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BUILT FORM AND RELIGION: UNDERLYING STRUCTURES OF JEDDAH AL QADEMAH


TAWFIQ M. ABU-GHAZZEH

The emergence of Islam around the beginning of the seventh century had a major effect on the lives of the people of the Arabian Peninsula. As their ways of life changed, so did the organization of their built environment, ultimately leading to the concept of the Islamic city. Since, the location of the homeland of Islam away from non-Islamic occupiers has allowed the original form of Islamic dwellings and settlements in the region to remain more or less intact. This paper explains the principal values of the Islamic faith and their effect on the structural development of the historic city of ]eddah, called ]eddah Al-Qademah . The compact layout of this city, in present-day Saudi Arabia, once served a pedestrian circulation system and was characterized by public and private spaces that responded to newly emergent Islamic traditions. Although living conditions in Saudi Arabia are much changed today, the Islamic religion still plays a role in people's lives. A vast architectural heritage remains in ]eddah Al-Qademah which may provide a more satisfactory basis for contemporary city design than many concepts now being implemented .

TAWFIQ M . ABU-GHAZZEH

is an Assistant Professor of Anhitecture

at King Saud University, College of Architecture and Planning, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Following the advent of the Islamic religion in the Arabian peninsula and the subsequent spread ofIslam to many parts of the world, there occurred an extraordinary burst of urban development. A rich heritage of city design was created in the various environments that made up the Islamic world. Indeed, in expressiveness, vigor and virtuosity the architectural quality of the Islamic cities of the era often rivals the granular metropolitan creations of present societies . Early Islamic cities were more than just spectacles of fortified places, palaces, domes, minarets and monumental buildings; they were an expression of underlying religious beliefs, social and

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economic structures, and a unified visual sensibility. Theirsrudy reveals that Islamic faith, values, and culture have often been expressed in supremely assured conglomerations of buildings. One early Islamic town is historic Jeddah 0eddah AlQademah) , located in present-day Saudi Arabia. Jeddah AlQademah was developed along the western shoreline of the Arabian peninsula during the second half of the seventh century by the third Muslim Khalif, Uthman-bin-Afan. Although there were people living on the site prior to the cons truction of the ci ty, its structural form was developed by Muslim builders. No history is available regarding the strucrure of a settlement at Jeddah before the arrival of Muslim people. Custom was particularly important among the early Muslim builders of Jeddah AI-Qademah. In this Islamic society tradition had a clear religious meaning, and city residents shared a sttong religious sense, convinced their way of life was an expression of the will of Islam. For the city's early residents religio n encompassed the whole of life, not only that small segment of activity concerned with specific acts of worship or fulfillment of religious duties. The aim of this paper is to investigate the organizational characteristics of Jeddah AlQademah, showing how the principles underlying its physical development meshed with socio-cultural and religious factors. In ge neral , the redefinition and analysis of the past has been useful to human societies for a wide variety of reasons: ideological, aesthetic, and technical.' Today this can be demonstrated very readily in architecture and urbanism. ' In particular, broad scientific examination of traditional buildings - especially folk buildings - is an urge nt task . This can be accomplished thtough an intensive study of theories and practices of the past, with special emphasis on societal values and beliefs. For this reason, this study is not merely a history of form or style; it is an attempt to provide a unified view of the religious, cultural and environmental factors that shaped the design of a city. The paper is based on seven field trips carried out in Jeddah AI-Qademah during 1990-1994. Field observations were made, photographs were taken, and aerial maps and available drawings were analyzed. In addition , many interviews were conducted with elders of the city, and the information collected from them was compared wit h information obtained fro m a comprehensive literature review. Physical analysis was supplem ented by a more qualitative study of cultural meanIl1gs. Symbolic and social connotations of the tradirional environment were examined, especially rhe teachings of rhe Islamic religion. )

The architecture ofJeddah AI-Qademah is the architecture of the Muslim people. It is hoped this analysis will bridge the gap between the concepts of current building practice in Saudi Arabia (primarily imported from the West) and traditional experience. The study is primarily addressed to architects, urban planners, city administrators, government officials and academicians who have direct or indirect influence on the practice of city planning and design in Saudi Arabia and/or other Islamic countries.

ISLAMIC FAITH AND THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT: A MORPHIC ANALYSIS

Islam is a universal and strictly monotheistic religion. According to Islam, Allah (God) demands that believers be resigned to his will (the meaning of the word "Islam"), and that they perform good acts (i.e., treat aged parents well, give to the poor, etc.). The Qur'an, the Muslim holy book, is the most important regulator of Islamic life. It and the Sunna (sayings and traditions of the Prophet Mohammed) are the basic sources ofIaw, defining such things as behavior, manners, and rules for business and social relations. The Qur'an encourages believers to "Obey God and His Envoy" (surah 8:I). And it sets forth the Prophet as "a fine example for whosoever hopeth on God and the last day and rememberth God much" (surah 33:2I). Occasionally, the sources also recorded aspects of Mohammed's behavior, which helped raise ancient Arab customs to the level of religious tradition. These practices contributed greatly to endowing the Muslim city with certain characteristics. Hadith sayings of the Prophet provide a further abundance of historical, formal and practical detail on the beliefs and practices laid down in the Qur'an. The religious sensibility of the inhabitants of Jeddah AIQademah had one further important characteristic. This was a strong sense of community - of common ties , outlook and purpose. 4 Equality before God and the common purpose of Muslims were symbolized dramatically in such religious ceremon ies as daily prayers, where rich and poor alike prostrated themselves side by side in obedience to a common creator. Islam, it has been repeatedl y emphas ized , is essentially a religion of law. 5 Schacht has argued that it is difficult to understand Islam without understanding Islamic law 6 According to Islamic beliefs, two characteris tics summarize the structure of the Muslim community: the governance of God, and the equality of men in the sight of God. The institutions ofIslam are founded upon three sources: the Qur'an; the Smma, or the tradition of the Prophet; and the written and oral

ABU -GHAZZEH: JEDDAH AL-QADEMAH 51

teachings of jurists. It is the jurists who give Muslim law its various schools (madhhab) , but it is the two first sources to which no scholar can fail to refer, and which give Islam identity and cohesion . These sources were the basis decisions and dispute resolution in the Islamic cityJ Islamic law, or Shal'i'a (literally, "the straight path"), theoretically governs all aspects of Muslim life. As it constitutes the will of God, any Muslim who violates it commits both a crime and a sin . A Muslim believer submits to the fact that law and morals are aspects of relig ion. Thus, jurisprudence is not only based on theology, but subsumes elements whi ch W es tern tradi tion migh t considet aspects of theology. For these reasons, Islamic law has had a far greater influence on Muslim society than Western law has had on Western society. TheShari'a is a sacred code, reflecting and deriving its authority from the will of God. It is thus a combination of law and morality : a code of law, and a code of behavior and ethics . AlHathloul observes:
ThlOtIgh the development of tbe Shari'a, tbe desire bad always been to reaffirm tbe pas!"!' vedidity ciS a gttide to tbe present. T blls, the Shari' a was advet1Zced, accepted, and took tbe shape of tradition. Tbis petttern of dominance, tt1Zcballenged alzdlongstalzditzg tl'adition is repeated ilz tbe context of tbe Arab-Mmlim 8 city's pbysical enviro1Zme1lt.

According to Islam , each person commits himself or herself alone and appears before the Supreme Judge to answer for his or her actions. However, the bond that links people to the social body is so tight that peop le depend for salvation largely on each other and on more-or-less favorab le circumstances. This enduring combination of individual effort and the comm unal framework became the most outstanding characteristic embedded in the form of early Islamic cities like Jeddah AI-Qademah. Every Muslim is committed to fu lfill certain required relig ious duties, living up to a divine pattern for life. Five basic duties make up the "Pillars ofIslam": a confession offaith, the five daily prayers, alms-giving, fasting in the month of Ramadan, and the pilg rimage to Mecca at leas t once in a lifetime, if at all possible. Of these, prayer is the kernel ofIslam, the rite which contributes mos t to the communal edifice and its cohesion . Every Muslim is required to pray fi ve times daily: at dawn, midday , mid -afternoon, sunset, and afte r nig htfall. Males are strong ly encouraged to p ray collectively . While prayer is often practiced in a mosque, it can be practiced elsewhere . At the very broadest level, certain conditions preceding or accompanyi ng the performance of prayer considerably influence the design and function of Islam ic cities. For example, the basic req uirement for a site large enoug h to accommodate all the faithful at Friday midday prayers (obligatory for male members of the Muslim community) determined that the Great Mosque ofJeddah AI-Qademah be located in the center of the city. But , as in other Islam ic cities, the G reat Mosque was not exclusively a place of prayer; it was also a meeting place where the city's news could be exchanged and a center for religio us education. And, as was also the case in the layout of many other Islamic cities, its importance and central location invited commercial activities (th esottk, or market) to locate around it.

Accord ing to H akim:


.. tbe roots of tbe stmctllre emel the !tlZity prevalent in the 11/lmerom cities (witbin the /ctbric of each city) within the vast Islamic world etre tbe product of the Fig h: the mechanism interpreting andapplying tbevaltte system ofthe Shari' a (Islamic Divine 9 Law) witbin the processes of bui/etitzg emet urban develojnnent.

Within this line of thought, AI-Fayez arg ues that the build ing and planning principles that were appl ied in Islamic cities were based on the central principle of justi ce.'o Among the teachings that influenced the urban form of Jeddah AI-Qademah was the call to believers to be united . "Be liever is to believe as the mutually upholding sections of a building, " declared Mohammed in a much-quotedhadith. He also said : "Ye will see the Muslim s in t heir goodness, affection and fellow feeling form as it were a single body which one mem ber is ailing, seeks to share out its sleeplessness and fever throug h that body. " Finally, Mohammed gave assurance that "m y community shall never be unanimous in error [clalalah)." This declara tion was to have considerable repercussions in introducing the principle of ijma' , the consensus of believers, as a source for the elabora tion of law.

In light of this brief explanation of the role ofIslamic faith in Islam ic society, we now proceed to an investigation of the morphology of Jeddah AI-Qademah as a manifestation of Islamic principles . In general , one may argue that the aim of town planning is to give material expression to abstract and spiritual realities, wi th the city itselfbecom ing the symbol of a religious, social, economic and political system . In order to devise a physical portrait of a ci ty and to recognize its urban morphology , therefore, it is necessary to stud y the plan which organizes its components. " Contrary to the tendency of some Western observers" to play down the importance ofIslam in the interpretation of the city and to stress time and location variab les over organic and social existence, it must be empha-

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T D 5 R 5 .2

sized that the layout of J eddah AI-Qademah is closely tied to religious precepts. Two ge neral levels may be observed in the city's early development. First, conceptual planning was applied to such things as its surrounding wall , the location of gates connecting to caravan roads, and the size and location of major streets leading to the Great Mosque and the main commercial area at the city center. Second, an arrangement of roads was established at a smaller scale to connect main streets with houses . Development at this second level was accomplished accord ing to local custom and planning based on Shada concepts. U ltimately, it created much of the city's enduring character: the relationship of streets to buildings, and the location of urban elements/building types within a finergrained system of movement .

WALL, SOUK AND RIBAT

One may begin the analysis by looking at the city's wall (Sttl-). Generally, the walls ofIslamic cities in the East date from the Roman period and have a rectangular outline, as in Damascus (1,500 X 900 m), or one that is practically square, as in J erusalem (1,100 X 900 m) and Aleppo (1,000 x 950 m ). In comparison, the wall of J eddah does not surround a regular geometrical shape (FIG . 1). This is partially d ue to the topography of the site and to the fact that many parts of the city fabric had been established prior to the construction of the wall in the tenth century . As in all walled cities , the location of gates was extremely important . Jeddah's ancient gates (bab) included Bab Medina and Bab AI-Jadid to the north , Bab Mecca to the east, and Bab Sharif to the south. According to the elders of J eddah, these were closed with wooden flaps constructed by assembling beams, 12 cm thick and 20 cm broad , vertically on the outside and horizontally on t he inside, and then bonding them with iron strips fastened with huge nails. Another important feature of the walls was the burg, or tower. Each of J eddah's gates was flanked by two towers, which also streng thened the walL Two additional towers guarded the city along its western sea edge. Overall , the organization of the J eddah AI-Qademah was based on the creation of a strong contrast between central (public) and peripheral (private) areas (FIG. 2). The proliferation of commercial structures in the city's core did much to accentuate its centrality. The important location ofJeddah AIQademah along the shoreline of the Red Sea and its function as a seaport for pilgrims on their way to Mecca contri buted g reatly to the development of commercial ac tivities .

REO SEA

\'

,,'

".,
fIGURE 1.

An aerral photograph taken in I947 before the demolition of the city's

wall. The view is from the northwest. (Source: ] eddah, Old and New (London: Stancey International, I982), p.I2)
fIG URE 2.

The layout ofJeddah AI-Qadetnah shows the relatiomhip of center and

periphery within the cOlifines of the wall. Notice the location of the gates and the souk (",a.ketplace), (Source: SertJ ackson International, Old and New]eddah (I979).

The establishment and integration of the souk system p layed an important role in the development of] eddah AI-Qademah. The souk took many forms as marketplaces (souk) for t he exchange of commodities, goods and necessities developed at many places wi thin the confines of the city walls, The central souk was a single-story structure, consisting of many shops assembled in a linear, continuous or semi-continuous combi-

ABU-GHAZZEH: JEDDAH AL-QADEMAH 53

nation. Nearby, trade activities were also held in court-like open spaces to the sourh of the Great Mosque. Souks also appeared along major city thoroughfares, particularly those connecting city gates with the core. Here, souks occupied the ground floor of buildings, while upper floors were devoted to housing. An open-space sOZlk system also developed on both sides of the city wall at its gates. And weekly or seasonal markets, a common activity in Islamic societies, were held in public spaces along major thoroughfares of the city. Finally, mini-souks (stltuaiqas ), clusters of shops, groceries, and a nearby local mosque (masjid), were scattered throughout Jeddah Al-Qademah, usually located so as to function as neighborhood centers. In these places, shops were created from the surrounding housing fabric. The early sONk system of Jeddah featured small shops that faced the street and had facades two meters wide. An upper shutter served as a lean-to, and a lower, generally smaller one served as a display area. The shops were from three to four meters deep, and the back was often used as a workshop, since neither merchants nor craftsmen lived on the premises . Complex variations in design were possible using these basic elements grouped in various ways . The resulring physical arrangements were functional and created visual variety within asimple, unified organizational framework. The souk system highlighted the variation of physical relationships and organization that can still be observed within Jeddah Al-Qademah today.'! Kostof observes that the weaving of local and long-distance activity into the urban fabric is a distinct feature of the business district in Islamic cities. ' 4 In general, traffic flow was oriented to and from the center of the city, where the main market and the Great Mosque stood . Various trades and types of merchants were then grouped and located according to a symbolic framework centered on th e Great Mosque and extending outwards toward the city gates . This was similar to the souk system established in other Islamic cities. There was one other major organizing feature of the early Islamic city. This was the ribat, a fortified building to house the Muslim army, the 17l11jahedeen . Early Muslims were encouraged to participate in the spiritual Jihad, involving the act of fighting to spread Islam. The number ofribats built in an Islamic settlement depended on its importance and location. One ribat was built in the center of Jeddah Al-Qademah, adjacent to the Great Mosque and th e mainsottk . Another was built close to the Medina gate. Today both buildings are used as homes for the elderly."

STREETS

Public main streets have historically held an important place in urbanization. ,6 During the development of the urban fabric of Jeddah Al-Qademah, streets were constructed based on traffic requirements . Since there was practically no wheeled transport in J eddah, this was made up primarily of pedestrians, porters and animals. The width of streets was determined by the need for two loaded animals to pass. At the gates, camels with loads wider than could be carried through the smaller streets of the city were unloaded. Smaller bundles would then be carried to their final destinations by donkey, mule, horse or porter. Until the first half of this century porters carried enormous loads through the city and needed a certain freedom of passage. The street system inJeddah Al-Qademah, an essential component of its form, displayed a clear hierarchy. First were citywide thoroughfares connecting the city's main gates to its core . These arteries formed an integral part of the network connecting distant localities to the city, and their minimum width was determined by the functional requirement to allow two fully loaded camels to pass without hindrance (FIG. 3) . The Prophet instructed Muslims: "If you disagree about the width of a street, make it seven cubits."'? This minimum dimension equals 3.23-3.50 m. Hakim explains this led to a great similarity in the design of streets in various Islamic cities.'s He also observes: "The uniform legislative guidelines, and the almost identical socio-cultural framework

FIGURE

3. Main

tboroltghfclres in J eddab AI-Qadell/c/b


Clrc bordered by vctriollJ
lylleS of SOll k elemellis.

This street coJ/ncets

between tbe celltral sOllk


and B"b MecCCl.

54

TOSR 5.2

created by Islam helped produce remarkable similarities in approach to the city building process"'9 Gelani claims that among the 6,666 verses in the Qttr'an, there are about 200 which contain either an element of architecture or of town planning, indicating the great concern given by Islam to the structuring of human habitation .20 The second order of streets in Jeddah Al-Qademah included primary streets and main access routes within and between the major quarters of the city . These streets tended to form shortcuts across the first-order streets (FIG. 4) . While main thoroughfares were designed to connect the city gates with the center of the city, housing the sottk and the Great Mosque, secondary streets often ran east-west with some angle to the north or south, depending on location, to connect residential areas wi th the city center. This design also provided maximum shade and cool air during daytime. Third-order streets provided access and linkage within quarters and tended to be used by people living, working, or with frequent contacts in the quarter (FIG. 5). Finally, at the smallest scale, there was a system of Clll-de-sacs referred to as zttqaq . This type of access was not public and belonged to adjacent or bordering residents. Entries to private houses faced onto these streets . There was no specific pattern linking them to the larger hierarchy, and they could be connected to any of the three types mentioned above .
FIGURE

4. Arteries of the mahalla (residential district) . These streets connect

The design of the cul-de-sac system in Jeddah Al-Qademah is a unique characteristic that distinguishes it and other Islamic cities from Greco-Roman and Occidental medieval cities. 2 1 It primarily supported a desire for privacy, ensuring nearly total isolation of family life. The nature of the streets, the cul-de-sac system, and the use of city gates, of course, also created a highly secure layout. Spreiregen explains that the structure of the Islamic city was very pragmatic, since its component parts were logically located and their dimensions could largely be determined by the mathematics of pedestrian circulation. 22 But the layout of streets and alleyways in Jeddah Al-Qademah also indicates the importance of social life within the walls of the city. The arrangement of the city's buildings and other components supported a balance between social homogeneity and heterogeneity . This was a result of the social system requiring both segregation of domestic life and participation in the economic and religious life of the community.') Jeddah Al-Qademah characteristically comprised a tripartite system of public, semi-public, and private spaces, varying in degree of accessibility and enclosure. But the city's streets

between the jJritllctry streets and the main access rOlltes within and hetween quarters.

and other public open spaces were all considered public property, and were governed by Shari'a rules. The governor ofJ eddah, represented by a number of assistants, was responsible for their adequate condition .

NEIGHBORHOODS AND RESIDENCES

Jeddah Al-Qademah was partitioned into three quarters (nzaha!!a), urban cells that served as residential neighborhoods. These were Mahallat Al-Mazlum to the north; Mahallat AsShame in the center and toward Bab Mecca; and Mahallat AlYemen toward the south (REFER TO FIG. 2). Each nzaha!!a was divided into subsections which possessed all the institutions required for social life. Typically, a subsection would be grouped along an artery, called the suwayqah, and would contain a local mosque (masjid) . The purpose of these mosques was to provide an easily accessible place for daily prayer. They also offered a place for juridical and scholarly activities. In the residential districts, streets between dwellings were called

AB U-GH AZZE H : JEDDAH AL-QADEMAH 55

FIGURE
FIGURE

5. (LEFT
6.

AND CENTER)

iVlinor streets. Tbese provide aa:eSJ ctnd linkage to arecis within qtlttrters.

(RIGHT)

III certain sertors of oldJ eddah streets eire allllo,.! covered with corhelled haleonie,. contctilling wooden latticework (m as h rabi yya h).

darb, and in certain sectors of oldJeddah these would be almost covered by corbelled balconies shielded from view by wooden latticeworks (rnashrabiyyah) (FIG. 6).

One of the valued concepts in the development of buildings in Jeddah was the instruction of the Prophet, "La dharar wa ladhirar, " meaning no person or party should be harmed for the benefit of another. This hadith is one of the fi ve most important on which the science ofjiqh was established, and it was in reference to it that many building decisions were made and many disputes resolved. 24 The height of residential buildings was determined based on mutual respect by neighbors to (among other things) access to breeze. This attitude was confirmed by another saying of the Prophet: "Do you know the rights of the neighbor ... you must not build to exclude the breeze from him, unless you have his .. permissIOn . . .. "25 Islam urges Muslims to be good neighbors . Mohammed explained that "Neighborhood extends to 40 houses in all directions. "26 Residential buildings three to six stories high were clustered inJeddah Al-Qademah so that several adjacent houses enclosed a socio-spatial domain (haret). Each cluster was homogeneous both in form and in architectural style, providing the key building block of the traditional residential quarter. Residential quarters made up "pockets," so to speak, that opened to the interior of Jeddah Al-Qademah.

Since building and development of the various mahalla components was a continuous ptocess, related rules and guidelines needed to remain uniform over time. In this, they were g uided by the constant principles ofIslamic law . The result was the homogenous built form that is still evident today. Individ ual houses expressed this atti rude and satisfied cultural and symbolic requirements through siting, materials, and form . They reflected the presence of shared goals and values, a clear and agreed on purpose, and an accepted hierarchical structure of house , settlement, and landscape. Lynch describes this quality of the Islamic city as follo ws :
The m ling metaphor is the container: everything is watted and gated/rom the city itself towards streets and quarters 0/ the city to local residential c/mters, to the hottSe and its rooms. Even the lIlajor pltblic ways are tightly confined. T hey lead to yet smatter local streets, to extremely nal'row ad-de-sac like capittaries and to private doors. 2
1

The unity of plan , site, and materials observed in J eddah Al-Qademah generates an enthusiastic response even in lay observers . Much of this response is evoked by harmony with the landscape, as well as a sense of directness, forcefulness , and a feeling of fitness to purpose. An intimate scale is created b y a series of walls which not only enclose space, bur also tie houses toge ther and link them to the landscape. The horizontality of the flat walls is contrasted

56

T D S R 5.2

with the projected mashrabiyyah . Together with the use of various kinds of screening and balcony elements, these signify the need for women's privacy. Finally, there is a high degree of intricacy in residential facades, conveying many cultural meanings.

OPEN SPACE AND PUBLIC AMENITIES

According to Islamic teachings, human behavior should be committed to respecting privacy. In Jeddah AI-Qademah, this provision led to the elimination of d irect visual corridors into the private domain. Further, Mohammed stated that people should not sit in thoroughfares, "but if you insist then you should respect the rights of thoroughfares: avoid staring, do not create harm, salute back to those who salute you, bid to honor and forbid dishonor."28 Guided by Islamic principles, people in Jeddah AI-Qademah were committed to the concept of self-regulating societal behavior. This is sanctioned in the Qur'an: "You are the best nation ever brought forth to men, bidding to honor, and forbidding dishonor, and believing in God . Had the people of the book believed, it were better for them; some of them are believers, but most of them are ungodly" (surah 3:III). Typical of Islamic cities, the arrangement of public places in Jeddah AI-Qademah created an orderly and mutually selfsupporting hierarchy that commenced with the major elements of the city center and continued to the minor nodes of residential districts (FIG. 7). '9 A clear definition was observed between private, semi-public, and public open spaces. Circulation in this system was completely devoted to the slow movement of pedestrians and animals. None of the spaces within the system was ambiguous. For example, signs at crosstoads generally bore a name evoking a particular trade, renowned family, or a certain activity that took place in or adjacent to that place. Another feature of the system was an open space called rahba that often occurred at the intersection of main streets . This space was used for commercial and public activities. Many rahaba are observed today inJeddah AI-Qademah . They have retained much of their original form, character and function. It is due to the design and quality of a number of these spaces that one can observe and enjoy the visual character of the city's traditional buildings. Infrasttucture was also a concern of the city's Islamic builders. In particular, water supply is stressed in Islam not only because of its importance to life and the cultivation of land, bur because of the importance of ritual ablution. Providing a

FIGURE

7. Exalilples of the hierarchiwl ctrrangement of Opell space. A clear defi-

nition is observed between jJrivctte: semi-plth/ic, ctnd public open spaces.

public place with water for both men and animals implemented one of God's commandments and fo llowed hadith sayings regarding charity on behalf of God Jo In Jeddah AlQademah offering water to pilgrims on their way to Mecca was a further consideration.

ABU-GHAZZEH: JEDDAH AL-QADEMAH 57

Information regarding the early system of drinking water in Jeddah is scarce . However, recent excavations have revealed that th e supply network comprised a main conduit fed from a source perhaps several kilometers distant. This conduit, a veritable aqueduct, gave birth to secondary branches, and then to smaller ducts and clay pipes which distributed water by simple gravi ty. According to the elders ofJeddah, distribution was achieved through numerous supply points. These were often small public drinking fountains, calledsabi!, placed against the walls of the residences of pious believers. Here passers-by could allay their thirst and ask God 's blessing on the benefactor. In addition , there were a number of wells in public places that can still be observed in J eddah AI-Qademah. Because structures providing water in the city displayed features inspired by the Shari'a, they represent an architectural type that is distinctly Islamic. Contrary to the European concept from the Middle Ages of public assembly in front of a town hall or in a church square, a Muslim city of the same era had a mosque with a courtyard and perhaps a front yard for public gathering . In old Jeddah there were a number of large mosques. One was AI-Shafie Mosque, which still exists, with its vast courtyard surrounded by a portico. Another was the Great Mosque, which was recently demolished and replaced by a new mosque, AI-Hanafi. Also, on the occasion of Islam 's great religious festivals, Eid AI-Fitar (at the end of the Ramadan month of fasting) and Eid AlAdha (during the yearly pilgrimage to Mecca) , the inhabitants of Jeddah gathered at the 77Il!J!!a place northeast of the city wall . This practice of gathering to pray in an open space is still exercised on the two Eid occasions. Today one of the important characteristics of Jeddah AIQademah is the existence of physical elements cutting across all scales of the city and making up an agile set of components which are highl y versatile in their combination and structuring capabilities. The basic elements are the various building types and their respective architectural elements. The system of building Jeddah AI-Qademah , while made up of relati vely few elem ents and components, provides great flexibilit y and di versity (FIG . 8). The unity and harmo ny in J eddah AI-Qade mah is the res ult of mechanisms in the b uild ing process . One of these was the ftqh, wi th its primary sources in the QII1cmand theSIIJ717cI . Other reasons included t he use of common building materials and common responses of bLlilders ro climatic conditions . But another principle, ItIf, or local custom, also played an important role in creating diversity within unity. Thus, various subtle interpretations were introduced ro respond to specific micro-conditions at the neighborhood scale . They sprang from
FIGURE

rResidentialDistricti
TO Bah iU-Jadid and S<>b,U-Medifl"

C>

100

~
o
25

ffi

8. A rrcIIIgelllelll off eddah AI-Qadelllal,s IJI/ill fO I"lIi. Notice the relatiol!II/?lJSCJ.

JiJijJ between bllilding

Clnd betl{Jcen

bllildiJl<~J

e/J1e! open .r/MCC.

the participation of people, particularly neighbors, in making decisions in matters of building.

LESSONS FOR TODAY

The above morphological analysis illLUninates how the layout of Jeddah AI-Qademah was irregular, ye t coherent, based on a physical arrangement that evolved over a long period. As a unified physical organism, the city was formed of a mix of uses and was successful in creating symbolic perceptions and distinctively recognizable and meaningful images in the minds of its inhabitants. Thecity grew into a coherent and well-organized totality presenting a genuine and elaborate text that expressed a local heritage, asocial system, and , most importantly, the impact ofIslamic teaching and Shcwi'a law on the structuring of the built environment. This resulted in a tight correlation of the built environment with people's symbolic needs. T his study emphasizes that the quality of Jeddah AI-Qademah may be at tributed to people's respect for Islamic principles within a unified society. Islam modulated th e societal values of t he origi nal b ui lders of t he city, res ul t ing in a legal mec hanism to g uid e th e process of building . Such an appreciati on of] eddah Al-Qademah provides a challenge ro present decision makers in Saudi Arabia . Today there is a need ro investigate how similar p rinciples to those explained above can be used ro enhance current p lann ing and building practice to make them more responsive ro the socio-cultural and religious traditions of Islamic society.

58

T D S R 5.2

In comparison with the meticulous system of design and the authentic quality of architecture observed in Jeddah AlQademah, the modern built environment inJeddah, as in other cities in Saudi Arabia, lacks the merits of traditional architecture. It is Western in form and style and maintains little continuity with local history . As a result, it stands apart from local culture. The rapid development of modern Jeddah city has demonstrated a restless search for the future and a constant denial of the past. A great architectural and design heritage has been lost as a result of the ruthless drive towards modernization and commercial gain .
Recently planned urban communities in Saudi Arabia are based on a gridiron layout that emphasizes a regular street system. The modern planning system is also far less dense than its traditional counterpart, without proportioned open spaces and law land coverage. Modern streets are wide highways, main streets, and thoroughfares, from 60 to 20 m in wid th. This has resulted in a decreased spatial relationship between buildings and streets,

reversing the traditional relationship of building to open space. Also, the possibility for person-to-person interaction in the environment has decreased as a result of increased distances between residential buildings. Thus, the inherited Muslim norm of commitment and belonging, a concept that is strongly supported by Islamic religion, has suffered. Today, as a result of the recent arrangement of the built environment, community activities are lacking and social ties are diminishing.

In the urban fabric of modern cities in Saudi Arabia design destroys both the intimate scale and links with the land. New visual elements no longer express the relation of the individual to the group, and of the group to its surroundings. As opposed to the traditional pattern of Jeddah AI-Qademah, the new pattern makes individuals feel insignificant. The case ofJeddah Al-Qademah shows how designers, planners and government officials in Saudi Arabia today should give renewed attention to elements of increasing spatial scale and a demonstration of harmonious domains.

REFERENCE NOTES

1. ]. Fitch, HiJtorie PreJervation (New YOtk: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1982), PP.13-142. ]. Abu-Lughod, "Contemporary Relevance of Islamic Utban Ptinciples," in Islamic Architectttre and Urbctnislll (selected papers from a symposi um organized by the College of Architectute and Planning, King Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia, '983) , pp.64-70; and S. Kostof, The City Shaped: Urban PClttems and ll'!ecmings T hrottgh History (London: Thames and Hudson, 1991), PP.29-37. 3. The stLIdy of the tesidential quarters of J eddah Al-Qademah was supported by field

observations and abundant documentation

available through t he Municipality of J eddah.


But difficulties were enco untered in stud ying the former central sonk area because of the demolition of most traditional buildings here in

lithographically in Fez, 1332 A.H. / 1913 A.D.) 8. S. Al-Hathloul, "Tradition, Continuity and Change in rhe Physical Environ ment" (Ph.D. di ss ., M.LT., 1981), Pp.9-IO. 9. B. Hakim, Arabic Islamic Cities: Btti/cling and Plcmning Principles (London: Routlege and Kegan Paul, 1986). IO. 1. Al-Fayez, "B uilding System in Islam " (Doctoral thesis, Imam Mohammed Bin Saud Univetsity,19 86). II. C. Sitte, The Art o/Building Cities (New York: Reinhold Publishing Corporation, '96,); G . Collins and S. Collins, Camillo Sitte and the Birth a/City Planning (New York, 1986; fitst published in '965); and B. Hakim, "Islamic
A rchitecture and Urbanism," in J. Wilkes, ed.,

Encyclopedic!- of Architecture: DeJign! Engineering (Ind

the ead y 1970s. Infot mation pertaining to the


core of rhe ci ty was pieced together from va rioLls sources. For example, an early aerial photograph

was stLIdi ed and t horo ugh ly di sc ussed with a num bet of the city's elders. 4. A.]. Wensinck, "The Importance of Tradition for the Study ofIslam," !I1mlim Worfd, Vol.XI (1921), PP.239-45 . 5. N.]. Coulson, A History o/ IsLllltie Law (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, '964). 6. J. Schacht, An Inti'odllelion to Islmltie LClW (London: Oxfotd University Press, '964); and J. Schacht and E. Bosworth, eds., The Legac), 0/ Islam (London, New YOtk: Oxford University Ptess, second ed., 1974). 7. Ibn AI-Rami [d.1334 A.D.], Kitab At-l'Lclll Bi-Abka1lt AI-Bllnyan {The Book /01' C01ltlllttnicating Building Solutiom} (handwritten and printed

Constrttction (New York: John Wiley and Sons, '989) , pp.2-I02. 12. 1. Lapidus, Mttslim CitieJ in tI,e Later Middle Ages (Cambtidge, MA: Harvatd University Ptess, '967); and Middle Eastern Cities (Berkeley: Univets ity of California Press, 1969).
13Th e Grear Mosque along with adjacent maj or J"OIrk srrunures have si nee been replaced by

new buildings of diffetent designs but sim ilat function. The demolition of the city wall in 1947
caused the disappearance of commercial activities at the ci ry gates.

'4- S. Kosrof, The City Assembled: The Elements Urban Form Through Hi.rtOl}' (London: Thames and Hudson, 1992), PP.29- 37.

0/

15. There was actually one more major feature of

the city that ca lled out the narllte of its planning


according
(0

Islamic teachings. This was the

tltaqbarc/ (public cemetety). In tespect to the

ABU-GHAZZEH: JEDDAH AL-QADEMAH 59

Islamic teaching which requires Muslims ro place the head of a buried petson facing the qibla (the direction of Mecca, the center of the Islamic world), the 711dqbara was located at the eastern corner of the city. Mecca is 90 Ian ro the east. 16. S. Anderson, "People in the Physical Environment: The Urban Ecology of Streets," in S. Anderson, ed., On Streets (Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press, 1978); and A.V. Moudon, ed., Public Streets for Public Use (New York: Van Nosrrand Reinhold, 1987). 17. A hadith reported by Muslim via AbuHurairah, in F. Karim, Al-Hadis: An English
Translation and C0711mentary of Mishkat-ulMasabih, 2 Vols., 1938/9. 18. Hakim, Arabic Islamic Cities. 19. Ibid., p.12 20. LA.S. Gelani, Architecture, Town Planning and the Holy Qur'an (Lahore: Feroze Sons, 1990).

21. F. Benet, "The Ideology ofIslamic Urbanisation," International Journal of Comparative Sociology, VolA NO.2 (1963), PPA37-51; A.H. Hourani and S.M. Stern, eds., The Islamic City (Oxford, 1970); and K.A.C. Creswell, Early Muslim Architecture, 2 Vols. (New York: Hacker Art Books, 2nd ed., 1979). 22. P . Spreitegen, Urban Design: The Architecture ofTowns and Cities (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1965), p.121. 23. G.E. Von Gtunebaum, Islam: Essays in the
Nature and Growth of a Cultural Tradition

(London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1961): and J.L. Michon, "Religious Institutions ," in R.B. Serjeant, ed., The Islamic City (UNESCO, 1980). 24. A hadith reported by Abu-Dawoud [d.275 A.H.], a renowned Muslim scholar, inJ.A.

Akbar, "Responsibility and the Traditional Muslim Built Environment" (Docroral thesis, M.I.T., 1984); and Amart al-Ard fe-al-Islam {Building up the Land of Islam} (Jeddah: Dar AIQibla Lilthaqafa AI-Islameiah, 1992), p.200. 25. A hadith reported by Ibn Adi and alKharati, in Karim, AI-Hadis, P.254. 26. A. Nishapuri , Graeb-al-Quran-O-Regaeb-AlQuran (Egypt: Shirkat Maktaba, al-Halabi-OAuladau, 1967), Vo1.5, P.39. 27. K. Lynch, Theory of Good City Form (Cambridge, MA: M.LT. Press, 1981), p.n8. 28. A hadith reported by Amarra [n.d.], in Karim, AI-Hadis, p.28429. N. Ardalan, "Places of Public Gathering," in Places of Public Gathering in Islam (Proceedings of seminar 5 in the series "Architectural Transformations in the Islamic World," Amman, Jordan, May 4-7, 1980), P.5; and R.B. Serjeant and R. Lewcock, San'a: An Arabian Islamic City (London: The World of Islam Festival, 1983). 30. Both the Qur'an and hadith sayings exhort Muslims ro offer water ro thirsty creatures, both human and animal. The Qur'an tequires Muslims ro follow the hadith if they are ro win Allah's approval and forgiveness (surah 4:80, "who so obeyeth the Messenger hath obeyed Allah"; surah 59:1, "and whatsoever the Messenger giveth you take ir. And whatsoever he forbideth abstain (from it)." In the Qur'an it is made clear that water is a blessing shed by God, who offers it ro men and to animals ro drink. For example, surah I5:22: "and we send the winds fertilizing, and cause the water ro descend from the sky and give it ro you ro

drink. It is not yet who are the holders of the srore thereof." Fazloul Karim (AI-Hadis) relates a hadith reported by Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah via Ibn Abbas, in which the Prophet explained that Muslims are partners in three things: water, pasture and lire. All drawings and phorographs by author except where otherwise noted.

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