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abatement: the reduction or removal of a contaminant. absolute pressure: air at standard conditions (70 degrees f air at sea level with a barometric pressure of 29.92 in. hg.) exerts a pressure of 14.696 psi. this is the pressure in a system when the pressure gauge reads zero. so the absolute pressure of a system is the gauge pressure in pounds per square inch added to the atmospheric pressure of 14.696 psi (use 14.7 psi in environmental system work) and the symbol is "psia". acceptable ar qualty: air in which there are no known contaminants at harmful concentrations and with which a substantial majority (usually 80%) of the people exposed do not express dissatisfaction. acceptable thermal envronment: an environment that at least 80% of the occupants would find thermally acceptable. actvated charcoal: charcoal is an amorphous form of carbon formed by burning wood, nutshells, animal bones, and other carbonaceous materials. heating it with steam to 800-900 c activates charcoal. during this treatment a porous, submicroscopic internal structure is formed which gives it an extensive internal surface area. activated charcoal is commonly used as a gas or vapor adsorbent in air-purifying respirators and as a solid sorbent in air sampling. adjusted dry-bulb temperature (tadb): the average of the air temperature (ta) and the mean radiant temperature (tr) at a given location. the adjusted dry bulb temperature (tadb) is approximately equivalent to operative temperature (to) at air motions less than 80 fpm (0.4 m/s) when tr is less than 120f (50oc).

admnstratve controls: methods of controlling employee exposure by job rotation, work assignment, or time periods away from the hazard. aerobe: microorganisms that require the presence of oxygen. aerosol: a gaseous medium containing suspended particles. agglomeraton: mplies consolidation of solid particles into larger shapes by means of agitation alone, i.e., without application of mechanical pressure in molds, or between rolls, or through dies. ndustrial agglomeration usually is implemented in balling devices such as rotating discs, drums, or cones; but it can occur in a simple mixer. on occasion, however, the word agglomeration has been used to describe the entire field of particulate consolidation. aha: american ndustrial hygiene association. ar dffuser: a circular, square, or rectangular air distribution outlet, generally located in the ceiling and comprised of deflecting members discharging supply air in various directions and planes, and arranged to promote mixing of primary air with secondary room air. ar, makeup: outdoor air supplied to replace exhaust air and exfiltration. ar montorng: the sampling for and measuring of pollutants in the atmosphere. ar, outdoor: air taken from the external atmosphere and, therefore, not previously circulated through the system. ar purfyng resprator: respirators that use filters or sorbents to remove harmful substances from the air.

ar qualty standard: a governmentmandated regulation that specifies the maximum contaminant concentration beyond which health risks are considered to be unacceptable. ar, recrculated: air removed from the conditioned space and intended for reuse as supply air. ar, reheatng of: n an air conditioning system, the final step in treatment, in the event the temperature is too low. ar, return: air removed from a space to be then recirculated or exhausted. ar, saturated: moist air in which the partial pressure of the water vapor is equal to the vapor pressure of water at the existing temperature. this occurs when dry air and saturated water vapor coexist at the same dry-bulb temperature. ar, standard: dry air at a pressure of 29.92 in hg at 69.8of temperature and with a specific volume of 13.33 ft.3/lb. ar, suppled resprator: respirator that provides a supply of breathable air from a clean source outside of the contaminated work area. ar, supply: that air delivered to the conditioned space and used for ventilation, heating, cooling, humidification, or dehumidification. ar, ventlaton: that portion of supply air which is outdoor air plus any recirculated air that has been treated for the purpose of maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. ar washer: a water spray system or device for cleaning, humidifying, or dehumidifying the air. aldehydes: a group of highly reactive organic compounds that contain the

common group cho (carbon-hydrogenoxygen), such as formaldehyde. algae: a minute fresh water plant growth that forms a scum on the surfaces of recirculated water apparatus, interfering with fluid flow and heat transfer. alohatc hydrocarbons: a class of organic compounds with characteristics similar to aromatic compounds. sources include petroleum products (such as gasoline), paint, and adhesives. alkal: a compound that has the ability to neutralize an acid and form a salt. example: sodium hydroxide, referred to as caustic soda or lye. used in soap manufacture and many other applications. turns litmus paper blue. alkane: one of a group of saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons present in many waxes, polishes, and lubricants. allergc llness: an illness caused by an allergen, usually upon second exposure. although often associated with biological substances, certain chemicals may also trigger allergic diseases. allergy: an abnormal response of a hypersensitive person to chemical and physical stimuli. allergic manifestations of major importance occur in about 10 percent of the population. ambent: surrounding, as the atmosphere, especially the outdoor environment. ambent ar: the air surrounding a building. alpha partcle: a small electrically charged particle of very high velocity thrown off by many radioactive materials, including uranium and radium. t is made up of two neutrons and two protons. ts electric charge is positive.

alveol: tiny air sacs of the lungs, formed at the ends of bronchioles; through the thin walls of the alveoli, the blood takes in oxygen and gives up its carbon dioxide in the process of respiration. anaerobe: an organism that does not require molecular oxygen for growth.

aqueous: pertaining to water aromatc: applied to a group of hydrocarbons and their derivatives characterized by presence of the benzene nucleus (molecular ring structure). arrestance: a filter's ability to remove a coarse dust particle. ashrae: american society of heating, refrigerating, and air conditioning engineers. the trade association that provides information and sets standards for the industry. the organization has committees and task groups devoted to pollutants, filtration technology, ventilation requirements, indoor air modeling, and operations and maintenance. ashrae standard 62-1989 (or 62-89): a ventilation guide, developed by an interdisciplinary ashrae committee, that specifies minimum ventilation rates needed to provide air quality that is deemed acceptable by 80% of building occupants and in which there are no harmful concentrations of known contaminants; also known as ventilation standard for acceptable ndoor air quality. a-scale: a filtering system that has characteristics that roughly match the response characteristics of the human ear at low sound levels (below 55 db sound pressure level, but frequently used to gauge levels to 85db). a-scale measurements are often referred to as db(a). aspect rato: n air distribution outlets, the ratio of the length of the core opening of a grille, face, or register to the width. n rectangular ducts, the ratio of the width to the depth. aspergllus: a genus of fungal species common in both indoor and outdoor air, many of which are potential human pathogens; aspergillas fumigatus and a. niger can cause asthma-like allergic

anaerobc bactera: any bacteria that can survive in partial or complete absence of air. anecdotal data: the information drawn from individual case experience as opposed to controlled studies. anemometer: an instrument for measuring the velocity of a fluid. ans: the american national standards nstitute is a voluntary membership organization (run with private funding) that develops consensus standards nationally for control and stability of action by a prime mover. antbotc: a chemical substance, excreted by microorganisms or synthetically produced, that has the capacity to inhibit or kill bacteria when applied in dilute solutions. antgen: any substance (usually foreign) that, when introduced into the body of an animal, will stimulate the formation of specific antibodies. antpartcle: a particle that interacts with its counterpart of the same mass but opposite electric charge and magnetic properties (e.g., proton and antiproton), with complete annihilation of both and production of an equivalent amount of radiation energy. the position and its antiparticle, the electron, annihilate each other upon interaction and produce gamma rays.

reaction, as well as an opportunistic infection in individuals undergoing antibacterial or anti fungal therapy (to which they are resistant) aspraton: production of movement in a fluid by suction created by fluid velocity. asthma: a lung disorder. t is marked by attacks of breathing difficulty, wheezing, coughing, and thick mucus coming from the lungs. the episodes may be started by breathing foreign substances (allergens) or pollutants, infection, vigorous exercise, or emotional stress. treatment includes getting rid of the cause if possible. sprays or wideners of the bronchi taken by mouth, and steroid drugs are also used. persons with asthma must not use certain drugs. for example, some of the drugs for treating circulatory disease (beta-adrenergic drugs), barbiturates, and narcotics. repeated attacks often result in shortness of breath (emphysema) and permanent obstructive lung disease. also called bronchial asthma. atmospherc pressure: the pressure exerted in all directions by the atmosphere. at sea level, mean atmospheric pressure is 29.92 inches hg, 14.7 psi, 407 inches w.g., or 760 mm hg. attenuaton: the sound reduction process in which sound energy is absorbed or diminished in intensity as the result of energy conversation from sound to motion or heat. audble sound: sound containing frequency components lying between 20 and 20,000 hz. background concentraton: the level of a containment present before the introduction of a new store. bacllus: a rod-shaped bacterium. bacterocdal: able to kill bacteria

bactera: microscopic organisms living in soil, water, organic matter, or the bodies of plants and animals characterized by lack of a distinct nucleus and lack of ability to photosynthesize. singular: bacterium. bactercde: any agent that destroys bacteria. bakeout: a technique for reducing emissions of new construction materials and furnishings, in which the building temperature is raised (usually to at least 90 degrees f) for several days to enhance emissions of volatile compounds from new materials, while running the ventilation system at full capacity to exhaust the emissions. balancng by statc pressure: method of designing local exhaust system ducts by selecting the duct diameters that generate the static pressure to distribute airflow without dampers. barometer: nstrument for measuring atmospheric pressure. bed depth: the amount of adsorbent, expressed as units of length, parallel to the air stream, through which the air stream passes. bengn: not malignant. a benign tumor is one that does not metastasize or invade tissue. benign tumors may still be lethal, due to pressure on vital organs. benzene: a major organic intermediate and solvent derived from coal or petroleum. the simplest member of the aromatic series of hydrocarbons. beryl: a silicate of beryllium and aluminum. bet method: a method used to measure the surface area of granular activated carbon.

beta partcle (beta radaton): a small electrically charged particle thrown off by many radioactive materials. t is identical with the electron. beta particles emerge from radioactive material at high speeds. boaerosol: an airborne organic contaminant that is either generated by or is itself a living organism; examples of bioaerosols are fungi, bacteria, viruses, protozoa, pollen, animal dander, insect emanations, microbial endotoxins, and human skin scales. boeffluent: any odorous volatile organic compound emitted by human beings, usually through perspiration or exhalation. bohazard: a combination of the words biological hazard. organisms or products of organisms that present a risk to humans. boler: a closed container used to heat water or to make steam. breakthrough volume: the sampling volume for which a significant amount (usually more than 1 %) of a voc being drawn through a sorbent tube appears in the tube effluent, i.e., the volume that is sufficient for sampling but for which there will be no significant loss of analytes; also called retention volume. breathng zone: the area of a room in which occupants breathe as the stand, sit and lie down, generally considered to be about 3-72 inches above the floor. brtsh thermal unt (btu): the btu is defined as the heat required to raise the temperature of one pound of water from one degree f. bronchal tubes: branches or subdivisions of the trachea (windpipe). a bronchiole is a branch of bronchus, which is a branch of the windpipe.

btu: british thermal unit - a measure of heat quantity. buldng ar nfltraton: the uncontrolled penetration of outside air into a building through cracks and seams, caused b the effects of wind or differences in indoor/outdoor air pressure. buldng envelope: the outer walls, windows, doors, roof, and floors of a building: building shell buldng-related llness: a diagnosable illness with identifiable symptoms whose cause can be directly attributed to airborne pollutants within the building (e.g., legionnaires disease, hypersensitivity pneumonitis) bypass: a pipe or duct, usually controlled by valve or damper, for conveying a fluid around an element of a system. cancer: a general term used to characterize a clinical condition in which cells continue to grow in an uncontrolled manner.

carbon doxde: (co2), a clear, odorless gas. t is found in nature, but it is also made in diverse ways. plants and animals make carbon dioxide in breathing. although it is mostly not poisonous, carbon dioxide can cause suffocation. the level of carbon dioxide in the blood and other tissues affects the acid-base balance of the body. carbon flter: a type of air filter that uses activated carbon for the removal of gaseous contaminants. carbon monoxde: a clear, odorless, poisonous gas made when carbon or other fuel is burned, as in gasoline engines. carbon monoxide will attach to red blood cells. this prevents the blood from moving oxygen from the lungs to the body tissues.

carbon monoxde posonng: a poisoned state in which carbon monoxide gas has been breathed and soaked up by the blood. too much carbon monoxide limits the ability of the blood to transport oxygen. this can result in headache, loss of sleep, trouble breathing, and death. n a smallenclosed space, death can occur within minutes unless emergency treatment is given. a sign of carbon monoxide poisoning in a patient is a cherry-pink skin color. t is treated by removing the patient from the source right away and giving oxygen. carbonc acd: an acid that is made when carbon dioxide is combined with water. also, called seltzer, soda water. carboxyhemoglobn: a compound produced when carbon monoxide links with red blood cells. t is breathed into the lungs and enters the bloodstream. t blocks the sites on the cells that carry oxygen. oxygen in the blood decreases and, when it decreases is too much, suffocation and death result. carcnogen: a substance that can cause the growth of cancer. carcnogencty: the relative risk or potential of a compound causing caner in humans. carcnoma: the generalized group of cancers that develop in epithelial cells. cardovascular: having to do with the heart and circulatory system (veins and arteries) carrer: a person in apparent good health who harbors a pathogenic microorganism. carrer gas: the mixture of gases that contains and moves the contaminant material. components of the carrier gas are not considered to cause air pollution or react with the contaminant material.

catalyst: a material that promotes the rate of a chemical reaction but does not change the end result from the reaction. celng outlet: a round, square, rectangular, or linear air diffuser located in the ceiling which provides a horizontal distribution pattern of primary and secondary air over the occupied zone and induces low velocity secondary air motion through the occupied zone. centrfugal: n refrigeration, a type of compressor, which compresses refrigerant vapor by centrifugal force. change of state: change from one phase, such as solid, liquid or gas, to another. changeover: the process of switching an air conditioning system from heating to cooling, or vice versa. charged partcles: a particle that possesses at least a unit electrical charge and which will not disintegrate upon loss of charge. particle size, number and sign of unit charges and mobility characterize charged particles. also see on. chemsorpton: the removal of gases from an air stream by the chemical reaction of the gases with a chemical agent that is applied to the outside or distributed through out an adsorbent. chller: a refrigeration machine that chills water; the evaporator section of such a machine. chromatograph: an instrument that can separate and analyze mixtures of chemical substances. cladosporum: a genus of fungal species commonly found in indoor and outdoor air. they pose little problem except in very high concentrations.

clo value: a numerical representation of a clothing ensemble's thermal resistance. 1 clo = 0.88 ft2hof/btu (0.155 m2k/w). cocarcnogen: an agent that acts in conjunction with another agent to induce cancer. col: a cooling or heating element made of pipe or tubing. cold deck: the cooling section of a multizone system; includes cooling coil and duct.

properties different from those of its constituent elements. compressor: the pump that provides the pressure differential to cause fluid to flow and in the pumping process increases pressure of the refrigerant to the high side condition. the compressor is the separation between low side and high side. concentraton: the quantity of one constituent dispersed in a defined amount of another. condensate: water which has condensed from vapor, either on the outside of a cooling or dehumidifying coil, or on the inside of a steam heating coil. condensaton: process of changing a vapor into liquid by extracting heat. condensation of steam or water vapor is effected in either steam condensers or dehumidifying coils, and the resulting water is called condensate. condenser: the heat exchanger in which the heat absorbed by the evaporator and some of the heat of compression introduced by the compressor are removed from the system. the gaseous refrigerant changes to a liquid, again taking advantage of the relatively large heat transfer by the change of state in the condensing process. condtoned ar: the air that had been heated, cooled, humidified, or dehumidified to maintain an interior space within the comfort zone constant ar volume (cav): a supply air system that holds the airflow constant but varies the supply air temperature to compensate for the thermal load in the space. contamnant: an unwanted airborne constituent that may reduce acceptability of the air.

colony: a population of cells growing on the surface of a solid medium; can be seen with the naked eye. colormetry (colormetrc): the term applied to all chemical analysis techniques involving reactions in which a color is developed when a particular contaminant is present in the sample and reacts with the collection medium. the resultant color intensity is measured to determine the contaminant concentration.

combuston: the act or process of burning. comfort chart: a chart showing effective temperatures with dry-bulb temperatures and humiditys (and sometimes air motion) by which the effects of various air conditions on human comfort may be compared. comfort zone: (average) the range of effective temperatures over which the majority (50 percent or more) or adults feel comfortable; (extreme) the range of effective temperatures over which one or more adults feel comfortable. compound: a substance composed of two or more elements joined according to the laws of chemical combination. each compound has its own characteristic

control: a device for regulation of a system or component in normal operation, manual or automatic. f automatic, the implication is that it is responsive to changes of pressure, temperature, or other property whose magnitude is to be regulated. control dagram (ladder dagram): a diagram that shows the control scheme only. power wiring is not shown. the control items are shown between two vertical lines; hence, the name-ladder diagram. control pont: the value of the controlled variable that the controller operates to maintain. controlled devce: one that receives the converted signal from the transmission system and translates it into the appropriate action in the environmental system. for example: a valve opens or closes to regulate fluid flow in the system. controller: a device which senses temperature and adjusts a damper or valve accordingly. convecton: transfer of heat by natural movement of fluid or air. coolng col: an arrangement of pipe or tubing that transfers heat from air to a refrigerant or brine. coolng effect, sensble: difference between the total cooling effect and the dehumidifying effect, usually in watts (btuh). coolng effect, total: difference between the total enthalpy of the dry air and water vapor mixture entering the cooler per hour and the total enthalpy of the dry air and water vapor mixture leaving the cooler per hour, expressed in watts (btuh). coolng, evaporatve: nvolves the adiabatic exchange of heat between air and water

spray or wetted surface. the water assumes the wet-bulb temperature of the air, which remains constant during its traverse of the exchanger. core area: the total plane area of the portion of a grille, face or register bounded by a line tangent to the outer opening through which air can pass. the core area is less than the register size. example, a 14x8 register may have a core that is 1" less than the listed size, therefore, the core area is 13x7=91 sq. in. counterflow: n heat exchange between two fluids, opposite direction of flow, coldest portion of one meeting coldest portion of the other. curtan wall: an exterior wall that does not carry a load such as a window wall. cubc centmeter (cc): cubic centimeter, a volumetric measurement that is also equal to one milliliter (ml). cubc meter (m): a measure of volume in the metric system. cure: a measure of the rate at which a radioactive material decays. the radioactivity of one gram of radium is a curie. t is named for pierre and marie curie, pioneers in radioactivity and discoverers of the elements radium, radon, and polonium. one curie corresponds to 37 billion disintegrations per second. cyclng: turning on and off; for energy conservation, done at predetermined intervals, or when the power usage is high. cyclone separator: a dust-collecting device that has the ability to separate particles by size. typically used to collect respirable dust samples. dwv: drainage, waste and vent.

damper: a device used to control the volume of air passing through an air outlet, air inlet or duct. death: the absence of life. apparent death is the end of life as indicated by the absence of heartbeat or breathing. legal death is the total absence of activity of the brain, heart, and lungs, as observed and declared by a physician. decbel (db): a unit of measure of the intensity of sound. a decibel is one tenth of a bel; an increase of 1 bel is approximately double the loudness of a sound. decpol: a unit of perceived air quality. air on mountains or the sea has a decipol = 0.01; city air with moderate air pollution has a decipol = 0.05- 0.03; acceptable indoor air quality has decipol = 1.4 (for 80% satisfaction) degree day: a unit, based upon temperature difference and time, used in estimating fuel consumption and specifying nominal heating load of a building in winter. for any one-day, when the mean temperature is less than 65of, there exist as many degreedays as there are fahrenheit degrees difference in temperature between the mean temperature for the day and 65of. dehumdfcaton: the condensation of water vapor from air by cooling below the dew point or removal of water vapor from air by chemical or physical methods. dehumdfer: (1) an air cooler or washer used for lowering the moisture content of the air passing through it: (2) an absorption or adsorption device for removing moisture from air. dehydraton: (1) removal of water vapor from air by the use of absorbing or adsorbing materials; (2) removal of water from stored goods.

demand control: a device that controls the kw demand level by shedding loads when the kw demand exceeds a predetermined set point. demand controlled ventlaton: a system having sensor-driven control units that turn on ventilation systems when gas concentrations (e.g., carbon dioxide) exceed a preset level. densty: the ratio of the mass of a specimen of a substance to the volume of the specimen. desccant: any absorbent or adsorbent, liquid or solid, that will remove water or water vapor from a material. n a refrigeration circuit, the desiccant should be insoluble in the refrigerant. desorpton: the phenomenon in which an adsorbed molecule leaves the adsorbent surface. dew pont: the surface temperature at which moisture will condense out of the air onto a surface; varies with the relative humidity. dewpont, apparatus: that temperature which would result if the psychometric process occurring in a dehumidifier, humidifier or surface-cooler were carried to the saturation condition of the leaving air while maintaining the same ratio of sensible to total heat load in the process. dew pont depresson: the difference between dry bulb and dew point temperatures (of db- of dp). dew pont temperature: the temperature at which moist air becomes saturated (100% relative humidity) with water vapor when cooled at constant pressure. dfferental: the difference between the points where a controller turns "on" and "off". f a thermostat turns a furnace on a

68o and the differential is 3o, the burner will be turned off at 71o. dfferental pressure: the difference in static pressure between two locations. dffuser: a circular, square, or rectangular air distribution outlet, generally located in the ceiling and comprised of deflecting members discharging supply air in various directions and planes, and arranged to promote mixing of primary air with secondary room air.

the room air, supply air temperature at the air handler are closer to those of the desired conditioned temperature. domestc hot water: potable hot water as distinguished from hot water used for house heating. dosmeter (dose meter): an instrument used to determine the full-shift exposure a person has received to a physical hazard. draft: a current of air, when referring to the pressure difference which causes a current of air or gases to flow through a flue, chimney, heater, or space; or to a localized effect caused by one or more factors of high air velocity, low ambient temperature, or direction of air flow, whereby more heat is withdrawn from a person's skin than is normally dissipated. drop: the vertical distance between the base of the outlet and the bottom of the air stream at the end of the horizontal throw. dry bulb, room the dry bulb (dew point, etc.) temperature of the conditioned room or space. dry bulb temperature: the temperature registered by an ordinary thermometer. the dry bulb temperature represents the measure of sensible heat, or the intensity of heat. dry bulb temperature, adjusted: the average of the air temperature and the mean radiant temperature at a given location. the adjusted dry bulb temperature is approximately equivalent to operative temperature at air motionless than 80 fpm when the mean radiant temperature is less than 120of. dry-scrubbng: the process of removing heavy concentrations of gaseous contaminants from an air stream using adsorbers of chemisorbers.

dffuson rate: a measure of the tendency of one gas or vapor to disperse into or mix with another gas or vapor. this rate depends on the density of the vapor or gas as compared with that of air, which is given a value of 1. dluton: a mitigation strategy that lowers the concentration of airborne contaminants by increasing the fraction of outdoor air in the supply air stream. dmorphc fungus: a fungus with the ability to exhibit alternate growth forms, exhibiting yeast-like cells at 98.6of (37oc), and exhibiting filamentous (mold) growth at room temperature. dsnfectant: an agent that frees from infection by killing the vegetative cells of microorganisms. dsperson: the general term describing systems consisting of particulate matter suspended in air or other fluid; also, the mixing and dilution of contaminant in the ambient environment. dsplacement ventlaton: a type of ventilation system that uses a plug flow of air to purge occupied spaces of contaminants. typically such systems require large volumes of air moving at very low velocities. because air moves directly through the space rather than mixing with

duct: a passageway made of sheet metal or other suitable material, not necessarily leak tight, used for conveying air or other gas at low pressures. duct velocty: air velocity through the duct cross-section. when solid particulate material is present in the air stream, the duct velocity must exceed the minimum transport velocity. dust: an air suspension (aerosol) of particles of any solid material, usually with particle size less than 100 micrometers(um). dx col: a direct expansion coil. the refrigerant liquid turns to vapor in the coil, cooling the air (or water) flowing across the coil. dyspnea: difficult or labored breathing. economzer: any mechanical device that adjusts to variable conditions to maximize energy efficiency; a control option in ventilation systems that makes optimum use of outside supply air, providing free cooling. during the economizer cycle, the system adjusts dampers according to the comparison between return air and outside air temperatures to meet the required air temperature. eczema: an acute or chronic noncontagious inflammatory condition of the skin that is characterized by redness, itching, and oozing vesicular lesions often caused by exposure to an irritant or chemical. edema: swelling effectve area: the calculated area of an outlet based on the averaged measured velocity between the fins.

at 50% relative humidity, in which an occupant would experience the same comfort, physiological strain and heat exchange as in the actual environment with the same air motion. electronc precptator: also called electronic air cleaner (eac); uses a high voltage between two conductors to remove particles (dust, etc.) from the air flowing through it. emsson: the release of airborne contaminants from a source. emsson rate: a measure of the amount of a contaminant released from a source surface per unit time, expressed in units such as mg/m2-hr; or the concentration of a contaminant from a source that is present in the air space surrounding the source, expressed in units such as parts per million or m g/m3 emsson standard: a voluntary guideline or government regulation that specifies the maximum rate at which a contaminant can be released from a source. emphysema: a respiratory in human beings characterized by a loss of elasticity in the alveoli or lung sacs. encapsulaton: a mitigation technique that reduced or eliminates emissions from a source by sealing with an impenetrable barrier. endotoxns: harmful substances that are contained within the cells that produce them, or are integral constituents of cellular structure and are not released until the cell disintegrates. energy: expressed in kilowatt-hours (kwh) or watt-hours (wh), and is equal to the product of power and time. energy = power x time kilowatt-hours = kilowatts x hours watt-hours = watts x hours

effectve temperature: the uniform temperature of a radiantly black enclosure

enthalpy: the total quantity of heat energy contained in a substance, also called total heat; the thermodynamic property of a substance defined as the sum of its internal energy plus the quantity pv/j, where p = pressure of the substance, v = its volume, and j = the mechanical equivalent of heat. entranment: the capture of part of the surrounding air by the air stream discharged from an outlet (sometimes called secondary air motion). entranmemt velocty: the gas flow velocity, which tends to keep particles suspended and cause deposited particles to become airborne. entrophy: the ratio of the heat added to a substance to the absolute temperature at which it is added. envronmental tobacco smoke (ets): the combination of side-stream and mainstream smoke that is emitted from a burning cigarette; also called second hand smoke. epdemc: a sudden increase in frequency of a disease, above the normal expectancy, in a population of human beings. epdemology: the field of science that concerns itself with the determinants of disease and with the factors that influence its distribution. epderms: the outer layer of human skin, composed of a thin layer of epithelial cells. equal frcton method: a method of duct sizing wherein the selected duct friction loss value is used constantly throughout the design of a low-pressure duct system. equlbrum: the point at which the entry or creation rate of a contaminant equals the removal rate.

erythema: an abnormal redness of the skin due to capillary congestion. etologcal: pertaining to the cause of a disease or abnormal condition. evaporaton: change of state from liquid to vapor. evaporaton rate: the ratio of the time required to evaporate a measured volume of a liquid to the time required to evaporate the same volume of a reference liquid (ethyl ether) under ideal test conditions. the higher the ratio, the slower the evaporation rate. evaporatve coolng: the adiabatic exchange of heat between air and a water spray or wetted surface. the water approaches the wet-bulb temperature of the air, which remains constant during its traverse of the exchanger. evaporator: the heat exchanger in which the medium being cooled, usually air or water, gives up heat to the refrigerant through the exchanger transfer surface. the liquid refrigerant boils into a gas in the process of the heat absorption.

exfltraton: the movement of air out of a building, through cracks and other openings, such as around windows and doors. exhaust: the indoor air that is removed from a building. exothermc: a reaction in which heat is given off as in a fire, or in the combination of water and lithium bromide. exotoxn: harmful substance produced within cells, but excreted from intact cells into the surrounding environment. extrnsc allergc alveolts: a swelling from of pneumonia that is caused by an immune

reaction in an allergic patient. the reaction may be brought about by a variety of inhaled organic dusts, often those containing fungal spores. a wide variety of symptoms may occur, including difficulty breathing, fever, chills, malaise, and muscle aches. the symptoms usually develop 4 to 6 hours after exposure. kinds of extrinsic allergic alveolitis include bagassosis, farmer's lung, humidifier or air conditioner lung, mushroom worker's lung, suberosis. also called hypersensitivity pneumonitis. f.p.m.: a measure of air velocity in feet per minute. face velocty: the velocity obtained by dividing the air quantity by the component face area. fan, centrfugal: a fan rotor or wheel within a scroll type housing and including driving mechanism supports for either belt drive or direct connection. fan col unt (fcu): a small packaged unit for both heating and cooling one zone. fan performance curve: fan performance curve refers to the constant speed performance curve. this is a graphical presentation of static or total pressure and power input over a range of air volume flow rate at a stated inlet density and fan speed. t may include static and mechanical efficiency curves. the range of air volume flow rate which is covered generally extends from shutoff (zero air volume flow rate) to free delivery (zero fan static pressure). the pressure curves are generally referred to as the pressure-volume curves. fan statc pressure: the pressure added to the system by the fan. t equals the sum of pressure losses in the system minus the velocity pressure in the air at the fan inlet. fan, tubeaxal: a propeller or disc type wheel within a cylinder and including

driving mechanism supports for either belt drive or direct connection. fan, vaneaxal: a disc type wheel within a cylinder, a set of air guide vanes located either before or after the wheel and including driving mechanism supports for either belt drive or direct connection. federal regster: publication of u.s. government documents officially promulgated under the law, documents whose validity depends upon such publication. t is published on each day following a government working day. t is, in effect, the daily supplement to the code of federal regulations, cfr. fever: an abnormal temperature of the body above 98.6of (37oc). exercise, anxiety, and dehydration may increase the temperature of healthy people. nfection, nerve disease, cancer, anemia, and many drugs may cause fever. no single theory explains why the temperature is increased. fever increases metabolism 7% per oc, meaning more food needs to be eaten. convulsions may occur in children whose fevers tend to rise quickly. confusion is seen with high fevers in adults and in children. t may begin quickly or gradually. the period of highest fever is called the stadium or fastigium. t may last for a few days or up to 3 weeks. flter: a device to remove solid material from a fluid. flter effcency: the efficiency of various filters can be established on the basis of entrapped particles; i.e., collection efficiency, or on the basis of particles passed through the filter, i.e., penetration efficiency. flter, hepa: high-efficiency particulate air filter that is at least 99.97 percent efficient in removing thermally generated monodisperse dioctylphthalate smoke particles with a diameter of 0.3u.

flow coeffcent: a correction factor used for figuring volume flow rate of a fluid through an orifice. this factor includes the effects of contraction and turbulence loss (covered by the coefficient of discharge), plus the compressibility effect, and the effect of an upstream velocity other than zero. since the latter two effects are negligible in many instances, the flow coefficient is often equal to the coefficient of discharge. flud: gas, vapor, or liquid. follow up testng: the testing designed to confirm the results of the initial testing using identical testing devices and similar test conditions. free area: the actual measured perpendicular area between the fins of a grille or register. flywheel effect: n hvac systems, to even out temperature variations in a building due to the temperature storage capabilities of the building's mass. frequency: the number of vibrations, waves, or cycles of any periodic phenomenon per second. n architectural acoustics, the interest lies in the audible frequency range of 20 to 20,000 cps hertz (cycles per second). frequency spectrum: usually a visual representation of a complex sound or noise which has been resolved into frequency components. the detailed nature of a complex sound may be studied by obtaining its frequency spectrum. frequency spectra are commonly obtained in octave bands, 1/3-octave bands, and various narrow bands. frcton: friction is the resistance found at the duct and piping walls. resistance creates a static pressure loss in systems. the primary purpose of a fan or pump is to produce a design volume of

fluid at a pressure equal to the frictional resistance of the system and the other dynamic pressure losses of the components. fumes: airborne solid particles usually less than 1 micrometer (um) in size formed by condensation of vapors, sublimation, distillation, calcination, or chemical reaction. fung: the unicellular of multi-cellular eukaryotic organisms embracing a large group of micro-flora including molds, mildews, yeasts, mushrooms, rusts, and smuts. fungi are heterotrophic, i.e., requiring external food sources, as well as a source of nitrogen other than atmospheric nitrogen. most fungi produce spores, which all broadcast through the air so that virtually all environmental surfaces will have some fungal material. few fungi actually invade living cells and cause infectious disease. most health effects are associated with allergic responses to antigenic material or toxic effects from mycotoxins. another potential adverse indoor air effect of fungi is their ability to metabolize substrate material and generate certain volatile organic compounds. gage pressure: pressure measured with respect to atmospheric pressure. gas: a state of matter in which substances exist in the form of nonaggregated molecules, and which, within acceptable limits of accuracy, satisfies the ideal gas laws: usually a highly superheated vapor. gas chromatography: a gaseous detection technique which involves the separation of mixtures by passing them through a column that will enable the components to be held up for varying periods of time before they are detected and recorded. germ: a microorganism; a microbe usually thought of as a pathogenic organism.

germcde: an agent capable of killing germs. grans of mosture: the unit of measurement of actual moisture contained in a sample of air. (7000 grains = one pound of water). grab sample: a sample which is taken within a very short time period. the sample is taken to determine the constituents at a specific time. gram (g): a metric unit of weight. one ounce equals 28.4 grams. gram-negatve bactera: bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain in their cells, when stained by the procedure described by christian gram, and thus appear pink or red when viewed under the light microscope. gram-postve bactera: bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain in their cells when stained by the procedure described by christian gram, and thus appear blue or purple when viewed under the light microscope. grlle: a louvered covering for an opening through which air passes. halogenated hydrocarbon: a chemical material that has carbon plus one or more of these elements: chlorine, fluorine, bromine, or iodine. head, statc: the static pressure of fluid expressed in terms of the height of a column of the fluid, or of some manometric fluid, which it would support. head, velocty: n a flowing fluid, the height of the fluid or of some manometric fluid equivalent to its velocity pressure. heat: the form of energy that is transferred by virtue of a temperature difference.

heat, latent: change of enthalpy during a change of state, usually expressed in btu per lb. with pure substances, latent heat is absorbed or rejected at constant pressure. heat, sensble: heat which is associated with a change in temperature; specific heat exchange of temperature; in contrast to a heat interchange in which a change of state (latent heat) occurs. heat, specfc: the ratio of the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of a given mass of any substance one degree to the quantity required to raise the temperature of an equal mass of a standard substance (usually water to 59of) one degree. heat, total (enthalpy): the sum of sensible heat and latent heat between an arbitrary datum point and the temperature and state under consideration. heat exchanger: a device specifically designed to transfer heat between two physically separated fluids. heat of fuson: latent heat involved in changing between the solid and the liquid states. heat of vaporzaton: latent heat involved in the change between liquid and vapor states. heat pump: a refrigerating system employed to transfer heat into a space or substance. the condenser provides the heat while the evaporator is arranged to pick up heat from air, water, etc. by shifting the flow of air or other fluid, a heat pump system may also be used to cool the space. hepa flter (hgh effcency partculate ar flter): a disposable, extended medium, dry type filter with a particle removal efficiency of no less than 99.97 percent for 0.3u particles.

hgh lmt: the maximum desirable, or safe, temperature; an alarm given when this temperature is exceeded. horsepower: unit of power in foot-poundsecond system; work done at the rate of 550 ft-lb per sec, or 33,000 ft-lb per min. hot deck: the heating section of a multizone system; includes heating coil and duct. hot gas bypass: the piping and manual, but more often automatic, valve used to introduce compressor discharge gas directly into the evaporator. this type of arrangement will maintain compressor operation at light loads down to zero by falsely loading the evaporator and compressor. humdfer: a device to add moisture to air. humdfer lung: a type of allergic lung condition common among workers involved with refrigeration and air conditioning equipment. the allergy is to two kinds of fungus, micropolyspora and thermoactinomyces. symptoms of the short-term form of the disease include chills, cough, fever, difficult breathing, loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting. the long-term form of the disease is known by fatigue, cough, weight loss, and difficult breathing during exercise. also called air conditioner lung. humdstat: a regulatory device, actuated by changes in humidity, used for the automatic control of relative humidity. humdty: water vapor within a given space. humdty, absolute: the weight of water vapor per unit volume. humdty, percentage: the ratio of the specific humidity of humid air to that of saturated air at the same temperature and

pressure, usually expressed as a percentage (degree of saturation; saturation ratio).

humdty rato: the ratio of the mass of the water vapor to the mass of dry air contained in the sample. humdty, relatve: the ratio of the mol fraction of water vapor present in the air, to the mol fraction of water vapor present in saturated air at the same temperature and barometric pressure; approximately, it equals the ratio of the partial pressure or density of the water vapor in the air, to the saturation pressure or density, respectively, of water vapor at the same temperature. humdty, specfc: weight of water vapor associated with 1 lb weight of dry air, also called humidity. hvac: heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. a system concerned with the temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and distribution of air. hydrocarbons: the large class of organic compounds that contain both carbon and hydrogen. hydrocarbons include both aromatic and aliphatic compounds, many of which are associated with petroleum products. hygroscopc: absorptive of moisture, readily absorbing and retaining moisture. hypersenstvty: an altered state or activity in an individual following contact with certain kinds of substances (inanimate or animate). hypersenstvty pneumonts: see extrinsic allergic alveolitis. mpngement: as used in air-sampling, impingement refers to a process for the collection of particulate matter in which a particle containing gas is directed against a

wetted glass plate and the particles are retained by the liquid. mpngement flter: any filter which removes particulate only when the particles hit (impinge on) the filter media. nch of water (n. w.g.): a unit of pressure equal to the pressure exerted by a column of liquid water 1 inch high at a temperature of 39.2of. nches of water column: a unit used in measuring pressures. one inch of water column equals a pressure of 0.25 kpa (0.036 lb per sq in.). nducton: the process of drawing room air into the projected air stream because of the velocity of the projected air stream (sometimes called aspiration). nfecton: 1. the invasion of the body by germs that reproduce and multiply, causing disease by local cell injury, release of poisons, or germ-antibody reaction in the cells. 2. a disease caused by the invasion of the body by germs. nfectous: capable of causing a disease in a susceptible host. nfltraton: air leakage inward through cracks and interstices, and through ceilings, floors and walls of a space or building. nsectcde: any material or agent capable of killing insects. on: an electrically charged atom. an atom that has lost one or more of its electrons is left with a positive electrical charge. those that have gained one or more extra electrons are left with a negative charge. onzaton: the process whereby one or more electrons is removed from a neutral atom by the action of radiation. specific

ionization is the number of ion pairs per unit distance in matter, usually air. sothermal: an adjective used to indicate a change taking place at constant temperature.

jet velocty: the average measured velocity of air passing between the fins.

lamnar ar flow: streamlined airflow in which the entire body of air within a designated space moves with uniform velocity in one direction along parallel flow lines. latent heat: the heat required to change the state of a substance as in changing water to steam. legonnares' dsease: an acute bacterial pneumonia caused by infection with legionella pneumophila and characterized by an influenza-like illness followed within 1 week by high fever, chills, muscle aches, and headache. symptoms may include dry cough, inflammation of the membrane covering the lungs (pleurisy), and sometimes diarrhea. load: the amount of heat per unit time imposed on a refrigerant system, or the required rate of heat removal. louver: an assembly of sloping vanes intended to permit air to pass through and to inhibit transfer of water droplets. low lmt: the minimum desirable, or safe, temperature; the alarm given when the measured temperature drops below this selected temperature.

lumen: the flux on one square foot of a sphere, one foot in radius, with a light

source of one candle at the center that radiates uniformly in all directions.

mcroorgansm: a minute organism; microbes, bacteria, cocci, viruses, molds, etc., are microorganisms. mllgram (mg): a unit of weight in the metric system. one thousand milligrams equal one gram.

manometer: an instrument for measuring pressures: especially a u-tube partially filled with a liquid, usually water, mercury, or light oil, so constructed that the amount of displacement of the liquid indicates the pressure being exerted on the instrument. mass: the quantity of matter in a body as measured by the ratio of the force required to produce given acceleration, to the acceleration. mean radant temperature: the uniform surface temperature of a radiantly black enclosure in which an occupant would exchange the same amount of radiant heat as in the actual nonuniform space. medum: a nutrient-containing substance used for the growth and multiplication of microorganisms. mesophle: an organism that grows optimally within the temperature range of 77of to 104of (25oc to 40oc). metabolc rate: rate of energy production of the body. metabolism, which varies with activity, is expressed in met units in this standard. one met is defined as 18.4 btu/h ft2 (58.2 w/m2) which is equal to the energy produced per unit surface area of a seated person at rest. the surface area of an average man is about 19 ft2 (1.8 m2). mcrometer (um): a unit of length that is 1/1x106 of a meter. mcron: a unit of length, the thousandth part of 1 mm of the millionth of a meter.

mllgrams per cubc meter (mg/m): unit used to measure air concentrations of dusts, gases, mists, and fumes. mlllter (ml): a metric unit used to measure volume. one milliliter equals one cubic centimeter. mnmum transport velocty, mtv: the minimum velocity which will transport particles in a duct with little settling; the mtv varies with air density, particulate loading, and other factors. mxed ar: the part of an hvac system where the return air (ra) is mixed with the outside air (of); the air resulting from this mixing. modulate: to control a damper or valve so that it may assume any position between full open and full closed, as well as these two positions. modulaton: of a control, tending to adjust by increments and decrements. modulatng control: a mode of automatic control in which the action of the final control element is proportional to the deviation, from set point, of the controlled medium. modulatng controllers: constantly reposition themselves in proportion to the requirements of the system, theoretically being able to maintain an accurately constant condition. mold: (1) a growth of fungi forming a furry patch, as on stale bread or cheese. see spore. a hollow form or matrix into which

molten material is poured to produce a cast.

n.o.: normally open contacts of a relay. contacts are open-circuited when relay is de-energized. natural ventlaton: the movement of air into and out of a space through intentionally provided openings, such as windows and doors, or through nonpowered ventilators or by infiltration. nosh: the national nstitute for occupational safety and health is a federal agency. t conducts research on health and safety concerns, tests and certifies respirators, and trains occupational health and safety professionals. nose crtera curves (nc curves): curves that define the limits which the octave band spectrum of a noise source must not exceed if a certain level of occupant acceptance is to be achieved. nose reducton (nr): the difference between the average sound pressure levels of two spaces. usually these two spaces are two adjacent rooms called, respectively, the source room and the receiving room. normally open (or normally closed): the position of a valve, damper, relay contacts, or switch when external power or pressure is not being applied to the device. valves and dampers usually are returned to a "normal" position by a spring. nosocomal nfectons: the type of infections that are acquired in hospitals. nusance dust: have a long history of little adverse effect on the lungs and do not produce significant organic disease or toxic effect when exposures are kept under reasonable control. occupatonal safety and health admnstraton (osha): the regulatory arm of the us department o f labor, which promulgates safety and health standards, facilitates training programs, and enforces

msds: material safety data sheet mucous membranes: lining of the hollow organs of the body, notably the nose, mouth, stomach, intestines, bronchial tubes, and urinary tract. multzone: an hvac system supplying air to two or more locations, each location having its own thermostat. the thermostat controls the delivered air temperature by controlling damper positions connected to a hot deck/cold deck. multstage thermostat: a thermostat which controls multiple stages of auxiliary equipment for heating or cooling in response to a greater demand for heating or cooling. mutagen: any chemical or physical agent that causes a gene change (mutation) or speeds up the rate of mutation. mutagenc agent: any chemical substance or physical agent that iscapable of enhancing the frequency of detectable mutants within a population of organisms. mutaton: a sudden, usually rare, change in the genetic code of an organism and results in a change in function that is inheritable. mycovrus: viruses with a host-range specificity limited to the fungi. n.c.: normally closed contacts of a relay. contacts are close-circuited when the relay is de-energized. nephrotoxn: a chemical which has a primary toxic effect on the kidneys. neurotoxn: a chemical which has a primary toxic effect on the central nervous system. styrene, mercury, carbon disulfide.

regulations on worksites. osha has developed permissible exposure limits (pels) for over 600 contaminants present in the industrial workspace. occuped zone: the region within an occupied space between planes 3 and 72 inches (75 and 1800 mm) above the floor and more than 2 feet (600 mm) from the walls or fixed air conditioning equipment (see ashrae standard 55-1981). octave band (o.b.): a range of frequency where the highest frequency of the band is double the lowest frequency of the band. the band is usually specified by the center frequency. odor: a quality of gases, vapors, or particles which stimulates the olfactory organs; typically unpleasant or objectionable. odor threshold: the lowest concentration of a chemical that can be reliably detected by a panel of untrained observers. different investigators for many chemicals have reported variations of one to four orders of magnitude. this is due to differences in test methods, such as temperature and relative humidity control, and reporting methods. olf: (from "olfactory") a perceived air quality term which attempts to quantify a given pollution load. one person creates 1 olf of bioeffluents. f there are 10 cubic meters of floor space per person, then people create 0.1 olf per m (olf/m). other sources are compared and quantified by olfs. for example, if 40% of the people smoke, this adds 0.2 olf/m to the load. omnvore: animal that obtains its nutrients from both plants and animals. operatve temperature (to): the uniform temperature of a radiantly black enclosure in which an occupant would exchange the same amount of heat by radiation plus convection as in the actual non-uniform

environment. operative temperature is numerically the average, weighted by respective heat transfer coefficients (hc and hr), of the air (ta) and mean radiant temperatures (tr). to = (hcta + hrtr)/hc+hr) at air speeds of 80 fpm (0.4 m/s) or less and tr less than 120 f,(50oc) operative temperature is approximately the simple average of the air and mean radiant temperatures and equal to the adjusted dry bulb temperature. optmum operatve temperature: temperature that satisfies the greatest possible number of people at a given clothing and activity level. outdoor ar ntake: an opening in the building exterior that is a planned entry point for outdoor air. outlet, celng: a round, square, rectangular, or linear air diffuser located in the ceiling, which provides a horizontal distribution pattern of primary and secondary air over the occupied zone and induces low velocity secondary air motion through the occupied zone. outlet, slotted: a long, narrow air distribution outlet, comprised of deflecting members, located in the ceiling sidewall, or sill, with an aspect ratio greater than 10, designed to distribute supply air in varying directions and planes, and arranged to promote mixing of primary air and secondary room air. outlet, vaned: a register or grille equipped with vertical and/or horizontal adjustable vanes. outlet velocty: the average velocity of air emerging from the outlet measured in the plane of the outlet. output: capacity, duty, performance, net refrigeration produced by system.

outsde ar openng: any opening used as an entry for air from outdoors. ozone: a highly reactive trivalent form of oxygen. ozone exposure can result in mucous membrane irritation and potential pulmonary damage. the principal source of indoor ozone is outdoor photochemical smog, although come copier machines and laser printers emit noticeable levels. ozone generator: an air cleaning device that produces highly reactive ozone, which reacts with volatile organic compounds to form non-hazardous products and reduces the number of bio-contaminants. these devices are controversial because their touted benefits may only be accomplished at ozone levels above recommended exposure levels. paradchlorobenzene: a chemical ingredient in mothballs and certain deodorizer products, currently regarded as a possible carcinogen by nosh; pdichlorobenzene. partculate: a state of matter in which solid or liquid substances exist in the form of aggregated molecules or particles. airborne particulate matter is typically in the size range of 0.01 to 100 micrometers. partculate matter: a suspension of fine solid or liquid particles in air, such as dust, fog, fume, mist, smoke, or sprays. particulate matter suspended in air is commonly known as an aerosol. passve smokng: the inhalation of environmental tobacco smoke; also called involuntary smoking. pathogen: any microorganism capable of causing disease. pathogenc: having the ability to produce or cause a disease. ph: means used to express the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution with neutrality indicated as seven.

pencllum: a genus of fungi found in indoor air. plant materials, and wet insulation, which has been associated with hypersensitivity pneumonitis in susceptible individuals. percutaneous: occurring through the skin (as in percutaneous absorption) permeable: porous, allowing the passage of air. permssable exposure lmt (pel): an exposure limit is published and enforced by osha as legal standard. pestcde: a chemical used to kill or control living organisms. pesticides include insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, rodenticides, antimicrobial agents, and plant growth regulators. pharynx: the region of the human respiratory system tract where the nasal passage joins with the food passage. phenolc resns: a class of resins produced as the condensation product of phenol or substituted phenol and formaldehyde or other aldehydes. pckup: the temperature increase across a coil. ptot tube: a device consisting of two concentric tubes, one serving to measure the total or impact pressure existing in the air stream, the other to measure the static pressure only. plane radant temperature: the uniform temperature of an enclosure in which the incident radiant flux on one side of a small plane element is the same as in the existing environment. plenum: the portion of the air distribution system that makes use of the building structure, and the sheet metal that connects distribution ductwork to an air handling

unit. many buildings use the space above a dropped ceiling as a plenum. plug flow: a type of airflow whereby supply air moves in one direction from supply to exhaust, sweeping contaminants from workspace or breathing zone. pneumona: a swelling of the lungs, commonly caused by breathed-in bacteria (diplococcus pneumoniae). parts of the lungs become plugged with a fiber like fluid. virus rickettsiae, and fungi may also cause pneumonia. symptoms of pneumonia are severe chills, a high fever (which may reach 105of), headache, cough, and chronic pain. an involved lower lobe of the right lung may cause a pain that is like appendicitis. red blood cells leaking into the air sacs of the lungs causes a rustcolored sputum that may be a sure sign of pneumococcal infection. the disease continues, sputum may become thicker and have pus. the patient may have painful attacks of coughing. breathing often becomes painful, shallow, and rapid. the pulse rate goes up, often over 120 beats a minute. other signs may be heavy sweating and bluish skin. stomach and bowel disorders and an outbreak of shingles (herpes simplex) on the face may also occur. children with pneumonia may have seizures. the affected area of a lobe becomes filled with fluids and firm. the physician hears a distinct breathing sound. x-ray films are taken of the lungs. laboratory tests of sputum and blood help in finding the cause. pont of operaton: used to designate the single set fan performance values which correspond to the point of intersection of the system curve and the fan pressurevolume curve. polar compounds: chemical compounds that have equally strong positive and negative charged on opposite ends of its molecular structures, e.g., alcohols and ketones. pollutant: a contaminant known to cause illness. polycycklc aromatc hydrocarbons (pah): a group of complex organic substances generally associated with certain combustion processes, such as tobacco smoking, wood burning, and cooking. health effects attributed to pahs include cardiovascular effects and irritation. the us epa classifies four pah compounds as group b2 probable carcinogens: benz(a)anthracene, benzo(a)pyrene, debenzo(a,h)anthracene, and 3methylcholanthrene. potable water: water that is safe for human consumption. potassum permanganate (kmno4): an oxidizing agent impregnated on activated alumina (used in chemisorption) potentaton: the process of causing more physiological activity. power (p): expressed in watts (w) or kilowatts (kw), and is equal to: in dc circuit, p = e and p = 2r in ac circuit, p = e x power factor ppm: parts per million.

preheat: a coil used to raise the outside air temperature above freezing, generally to 35of.; the process of raising the temperature. pressure: the normal force exerted by a homogeneous liquid or gas, per unit of area, on the wall of its container. pressure, absolute: pressure referred to that of a perfect vacuum. t is the sum of gauge pressure and atmospheric pressure. pressure, atmospherc: t is the pressure indicated by a barometer. standard

atmosphere is the pressure equivalent of 14.697 psi or 29.921 in. of mercury at 32f. presure dfferental: the difference between air pressures measures at two locations. pressure drop: pressure loss in fluid pressure, as from one end of a duct to the other, due to friction, dynamic losses, and changes in velocity pressure. pressure, gauge: pressure above atmospheric. pressure loss: the term used in the register industry to indicate how much total pressure is required to move air through a register. pressure mantenance: a program of building maintenance implemented to reduce the possibility of aq problems, usually through periodic inspection, cleaning, adjustment, calibration, and replacement of functioning parts of the hvac system, as well as housekeeping practices to reduce the buildup of potential contaminants. pressure, saturaton: the saturation pressure for a pure substance for any given temperature is that pressure at which vapor and liquid, or vapor and solid, can coexist in stable equilibrium. pressure, statc (sp): the normal force per unit area that would be exerted by a moving fluid on a small body immersed in it if the body were carried along with the fluid. practically, it is the normal force per unit are at a small hole in a wall of the duct through which the fluid flows (piezometer) or on the surface of a stationary tube at a point where the disturbances, created by inserting the tube, cancel. t is supposed that the thermodynamic properties of a moving fluid depend on static pressure in exactly the same manner as those of the same fluid at rest depend upon its uniform hydrostatic pressure.

pressure, total (tp): n the theory of the flow of fluids, the sum of the static pressure and the velocity pressure at the point of measurement. also called dynamic pressure. pressure, vapor: the pressure exerted by a vapor. f a vapor is kept in confinement over its liquid so that the vapor can accumulate above the liquid, the temperature being held constant, the vapor pressure approaches a fixed limit called the maximum, or saturated, vapor pressure, dependent only on the temperature and the liquid. pressure, velocty (vp): n moving fluid, the pressure capable of causing an equivalent velocity, if applied to move the same fluid through an orifice such that all pressure energy expended is converted into kinetic energy. prmary ar: the initial air stream discharged by an air outlet (the air being supplied by a fan or supply duct) prior to any entrainment of the ambient air. psychrometer: an instrument for ascertaining the humidity or hygrometric state of the atmosphere. psychrometrc chart: a graphical representation of the thermodynamic properties of moist air. psychrophle: an organism that grows optimally within the temperature range of 32of to 68of (0oc to 20oc). psychogenc: originating in the mind or in mental or emotional conflict. pulmonary: having to do with that part of the lungs where gas exchange occurs, including the alveolar ducts and alveoli. pulmonary edema: an accumulation of fluid in the pulmonary region of the lungs.

pure culture: a culture of microorganisms in which all cells are of a single type. purpura: a hemorrhagic state characterized by eruption of blood vessels into the skin and mucous membranes resulting in patches of purplish discoloration. pyrolyss: the chemical decomposition or other chemical changes brought about by the action of heat. radant temperature asymmetry: the difference between the plane radiant temperature of the two opposite sides of a small plane element. radaton, thermal: the transmission of heat through space by wave motion; the passage of heat from one object to another without warming the space between. radus of dffuson: the horizontal distance in feet from the diffuser to a point where the terminal velocity of 50 feet per minute occurs. rash: a skin swelling. kinds of rashes are butterfly rash, diaper rash, drug rash, heat rash. reactvaton: the removal of adsorbates from spent activated charcoal, which allows the carbon to be reused; also called regeneration. recprocatng: n refrigeration, a type of compressor which compresses refrigerant vapor by moving a piston up and down in a cylinder. recrculated ar: the return air that has been conditioned and returned to a given space. reentranment: the attraction of contaminants exhausted from a building into the supply air stream by way outside air supply inlets or other routes of outside air infiltration, such as leaks, windows, doorways, elevators shafts, and stairways.

refrgerant: the fluid used for heat transfer in a refrigerating system, which absorbs heat at a low temperature and a low pressure of the fluid and rejects heat at a higher temperature and a higher pressure of fluid, usually involving changes of state of the fluid.

regster: a grille which is equipped with a damper or control valve, and which directs air in a non-spreading jet. reheat: a coil placed after the cooling coil, used to raise the air temperature; the process of raising the cooled air temperature. used mainly with dx coil dehumidification. relatve humdty: the ratio of the quantity of water vapor present in the air compared to the quantity of water vapor present in saturated air at the same temperature and barometric pressure. relatve rsk: the ratio of health impact incidence among exposed individuals to incidence among unexposed individuals. replacement ar: the air supplied to a space to replace exhausted air; compensating air, make up air. reservor: the environmental substrate, or source, of a particular organism. reservoirs for indoor biocontaminants include stagnant water, moist surfaces, and dust collection sites. reset: a process of automatically adjusting the control point of a given controller to compensate for changes in outdoor temperature. the hot deck control point is normally reset upward as the outdoor temperature drops. the cold deck control point is normally reset downward as the outdoor temperature increases.

resprable partcles: those particles in air which penetrate into and are deposited in the conciliated portion of the lung. resprable sze partculates: particulates in the size range that permits them to penetrate deep into the lungs upon inhalation return: any opening through which air is removed from a conditioned space. return ar: air returned from conditioned or refrigerated space. reverberaton: the persistence of sound in an enclosed space after the sound source has stopped. n a reverberation room, it is characterized by the decay or dying away the sound. reverberaton tme: the reverberation time of an enclosed space is the number of seconds required, or that would be required were the decay rate to remain constant, for the sound pressure level to decrease by 60 decibels. rhnts: an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose caused by an infection or exposure to an allergen. rser shaft: a vertical shaft designed to house electric cables, piping and ductwork. room crtera curves (rc curves): curves similar to nc curves that represent a close approximation to a well balanced, blandsounding spectrum. room dry bulb: the actual temperature of the conditioned room or space as measured with an accurate thermometer. room velocty: the residual air velocity level in the occupied zone of the conditioned space (e.g. 65, 50, 35 fpm). rotameter: a flow meter, consisting of a precision-bored, tapered, transparent tube

with a solid float inside. used for calibrating instruments. rtc: room temperature catalyst; a catalyst that accelerates chemical reactions at room temperature rather than at the usually required higher temperatures sabn: the unit of acoustic absorption. one sabin is one square foot of perfect soundabsorbing material. saprophyte: any organism that requires and utilizes preformed nutrients from dead or decaying organisms. sealant: the adhesive or other material that creates a leak proof seal between the filter pack and the filter frame. semvolatle organc compound (svoc): one of them subset of volatile organic compounds that may be found in gas or solid form at room temperature and pressure. ndoor svocs include many pesticide compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. sensble heat: heat that can be measured by a thermometer; the heat which can raise the temperature of a substance, as opposed to latent heat. sensor: a device which detects or measures sensible heat. set pont: the value of the controlled condition at which the instrument is set to operate. the set point in the example in "differential" might be 69 1/2o, the mid point of the differential. short-term exposure lmt (stel): acghrecommended exposure limit. maximum concentration to which workers can be exposed for a short period of time (15 minutes) for only four times throughout the day with at least one hour between exposures.

sck buldng: a building in which the indoor air quality is considered to be unacceptable to a substantial proportion of occupants. sck buldng syndrome: sbs f more than 20 percent of the building occupants complain of such problems as headache, eye irritation, fatigue and dizziness for more than two weeks; if the symptoms are relieved when the complainant leaves the building; and, if no specific cause of the problem can be identified. (ashrae journal, july 1988, p.40) sdestream smoke: the smoke that emerges from the end of a cigarette between puffs by the smoker. slca gel: a regenerative absorbent consisting of the amorphous silica manufactured by the action of hcl on sodium silicate. hard, glossy, quartz like in appearance. used in dehydrating and in drying and as a catalyst carrier. sngle zone: an hvac system where one thermostat controls the temperature of the entire building. snk: a material with the property of adsorbing a chemical or pollutants with the potential of subsequent reemission. snusts: a swelling of one or more nasal sinuses. t may be a complication of an upper respiratory infection, dental infection, allergy a change in atmosphere, as in air travel or underwater swimming, or a defect of the nose. with swelling of nasal mucous membranes the openings from sinuses to the nose may be blocked, causing pressure, pain, headache, fever, and local tenderness complications include spread of infection to bone, brain, ormeninges. treatment includes steam inhalations, nasal decongestants, analgesics, and, if infection is present, antibiotics. surgery to improve drainage may be done to treat chronic sinusitis.

slme layer: the gelatinous outermost covering of certain bacteria; unlike capsules, which are tightly bound to cell walls. smoke: an air suspension (aerosol) of particles, originating from combustion or sublimination. carbon or soot particles less than 0.1 u in size result from incomplete combustion of carbonaceous materials such as coal or oil. smoke generally contains droplets as well as dry particles. tobacco, for instance, produces a wet smoke composed of minute tarry droplets. sorbent: (1) a material that removes toxic gases and vapors from air inhaled through a canister or cartridge. (2) material used to collect gases and vapors during airsampling. sore: 1. a wound, ulcer, or lesion. 2. tender or painful. sound absorpton coeffcent: the ratio of the sound energy absorbed by a surface of a medium (or material) exposed to a sound field (or to sound radiation), to the sound energy incident on the surface. source control: a preventive strategy for reducing airborne contaminant levels through the removal of the material or activity generating the pollutants.

specfc gravty: the ratio of the mass of a unit volume of a substance to the mass of the same volume of a standard substance at a standard temperature. water at 4 c (39.2 f) is the standard usually referred to for liquids; for gases, dry air (at the same temperature and pressure as the gas) is often taken as the standard substance. see density.

specfc volume: the reciprocal of density and is used to determine the cubic feet of volume, if the pounds of weight are

known. both density and specific volume are affected by temperature and pressure. the specific volume of air under standard conditions is 13.33 cubic feet per pound and the specific volume of water at standard conditions is 0.016 cubic feet per pound. specfc weght: the weight per unit volume of a substance, same as density. spectrophotometer: an instrument used for comparing the relative intensities of the corresponding colors produced by chemical reactions. spread: the divergence of the air stream in a horizontal or vertical plane after it leaves the outlet. spore: a resistant body formed by certain microorganisms; resistant resting cells. mold spores: unicellular reproductive bodies. stachybotrys atra: a rare toxigenic fungus species that can produce tricothencenes, an extremely potent variety of mycotoxin. stack effect: a condition resulting from the rise of heated air, which creates positive pressure near the top of the building and negative pressure toward the bottom. stack effect pressures have been known to overpower mechanical ventilation systems, disrupting proper circulation and contributing to the infiltration and stagnation of pollutants. stagnant ar area: an area within a space where the air velocity is less than 25 fpm. standard ar densty: the density of air. 0.075 lb/cu ft (1.2 kg/m), at standard conditions. state: refers to the form of a fluid, either liquid, gas or solid. liquids used in environmental systems are water, thermal fluids such as ethylene glycol solutions,

and refrigerants in the liquid state. gases are steam, evaporated refrigerants and the air-water vapor mixture found in the atmosphere. some substances, including commonly used refrigerants, may exist in any of three states. a simple example is water, which may be solid (ice), liquid (water), or gas (steam or water vapor). statc head: the pressure due to the weight of a fluid above the point of measurement. statc regan method: a method of duct sizing wherein the duct velocities are systematically reduced, allowing a portion of the velocity pressure to convert to static pressure offsetting the duct friction losses. statc pressure, sp: the pressure developed in a duct by a fan; sp exerts influence in all directions; the force in inches of water measured perpendicular to flow at the wall of the duct; the difference in pressure between atmospheric pressure and the absolute pressure inside a duct, cleaner, or other equipment. statstcal sgnfcance: the probability that and degree to which the results of an experimental study describe an actual relationship between two factors beyond that which might be expected by pure coincidence. steam: water vapor produced by heating water to its boiling point and adding more heat; generally considered to be at or above 212of (100oc). steam trap: a device used to keep the steam out of the condensate line, while allowing the condensate to go through the trap to the condensate line. sterlze: to free from all forms of life. stratfed ar: unmixed air in a duct that is in thermal layers that have temperature variations of more than five degrees.

subcoolng: the difference between the temperature of a pure condensable fluid below saturation and the temperature at the liquid saturated state, at the same pressure. sublmaton: the conversion of a solid to a gas without going through a liquid phase. submcroscopc: not being visible through a compound microscope, generally less than 0.1 m in diameter. sun effect: solar energy transmitted into space through windows and building materials. super coolng: cooling of a liquid to a temperature below its condensing temperature. superheat: the difference between the temperature of a pure condensable fluid above saturation and the temperature at the dry saturated state, at the same pressure. supply: the ventilation system components involved in providing ventilation air, as in supply vents, supply ducts, supply diffusers. supply ar: a mixture of re-circulated air and outside air that has been conditioned and delivered to a space. supply air can range from 100% re-circulated air to 100% outside air. surface area (carbon): the surface area of granular activated carbon as determined by the bet method, expresses in square meters per gram of carbon. system: a series of ducts, conduits, elbows, branch piping, etc. designed to guide the flow of air, gas or vapor to and from one or more locations. a fan provides the necessary energy to overcome the resistance to flow of the system and causes air or gas flow through the system. some components of a typical system are louvers, grilles, diffusers, filters, heating

and cooling coils, air pollution control devices, burner assemblies, volume flow control dampers, mixing boxes, sound attenuators, the ductwork and related fittings. system, central fan: a mechanical, indirect system of heating, ventilating, or air conditioning, in which the air is treated or handled by equipment located outside the rooms served, usually at a central location, and conveyed to and from the rooms by means of a fan and a system of distributing ducts. system, closed: a heating or refrigerating piping system in which circulating water or brine is completely enclosed, under pressure above atmospheric, and shut off from the atmosphere except for an expansion tank. system, duct: a series of ducts, conduits, elbows, branch piping, etc. designed to guide the flow of air, gas or vapor to and from one or more locations. a fan provides the necessary energy to overcome the resistance to flow of the system and causes air or gas to flow through the system. some components of a typical system are louvers, grilles, diffusers, filters, heating and cooling coils, energy recovery devices, burner assemblies, volume dampers, mixing boxes, sound attenuators, the ductwork and related fittings. system, untary: a complete, factoryassembled and factory-tested refrigerating system comprising one or more assemblies which may be shipped as one unit or separately but which are designed to be used together. system curve: a graphic presentation of the pressure vs. volume flow rate characteristics of a particular system. systemc effects: the physical effects that occur following absorption of a given agent into the body, manifesting at an

organ or site removed from the point of contact. systems control: the control of indoor air pollutants through the use of mechanical means, i.e., through ventilation control or air cleaning. tachypnea: an abnormally fast breathing rate. task ventlaton: the ventilation serving a localized area, such as a desk, generally through equipment with local controls for airflow rate, direction, etc. temperature, dewpont: the temperature at which the condensation of water vapor in a space begins for a given state of humidity and pressure as the temperature of the vapor is reduced. the temperature corresponding to saturation (100 percent relative humidity) for a given absolute humidity at constant pressure. temperature, dry-bulb: the temperature of a gas or mixture of gases indicated by an accurate thermometer after correction for radiation. temperature, mean radant (mrt): the temperature of a uniform black enclosure in which a solid body or occupant would exchange the same amount of radiant heat as in the existing non-uniform environment. temperature, saturaton: the temperature at which no further moisture can be added to the air-water vapor mixture. equals dew point temperature. temperature, wet-bulb: thermodynamic wet bulb temperature is the temperature at which liquid or solid water, by evaporating into air, can bring the air to saturation adiabatically at the same temperature. wet bulb temperature (without qualification) is the temperature indicated by a wet bulb

psychrometer constructed and used according to specifications. teratogen: any substance, agent, or process that blocks normal growth of the fetus, causing one or more developmental abnormalities in the fetus. teratogens act directly on the developing organism or indirectly, affecting such supplemental structures as the placenta or some maternal system. the type and extent of the defect are determined by the specific kind of teratogen and its mode of action. t also depends on the embryonic process affected, genetic predisposition, and the stage of development at the time the exposure occurred. the period of highest vulnerability in the growing embryo is from about the third through the twelfth week of gestation. the reason is that at this period differentiation of the major organs and systems occurs. susceptibility to teratogenic influence decreases quickly in the later periods of growth. among the known teratogens are chemical agents, including drugs, as thalidomide, alkylating agents, and alcohol. nfectious agents, especially the rubella virus and cytomegalovirus have the same effect. other teratogens include ionizing radiation, particularly x-rays, and environmental factors, as the general health of the mother or any trauma in the uterus that may affect the fetus, especially during the later stages of pregnancy. termnal reheat system: a type of hvac system that continuously supplies air at a constant level year round, with heating coils at the terminals allowing either cooling or heating at different zones. termnal velocty: the point at which the discharged air from an outlet decreases to a given speed, generally accepted as 50 feet per minute. terpenes: a class volatile organic compounds frequently encountered indoors from such sources as air fresheners,

cleansers, furniture polishes, and bathroom deodorants. two odor-masking terpenescitrus-like limonene and the evergreen-like a-pinene are among the most common vocs found indoors. testng, adjustng and balancng: the diagnostic and corrective procedures for hvac controls and operating components to ensure provision of specified airflow rates and environmental conditions. parameters tested include: supply, return, exhaust, and outdoor flow rates; control settings and operations; air temperatures; fan speeds and power consumption; and filter resistance. tab is a recommended procedure following any modification to the hvac system including new installation, cleaning, or adjustments of controls, as well as for certain aq investigations that suggest faulty or inadequate ventilation. tertachloroethylene: a probable carcinogen with a chloroform-like odor, emitted from dry-cleaned fabrics; also known as perchloroethylene (perc). high exposures may result in a number of physiological effects, primarily to the nervous system, with symptoms including dizziness, headaches and vertigo. therm: measurement used by gas utilities for billing purposes. 1 therm = 100 cubic feet of gas = 100,000 btu. thermal comfort: that condition of mind which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment. thermal envronment: those characteristics of the environment which affect a person's heat loss. thermal sensaton: a conscious feeling commonly graded into the categories of cold, cool, slightly cool, neutral, slightly warm, warm and hot. thermodynamc wet bulb temperature: also called the adiabatic saturation temperature

- is that temperature at which water, by evaporating into the air, can bring the air to saturation adiabatically at the same temperature. the wet bulb temperature measured with an appropriate psychrometer can approach the thermodynamic wet bulb temperature. thermodynamcs, laws of: two laws upon which rest the classical theory of thermodynamics. these laws have been stated in many different, but equivalent ways. the first law:; (1) when work is expanded in generating heat, the quantity of heat produced is proportional to the work expended; and, conversely when heat is employed in the performance of work, the quantity of heat which disappears is proportional to the work done; (2) f a system is caused to change from an initial state to a final state by adiabatic means only, the work done is the same for all adiabatic paths connecting the two states); (3) n any power cycle or refrigeration cycle, the net heat absorbed by the working substance is exactly equal to the net work done. the second law: (1) t is impossible for a self-acting machine, unaided by an external agency, to convey heat from a body of lower temperature to one of higher temperature); (2) t is impossible to derive mechanical work from heat taken from a body unless there is available a body of lower temperature into which the residue not so used may be discharged); (3) t is impossible to construct an engine that, operating in a cycle, will produce no effect other than the extraction of heat from a reservoir and the performance of an equivalent amount of work. thermophle: an organism that grows optimally within the temperature range of 113of to 140of (45o to 60oc). thermostat: a control device associated with heating or cooling equipment for maintaining a fixed temperature.

threshold: the containment dose or exposure level below which there is no expected significant effect. threshold lmt value (tlv): the american conference of governmental ndustrial hygienistss recommended guideline for exposure limit represented in terms of exposure over a workday (8 hours) or a work week (40 hours) threshold lmt value- celng (tlv-c): the containment concentration that should not be exceeded for any length of time during a work shift. threshold lmt value- short term exposure lmt (tlv-stel): the contaminant concentration to which research indicates workers can be exposed for a short time period without suffering from irritation, injury, or adverse health effects (assuming the tlv-twa is not exceeded) threshold lmt value- tme-weghted average (tlv-twa): the contaminant concentration to which research indicates workers can be exposed repeatedly over a specific time period without adverse effect. throttlng range: generally applied to pneumatic controls, where it is defined as the change in the controlled temperature which causes the branch line pressure to change from maximum to minimum or vice versa. throw: the distance measured in feet that the air stream travels from the outlet to the point of terminal velocity. the throw is measured horizontally from the registers and ceiling diffusers, and vertically from perimeter diffusers. tght buldng syndrome (tbs): a condition in which a building is very tightly sealed against infiltration, its ventilation is reduced for energy conservation, and airborne contaminants are sufficiently elevated to cause health effects in

occupants; often used synonymously with sick building syndrome (sbs) or as a special case of sbs that can be traced to ventilation factors rather than to specific sources. tme-weghted average concentraton (twa): refers to concentrations of airborne toxic materials which have been weighted for a certain time duration, usually 8 hours. tlv. threshold lmt value: a time-weighted average concentration under which most people can work consistently for 8 hours a day, day after day, with no harmful effects. the american conference of governmental ndustrial hygienists publishes a table of these values and accompanying precautions annually. toluene: hydrocarbon derived mainly from petroleum but also from coal. sources of tnt, lacquers, saccharin, and many other chemicals. total heat content: the sum of sensible heat and latent heat. total heat (enthalpy): total heat is the sum of the sensible heat and latent heat in an exchange process. n many cases, the addition or subtraction of latent and sensible heat at terminal coils appears simultaneously. total heat also is called enthalpy, both of which can be defined as the quantity of heat energy contained in that substance. total pressure: the sum of the velocity and static pressure measured in inches of water. total suspended partculate: the weight of particulates suspended in a unit of volume of air when collected by a high volume air sampler. total volatle organc compounds (tvocs): a measure representing the sum of all volatile organic compounds present in the air to provide an approximate indication of

pollutant levels. ndoor air typically contains hundreds of different vocs in very low concentrations, some of which can have additive effects. since tvoc measures a variety of chemicals, researchers convert milligrams per cubic meter to parts per million using the molecular weight of a common compound, such as toluene. toxcant: a substance that can cause tissue damage or otherwise affect organs or systems in the body. toxcty: 1. the degree to which something is poisonous. 2. a condition that results from exposure to a poison or to poisonous amounts of a substance that does not cause side effects in small amounts. toxgenc: producing a toxin. toxn: a substance produced by a living organism that injures tissues or alters the functions of another organism. tracer gas: an inert compound that is a rare constituent of indoor air, such as sulfur hexafluoride (sf6), which is released into building air and monitored qualitatively and/or quantitatively to characterize airflow characteristics to determine air pathways, infiltration, and ventilation efficiency measurements. trachea: the air duct leading from the larynx to the thoracic cavity tracheobronchal: having to do with the region of the respiratory system that includes the trachea and the bronchi. transfer ar: the air that has moved from one room or zone within a building to another. transom: a manually controlled opening above a door used to allow air to exit a room.

transport velocty: see minimum transport velocity. twa: time-weighted average. two-poston: essentially, on/off operation, or open/closed. untary system: a room unit which performs part or all of the air conditioning functions. t may or may not be used with a central fan system. upper explosve lmt (uel): the highest concentration (expressed in percent vapor or gas in the air by volume) of a substance that will burn or explode when an ignition source is present. urea formaldehyde from nsulaton (uff): a form of insulation no longer in use because of excessive formaldehyde emissions and documented associated health impacts. vaneaxal: a type of fan completely contained in a section of round duct. vapor: a substance in gas form, particularly one near equilibrium with its condensed phase and which does not follow the ideal gas laws; in general, any gas below its critical temperature. vapor barrer: a moisture-impervious layer applied to the surfaces enclosing a humid space to prevent moisture travel to a point where it may condense due to lower temperature. vapor pressure: vapor pressure denotes the lowest absolute pressure that a given liquid at a given temperature will remain liquid before evaporating into its gaseous form or state. varable ar volume (vav): a supply air system that holds the supply air temperature constant but varies supply air flow to compensate for the thermal loads in the space.

varable ar volume box: the terminal device of a vav system that controls the volume of conditioned air admitted from the air supply. varable volume varable temperature: an hvac system that combines variable air volume with variable temperature to provide greater low-load airflow to the conditioned space than that provided by standard vav systems. vehcle: any contaminated inanimate material, such as water or food, through which microorganisms can be transported or dispersed to a susceptible host. velocty: a vector quantity which denotes, at once, the time rate and the direction of a linear motion. velocty, outlet: the average discharge velocity of primary air being discharged from the outlet, normally measured in the plane of the opening. velocty pressure: the pressure produced by the movement of air, such as the wind, or the air coming from a fan. velocty, termnal: the highest sustained air stream velocity existing in the mixed air path at the end of the throw. ventlaton: the process of supplying and removing air by natural or mechanical means to and from any space. such air may or may not be conditioned. ventlaton control: an air pollutant strategy that uses ventilation to remove and/or dilute pollutants to levels at which they do not present a threat to health and comfort. ventlaton effectveness: a measure of the fraction or percentage of outdoor air that reaches the occupied zone of a specified area; an evaluation of air delivery to occupants, regardless of the effectiveness of contaminant removal.

ventlaton effcency: an evaluation of the pollutant removal capacity of a ventilation system, as defined by the local mean age of air in the exhaust divided by the mean age of air in the room. ventlaton rate: the rate of intake of outdoor air into indoor spaces. venlaton standard: a specification for the minimum rate of input of outdoor air into indoor spaces. vrus: an infectious agent that contains either rna or dna in its core surrounded by a protein shell, is able to alternate between intracellular and extracellular states, and replicates only when present in living cells. voc: volatile organic compound any organic chemical reacting with atmospheric ozone. this designation is not a reflection or indication of human health effects. volatle fumes: the fumes from substances such as gasoline or alcohol; usually very flammable. volatlty: the tendency of a molecule to exist in a gaseous state. volume: cubic feet per pound of dry air in the air-water vapor mixture as used in pschrometrics. volume, specfc: the volume of a substance per unit mass; the reciprocal of density. wall or celng effect: the tendency of an air stream moving along a wall or ceiling surface to remain in contact with that surface. this effect extends the throw and reduces the drop of the air stream. xerophle: an organism with enzyme systems that enable it to grow optimally in dry places (deserts).

zeolte: a type of adsorbent used to remove certain odors. zone: an area within a building conditioned by a single controlling device.

zonng: the practice of dividing a building into small sections for heating and cooling control. each section is selected so that one thermostat can be used to determine its requirements.