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Introduction

1 Mont Kiara is set to be the jewel of the crown because it is the first truly integrated development set within the prestigious Mont Kiara precinct. Upon entrance, shoppers are greeted by a 6,000 square feet piazza brought alive by the penetration of natural light through the special ETFE roofing, a unique material used to construct the acclaimed Beijing National Aquatic Centre. Come night fall, shoppers can shop and dine under the night sky and enjoy the spectacular performance brought about by the changing LED lights. Besides, there is the office featuring a 20 story block with various floor sizes catering to varying spaces needs, tenants have the flexibility to design the floor layouts to suit their respective requirements.The office tower is equipped with separate air-conditioning systems for individual floors that can accommodate varying work hours and is supported by high-speed broadband capabilities. There are 4 passenger lifts and 1 service lift servicing the block with the portecochere in close proximity to the bustling Jalan Kiara.The average floor size of 11,800 square feet and largest office space per floor available in Mont Kiara creates new opportunities for medium to large scale organizations to base themselves away from the congestion of the city centre and still retaining high accessibility to the central business districts of both Kuala Lumpur and Petaling Jaya.

The objective of this case study is to understand the building services that cater to particular function to the mall like no other buildings, the operation of fire protection system, mechanical system and HVAC. Our main objective is of this assignment is to examine our chosen building and study their building services. The issue is to undertake and understand the concept of the building services. Moreover, how the building services applies based on the 3 components we are examine centralized air-conditioning system, active and passive fire protection system and mechanical transportation system. Analysis of the building will be done through certain method such as interview with the engineer, observation throughout the mall area which are restricted and also taking pictures of how the systems works. Ultimately, a case study will be done to record on the building services they apply in their building.

Building Name : 1 Mont Kiara Mall Location : 1MK Retail Sdn. Bhd. G-13, 1 Mont Kiara No-1 JalanKiara Mont Kiara 50480 Kuala Lumpur : 38,000 sqft

Size

Acknowledgement
We would like to express our very most gratitude to 1mont KIARA malls electrical engineering department for showing us every particular detail of the building and its components, they are valuable and constructive suggestions of this research work throughout the time at the mall. We would also like to thank the staffs to acknowledge our participation in the conducting research during our visit and assisted us with information of certain events and routine at 1mont KIARA mall. Lastly, a special thanks to the senior executive facility management, Mr. Ng Kei Fong, to take his free time to entertain us during the visit. Most of the time we questioned him about the details needed information of the building. Apart from that, we would like to thank our lecturers who have been guiding us in completing this report. We could not have done it without them.

Abstract
The objective of this assignment is to identify all the required building services components installed in 1mont KIARA mall. We need to perform a thorough study on the following services systems; centralized air conditioning, active and passive fire protection and mechanical transportation system. With reference to the systems used in the case study, as well as in other reference materials, we are to propose required spaces and components for the above services systems that will be installed in an institutional building complex which is SMK Kelana Jaya. We also need to explain how the proposed building services components function.

The Inspiration
Centralised Air-Conditioning System
Literature Review
Central air conditioning plants are used for applications like big hotels, large buildings having multiple floors, hospitals, etc, where very high cooling loads are required. The article describes various possible arrangements of central air conditioning plants. The central air conditioning plants or the systems are used when large buildings, hotels, theaters, airports, shopping malls etc are to be air conditioned completely. The window and split air conditioners are used for single rooms or small office spaces. If the whole building is to be cooled it is not economically viable to put window or split air conditioner in each and every room. Further, these small units cannot satisfactorily cool the large halls, auditoriums, receptions areas etc. In the central air conditioning systems there is a plant room where large compressor, condenser, thermostatic expansion valve and the evaporator are kept in the large plant room. They perform all the functions as usual similar to a typical refrigeration system. However, all these parts are larger in size and have higher capacities. The compressor is of open reciprocating type with multiple cylinders and is cooled by the water just like the automobile engine. The compressor and the condenser are of shell and tube type. While in the small air conditioning system capillary is used as the expansion valve, in the central air conditioning systems thermostatic expansion valve is used. The chilled is passed via the ducts to all the rooms, halls and other spaces that are to be air conditioned. Thus in all the rooms there is only the duct passing the chilled air and there are no individual cooling coils, and other parts of the refrigeration system in the rooms. What is we get in each room is the completely silent and highly effective air conditions system in the room. Further, the amount of chilled air that is needed in the room can be controlled by the openings depending on the total heat load inside the room. The central air conditioning systems are highly sophisticated applications of the air conditioning systems and many a times they tend to be complicated. It is due to this reason that there are very few companies in the world that specialize in these systems. In the modern era of computerization a number of additional electronic utilities have been added to the central conditioning systems.

CASE STUDY
1 Mont Kiara Mall employs the chilled water central air conditioning plants. The chilled water types of central air conditioning plants are installed in the place where whole large buildings, shopping mall, airport, hotel, etc, comprising of several floors are to be air conditioned. While in the direct expansion type of central air conditioning plants, refrigerant is directly used to cool the room air; in the chilled water plants the refrigerant first chills the water, which in turn chills the room air. In chilled water plants, the ordinary water or brine solution is chilled to very low temperatures of about 6 to 8 degree Celsius by the refrigeration plant. This chilled water is pumped to various floors of the building and its different parts. In each of these parts the air handling units are installed, which comprise of the cooling coil, blower and the ducts. The chilled water flows through the cooling coil. The blower absorbs return air from the air conditioned rooms that are to be cooled via the ducts. This air passes over the cooling coil and gets cooled and is then passed to the air conditioned space.

Layout of the water chilled air conditioning system

Central Air Conditioning Plant Room


The plant room also called chiller plant room, comprises of all the important components of the chilled water air conditioning plant. These include the compressor, condenser, thermostatic expansion valve and the evaporator or the chiller. In 1 Mont Kiara Mall, it located at the underground floor with the basement car park.

Chiller Plant Room

Chiller and its component, control panel, condenser, compressor, evaporator The compressor is of open type and can be driven by the motor directly or by the belt via pulley arrangement connected to the motor. It is cooled by the water just like the automotive engine. The condenser and the evaporator are of shell and tube type. The condenser is cooled by the water, with water flowing along the shell side and refrigerant along the tube side. The thermostatic expansion valve is operated automatically by the solenoid valve. The evaporator is also called as the chiller, because it chills the water. If the water flows along the shell side and refrigerant on the tube side, it is called as the dry expansion type of chiller. If the water flows along tube side and the refrigerant along the shell side, it is called as the flooded chiller. The water chilled in the chiller is pumped to various parts of the building that are to be air conditioned. It enters the air handling unit, cools the air in cooling coil, absorbs the heat and returns back to the plant room to get chilled again. The amount of water passing into the chiller is controlled by the flow switch. In the central air conditioning plant room all the components, the compressor, condenser, thermostatic expansion valve, and the chiller are assembled in the structural steel framework making a complete compact refrigeration plant, known as the chiller package. Piping required to connect these parts is also enclosed in this unit making a highly compact central air conditioning plant.

Condenser Water Pump

From the left, Chilled Water Supply (CHWS), Chilled Water Return (CHWR), Condenser Water Supply (CWS), Condenser Water Return (CWR)

Condenser water pump is used to return the condenser water back to the cooling tower. While the chilled water pump is to transfer the chilled water from the air handling unit to the chiller. They are placed in the covered area with the chiller. A single unit of pump will serve one unit of chiller.

Cooling Tower
In 1 Mont Kiara Mall, the cooling towers are located in an outdoor space on the third floor of the building. It is a podium level between two office towers. The cooling towers are connected to water tank to replace the water lost by evaporation during the cooling process.

Office Tower Office Tower Cooling Tower Water Tank Cooling Tower

Water Tank

Third Floor Plan

Section

Cooling tower consist of five main part such as fan motor, sprinkler pipes, housing panel and water basin, inlet outlet pipes, and PVC filter.The cooling tower is used to cool the water that absorbs heat from the compressor and the condenser. When water flows through these components some water gets evaporated, to make up this loss some water is also added in the cooling tower. The cooling tower is of evaporative type. Here the water is cooled by the atmospheric air and is re-circulated through the compressor and the condenser. Warm water from the heat source is pumped to the water distribution system at the top of the cooling tower. The water is distributed over the wet deck fill by means of nozzles. Simultaneously, air is drawn through air inlet louvers and through the wet deck surface causing a small portion of the water to evaporate. The evaporative process removes heat from the water. The warm moist air is drawn out of the top of the tower through a natural draft or mechanical cooling tower fans controlled by gearboxes. At this time, the fan will start operating to cool down the water. The resulting cold water is then recirculated back to the chiller through condenser water supply (CWS) pipes.

Cooling Towers

The cool water goes through the chilled water pump that is located in the chiller plant room. The chilled water then flows to the air handling unit before it returns back to the chiller to repeat the process. After this process is done, the hot water will be returned back to the cooling tower by the condenser water pump through the condenser water return (CWR) pipe. Before the water retunrs back to the cooling tower for another process, the water must flow through the filter in order for the water to be filtered before entering the cooling tower to complete the cycle.

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Air Handling Unit Rooms:


The air handling units are installed in the various parts of the building that are to be air conditioned, in the place called air handling unit rooms. All air handling units are placed in an indoor space. The air handling units are placed in each level for easy distribution to all area in the building.

AHU AHU

AHU

AHU

AHU

Ground Floor Plan

First Floor Plan

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The air handling unit is a device used to condition and circulate air as part of the system. Usually, an air handler is a large metal box containing a blower, heating and/or cooling coil, filter racks or chambers, blower, supply and return air ducts and dampers.The cooling process works when the chilled water is supplied from the chiller going through the cooling coil. At the same time, the blower absorbs the return hot air from the air conditioned space and blows it over the cooling coil thus cooling the air and let the chilled air back to the space. There are filters fitted in most of the air handling units which help to filter the impure air. It is one of the most vital components of an air handling unit. It is quite important to clean the air present in the rooms to remove dust and other foreign particles. The presence of filters helps to extend the durability of these units. This cooled air passes over the air filter and is passed by the supply air ducts into the space which is to be air conditioned. Air handlers usually connect to ductwork that distributes the conditioned air through the building, and returns it to the AHU.The air handling unit and the ducts passing through it are insulated to reduce the loss of the cooling effect. Humidifier is another important component present in the air handling units. Humidifiers are essential to keep the atmosphere moist. Excessive heating and cooling can lead to dry atmosphere which can lead to various health issues. Most of the air handling units has humidifiers present in it. After the cooling process, the water from the air handling unit will be transferred back by the chilled water pump to the chiller through the chilled water return (CHWR) pipe.

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AHU room

The air handling unit must be small, but at the same time it has to be easy for a person to open up both hands which makes around 1.5m space. In 1 Mont Kiara Mall, the AHU rooms are designed according to the law requirements.

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The air handling is connected to the supply air and return air ducts. The supply air duct supplies the cool air from the air handling unit to various spaces, while the return air supplies hot return air from various spaces back to the air handling unit. There is one main supply duct that bifurcates into various small ducting that are laid in all the spaces that are to be cooled. The return ducts from all the spaces also end into one main duct. All the supply and return air ducts are covered with the insulation material to prevent the loss of the cooling effect. The ducts are designed and laid such that there is even distribution of the cooled air to the spaces as per their heat loads and there is least wastage of the cooling effect. All the supply and return air is transferred through the diffuser. In 1 Mont Kiara Mall, different types of diffuser are used such as diamond-shaped diffuser, linear diffuser and ball spout diffuser.

Supply Air Duct

Return Air Duct

Ground Floor Ducting Plan

Diffuser

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First Floor Ducting Plan

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Analysis:
Chiller: In 1 Mont Kiara Mall, the chiller plant room is placed underground with the car park area. It is a good location to place it because it has less wastage on the primary space of the mall. It also reduces the loading on the building structure and is easy to be maintenance and replacement of equipments. The noise and vibration created from the chiller equipments can also be minimized.

Cooling Tower: The reason to place the cooling tower on an open space on the third floor in 1 Mont Kiara Mall is that, it can get excellent ventilation to remove heat during the cooling process. It does not cause wastage of the primary spaces as well. However, it creates poor view from the upper floor of the office towers. The heat from the cooling tower will rise upward and cause extra heat load to the towers.

Conclusion and Recommendation


1 Mont Kiara Mall has a proper planned air-conditioning system. Maintenances are constantly scheduled to keep the quality of the water and cool air supply. Monthly check ups for water and maintenance for machineries and twice a year for the cooling tower.

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Active and Passive Fire Protection System


Literature Review

What is fire? Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction products. Slower oxidative processes like rusting or digestion are not included by this definition. This action is happen when all three fire factors combined which are Oxygen, heat and fuel. Oxygen is present everywhere in the world which is the air. Fuel act as burning element and heat is needed to produce fire. When all three elements combined, flame is produce which emits light and heat. Fire intensity or temperature depends on different types of fuel added into the elements. For a fire to outbreak, basically it needs the three factors which are Oxygen, Heat and Fuel. Hence it is possible to stop and control fire by removing one of the factors. In case of fire safety in construction one of the most important focuses of engineers is concentrate in how to manage fire factors in different spaces. This means different spaces have different risk of fire to outbreak. Passive fire protection is one of the components of fire protection in construction industry which mostly focus on. One of the methods to slow down the spreading of fire is using fire resistant walls, floors and materials. Moreover, proper design of escape route and staircase for residents of the building are the most important in passive fire protection. Active fire protection is the other components of fire protection system. In this system, different types of fire fighting systems are used to help or guide and rescuing resident in a building. Sprinkler, extinguisher, water base systems, none water base systems and etc are the main members of passive part. According to Malaysia UBBL 1984 law, based on different constructions a combination of both components should be apply to make a secure space for the building.

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ACTIVE FIRE PROTECTION


1. Water-based System External Fire Hydrant Fire hydrant is an above-ground connection that consists ofa system of pipe work to provide access to a water supply for the purpose of fire brigade. After that, the water is discharged into the fire brigade which it is then pumped and sprayed over fire. Basically fire hydrants can be divided into two categories of pressurized hydrants: (1). Wet barrel hydrant and (2). Dry barrel hydrant.

Figure 1.1: Wet and Dry Hydrant Details.

Figure 1.2: Cross section Wet Hydrant

In Malaysia, wet barrel hydrant is the most common used. 1 Mont Kiara mall is using 2 way hydrants. Based on the M.S. 1395 standards, the distant of hydrant pillar and breeching inlet shouldnt be more than 6 meters away. While for high rise building, the hydrant pillar should be not less than 6 meters. This is needed because the fireman can operate the hydrant safety, away from the building or falling wreckages. In the UBBL laws, the hydrants are spaced at not more than 90 meters apart along access roads of minimum 6 meters in width and capable of withstanding a load of 26 tons from fire brigade vehicles. The distance of the hydrant pillar and breeching inlet is around 10 metes always so that it has sufficient space for the fire brigade to use. The hydrant pillar is located near to the parking lots that probably will make the fire brigade hard to reach when the lots is full of cars. The site consists of only 2 hydrant pillars, one at the main gate and one at the side gate. The hose pipes will connect and extended to cover side of the building.

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Figure 1.3: Hydrant Pillar on site

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Figure 1.4: Location Plan of one Water Hydrant and Breeching Inlet

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DRY RISER 1.2) Breeching inlet Breeching inlet is function for supplying water by the fire department to a fire suppression system or distribution of water to fire hose stations. It is mainly used as supplying water outside the building to the building. Hence, it also can be connected to wet or dry risers to supply hydrants within the building. Based on the UBBLs law, the diameter shall be 150mm if higher outlet is more than 22.875 mete rs above the breeching inlet. The breeching inlet is situated not more than 18 meters from the access road and not more than 30 meters away from the fire hydrant. For the 1 Mont Kiara Mall it is using 4-ways breeching inlet with 150mm diameter pipe for its building and it is enclosed safely with red colour steel box.

Figure 1.2.1: Details of 4-way Breeching Outlets

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Figure 1.2.2 Breeching Inlet with sprinkler by the side

Figure 1.2.3 Breeching Inlet on site

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WET RISER 1.3) Fire Hose Reel System The fire hose reel is intended for the occupant to use during the early stages of a fire and comprises hose reel pumps, fire storage tank, hose reels, pipe work and valves. The hose reel is the most common used tools for the occupants to fight fire inside the building. This scenario is mostly happened when the occupant is trapped completely and cannot escape from the emergency exist. Based on the standardized fire hose length, it is between 18 to 36 meters with a diameter of 13 or 19mm internal diameter. 1Mont Kiara Mall is using the swing type hose reel with 30 meters length and 25mm diameter for the entire floor. The fire hose reel is with 30 meters length and 25 diameters for the entire floor. The fire hose reels have been placed beside to the emergency exits staircase, covered inside a room. Based on the system, the minimum flow rate can withstand 12 bars to 18 bar pressure within 6 meters coverage. Beside a hose reel, there is a landing valve. Based on UBBL, the installation of the landing valve and the fire hose reel must not more than 750 mm above the floor level ant eh length of the hose must be 30 meters. The system must be provided to every floor near to the fire staircase.

Figure 1.3.1: Hose Reel on site

Figure 1.3.2: Diagram of hose Reel, dimension

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Figure 1.3.3: Location Plan of Hose reel

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1.4) FIRE EXTINGUSHER Fire extinguisher is a one of the necessity and common firefighting item in any place. Fire extinguisher is portable which means it can be place anywhere. It is divided into 5 categories, based on different types of fire, from class A to F. The most common type is ABC Dry Powder Extinguisher and Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Extinguisher. ABC type is mostly used in building dude to the effectiveness of extinguish different types of fire risk environments. For example, flammable liquid and gases such as natural gas, hydrogen, and methane are sometimes present in a certain building. Moving on, the Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Extinguisher is more suitable involving flammable liquids and electrical equipm ents. CO2 is basically doesnt damage equipment and it is ideal for TNB and machinery room. Based on the UBBL, the portable fire extinguisher should be designed, tested, installed and maintained. The fire extinguisher must be placed at conspicuous and easily spotted location and near to room exits, corridors, stairways and public space. The fire extinguishers should not more than 20 mm from a potential fire hazard and prevent from obstruction. On the building of 1Mont Kiara mall, the fire extinguisher is placed near emergency door and near fire staircase.

Figure1.4.1: Co2 Fire extinguisher on electronic room

Figure 1.4.2: View of mall corridor

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Figure 1.4.3: Location Plan of fire extinguisher


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2.)Non-Water Based System 1. Automatic Fire Detection And Alarm System 1.Sprinkler System Fire sprinklers are widely recognized as the most efficient method for firefighting. It can detect the spread of fires in the early stages before they can cause any severe injury to people or damage to property. A fire sprinkler system is a network of piping charged with water either from a water main or fire pump and tank. Fire sprinkler heads are connected to the pipe work in the areas to be protected. Fire sprinkler will trigger when there is present of heat in the surrounding and it doesnt triggered by smoke. For the mall, it is using the wet pipe sprinkler for the whole building. The fire sprinkler system work great with the smoke detector together. This happen when a fire outbreak, the smoke detectors will trigger and alert the people in the building. After that, when heat rises from the fire to the ceiling, it will trigger the sprinklers head. The sprinklers head are equipped with a glass trigger filled with a glycerin-based liquid that expands at the appropriate temperature, breaking the glass and activating the sprinkler head. The sprinklers will mostly trigger in between the temperature of 57 to 74 degree Celsius. There is basically a pipe behind the sprinklers which connected to a reliable water source. Once it is triggered, the sprinklers will spray an even and effective pattern water to extinguish fire below and prevents it from spreading Fire sprinkler is categorized under 3 categorize which are Extra High Hazard, Ordinary and Extra Light Hazard. Commonly office buildings are using the Extra Light Hazard class. For the mall it uses the Ordinary class According to UBBL, the distance of one sprinkler to next sprinkler is 4.6 meters maximum for the for the Extra Light Hazard class. The sprinklers of every floor in this building have a space of 2 to 3 meters depends on which area.

Figure 2.1.1: Sprinkler system inside the mall

2.1.2: Sprinkler in the carpark

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2 meter

Figure 2.1.3: Location Plan of sprinkler system

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2. Smoke Detector The most common smoke detector can be found in public space which called lionization Smoke Detector. A typical ionization chamber consists of two electrically charged plates and a radioactive source for ionizing the air between the plates. If the smoke is present in the space, it enters to the optical chamber, having smoke particles scatter and sensor sets of the alarm. In very large areas where a smoke detector is placed, there are two optical detectors that send the straight line of infra-red beam from a sender to a receiver. Optical Smoke Detectors are less sensitive to false alarm fire, such as minor smoke from candles, cooking, steam, etc which cause alarm to trigger. When any alarm detects a fire, it sends a 9 volt signal on the red wire. Any alarm that detects a 9volt signal on the red wire will alert the alarm immediately. Based on UBBL, all floors mist built- in with smoke detector and lift not opening into a smoke lobby shall not use door reopening devices controlled by light beam or photo-detectors unless incorporated with a force close feature which after thirty seconds of any interruption of the beam causes the door to close within a present time.

Figure 2.1.1 Smoke detector on site

Figure 2.1.2: Diagram showing how smoke detector works

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Figure 2.2.3: Location Plan of smoke detector


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3.Fire Alarm Bell Fire alarm bell is a device to alert people in the building when fire outbreak. Most of the case fire alarm is connected to smoke detector and other fire protection devices. The alarm will trigger with fire telephone and the break glass point near to the fire hose reel and emergency staircase. The location is mostly near escaping route or easy to reach area for emergency. Based on the UBBL, alarm bell would provide a minimum sound level of 65dB (A) or +5bb(A) above any background noise which is likely to persist for more than 30 seconds. Fire alarm bell is the fastest way to tell people in a building when a fire outbreak.

Figure 2.3.1: Shows the fire alarm bell located near the exits of the entrance

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4.Fire Break Glass Call Point The break glass call point is a device to enable people to raise the alarm in the event of a fire, by simply breaking a fragile elements or glass and activating the alarm system. The break glass call point should be located near to exit routes. Based on the UBBL, the height should be fixed at the height of 1.4m above the floor at easily accessible, well-illuminated and visible positions which is free from obstruction. This allows people to able to reach in the fastest possible way during an emergency. The break glass point Is compulsory to be located at every floor near to the entry floor landings of staircase or exits to open air.

2.5m 2.2 m

1.5 M

Figure 2.4.1: Shows the dimension of fire floor system

Figure 2.4.2: Show the fire Break Glass Call Point

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5.Voice Communication System (intercom System) The intercom system is to allow emergency services to be in contact with the people in the refuge areas who seek for assistance. The intercom handset are provided every floor and set next to the break glass call point. The intercom system is connected to the building control room. Every high rise building has a particular control room and has a fireman intercom system inside. At the Master control panel, a call alert lamp flash with audible signal when there is incoming call. Upon lifting the handset, the audible signal will be silenced. The master control panel is also equipped with a fault indicator unit to indicate the type of fault. In the 1Mont Kiara Mall it is observed in a Fire control room located in the ground floor of the building.

Figure2.5.1: Fire system plan(LED) indicator to signal the control room

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Figure2.5.2: Fireman Intercom System set in the control room

Figure 2.5.3: Direct digital alarm communicator to Bomba


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PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION


Materials and structure The construction of the 1 Mont Kiara mall is based on concrete and some exposure of glass around the faade. A concrete material is a decent material to counter fire from spreading. It is a good conductor of heat and doesnt burn directly when contact with fire. For the floor it is majority covered with granite which also helps in slowing down the spreading of fire.

Figure 3.1.1 The main faade of the building is made up of concrete, glass and steel

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Glass

Concrete Granite
Figure 3.1.2: Shows the building is made up from 3 types of material which give a fireproof layer

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Fire Emergency Staircase Emergency fire staircase is a compulsory in building which is more that 2 levels. This staircase is a escape route and it is design to have the shortest route out the building. Emergency escape route is the most efficient element of passive fire protection which can be the easiet way to rescue for the people who are in the building. The 1 Mont Kiara mall have 7 emergency staircase systems in the mall and 4 emergency staircases for the office suit. Based on the UBBL law it stated that a building which is more than 12 meter height must provide minimum 2 staircases. In Mont Kiara Mall due to the size of the mall is huge it needed more than 7 escaping staircase which divided all around the mall. Normally, there is 2 staircases it assess by the fire fighters to go into the building when fire happen: and the rest is used by occupant to escape. Emergency staircase is important for a right measurement for escape route. Based on UBBL law, the staircases riser must have a minimum 170 mm and treat must have 230 mm with the width of total staircase must have minimum 75mm wide.

Figure 3.2.1: Standard Dimension based on UBBL of emergency fire staircase

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4 5 6

Figure 3.2.2: Location plan of emergency staircase


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Fire Emergency Door Emergency escape doors are designed with double leaf door swinging outwards. The door is design to swing outwards because when emergency happens, panic and rush is very common and it will be easier if it is swing outwards rather than inwards. This will not only reduce the time to react and also the time to open the door. In an emergency scenario seconds may cause a person life. Other than that, the escape doors will have a KELUAR (Exit) sign lighted on top of the door or the side to indicate that is the right escape route to use. Based on the UBBL law, the door us design with 1.4 meters width and 2.2 meter in height and cit is resistant up to h in case of fire that provide more time for the people to escape. The UBBL law also state that the fire escape door should be including hydraulic spring for the doors. The doors are equipped with hydraulic spring. The door will also have an auto lock which means resident doesnt need any key to open the door from the inside. This will decrease the time to open the door when an emergency outbreak.

Hydraulic spring

Figure 3.3.1: Emergency door on site

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Emergency Sign Board Fire Alarm located next to the emergency door

Fire Break Call Glass point

Fire Extinguisher located next to the emergency door

Figure3.3.2: UBBL requirements for emergency door

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Mechanical Transportation System


3.1 Literature Review:
Vertical transportation is transportation for passengers to travel between floors in a multiple storey building. All buildings with more than one storey must have at least I set of stairs and the provision of stairs is a very important aspect to take into account when designing a building in order to ensure the occupants access between floors in the building. Mechanical transportation is advance vertical transportation mechanisms which enable occupants travel between floors in a convenient and easy manner. Mechanical vertical transport includes elevators, escalators and travelators. An elevator is an electrical container that lifts and lowers people or goods to different floors within a building. Ideal performance of an elevators will provide minimal waiting time for the elevator car at each level, comfortable acceleration, rapid transportation, rapid loading and unloading at all levels.Elevators have an architectural design impact related to the passenger satisfaction, oriented service considerations, and more important, the major space elements which isintegrated into a buildingsescalator lobby design. The units of elevators needed in a building is determined by the population of the building, function of the building, numbers of floors and the height of the building, initial and maintenance cost. There are two types of elevators, the electrical elevator and the oil hydraulic elevator. Consideration of types of elevator used is determined by the requirements of the building design. Escalators are conveyor transport devices that carry people between floors of a building, it acts like a moving staircase. The escalator have the ability to move large amount of people to another floor without any waiting time continuously. Escalators can be constructed in three arrangements, two of which are the parallel arrangement and the crisscross arrangement. Parallel arrangement is two escalators of different directions arranged side by side or separated by a distance. The crisscross arrangement minimizes the structural space requirements by stacking escalators to go in one direction. Consideration of arrangement is based on the need and area of the space. The distant and location of elevators and escalators are placed based on the UBBL (Uniform Building By Law).

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3.2 Elevators
3.2.1 Introduction and Function TheOne Mont Kiara Mall has 4 groups of lift dedicated to the shopping mall area. They all consist of 4 passenger lift and 1 service lift, also known as firefighting lift. Lifts on lobby 1 and 2 are connected from to the car parks to the mall and to the office levels above, Lifts in lobby 3 connects the car park with the mall ending at the top floor of the mall area. Another group of lift located at lobby 3 is dedicated to the office block.

Lift Lobby 2 Lift Service Lobby 1 Lift 1 Service Lift 2

Lift Lobby 3 Service Lift 3

Service Lift 4 Lift Lobby 4

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3.2.2 UBBL requirements and related acts


According to UBBL clause 153, a smoke detector to be provided at the lift lobby .Lift lobby should be large enough to allow traffic to move in two directions. Referring to UBBL 1984 clause 124, a lift shall be provided for non-residential building which exceeds 4 storeys above or below main entrance. It is also essential in building less than 4 storeys if access for elder or disabled is required. Minimum walking distance to lift shall not exceed 45m. Lift should be sited in the central area of a building to minimize the horizontal travel distance. According to the UBBL section 155, the fire mode of operation shall be initiated by a signal from the fire alarm panel which may be activated automatically by one of the alarm devices in the building or manually. If main power is available, all lifts shall return in sequence directly to the designated floor, commencing with the fire lifts without answering any car or landing calls, overriding the emergency stop button inside the car, but not any other emergency of safety devices, and park with doors open A firefighting lift shall be provided to give direct access to each firefighting access lobby or in the absence of a lobby to the firefighting staircase at each floor level. The fire lift shall discharge directly into the firefighting access lobby staircase or shall be connected to it by a protected staircase.

3.2.3 Operation of System The One Mont Kiara Mall uses the elevator cars control in computerized system control located in the Fire Control Room. The elevator cars can be tracked and monitored from a dedicated computer in the fire control room and also another manual control panel mounted to a wall in the fire control room as well. Another manual control panel is located in the elevator engine room. Fire control has full control over the lifts in the building. The system keeps connection between monitoring server and the passengers in lift. The system will showcase the location of each lift all the time. The system will also inform to monitoring server in case of any elevator breakdown which helps the mechanic to take immediate action.

Immediate answer from the elevator and the system clearly shows the location of calls from which level and block of elevator.

Manual lift control panel in the fire control room, manual stopping and resetting the elevator can be done here.

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3.2.4 Elevator Engine Room


The engine room is located at the top of the elevator shaft. The engine room housed all the motors of a group of elevators in one shaft. Every elevator has its own control all located in the motor room. According to the UBBL, the elevator room should always be ventilated, in our case the engine room is equipped with air conditional system which purpose is to cool the space and prevent the motors to overheat, causing fire hazard. A phone line is also installed here next to the manual elevator control for direct contact to the fire control room in case of an emergency.

Engine of the service lift or firefighting lift.

Elevator manual control panel in the engine room with attached phone.

Engine of the passenger lift


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3.2.5 Components of System


Machine: Kick start the elevator to move, then it is the car and the counterweight that lift and lower the car. Electronic Relay Panel: The manual control panel of the elevator in the elevator engine room Hoist Ropes: The car is held up by usually 6 steel cables called the hoist ropes; one rope has enough strength to prevent the car from falling. Terminal Stopping Switch: Stop the car when designated level is reached. Final Limit Switch: Determines the whether the lift is overloaded. Door Operator: Controls the opening and closure of the car door. Roller Guides: Conduct the movement of the car to prevent it from swinging and twisting during operation. Car: The passenger car. Counterweight: Act as a balancing mechanism in contrast to the car to balance the movement of the elevator, and reduce the energy needed to move the car. Car Buffer: A safety mechanism designed to buffer the impact force of a falling car.

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3.3 Escalators
3.3.1 Introduction & Function The One Mont Kiara Mall is equipped with only one escalator system. The escalators only discharge passengers within the mall to different levels, from the ground floor to every subsequent floor till the third floor.

Escalator System

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3.3.2 Operation of system


The One Mont Kiara Mall uses multiple parallel systems for all the escalators which up and down escalators are arranged parallel and side by side.

Escalator in One Mont Kiara Mall connecting all the malls floors from Ground to Third

Parallel aligned escalator system going in opposite directions.

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3.3.3 Size, Speed, Capacity and Rise Estimation

The following formula can be used to ascertain capacity and compare efficiencies and sustainability at the building design stage: (3600 )

Where

N= number of persons moved per hour P= number of person per step V= escalator speed ( 1 ) L= length of step (m) = escalator angle of inclination

For example, an escalator of 30 inclination, 2 passengers per step, moving at the speed of 0.6 1 and with 450mm tread or step length.
3600 20.6cos 30 0.45

= 8314

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Thus, the escalator can move 8314 people per hour

3.3.4 Component of Escalator


1. Landing Platforms: The top platform has motor assembly and the main drive gear inside, with bottom support the step return idler sprockets. The platform provides a place for the passengers to stand before they step onto the moving stairs. 2. Structural Truss: The truss is a hollow metal structure that bridges the lower and upper landings. The truss carries all the straight track sections connecting the upper and lower sections. 3. Step Chain: The step chain system continuously pulls the steps from bottom platform and back to the top in an endless loop, providing non-stop moving staircase.

4. Escalator Step: The steps that carries the passengers 5. Handrail

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Conclusion
1 Mont Kiara Mall uses water chilled system for its centralized air-conditioning system. It is appropriately because of its size and function of the building. The components of the system such as cooling tower, chiller, AHU room are all placed in suitable levels that are restricted area. This helps the systems to run smoothly without any problems to occur. This system helps to comfort the occupants of the building with cool fresh air. After studied 1 Mont Kiaras air-conditioning system, it is understood that is has been catered for the best suitable system for its type of building structure. On the other hand, both active and passive firefighting systems are very important measures when designing 1 Mont Kiara Mall in protecting the safety of user against an eventual fire breakdown. Besides, the passive systems also contribute a safe path for the user to get out of the building during emergencies and also active contributes protection around the building to prevent it from happening. Nowadays, there are more new high technology systems such as detectors are available for better safety and more efficient. Lastly, mechanical transport plays an important role in high rise building which brings convenience to the users in 1 Mont Kiara Mall without walk up stairs which is tiring and waste of time. Escalators are installed and also lift for the handicaps to move around in the building. 1 Mont Kiara Mall concerns about the population in the building, so the building is designed in a way that lift and escalator is enough to bring all the users throughout the building without delay.

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Ground Floor Plan

INTRODUCTION
The Intervention
SMK KELANA JAYA of the institutional building is originality named High School Seaport 2. The school was built during December 4, 1989. It was established on an area of 4084 hectares and consist of four blocks of building equipped with basic facilities for the school.

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The Intervention
Centralised Air-Conditioning System
Proposal for Air-Conditioning System in SMK Kelana Jaya
WATER TANK

Ground Floor Plan with proposed location

Reasoning
The chiller plant room and cooling tower are placed near to the mechanical and engineer service room. It is for the ease of maintenance and replacement of equipment. The noise and vibration problem created by the chiller and cooling tower will affect the study of the students. During the cooling process, the cooling tower will emit heat. Therefore, in order to minimize the problem, they should not be placed near to the classroom. The air handling unit (AHU) room is better to be placed next to the room to be air-conditioned. Besides, it should be placed next to a toilet because it needs fresh air supply as the cooling process.
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Proposed ducting plan

The cool air supply from the AHU is distributed to the rooms which need to be air-conditioned through the air duct and diffuser.

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Proposed Type of Diffuser

Rectangular diffuser

Linear diffuser

UBBL requirements and related acts


Where permanent mechanical ventilation or air-conditioning is intended, the relevant building by-laws relating to natural ventilation, natural lighting and heights of rooms may be waived at the discretion of the local authority Where rooms or enclosures in any building not specified in the schedule are situated in the internal portions of the building and no such external walls are present, a minimum of one fresh air charge per hour shall be provided Where room, window or wall air-conditioning units are provided as means of air conditioning, such unit shall be capable of continuously introducing fresh air Minimum scale of fresh air ventilation in conjunction with recirculated filtered and conditioned air meeting with the requirements of ASHRAE STANDARD 62-73 shall be 0.14cmm per occupant for commercial premises

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Active and Passive Fire Protection System


Proposal for Fire Protection System in SMK Kelana Jaya
Location of Wet Fire hydrant Reasoning The fire hydrant is placed near the entrance of the building and behind gate of the building. Having 2 fire hydrants is more viable than one due to the large area of the building. It allow fireman to use the nearest hydrant in case of emergency. In the UBBL laws, the hydrants are spaced at not more than 90 meters apart along access roads of minimum 6 meters in width and capable of withstanding a load of 26 tons from fire brigade vehicles. The distance of the hydrant pillar and breeching inlet is around 10 meters always so that it has sufficient space for the fire brigade to use. The hydrant pillar is located near to the parking lots that probably will make the fire brigade hard to reach when the lots is full of cars. The site consists of only 2 hydrant pillars, one at the main gate and one at the side gate. The hose pipes will connect and extended to cover side of the building. Every building shall be served by at least one fire hydrant located not more than 91.5 meters from the nearest point of fire

brigade access

Current One fire hydrant on site


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Location of Hose Reel Reasoning Hose Reel is placed at the side of the building to allow easy access for fireman when they enter the building. The building is open area and fireman can easily connect to pipe when fire outbreak. Based on the standardized fire hose length, it is between 18 to 36 meters with a diameter of 13 or 19mm internal diameter. The fire hose reel is with 30 meters length and 25 diameters for the entire floor. The fire hose reels have been placed beside to the emergency exits staircase, covered inside a room. Based on the system, the minimum flow rate can withstand 12 bars to 18 bar pressure within 6 meters coverage. Beside a hose reel, there is a landing valve. Based on UBBL, the installation of the landing valve and the fire hose reel must not more than 750 mm above the floor level ant eh length of the hose must be 30 meters. The system must be provided to every floor near to the fire staircase.

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Location of Fire Extinguisher Reasoning Dry Powder or ABC fire extinguisher is used in the building. The fire extinguisher is placed by the side of the hose reel due to the requirement of the UBBL law. Based on UBBL law, every building shall be provided with means of detecting and extinguishing fire and with fire alarms together with illuminated exit signs in accordance with the requirements as specified in the Tenth Schedule to these By-Laws. Portable extinguisher shall be provided in accordance with the relevant codes of practice and shall be sited in prominent positions on exits routes to be visible from all directions and similar extinguishers in a building shall be of the same method of operation.

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Location of the Sprinkler Reasoning Fire sprinklers are widely recognized as the most efficient method for firefighting. It can detect the spread of fires in the early stages before they can cause any severe injury to people or damage to property. A fire sprinkler system is a network of piping charged with water either from a water main or fire pump and tank. The fire sprinkler system work great with the smoke detector together. This happen when a fire outbreak, the smoke detectors will trigger and alert the people in the building. After that, when heat rises from the fire to the ceiling, it will trigger the sprinklers head. Based on UBBL the distance the sprinkler is 2 by 2 meters. Sprinkler valves shall be located in a safe and enclosed position on the exterior wall and shall be readily accessible to the Fire Authority. All sprinkler systems shall be electricity connected to the nearest fire station to provide immediate and automatic relay of the alarm when activated.

Water Source from pipe

Voice communication System Room

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Location of Smoke Detector Reasoning The smoke detector is good suggestion for the building because it will alert people 1 st before when there is emergency outbreak. It is the very 1 st tool that can help people in the building to be alert when fire happens. If the smoke is present in the space, it enters to the optical chamber, having smoke particles scatter and sensor sets of the alarm. In very large areas where a smoke detector is placed, there are two optical detectors that send the straight line of infra-red beam from a sender to a receiver. Optical Smoke Detectors are less sensitive to false alarm fire, such as minor smoke from candles, cooking, steam, etc which cause alarm to trigger. When any alarm detects a fire, it sends a 9 volt signal on the red wire. Any alarm that detects a 9volt signal on the red wire will alert the alarm immediately. Based on UBBL, all floors mist built- in with smoke detector and lift not opening into a smoke lobby shall not use door reopening devices controlled by light beam or photo-detectors unless incorporated with a force close feature which after thirty seconds of any interruption of the beam causes the door to close within a present time.

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Mechanical Transportation System


Proposal for Elevator System in SMK Kelana Jaya
Elevator Dimension:

Proposed Elevator System

Elevator Specifications
Elevator Type: Hydraulic Elevator Elevator Capacity: 630kg 8 person/car, Deep Car Internal Car Size: 1100mm X 1400mm Door: 800mm opening Lift Shaft Dimension: 1600mm X 1785mm
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Reasoning
The reason that the elevators proposed are placed in such a manner is to cut the cost for installation, instead of installing 3 elevators for each block, creating an exterior elevator shaft on the connection between these 3 block will cut the cost for installing 3 elevators. Other than that creating a new structure for the elevator system also doesnt transfer much load to the existing structure and doesnt add additional load of the elevator car and the shaft structure onto the existing building load. The school structure which is not built for an elevator will cause many problems in the future if the load of the elevator system is added onto the old structure. The school blocks are 4 storeys high, 4 meters ceiling height per floor, that makes a block approximately 20 meters high, so a hydraulic lift is enough to provide access for all four floors for the school blocks. Thus no engine room is required for the elevator system of the proposed building block.

UBBL requirements and related acts


According to UBBL clause 153, a smoke detector to be provided at the lift lobby .Lift lobby should be large enough to allow traffic to move in two directions. Referring to UBBL 1984 clause 124, a lift shall be provided for non-residential building which exceeds 4 storeys above or below main entrance. It is also essential in building less than 4 storeys if access for elder or disabled is required. Minimum walking distance to lift shall not exceed 45m. Lift should be sited in the central area of a building to minimize the horizontal travel distance. According to the UBBL section 155, the fire mode of operation shall be initiated by a signal from the fire alarm panel which may be activated automatically by one of the alarm devices in the building or manually. If main power is available, all lifts shall return in sequence directly to the designated floor, commencing with the fire lifts without answering any car or landing calls, overriding the emergency stop button inside the car, but not any other emergency of safety devices, and park with doors open.

Operation of System The elevator shall be monitored in the proposed fire control room, equipped with a computerized elevator control, and a manual elevator control.

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