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Module 2 Part 3

Resistance Training

Resistance Training
This is the component of the exercise session that has the client in the weight room, or related setting, to work on resistance training. Here they will be working towards their goal of muscular strength, hypertrophy, and/or endurance (or any combination thereof). Before beginning with training techniques and principles we will look at some basics that a personal trainer should practice with each client: 1- Communication: During the session: It is essential that a personal trainer communicate with the client throughout the entire session. This can include more than just corrective feedback (see below) and it will allow you to keep the client focused on the session and as much as possible avoid nearby distractions. Be sure to keep discussions to a minimal however as some clients may use this as a way to relax, and do not engage in discussion during their sets (too distracting). This will also help the client feel more comfortable in being there as you will be engaging with them as a person (but keep in mind this is not a social hour). 2-Communication: Outside of the session: When you work with a client it may be a major life change for them. As such, you could become a very important person to them and by checking in with them periodically outside of the training sessions you can have a huge impact on them. Sending small messages (text, emails, etc) praising them on their efforts, accomplishments, improvements, etc can really go a long way in helping them realize their growth and develop a stronger sense of belonging in the program. What may seem small or insignificant to you could be a huge victory for them. As well, if they fail to reach a goal or landmark in a time frame they may become discouraged. By communicating with them and reviewing all their progress and gains to that point can help keep them on track. This will go a long way in keeping them motivated to continue on and reach that goal. Be sure to keep your communications on a professional level. 3-Corrective Feedback: This is where you correct any technical errors in the clients movement patterns during the exercise. Many people have confidence issues when it comes to exercise technique and as such choose your words carefully. If you seem to nag or always use a negative approach the client may feel less confident and become discouraged. Beyond helping them achieve a fitness/health goal, we can also affect their confidence levels in how we treat them.

Module 2 Part 3

Resistance Training

4- Praise: Give your client appropriate praise when they complete a challenging task, or when you feel they have done something worth acknowledgement. People need positive reinforcement as much, if not more than, corrective feedback. 5-Record Keeping: This includes having their sessions clearly outlined and ready to go. Each session should relate to the overall goal(s) of the program and work towards it. As well, for each session you should have the prescribed weights/intensity to be used as well as the rep ranges working on. After the client completes each set you record how many reps they completed and how many sets of each exercise to be completed. This ensures you can track progress, regress, and make any changes that you feel are required. 6-Professional Code of Conduct: As a personal trainer you may come across some uncomfortable situations. These could include anything from embarrassment to harassment, and as such you should maintain a strong sense of professionalism at all times. Keep your eyes focused on their movement patterns, provide corrective feedback/praise where appropriate, and avoid surrounding distractions as much as possible. Refrain from flirtatious activity, demeaning discussions about other people, and other forms of actions that would not be acceptable on a professional level. Example of a Training Log Set 1 Set 2 Weight/Reps Weight/Reps 1 20 13 20 12 2 30 14 30 13 3 25 16 25 15 4 50 13 50 12 5 60 15 60 13 6 15 15 15 12 7 10 14 10 12 By looking at this training log what do you think the training goal would be: Muscular strength, hypertrophy, or endurance? Exercise

Module 2 Part 3

Resistance Training

How do you determine the workload (weight to be used)?


There are a few different ways to determine how much weight your client should be working with while training. Regardless of the method used you will be doing some trial and error, and the first few sessions can help you find this information. However, lets look at a couple of methods used to determine the workload: 1-Trial and Error: This is where you would select a weight that you feel your client can lift a number of times that corresponds to the training goal (strength, hyptr, endur). It is very easy to use but can take a long time, and in the process the client may get bored. Be sure that they client can move the weight comfortably. Be sure to ask the client how they feel with the weight during the exercise and stay on the light side when selecting (you can always add more weight after). 2- Rep Max Test: This is a commonly used test that aims to find the appropriate weight one should use in their resistance training sessions. The most notorious method is the 1 Rep Max (1RM) Test, which would have the individual select a weight that they could only move with proper form 1 time. The major problem with this test is that it places you in a very dangerous place to get injured (very intense). A safer test would be the 10 RM test that would have you select a weight that the person could lift, with proper form, 10 times (no more) and then plug that information into a formula. From here a list of prescribed weight to be used would be constructed. This link brings you to an online calculator to help you plug in the information and predict a 1 RM (without having to do the 1RM test). Simply choose a weight you can lift about 10 times with perfect form, then record how much weight it was and how many reps. Enter that into the chart and find out your predicted 1RM. http://exrx.net/Calculators/OneRepMax.html Pro for the test It can help you find the appropriate weight to use so you are not using too heavy or too light a weight Con for the test It can be very time consuming and inaccurate as you may become fatigued from all the different testing. As well, you may be able to lift more or not as much as it says

Module 2 Part 3

Resistance Training

3- Poundage Adjustment:(copy/pasted from the BCRPA ICE package) Reps Completed <7 8-9 10-11 12-15 16-17 18-19 >20 Adjustment (in pounds) -15 -10 -5 0 +5 +10 +15

This can be used for someone who is starting out in order to find their beginning weight. How to use:
TESTING PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING STARTING WORKLOAD (OPTIONAL)
Steps: 1. Choose a weight you feel your client is capable of completing 12-15 reps with. 2. Perform a 10 rep warm-up with wt. 50 75% of the test weight; take 2 minutes rest (have client perform a warm-up on another unrelated exercise while waiting) 3. Perform the test with the test weight (the wt. you think he/she is able to lift 12x) 4. Use the chart above to determine whether this is a good starting weight; add or subtract the weight according to your clients performance.

If your client can bench press 105 lbs for 6 reps and overhead press 75 lbs for 8 reps, then his/her starting weight would be: Bench Press: 90 lbsOverhead Press: 65 lbs (Took off 15 pounds) IMPORTANT! Let your client lift the weight until he/she wishes to stop, do not coax them to go beyond what feels comfortable. Always choose conservatively (lighter vs heavier). (Took off 10 pounds)

Module 2 Part 3

Resistance Training

4- Intensity/Repetition Chart: (copy/pasted from the BCRPA ICE package) This can be a more accurate method to finding the appropriate weight to use, but it can also be less accurate (the higher the total reps the less accurate the %). As well, you should only use this method with someone who is competent with resistance training and has a decent baseline conditioning level (due to the fact that they will be pushed to muscular fatigue in the test).
Intensity/ Repetition Chart (Poliquin, 1986) Strength Strength/Hypertr. 1 rep = 100% 6 rep = 83% 2 = 95% 7 = 80% 3 = 90% 8 = 78% 4 = 88% 5 = 85% Hypertrophy 9 rep = 76% 10 = 75% 11 = 72% 12 = 70% Endurance 13 reps = 69% 14 = 68% 15 = 66% 16 = 65% 17 = 64% 18 = 63% 19 = 62% 20 = 60%

*Benefit: more accurate than method number 3. *the higher the repetitions the less accurate the %

How to use this chart: This chart is to be used to determine whether a client is working within his/her training zone. MOMENTARY MUSCLE FATIGUE IS THE KEY TO THIS CHART, when a competent client fatigues while lifting a weight (using a spotter), note the number of repetitions performed, then use the chart to find out what % of his/her 1 repetition maximum (1RM) this weight is. This will tell you whether he/she is in his/her correct training zone and whether it is time to increase or decrease the workload. Example: If your clients goal is to put on size (hypertrophy) and after testing she leg pressed 200 lbs for 16 reps, using the chart above, you would learn that this weight is 65% of her 1(RM). You would also realize that the workload is too light for her goal and needs to be increased. The weight must be increased to an intensity that causes her fatigue between 8-12 reps. TESTING PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING WORKLOADS (OPTIONAL) 1. Use a weight you & your client feel he/she is capable of completing 10-12 reps with. 2. Perform a 10rep warm-up with a weight 50% of the test weight; take 2 minutes rest 3. Perform 3-5 reps with the test weight; take 2-5 minutes rest 4. Do the test with the test weight (the wt you think he/she is able to lift 10-12x) 5. Use the chart to determine what the % of this test weight is to his her 1RM

Module 2 Part 3

Resistance Training

Training Terms and Related Information


With resistance training comes many different experiences and expectations. As well, potential clients may use terms that are not scientific in nature, but relate to their training goal(s). Some of them include: When someone says It can relate to I want to get toned Muscular endurance I want to get jacked Muscular endurance &/or hypertrophy I want to get huge Muscular hypertrophy I just want to get fit Muscular hypertrophy (training %) I want to get bigger Muscular hypertrophy I want to get stronger Muscular strength This list is only an example of some common phrases that people use. To be sure always clarify with the client what it is they are looking for and ask questions if you are unsure of what they want. Rep Ranges and Training Intensity Percentages Training Goal Reps/Set Muscular Endurance 12+ Muscular Hypertrophy 8-12 Muscular 6-8 Hypertrophy/Strength Muscular Strength/Power 1-5

Intensity of 1 RM 60-70% 70-80% 80-85% 85-100%

Applying the F.I.T.T. to Resistance Training


When participating in a resistance training program, how you split up your training program and what your goals are will have a large influence over how often, how intense, and what kind of exercises you will do. A safe recommendation for the average person could be as follows (these are guidelines):
Training Type Musc Endurance Musc Hypertr Frequency (Days/Week) Intensity of 1RM (approx.) Sets Duration Reps Time (mins) Rest Between Sets Rest Between Workouts

2-4 2-3

60-70% 70-80%

2-4 2-4

12-20 8-12

30-60 30-60

30-45 s 1 min

48 hrs

48-72 hrs Musc 2-3 80-90% 2-4 3-8 30-60 1-3 min 48-72 Strength hrs **NOTE: These numbers are averages from 4 different sources and refer to workouts per muscle group per week. A general speed range for the average person= 2 seconds concentric, 2 seconds eccentric

Module 2 Part 3

Resistance Training

Common Errors Made by Participants during Resistance Training


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Disengaged core Locking joints in the ROM Holding their breath Lifting too much weight Lifting to light a weight Not controlling the weight through the entire ROM Distracted by tv and other sights Excessive use of bodys momentum Incorrect positioning of body on machines No recording of training results

When the resistance training session is over it is very important that the individual take part in a cool down session and not just leave the gym. This is a great time to have them perform their stretches on the muscles groups that were trained in the session. Part 4 will look at many different types of flexibility training and when to incorporate them.