec. Cenranae River Improvements: These were also proposed by the 1997 study, to increase the carrying capacity of the river and reduce flooding. 64 km of the river will be dredged and banks moved landward where necessary, to produce a 40 m channel, 8 m deep, with a 3:1 side slope. However, the recent study finding proved that during 1997-1998 rainy season, most of the sediments of the Cenranae river have been carried away by natural water flow and the necessary volume to be dredged drastically reduced from 3.3 million m3 to 0.3 m3. Near Sengkang the banks are densely populated, so the channel will be 25 m wide and 6 m deep. Sabo and check dams: 35 check dams and 2 sabo are proposed in the Walanae catchment, 6 check dams in the Lacinrang and 3 check dams in the Boya catchment, to retain sediment before trees planted in the uplands are mature enough to bind soil effectively. Check dams are earth banks, 15 - 40 m wide and 2 - 5 m high, protected with stone or grass, with a concrete spillway on one side. Sabo are concrete dams 40 - 100 m wide and 10 - 20 m high, with a central spillway. Both structures are built when rivers are dry, by a work force of a few men with a single bulldozer or digger, using local soil and stone and imported cement. Construction normally takes 2-4 weeks. Major irrigation schemes: The Walanae IP will supply 43.68 m3/s (in total) of water from the Walimpong Dam to 10,000 ha of existing paddy in the lower reaches of the Walanae and 16,000 ha south of the Cenranae. The Cenranae IP will pump water from Lake Tempe into 19,000 ha (alt. 3) of existing rain fed paddy north of the Cenranae at a rate of 31.92 m3/s, through 57.0 km of primary, 148.0 km of secondary and 65.0 km of tertiary canals. The Gilirang IP will supply 12.11 m3/s of water from the Gilirang Dam to 7,000 ha of rain fed paddy around the middle and lower reaches of the Gilirang River through 86.8 km of primary, 43.3 km of secondary canals. Primary canals are 20-40 m wide and 5-10 m deep, excavated by backhoe diggers and bulldozers, with soil taken off site in dump trucks. Cement and aggregate are brought in and concrete is mixed in a batching plant and poured onto the canal floor in a 20-30 cm layer. Side slopes are encased in wooden shuttering into which concrete is poured, and after drying the surface is finished by hand. Secondary canals are 3-5 m wide and 1-2 m deep, constructed in the same way, and tertiary canals are dug by hand or mechanical digger, and the soil is piled at the side. Minor irrigation schemes: The Master Plan proposes 73 minor irrigation schemes, all extending the area fed by existing schemes, via new secondary and tertiary canals: ! ! ! Ponre-Ponre IP: 4,240 ha, 54,876 km of secondary canal, 12,888 km of tertiary canal; Lejja IP: 5,098 ha, 12.566 of secondary canal, 33,218 of tertiary canal; Boya IP: 8,000 ha, 33.646 km of secondary canal, 61.590 km of tertiary canal;

xviii

! ! ! !

Lawo IP: 4,097 ha, 10.872 km of secondary canal, 8.772 km of tertiary canal; Paddangeng IP: 4,698 ha, 22.744 km of secondary canal, 12.181 km of tertiary canal; Torere IP: 3,939 ha, 4.404 km of secondary canal, 17.343 km of tertiary canal; Latenreng IP: 1,815 ha (part of the Lejja Irrigation Project);

7. Environmental Impacts of Water Management Measures Walimpong Dam: When the dam is built, there could be negative impacts on water quality if the channel through which the river is diverted erodes, increasing suspended sediment, and if toxic materials on site (fuel, oil, cement) are spilled and wash into the river. People living near the site may be affected by noise and dust, loss of access if roads and footpaths are closed or diverted, and if their activities are impeded by increased traffic. Farmers will lose land and income if their land has to be purchased for the construction site or haul roads. These impacts can be adequately mitigated by: ! ! ! ! ! Designing the diversion canal so that erosion does not occur; Requiring the construction contractor to use and store toxic materials safely; Purchasing all land at or above the market price; Employing local people in the workforce to compensate for disturbance; Obtaining as many goods and services as possible locally.

Once completed the dam would improve topography and landscape by providing a new feature, improve the quality of river water by retaining sediment, and enhance ecology by providing new habitat for waterbirds. Farmers would receive most benefit, as 26,000 ha of paddy will be irrigated throughout the year, increasing yields and income. There would however be negative impacts as the reservoir would inundate and destroy 5,000 ha of agricultural land and 5 villages occupied by 9,032 people. Thus, if this scheme will be pursued, it will require sufficient time process as well as funds to arrange the reallocation of the residents through mutual agreements. Gilirang Dam: Impacts will be similar to those of the Walimpong Dam, but less significant as Gilirang is much smaller. Construction impacts can be mitigated as above, and because the reservoir will affect less land (1,250 ha) and fewer people (3,000), this scheme could proceed if all were willing to relocate. This would require: ! ! ! ! Extensive consultation, and development of a Voluntary Resettlement Plan; Purchase of current land and property at or above the market price; Provision of new land and housing that is better than that occupied at present; Offering additional financial compensation if necessary.

The following enhancements are recommended to increase the benefits of the scheme: ! ! ! ! ! ! Using the reservoir as a source of piped water for nearby villages; Providing a treatment plant to convert the water into a potable supply; Creating habitat in the reservoir to attract birds (mudflats, reeds, trees, etc); Allowing sufficient river flow to maintain water and ecology in lower reaches; Planned introduction of fish to develop a reservoir fishery; Developing Eco-tourism, focusing the benefits on the local community.

xix

Tempe Barrage: Construction impacts will be the same as those for the Walimpong Dam, and should be mitigated in the same way. Significance could be greater as the barrage is close to the large town of Sengkang, so additional action is required to: ! Plan construction with the community to avoid disturbance at sensitive times.

There would be highly negative impacts if construction disturbed the internationally important birds on the lake, so this should be mitigated by: ! ! ! Studying the birds to identify important areas, and times when they are used; Avoiding working near critical areas at key times; Monitoring birds and ceasing work temporarily if disturbance occurs.

There will be no adverse impacts once the barrage is built, and significant benefits as the lake will vary less in area, flooding will be reduced, less water will be lost, and pollutants will be diluted in a greater volume, improving water quality. This should increase fish productivity, improve catches and incomes, and attract more birds. The only additional enhancement recommended is to improve local incomes by: ! Developing an Eco-tourism Master Plan focusing benefits on the community.

Cenranae River Improvements: Although the degree if negative impact from dredging drastically reduced in parallel to the reduction of the necessary dredge volume, there could still be negative impacts in case if the channel drains more water from the lake in the dry season, if dredging prevents fish migration, and if catches reduce and fishing incomes decrease. There could also be major impacts from the need to relocate about 5,000 people from the riverbanks to widen the channel. These can be mitigated by: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Using modelling to design the dredging to avoid destabilising the channel; Building Tempe Barrage before the dredging, to retain water in the dry season; Studying fish migration and planning dredging to avoid working at key times; Widening on the less inhabited north bank where possible, to avoid relocation; Consulting the community and developing a Voluntary Resettlement Plan; Offering new accommodation as near to present houses as possible; Providing improved housing and land, using fertile dredged spoil if possible; Providing financial compensation for loss of earnings by fishermen.

Fishermen may lose income until invertebrates on which fish feed recover from the dredging, so this should be mitigated by: ! Compensating fishermen for loss of earnings for 2 years after dredging.

Local Government should organise distribution of gravel and silt from spoil heaps to local people for use in building and farming, to provide an additional benefit. Sabo and Check Dams: These are small, simple structures, so there will be few impacts. Local people will not be seriously disturbed when the dams are built, but mitigation applied to other schemes should still be adopted to maintain good relations. On completion the dams will improve the lake by retaining sediment, and this will benefit fishermen if the fishery improves and catches increase. Dams will also benefit ecology if they retain permanent water, which is colonised by aquatic organisms. There could be negative

xx

impacts if fish migrate into rivers to grow or breed, as this will be impeded by the dams. It is not known if this occurs, so mitigation will require: ! ! A study of fish to determine whether any species migrate upstream of the lake; Inclusion of fish passes in designs of all structures that may impede migration.

Benefits of these schemes would be enhanced by the following additional measures: ! ! Including sabo and check dams in studies to determine whether enough water can be provided to downstream river reaches to maintain water and ecology; Including control structures in the dam designs, to provide the required flow.

Major Irrigation Schemes: Construction of large concrete-lined primary or secondary canals could affect water quality if materials are spilled; people living nearby may be disturbed by noise, dust, traffic and loss of access; and farmers may lose land and income where land is purchased for construction. These should be mitigated as for the Gilirang scheme above. Additional impacts of site clearance, removal of soil, subsoil and rock, and compaction of soil by vehicles, should be mitigated by: ! ! Reinstating all sites and roads after use; Using spare soil, rock and aggregate in other projects.

Completed schemes will significantly improve soil moisture, structure and yield in an additional 52,000 ha of paddy, raising the income of hundreds of farmers. Increased extraction of river water could affect the important but declining water quality and ecology of the lake, and this can be mitigated simply by: ! Building Tempe Barrage before any more irrigation schemes are developed.

There is also an opportunity to provide significant ecological enhancements by: ! ! Maximising efficiency of water use and allowing sufficient river flow beyond irrigation schemes to maintain water and ecology in lower reaches of rivers; Designing irrigation schemes to provide the necessary year-round river flow.

Minor Irrigation Schemes: These involve mostly small, earth-lined secondary and tertiary canals only, so construction should produce no significant negative impacts. To avoid wasting material and maintain community relations it is recommended that: ! ! Land required for construction is purchased at or above market prices; Excess soil is used in other projects or on farms nearby.

Completed schemes will produce significant benefits by providing year-round irrigation to an additional 91,211 ha of paddy, increasing the yield and raising the income of over hundred thousands of farmers. Water quality and ecology of the lake could again be affected by increased extraction of river water, so this should be mitigated by: ! Building Tempe Barrage before any more irrigation schemes are developed.

There is again an opportunity to significantly enhance the ecology of the rivers by not using all of the available water for irrigation and allowing sufficient water to flow downstream to maintain aquatic ecology in the lower reaches, as indicated above.

xxi

8. Environmental/Conservation Guidelines Guidelines were prepared that can indicate whether future development may proceed without causing unacceptable environmental impacts, or whether it would lead to significant damage and should thus not be pursued. The criteria are easy to use and require no data collection, and should be applied to projects, plans or policies at an early stage, to avoid spending time on inappropriate development. The criteria include the 12 most important and sensitive aspects of the basin environment: ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Siltation of Lake Tempe by soil eroded from riverbanks and deforested hills; Water Resources are unbalanced, but vital to the population and environment; Water Quality of the lake is important in maintaining the fishery and ecology; Volume of the lake in the dry season threatens its fishery and ecology; Ecology has been very damaged, but lake birds are internationally important; Natural Forest has been mostly removed and only a few planted areas remain; Nature Protection is deficient as there are no designated reserves; Socio-Economics: most of the population are poor, particularly the farmers; Farming is the main occupation, but lack of water prevents maximum yields; Fishing on Lake Tempe and the Cenranae is the second main occupation; Piped Water, Sanitation and Waste Disposal are lacking in most villages; Eco-Tourism could improve the local economy, but requires investment.

The way in which a proposed development would affect each feature (during construction and after it has been built) is considered by asking five questions: a. b. c. d. e. Would the project cause a deterioration of the feature? Can that deterioration be mitigated (reduced to an acceptable level)? If so, how would this be done? Would the feature be unaltered? Would the feature be improved?

Development that would cause a deterioration in any feature that could not be mitigated, should not be pursued. Developments where adverse impacts can be mitigated may be pursued, as long as the mitigation has a high probability of success. Priority should be given to projects that would improve the environment. 9. Conclusions and Recommendations If the recommended mitigation is provided, all of the proposed water management measures can be implemented without significant adverse impacts, except Walimpong Dam, which should not be progressed unless the due process to reach mutual agreement between residents and government on their reallocation is taken. Tempe Barrage should be built first to counter the effect on the lake of increasing abstraction for new irrigation schemes, and to prevent excess water being removed by the improved Cenranae channel. All schemes (except the sabo and check dams) will benefit local people by improving agriculture and raising incomes. Tempe Barrage will benefit the natural environment by improving water quality, ecology and fisheries. The water management measures will improve usage and management of water resources, and the actions listed in Table I should be implemented to address the remaining environmental problems. In order of priority these are:

xxii

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Provide piped water and sanitation to riparian communities; Educate communities on the health risks of poor sanitation; Implement the Upland Forestry Plan recommended by the forestry study; Develop a Voluntary Resettlement Plan for residents of Gilirang reservoir site; Create five 100 ha lowland swamp forest reserves around Lake Tempe; Create a permanent Bungka Reserve as a fish nursery in the centre of the lake; Determine feasibility of providing a solid waste disposal service to villages; Create two 1000 ha National Nature reserves, in the uplands and lowlands; Allow sufficient river flow to maintain water and ecology in lower reaches; Develop habitat for waterbirds in new reservoirs (mudflats, reedbeds, trees); Stock new reservoirs with fish and develop a fishery; Use reservoirs as a source of treated potable water for local communities; Determine feasibility of developing eco-tourism with the local community.

This will restore a more healthy and sustainable environment in the basin, in which the conflicting needs of man and the ecosystem can co-exist to the benefit of both.

xxiii