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Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper

Vijay Agnew Professor of Social Science and Director, Centre for Feminist esearc! "or# $niversity

Commissioned %y Status of &omen Canada for t!e '(ntersections of Diversity) Seminar

*!is document e+presses t!e views of t!e aut!or and does not necessarily represent t!e official policy of Status of &omen Canada or t!e Government of Canada,

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 2

Contents: Part (: *!eoretical Developments Part ((: Gender and Diversity in oyal Commission eports Part (((: Citi/ens!ip Policy and esearc! Gaps 3i%liograp!y . 01 02 -0

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 3

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper By Vijay Agnew The questions Who is a woman? and What are her ri!hts? wou"d have #een easy to answer three decades a!o #ut are now a matter o$ intense discussion amon! $eminists and others% &eminist theories have evo"ved with our understandin! o$ women's e(periences% )everthe"ess* the more that we understand a#out women's oppression* the more comp"e( and theoretica" is the de#ate% Diversity in $eminist conceptua"i+ations ,and theories- o$ !ender* identity* "ocation* epistemo"o!y* and discourse has opened up the de#ate a#out diversity in interpretation and app"ication% By ana"y+in! two .ey /oya" 0ommission reports1one on the status o$ women and the other on vio"ence a!ainst women we see how our understandin! has evo"ved re!ardin! !ender* the comp"e(ity o$ inte!ratin! diverse individua"s with varyin! identities to a common cause% /eports $rom 2222 onwards indicate that $or some women achievin! !ender equa"ity has #een a distant dream% Part (: *!eoretical Developments Defining Gender The word gender was popu"ari+ed #y the second wave o$ $eminism when it sou!ht to distin!uish se( or the physica" attri#utes that de$ined peop"e as ma"es and $ema"es $rom the socio3cu"tura" meanin!s assi!ned to the #ody* such as mascu"inity and $emininity% The distinction that was made #etween se( and !ender was empowerin! $or women #ecause it disputed the notion that #io"o!y was destiny and su!!ested instead that societa" norms had constrained their $reedom to deve"op their human potentia"% Women's "ac. o$ participation in po"itics* $or instance* had "ess to do with their se( than with the norms imposed #y society on their #odies% &eminists went on to ar!ue that the pu#"ic and private spheres were not discrete and iso"ated #ut were interconnected* and women's "ac. o$ power in one "ed to their su#ordination in the other% 4ociety had assi!ned di$$erentia" va"ues to the wor. ,paid and unpaid- that women per$ormed and this had consequences $or their su#ordinate status in society% 5t was invi!oratin! $or women to discover that what had #een previous"y viewed #y society as women's "ac. o$

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 6 achievements was in rea"ity a matter o$ "ac. o$ opportunities% 5n this initia" phase* $eminists tended to minimi+e di$$erences o$ se( and privi"e!ed !ender% 5n the 7892s* it #ecame part o$ the common wisdom to assert that !ender was a socia""y constructed cate!ory% Postmodern and post3structura"ist $eminists went on to ar!ue that !ender was not a sta#"e cate!ory #ut temporary* $"uid* and shi$tin!% The meanin!s attached to !ender were not universa": rather they were speci$ic and were derived $rom particu"ar socia" conte(ts and in re"ationship to other su#;ects% <very society and cu"ture understands* con$i!ures* and represents !ender identities in particu"ar ways% &or e(amp"e* the identity o$ a 0hinese woman is di$$erent in 0hina than it is in a 0hinatown in )orth America or in a su#ur# in Toronto% 4imi"ar"y* a woman's power or its "ac. thereo$ was conte(tua""y de$ined rather than #ein! constant and $i(ed% The se(=!ender distinction that had initia""y he"ped women to answer so many questions a#out themse"ves* individua""y and co""ective"y* came to #e viewed s.eptica""y as $eminists' .now"ed!e and understandin! a#out women's "ives evo"ved% 4e( and !ender were perceived as #inary cate!ories and there$ore pro#"ematic* since one cate!ory was usua""y privi"e!ed over the other% &eminist deconstructionists ar!ued a!ainst the #inary distinction #etween se( and !ender and asserted that the #ody and its $unctionin! are $ormed not in iso"ation or outside cu"ture* #ut in interaction with society and cu"ture ,>a."ey 78?2* quoted in Andermahr et a"% 2222* 723-% They added that se( is on"y one o$ the many distinctions that constructs !ender #ut re;ected the notion o$ a"on! with or a"on!side race* c"ass* nationa"ity* ethnicity* or any other cate!ory: rather they stated that !ender is constructed throu!h and #y these distinctions% The se(=!ender distinction a"so came to #e discussed as a di$$erence #etween essentia"ist and anti3essentia"ist perspective% <ssentia"ist ar!uments noted that there are innate di$$erences #etween men and women and re;ected the notion that !ender is socia""y constructed% &eminists "i.e @ary Da"y ar!ued $or a unique $ema"e identity whi"e some &rench $eminists have supported the concept o$ a unique $ema"e mode o$ discourse% 5n )orth America* such thin.in! came to #e .nown as women's way o$ .nowin!* women's .now"ed!e* and women's e(periences% Anti3essentia"ists* however* asserted that patriarchy positions women as other* which si!ni$ies di$$erence% Audith But"er* one o$ the $oremost theorists o$ deconstructive $eminism* in

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper B Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity ar!ues that !ender distinctions on"y have meanin! within a pha""ocentric order #ui"t on a system o$ #inary di$$erences ,7882-% Gender identity is maintained throu!h the $i(ed opposition o$ ma"e and $ema"e* with each cate!ory de$ined #y its di$$erence $rom the other% But"er su!!ests that $ar $rom #ein! innate !ender constitutes a set o$ !estures which are per$ormed upon the sur$ace o$ the #ody ,Gam#"e 2227* 222-% A""ison Weir e(p"ains that But"er's $undamenta" c"aim is that any identity is a"ways and on"y the product o$ a system or "o!ic o$ power="an!ua!e which !enerates identities as $unctions o$ #inary oppositions* and see.s to concea" its own wor.in!s #y ma.in! those identities appear natura" ,Weir 2222* 66-% Ce"ene 0i(ous and Duce 5ri!aray note that $ema"e #odies are hi!h"y metaphorica" and ironic* and do not necessari"y denote #e"ie$ in the e(istence o$ a $undamenta" $ema"e identity ,Gam#"e 2227* 22B-% 4uch interpretations su!!est that there is no inte!ra" over"ap #etween se( and !ender* $or e(amp"e a person with a woman's #ody can adopt mascu"inity ,as a !endered norm- as in transse(ua" * trans!endered identities% But"er $avours dismant"in! the se(=!ender divide* #ut other $eminists "i.e <ve"yn &o( Ee""er and Anne Phi""ips are $or retainin! the distinction% &o( ar!ues that !iven the e(i!encies o$ the human reproductive system* every society needs some way o$ distin!uishin! the #ody and has #ui"t a superstructure o$ cu"tura" meanin! around this socia""y necessary $unction% 4imi"ar"y* Phi""ips supports maintainin! the distinction #etween se( and !ender $or we wi"" continue to need some way o$ disentan!"in! the di$$erences that are inevita#"e $rom those that are chosen* and $rom those that are simp"y imposed ,Phi""ips 7882* 23 quoted in Andermahr et a"% 2222* 726-% Whi"e the de#ate surroundin! the de$inition o$ !ender continues in academic circ"es* po"icy ana"ysts and po"icy ma.ers need a concrete* wor.in! de$inition o$ !ender% 4tatus o$ Women 0anada provides the $o""owin! de$inition o$ !ender: Gender is the cu"tura""y speci$ic set o$ characteristics that identi$ies the socia" #ehaviour o$ women and men and the re"ationship #etween them% Gender* there$ore* re$ers not simp"y to women or men* #ut to the re"ationship #etween them* and the way it is socia""y constructed% Because it is a re"ationa" term* !ender must inc"ude women and men% Di.e the concepts o$ c"ass* race and ethnicity* !ender is an ana"ytica" too" $or understandin! socia" processes% ,4tatus o$ Women 0anada* 7889-

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper F

3ac#ground of (ntersectionality 5n the 78?2s* $eminist theory was critici+ed $or i!norin! racism and treatin! !ender as a universa" and a historica" cate!ory that encompassed the e(periences o$ a"" women% /acia"i+ed women adopted 78?2s $eminist s"o!ans that identi$ied a"" men as the enemy and a"" women as su$$erin! common oppression% But a$ter the initia" enthusiasm $or articu"atin! the common e(periences o$ !ender* some $eminists #e!an to critica""y e(amine these s"o!ans and their assumption that !ender represents the primary source o$ women's oppression% This re3 e(amination spawned a vi!orous and $ar3ran!in! critique o$ $eminist theories% /acia"i+ed women used historica" data to demonstrate that c"ass and race were as power$u" as !ender in oppressin! and e(p"oitin! women ,A!new 788F-% /ace* "i.e !ender* is socia""y constructed in the sense that the dominant !roup in a society* characteri+ed #y unequa" socia" re"ations* se"ects certain physica" traits and attri#utes si!ni$icance to them% These traits* such as s.in co"our* shape o$ eyes* and hair te(ture* are then associated with mora"* psycho"o!ica"* or socia" norms and va"ues% >ver time* the association o$ physica" characteristics with a set o$ va"ues comes to #e seen as natura"* norma"* and inevita#"e% The corre"ation #etween peop"e's physica" traits and their encoded attri#utes does not have to #e scienti$ica""y esta#"ished* and indeed proo$ is irre"evant% The association #etween physica" traits and norms and va"ues derives its stren!th $rom the wide"y accepted #e"ie$ in race% The content o$ these socia""y constructed concepts chan!es and shi$ts over time ,A!new 788F-% The word racialized came to #e common"y used #y women to re$er to their identity* sti!mati+ation* and ostracism as a discrete racia" cate!ory characteri+ed #y traits or attri#utes that were thou!ht to #e typica" ,Andermahr 2222* 222-% /acia"i+ed women were concerned a#out theori+in! the re"ationship #etween race and !ender% An!e"a Davis and Be"" Coo.s were amon! the $irst #"ac. women in the Gnited 4tates to question how race* a"on! with !ender* oppressed women% Coo.s' Feminist Theory from Margin to Center ,7896- and Talking Back: Thinking Feminist Thinking Black ,7899- were hi!h"y in$"uentia" in startin! a de#ate amon! racia"i+ed women on their own e(periences in )orth

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper ? American and <uropean societies in the period $o""owin! Wor"d War 55% Coo.s ar!ued that racia" identity and racism distin!uished the e(perience o$ #"ac. and* #y imp"ication* other racia"i+ed women and were as si!ni$icant as !ender in oppressin! them% B"ac. women* she ar!ued* "oo.ed to the com$ort o$ home and $ami"y re"ations as a sa$e har#our $rom the racism o$ the "ar!er society% Gender oppressed them* no dou#t* #ut on"y in tandem with race and c"ass% Coo.s' writin!s i!nited a vi!orous de#ate on the re"ationship #etween race* !ender* and c"ass% )ew insi!hts into other structures o$ oppression put white women on the de$ensive* and they were stric.en with !ui"t a#out havin! #een ethnocentric in viewin! the $ami"y and society $rom their own speci$ic "ocation as white* university3 educated women ,4e!a" 789?-% 5t was on"y over time* and with much de#ate* that the re"ationship #etween the di$$erent structures o$ oppression cou"d #e understood% &or e(amp"e* a question arose: Was there a hierarchy o$ oppression* in the sense that some structures o$ oppression were more si!ni$icant than others? 5$ that was not so* then cou"d women add up the many structures o$ oppression that intersected in their identities? <"i+a#eth 4pe""man in Inessential !oman stron!"y opposed such an additive method* ar!uin! instead that women's identities and their oppression are inte!rated and insepara#"e% 4he notes that >ne's !ender identity is not re"ated to one's racia" and c"ass identity as the parts o$ pop3#ead nec."aces are re"ated* separa#"e and inserta#"e in other Hstrands' with di$$erent racia" and c"ass Hparts' ,4pe""man 7899* 7B4ome $orms o$ oppression seemed to #e e(perienced #y a"" women* whi"e others were not% The critica" issue was to serious"y account $or the di$$erences% Audre Dorde has noted that it is the socia" si!ni$icance attached to these di$$erences* rather than the di$$erences themse"ves* which $orms the #asis o$ e(c"usion and separation: it is historica""y created socia" di$$erences that divide women and distort the re"ations #etween them ,/othen#er! 7882* 623B6-% By accountin! $or di$$erences amon! women* however* we #roadened the cate!ories and structures o$ oppression to inc"ude other aspects* such as se(ua"ity* a!e* and disa#i"ity% &urthermore* these types o$ oppression intersected in di$$erent permutations in peop"e's identities and added to the comp"e(ity o$ the de#ate% By the 7892s* it was wide"y ac.now"ed!ed that there were many a(es o$ women's oppression and these were inte!rated and interre"ated% Therea$ter it #ecame the norm to use the term intersectionality to re$er to the crosscuttin! nature o$ oppression in di$$erent identities%

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 9 4pistemology and (ntersectionality &eminist epistemo"o!ists deconstructed .now"ed!e to show how power re"ations are em#edded in "an!ua!e and to identi$y a method $or posin! insi!ht$u" questions a#out women and #y women to document the truths o$ their socio3po"itica" oppression and mar!ina"i+ation% Dorraine 0ode in !hat Can She "no#$ : Feminist Theory and the Construction of "no#ledge provides a critique o$ androcentric .now"ed!e: Theories and methodo"o!ies in the socia" sciences Ho#;ecti$y' the human su#;ects they study% <(periments are desi!ned to predict human #ehavior and to ana"y+e it quantitative"y* $or on"y #ehavior amena#"e to statistica" ana"ysis is ;ud!ed worthy o$ scienti$ic study% The methodo"o!y produces e(p"anations o$ persona"ity and o$ socia" structures that ta.e into account neither the consciousness o$ the su#;ects studied nor the meanin!s and interpretations o$ their e(periences $or these su#;ects% ,0ode 7887*36&eminist epistemo"o!ists critiqued universa" truths* pre$errin! instead to document conte(tua"i+ed partia" truths a#out speci$ic !roups o$ women% 5n doin! this they hoped to accord women authority as .nowers and producers o$ .now"ed!e and thus empower them ,0ode 2222* 7?2-% The individua"'s identity* "ocation* and positionin! determine her perspective and there$ore her discovery o$ truth% 5n her "andmar. study The Science %uestion in Feminism 4andra Cardin!* a hi!h"y respected phi"osopher* had ar!ued that women's e(periences provide her with a unique startin! point or as she "ater ca""ed it a $eminist standpoint $or discoverin! certain #iases in science ,Cardin!* 789?-% Dorothy 4mith's semina" wor. on The &veryday !orld as a 'roblematic: ( Feminist Sociology questioned the seemin!"y norma"* the routine events and re"ationships o$ our dai"y "ives and the power re"ations that structure them% &eminists* she recommended* shou"d as. questions that are !enerated #y women's "ives and address their concerns: or in other words* $eminists need to view themse"ves and society $rom a woman's perspective% 5n e(p"ainin! the standpoint o$ women in the everyday wor"d she writes: 5n the research conte(t this means that so $ar as their every day wor"ds are concerned* we re"y entire"y on what women te"" us* what peop"e te"" us* a#out what they do and what happens% But we cannot re"y upon them $or an understandin! o$ the re"ations that shape and determine the everyday% Cere then "ies our wor. as socia" scientists* $or the investi!ation o$ these re"ations and the e(p"oration o$ the

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 8 ways they are present in the everyday are and must #e a specia"i+ed enterprise* a wor.* the wor. o$ a socia" scientist ,4mith 789?* 772-% 4ome questions that arise $rom such a $ormu"ation are: 5s the $eminist standpoint an essentia"ist understandin! o$ !ender? Does such thin.in! po"ari+e ma"e=$ema"e identities and ma.e them #inary cate!ories? 5s co!nitive authority associated on"y with !ender* or does it a"so inc"ude race* c"ass* se(ua"ity* cu"ture* and a!e amon! many other di$$erences? Patricia 0o""ins* a #"ac. socio"o!ist* disputes !ender as providin! insi!ht into women's everyday "ives: rather she ar!ues strenuous"y in $avour o$ ac.now"ed!in! the di$$erences in women's "ives% 4he re;ects !ender as a uni$ied cate!ory o$ women* notin! instead the need $or research on #"ac. women to inc"ude questions derived $rom their identities and e(periences ,7887-% Cardin! in Is Science Multicultural$ 'ostcolonialisms Feminisms and &)istemologies notes that di$$erent cu"tures or!ani+e the production o$ .now"ed!e in di$$erent ways and may #e #etter a#"e to address questions that re"ate c"ose"y to their e(periences ,7889-% /istoc. and Penne" support a $eminist standpoint since it is !rounded in awareness o$ women's su#ordination IandJ it ma.es $or a more comprehensive and ethica" understandin! than is possi#"e $or their mascu"inist counterparts* even those who ho"d emancipatory !oa"s ,/istoc. and Penne" 788F*B-% But Gam#"e notes none o$ the research into the Hdi$$erence and dominance' tradition #e!ins to address how "an!ua!e* persona" identity and socia" conte(t interact or how that interaction sustains unequa" !ender re"ations ,Gam#"e* 2227* 76F-% &eminist standpoint theory was pro#"ematic in another way: 5$ there were no !eneric woman and $ew e(periences common to a"" women* there cou"d #e no "ocation $rom which they cou"d spea. $or a"" women* even within a speci$ic !roup% Gayatri 4piva.* the distin!uished deconstructionist* questions the assumption that a woman's identity means that she spea.s $or women $rom a position o$ .now"ed!e% 4he pre$ers instead to hi!h"i!ht the cu"tura" and discursive construction o$ $ema"e su#;ectivity and cautions a!ainst the ur!e to c"aim to .now or spea. on #eha"$ o$ other women on the #asis o$ shared or common identities ,Carasym 7882-% Part (( Gender and Diversity in oyal Commission eports: An 5verview &eminist theory has encoura!ed women to identi$y* question* and resist oppression #y the practices and discourses o$ dominant !roups% De#ate within women's or!ani+ations* academia*

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 72 and pu#"ic institutions require that $eminists continua""y re3eva"uate their concepts and re$ormu"ate their theories% The process has moved $eminism $rom a narrow $ocus on com#atin! !ender #ias to more dynamic pro!rams with #roader !oa"s and o#;ectives% 0aro" Bacchi in !omen 'olicy and 'olitics notes that every issue a$$ects women and there$ore recommends that we as. What's the pro#"em? when we see. to ana"y+e po"icy% 5$ we do so* we can approach po"icy critica""y to re$"ect upon representations o$$ered #oth #y those who descri#e somethin! as a pro#"em and #y those who deny the issue pro#"em status% 4he ar!ues that we have to view tar!ets o$ pu#"ic po"icy in the conte(t o$ how they are represented and ta".ed a#out in po"itica" de#ate and po"icy proposa"s% Po"icies that see. to present so"utions to pro#"ems are on"y one o$ a ran!e o$ possi#"e choices avai"a#"e to us% The choice o$ what we do and how we do it depends on the preconceptions ,assumptions and norms- em#edded in our representation and ana"ysis o$ the pro#"ems* the "an!ua!e used to discuss them* and their e$$ect or materia" consequences on us ,Bacchi 7888* 2-% 6a7 eport of t!e oyal Commission on t!e Status of &omen The /oya" 0ommission on the 4tatus o$ Women is the $ormative event in the deve"opment o$ !overnment po"icy on women% 5t was appointed in 78F? at the #ehest o$ the 0ommittee $or <qua"ity o$ Women in 0anada ,a !roup representin! many women's or!ani+ations- and the &KdKration des $emmes du LuK#ec ,&&L-* who pressured the !overnment to investi!ate the condition o$ 0anadian women ,Do#rowo"s.y 2222* 78-% The commissioners were to inquire into and report upon the status o$ women in 0anada* and to recommend what steps mi!ht #e ta.en #y the &edera" Government to ensure $or women equa" opportunities with men% The commission set out three !oa"s that it speci$ica""y wished to investi!ate: equa" opportunity with men* an adequate standard o$ "ivin!* and $reedom to choose a career% Women's or!ani+ations in 0anada had #een somewhat in$"uenced in their demands #y the civi" ri!hts movement in the Gnited 4tates and the demands o$ the Lue#ecois $or reco!nition o$ their socia"* po"itica"* and economic contri#utions to 0anadian society% The pu#"ic hearin!s that accompanied the wor. o$ the /oya" 0ommission on Bi"in!ua"ism and Bicu"tura"ism ,esta#"ished in 78F3- created a consciousness o$ ri!hts amon! the popu"ation% The other <uropean popu"ations that were e(c"uded $rom the de"i#erations o$ the commission $e"t a!!rieved and made representations to po"iticians a#out their desire to #e inc"uded% The $ina" report o$ the

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 77 Bi"in!ua"ism and Bicu"tura"ism 0ommission noted that the &rench a"on! with the <n!"ish were the two $oundin! nations or charter !roups and that 0anada wou"d #e a mu"ticu"tura" nation within a #i"in!ua" $ramewor.% A"thou!h comp"ete equa"ity remained a !oa" $or the other <uropean nations* the commission's wor. was si!ni$icant in that it o$$icia""y reco!ni+ed the cu"tura" diversity o$ the 0anadian popu"ation% A"thou!h cu"tura" diversity !ained a $ootho"d in 0anadian pu#"ic po"icy* it did not as such in$orm the wor. o$ the /oya" 0ommission on the 4tatus o$ Women% The commission did not have an e(p"icit conceptua" $ramewor. or a shared phi"osophy* other than its commitment to the equa" ri!hts approach* which coe(isted with !enera" notions o$ the va"ue o$ a speci$ica""y $ema"e cu"ture ,Be!in 7882* 28-% At the time there was "itt"e $eminist "iterature avai"a#"e% )everthe"ess* the report star."y revea"s the $eminist #ias o$ the times: women are discriminated a!ainst on the #asis o$ their !ender a"one% A"thou!h se( ,the term !ender had yet to #ecome common- was thou!ht to #e the main cu"prit in women's inequa"ity* the commissioners reco!ni+ed the c"ass and re!iona" di$$erences amon! women and divided them up into separate cate!ori+es% There was no reco!nition that race mi!ht a"so #e a #arrier to attainin! the three !oa"s the commission set out to investi!ate% The /oya" 0ommission on the 4tatus o$ Women provided a comprehensive report on the situation o$ women and made 7F3 recommendations in nine areas: Women in the 0anadian economy* education* women and the $ami"y* ta(ation and chi"d care a""owances* poverty* participation o$ women in pu#"ic "i$e* immi!ration and citi+enship* crimina" "aw* and women o$$enders ,0row and Gote"" 2222* ?239?-% 5ts p"an $or action was the $o""owin!: We recommend that a $edera" 4tatus o$ Women 0ounci"* direct"y responsi#"e to Par"iament* #e esta#"ished to ,a- advise on matters pertainin! to women and report annua""y to Par"iament on the pro!ress #ein! made in improvin! the status o$ women in 0anada* ,#- underta.e research on matters re"evant to the status o$ women and su!!est research topics that can #e carried out #y !overnments* private #usiness* universities* and vo"untary associations* ,c- esta#"ish pro!rammes to correct attitudes and pre;udices adverse"y a$$ectin! the status o$ women* ,d- propose "e!is"ation* po"icies and practices to improve the status o$ women* and ,e- systematica""y consu"t with the women's #ureau or simi"ar provincia" or!ani+ations* and with vo"untary associations particu"ar"y concerned with the pro#"ems o$ women ,/eport o$ the /oya" 0ommission on the 4tatus o$ Women 78?2-%

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 72 The report discussed women as one cate!ory* a"thou!h it paid some attention to women who "ive in poverty or in remote communities% 5n discussin! poverty* it $ocused on three !roups: so"e support mothers* e"der"y women* and 5ndian* @etis* and <s.imo women% The report discussed what it ca""ed immi!rant women on $our pa!es and ar!ued that !ender was the on"y source o$ oppression and it "ocated their pro#"ems in the cu"ture o$ their ethnic and racia" !roups% 5n discussin! women who do not spea. <n!"ish or &rench* the report ar!ued that the socia" customs o$ some immi!rant communities may not permit the housewi$e to "eave home in the evenin! to attend the "an!ua!e c"asses and other courses that she #ad"y needs ,78?2* 3F7-% But it conspicuous"y $ai"ed to question the schedu"in! o$ these c"asses* who was e"i!i#"e to attend them* where they were he"d* or their curricu"a% There was no discussion o$ responsi#i"ities re"atin! to chi"d care or to the materia" surviva" o$ the $ami"y that mi!ht ma.e it impossi#"e $or women to attend "an!ua!e c"asses% The "an!ua!e o$ the report was condescendin! and patroni+in!% The report treated immi!rant women as o#;ects* passive rather than active participants in de$inin! themse"ves or identi$yin! their pro#"ems% /ace and c"ass di$$erences were treated as added3on characteristics o$ some women rather than as inte!ra" components o$ race* c"ass* and !ender oppression% Gender oppression remained primary% There was no mention at a"" o$ the oppression o$ se(ua" orientation or disa#i"ity% The /oya" 0ommission on the 4tatus o$ Women report in$ormed pu#"ic po"icy $or the ne(t two decades% 5t supported the "o##yin! e$$orts o$ women's !roups to e"iminate the discriminatory aspects o$ "e!is"ation and to introduce new and creative pro!rams $or ensurin! women's equa"ity% The report was* however* si"ent on vio"ence a!ainst women% 5n the intervenin! years* a consciousness had deve"oped a#out the pervasiveness o$ vio"ence and its imp"ications $or women's equa"ity% 6%7 Canadian Panel on Violence Against &omen, 0220 4tatus o$ Women 0anada prepared the $irst $edera" p"an $or action tit"ed To#ards &*uality for !omen ,78?8-* and they identi$ied vio"ence a!ainst women as a pu#"ic po"icy issue% The report recommended that the !overnment underta.e a ma;or study on the pro#"em o$ vio"ence a!ainst women* esta#"ish a nationa" c"earin!house on in$ormation on the su#;ect* and review amendments to the 0rimina" 0ode on the o$$ence o$ rape ,Devan 788F* 322-%

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 73 Women's or!ani+ations were divided on whether women cou"d depend on the !overnment to reduce the impact o$ vio"ence a!ainst them% 4ome wanted the !overnment to esta#"ish a roya" commission to investi!ate vio"ence a!ainst women* whi"e others thou!ht that women's or!ani+ations shou"d do this themse"ves% But the 7898 @ontrea" massacre that .i""ed $ourteen women outra!ed 0anadians and "ent a sense o$ ur!ency to the issue% Thirty women's or!ani+ations* with the support o$ many units o$ provincia" and municipa" !overnments* $orma""y petitioned the $edera" !overnment to esta#"ish a roya" commission on vio"ence a!ainst women% The 0anadian Pane" on Mio"ence A!ainst Women was esta#"ished in 7887 and it su#mitted its report Changing the +andsca)e: &nding ,iolence-(chieving &*uality in 7883% The /oya" 0ommission on the 4tatus o$ Women had made "itt"e e$$ort to inc"ude racia"i+ed women in its wor.* #ut the 0anadian Pane" on Mio"ence A!ainst Women inc"uded one native woman* one immi!rant woman* and one man% 5n addition* a $our3mem#er A#ori!ina" 0irc"e was set up to act as an advisory committee and $ocus on those aspects o$ the pro#"em that most c"ose"y a$$ected a#ori!ina" women% Despite this attempt to increase the pane"'s ethnic diversity* a dispute immediate"y #ro.e out on whether it was su$$icient"y representative o$ racia" minority women and women with disa#i"ities% &urthermore* a"thou!h the pane" had o#tained the cautious support o$ Audy /e#ic.* then president o$ the )ationa" Action 0ommittee on the 4tatus o$ Women ,)A0-* there was intense dispute a#out whether the pane" was accounta#"e to the women's or!ani+ations that had "o##ied $or it or to the $edera" !overnment that had appointed it% The re"ationship o$ the A#ori!ina" 0irc"e with the pane" was not we"" de$ined: to reso"ve its indeterminate character* its mem#ers were eventua""y incorporated into the pane"% <ven more di$$icu"t to reso"ve* however* was the dispute a#out the pane"'s representation o$ women $rom cu"tura" and racia" minorities and women with disa#i"ities% The pane" o$$ered to set up an advisory committee that more accurate"y re$"ected the diversity o$ 0anadian women% Despite a "ac. o$ enthusiasm $or this initiative* it was nonethe"ess carried out% The advisory committee drew ha"$ its mem#ership $rom women with "in.s to $eminist or!ani+ations* whi"e others hai"ed $rom various environments* such as po"ice* ;udicia"* academic* and e"der"y women ,7883* B6-% But the appointment o$ the advisory #ody raised additiona" questions% The pane" was as.ed to de$ine the re"ationship #etween it and the committee% &or e(amp"e* it was as.ed: What were the Hrea" powers' o$ the advisory committee? Did it have access to

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 76 in$ormation that was co""ected #y the pane"? Did they have the power to accept or re;ect the pane"'s decisions? ,7883* B6-% The pane"'s concessions over mem#ership did not satis$y some women's or!ani+ations: consequent"y the 0on!ress o$ B"ac. women and the )ationa" >r!ani+ation o$ 5mmi!rant and Misi#"e @inority Women* a"on! with the )ationa" Action 0ommittee* re$used to participate in its proceedin!s or to support its wor. ,Devan 788F-% The pane"* however* saw the di$$icu"ties it con$ronted as #ein! endemic to a"" !overnment a!encies% 5t noted: The underrepresentation o$ minority women and women e(periencin! mu"tip"e $orms o$ oppression is a pro#"em $or a"" decision3ma.in! structures in 0anada and wi"" #e an a#idin! concern in the $uture% The Pane" cou"d not reso"ve this comp"e( issue a"one% 5t went on to add: >ur $ai"ure to reso"ve it has c"ear"y resu"ted in disarray and a sense o$ power"essness within #oth the Pane" and the $eminist community ,7883* B 6-% The pane"'s report made 686 recommendations on a wide ran!e o$ issues #ut did not prioriti+e any o$ them% 5t identi$ied pro#"ems concernin! sponsorship* immi!ration status* and the e(p"oitation o$ women who come into 0anada as domestic wor.ers% The report stron!"y re$"ected the perspective o$ activist racia"i+ed women who had #een voicin! the concerns o$ women $rom their !roups ,A!new 7889-% The report stated unequivoca""y e$$orts to overcome vio"ence a!ainst women can no "on!er #e dissociated $rom the stru!!"e a!ainst se(ism* racism* into"erance and inequa"ity ,7883* B6-% 5t noted that some peop"e thin. that vio"ence is part o$ others' cu"tures #ut ar!ued that this #e"ie$ #etrays a racist attitude: /acism* c"oa.ed in the more respecta#"e mant"e o$ Hcu"tura" considerations*' resu"ts in the stereotypes a#out vio"ence #ein! part o$ the Hcu"ture' o$ the peop"e% This can #e an e(cuse $or non3intervention within the "e!a" system and other services #ased on the misin$ormed $ear o$ inter$erin! with the practices o$ another cu"ture% Cowever no cu"tura" practices or norms can #e used to ;usti$y vio"ence ,0anadian Pane" 7883* 92-% The report $ound that there were three ma;or impediments to women who e(perienced vio"ence and sou!ht he"p $rom socia" services: racism $rom those invo"ved in service de"ivery: a "ac. o$ services speci$ica""y $ocused on their needs* even when the demo!raphics o$ the community wou"d demand such avai"a#i"ity: and the periphera" ro"e that women o$ co"or p"ay in the structurin! and de"ivery o$ mainstream services % % % A "ac. o$ specia"i+ed services "eaves

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 7B women o$ co"our iso"ated and more "i.e"y to return to the vio"ent situations $rom which they were see.in! escape ,0anadian Pane" 7883* 92-% The minister* @ary 0o""ins* responded to the report #y notin! that the !overnment wou"d adopt a +ero to"erance po"icy towards vio"ence a!ainst women* #ut she dec"ined to a""ocate any resources to the pro#"em and was consequent"y severe"y critici+ed #y women's or!ani+ations% The pane"'s report "ends su#stance to some $eminist theoretica" orientations% &or e(amp"e* identity is important #ut inc"udin! peop"e o$ diverse identities is pro#"ematic in practice and raises theoretica" di$$icu"ties% Theoretica""y* the pane" adopted an essentia"ist perspective o$ identity #y equatin! physica" attri#utes ,one man and one )ative woman- with diversity ,it a"so inc"uded* what it ca""ed* one immi!rant woman-% )everthe"ess* a"thou!h much was de#ated* no one questioned such an equation% )o one as.ed whether white women cou"d represent issues o$ racia"i+ed women or why it was necessary to inc"ude racia"i+ed women at a""% A"ternative"y* cou"d a"" the mem#ers o$ the pane" have #een #"ac. or 4outh Asian or disa#"ed and cou"d the pane" re"y on one white woman to represent her !roup? The $ai"ure to as. such questions revea"s the !ap #etween $eminist po"itics and practice and its theories% Theoretica""y* it is possi#"e to provide an answer to the di$$icu"ties o$ incorporatin! diverse individua"s and perspectives without equatin! their physica"ity with their ideo"o!y% /a+ac. reconci"es the di$$erences #etween essentia"ism and non3essentia"ism #y su!!estin! that we shou"d #e $ocusin! on the re"ationship #etween women o$ varyin! identities and accountin! $or the di$$erentia" and chan!in! power re"ations #etween them% 4ometimes $eminists* o$ a"" persuasions* mi!ht #e en!a!ed in "i#eratory po"itics #ut yet un.nowin!"y #ecome dominant and comp"icit in the su#ordination o$ others ,A!new 7889* 7B8-% The pro#"em to #e discussed was vio"ence a!ainst women* #ut it cou"d #e ar!ued that such a representation constructs women as victims% /o#erta 0"ar.e su!!ests that $eminists re$rame the issue movin! $rom women as victims ,vio"ence a!ainst women- to men as a!!ressors ,vio"ence #y men-* whi"e ho"din! states responsi#"e $or the many ways in which they support the production o$ vio"ent men ,quoted in Bacchi 7888* 7?8-% The !oa" in such re$ramin! wou"d #e to chan!e socia" structures that are comp"icit in producin! vio"ent men and to pressure

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 7F !overnments to not condone the e(cesses o$ such men: rather they shou"d initiate measures that wou"d punish them severe"y and thus deter others $rom simi"ar acts ,Bacchi 7888* 7?8-% Part ((( Citi/ens!ip The concept o$ citi+enship provides women with a way to continue with the stru!!"e $or equa"ity without !ettin! #o!!ed down #y controversies o$ identity and "ocation% Traditiona""y citi+enship has #een #ased on idea"s o$ $reedom* equa"ity and "i#erty and has #een viewed as app"ica#"e to a"" who "ive within a territory or nation% Cowever scho"ars note that citi+enship has o$ten assumed the mascu"ine* heterose(ua"* and a#"e3#odied ,amon! other thin!s- individua" as its norm there#y imp"icit"y e(c"udin! and mar!ina"i+in! others% They wou"d rather see citi+enship as #ein! mu"ti"ayered and mu"ti$aceted and Nin$"ected #y identity* socia" positionin!* cu"tura" assumptions* institutiona" practices and a sense o$ #e"on!in! ,Ouva"3Davis P Wer#ner 7886* 6-% The !oa" o$ a more inc"usive de$inition o$ citi+enship wou"d #e to reco!ni+e the many "ayers o$ di$$erences #etween peop"e and to remove $i(ed and immuta#"e #oundaries o$ otherness% 4ocia" movements such as the $eminist* anti3racist* and !ay and "es#ian ri!hts movements are demandin! a more equita#"e distri#ution o$ resources* a !reater accounta#i"ity o$ pu#"ic po"icies to their speci$ic needs* and reco!nition and responsiveness to their identities throu!h non3discrimination as $or e(amp"e at the wor. p"ace and in institutiona" settin!s% Thus i$ we $ocus on women as citi+ens we can a"so see how it intersects with other $actors o$ their identity as $or e(amp"e c"ass* a#i"ity* se(ua" orientation* and so on% Pu#"ic po"icy de#ates in the 7882s have $ocused on !ender and diversity #y identi$yin! themes such as poverty or home"essness and then e(aminin! how they impact di$$erent !roups o$ women as in .ousing 'olicy /)tions for !omen +iving in 0rban 'overty: (n (ction 1esearch 'ro2ect in Three Canadian Cities ,2227-* or #y e(aminin! the situation o$ speci$ic !roups o$ women as in First 3ations !omen Governance and the Indian (ct: ( Collection of 'olicy 1esearch 1e)orts ,2227-* and (boriginal !omen in Canada ,7889-* and women3at3ris. such as /n .er /#n: 4oung !omen and .omelessness ,2222-% 4imi"ar"y e(istin! po"icies such as those re"atin! to pension* disa#i"ity* emp"oyment equity* and immi!ration have #een ana"y+ed $or their

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 7? impact on !roups o$ women as $or e(amp"e &m)loyment &*uity 'olicy in Canada: (n Inter)rovincial Com)arison ,2222-* Gendering Immigration5Integration: 'olicy 1esearch !orksho) 'roceedings and a Selective 1evie# of 'olicy 1esearch +iterature 6789:677; ,7889-* &nabling Income: C'' <isability Benefits and !omen #ith <isabilities ,7888-% 4uch an interpretation o$ diversity ena#"es us to #e inc"usive o$ a wide ran!e o$ !roups o$ women and respond to their need #y adoptin! the !ender "ens and identi$yin! !aps in pu#"ic po"icies that detract $rom their citi+enship status% &emini+ation o$ poverty is an on!oin! concern o$ womenQs !roups and o$ pu#"ic po"icy since the 78?2s% Poverty o$ women crosses many a(is o$ oppression such as re"i!ion* ethnicity* race* disa#i"ity* a!e* and marita" status% Poor women are $ound in a"most a"" ethnic and racia" !roups* #ut some women are particu"ar"y vu"nera#"e to poverty throu!h "imited education and mar.eta#"e s.i""s* chi"dcare responsi#i"ities* and systemic #iases in the "a#or mar.et% These pro#"ems have #een e(tensive"y discussed in the "iterature* however* there are di$$erences in perspective o$ what the pro#"ems are and their so"utions% 4ome ar!ue that the pro#"em "ies in the dependence o$ women on socia" pro!rams and the need to incu"cate se"$3su$$iciency in them throu!h restrictive socia" po"icies% Cowever* womenQs !roups demand their ri!hts as citi+ens to an equita#"e share o$ the nationQs resources and the need to reco!ni+e the contri#utions they ma.e to the we""3#ein! o$ their chi"dren and thus o$ society% Davies et a"% in Social 'olicy Gender Ine*uality and 'overty ,2227- discuss the situation o$ women who re"y on socia" security pro!rams and provide an e(p"anation o$ why they are poor% They provide a !ender ana"ysis o$ socia" assistance and <mp"oyment 5nsurance po"icies #y usin! quantitative and qua"itative methodo"o!y% WomenQs poverty and there$ore their need $or socia" security pro!rams is a mu"ti$aceted pro#"em that stems $rom the !ender ideo"o!ies o$ the $ami"y that !uide the choices women ma.e $rom chi"dhood onwards a#out education* emp"oyment* marria!e* and motherhood% Gender ro"e e(pectations mean that women sometimes ma.e choices that have !rave economic consequences in "ater "i$e as $or e(amp"e ear"y pre!nancies that "ead to droppin! out o$ schoo"% WomenQs responsi#i"ities within the $ami"y ma.e it di$$icu"t $or them to see. and .eep emp"oyment% 0hi"dcare responsi#i"ities $urther s.ew the emp"oyment pattern o$ married women and .eep them trapped in "ow3paid ;o#s% Women #ecome dependent on socia" pro!rams #ut

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 79 the pro!rams may not #e particu"ar"y responsive to their "i$e circumstances% &urther the "ac. o$ avai"a#i"ity o$ supportive pro!rams "i.e daycare .eeps them trapped in poverty and una#"e to #ecome economica""y independent% The 0anada Cea"th and 4ocia" Trans$er Act o$ 788B "ed to sweepin! chan!es to the administration and $undin! o$ pro!rams and eroded some o$ the !ains women had made in previous decades% These chan!es ;eopardi+ed income security #y providin! provinces with !reater autonomy over spendin! decisions ,there#y reducin! nationa" standards $or socia" assistance- and #y "imitin! the avai"a#i"ity o$ $unds ,Davies et a"% 2227* ?3-% The consequences o$ these chan!es were di$$erent $or women than they were $or men since their responsi#i"ities $or chi"dcare and "ac. o$ avai"a#i"ity o$ daycare made it harder $or them to meet the new qua"i$yin! re!u"ations e%!%* num#er o$ hours wor.ed and supp"ementary wor.% 4ince poverty is re"ated to a "ac. o$ emp"oyment $ewer women "oo. to <mp"oyment 5nsurance ,as opposed to socia" assistance- $or surviva"% <mp"oyed women need !reater $"e(i#i"ity to quit their ;o#s ,which #ecomes necessary at times to meet chi"drenQs needs- and require more #ene$its when they are out o$ wor.% 4upportive socia" po"icies wi"" ena#"e women to $u"$i"" their !ender ro"e o#"i!ations and #ecome economica""y independent and se"$3su$$icient% The authors ar!ue that the pro#"em o$ poverty is amena#"e to reso"ution i$ pu#"ic po"icies prioriti+e womenQs needs and requirements throu!hout their "i$e% They ma.e $ar ran!in! recommendations $or introducin! po"icies and pro!rams that wou"d ensure proper education in chi"dhood and ena#"e youn! women to avoid teena!e pre!nancies and i$ pre!nant to stay in schoo"% 4imi"ar"y they recommend that pu#"ic po"icies #e desi!ned ta.in! into account the $ami"y conte(t in which women ma.e their decisions% They su!!est a need to increase the rate o$ socia" assistance so women have a #etter standard o$ "ivin!* are a#"e to improve their hea"th and we""3#ein!* reduce their stress* and enhance their a#i"ity to parent their chi"dren% The authors reiterate the recommendations o$ severa" other studies o$ the critica" need to ma.e daycare more easi"y accessi#"e and avai"a#"e to poor women there#y ena#"in! them to e(p"ore wor. and educationa" opportunities% A#ori!ina" women are the poorest o$ the poor% 0aro"yn EennyQs 3orth (merican Indian M=tis and Inuit !omen S)eak about Culture &ducation and !ork ,2222- notes that despite

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 78 much research the poverty o$ A#ori!ina" women remains endemic% 5n e(aminin! their situation severa" questions arise* are A#ori!ina" women poor #ecause o$ the intersection o$ race* c"ass* and !ender that particu"ar"y disadvanta!es them? >r is the pro#"em in pu#"ic po"icies that e(c"ude and mar!ina"i+e the women% A"ternative"y* is it the particu"ar historica" and socia" circumstance that continues to oppress A#ori!ina" women? Why are their citi+enship ri!hts not #ein! honored? What are the perceptions o$ A#ori!ina" women a#out their on!oin! poverty* "imited education and wor. opportunities? % A p"ethora o$ other studies on A#ori!ina" women #y mem#ers o$ the "ar!er society have "ed to s.epticism amon! the women a#out the va"ue o$ such research% A#ori!ina" women ar!ue that the research done on them have se"dom represented their points o$ view $aith$u""y and $ew productive and meanin!$u" outcomes have emer!ed $rom them% 0onsequent"y in an e$$ort to win over the su#;ects o$ her research Eenny scrupu"ous"y adopted the methodo"o!y recommended #y the /eport o$ the /oya" 0ommission on A#ori!ina" peop"e ,788F-% The 0ommission su!!ested that researchers respect the cu"ture* "an!ua!es* .now"ed!e and va"ues o$ the A#ori!ina" peop"e and adopt their standards $or "e!itimatin! .now"ed!e% These methods para""e" those o$ $eminists such as conductin! research in a co""a#orative way and minimi+in! power re"ations #etween the researcher and researched% 5t is important* $eminists su!!est* to identi$y the perspective o$ the peop"e invo"ved and to !ive priority to the voice or viewpoints o$ those #ein! studied% Eenny identi$ies $our primary questions: 7% 2% 3% 6% What have you e(perienced in attemptin! to advance your education and $ind meanin!$u" wor.? Cave you e(perienced con$"ict #etween rea"i+in! your wor. !oa"s and "ivin! a cu"tura" "i$e? What have they #een? What do you recommend in terms o$ po"icy chan!es that wou"d diminish these con$"icts? What do you need in a !enera" sense to support coherence #etween your cu"tura" "i$e and your wor. "i$e?

A#ori!ina" women noted emphatica""y that they did not want to #e $i!htin! the same $i!ht !eneration a$ter !eneration% Their one primary recommendation was that pu#"ic po"icies #e more sensitive and responsive to their "i$e circumstances #y a""ocatin! resources to $aci"itators who wou"d #e thorou!h"y $ami"iar with the everyday "ives and the or!ani+ations that the

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 22 A#ori!ina" women have deve"oped $or themse"ves% &aci"itators wou"d he"p the women desi!n and deve"op po"icies ,as opposed to imposin! it on them-% Cowever A#ori!ina" women wanted !uarantees o$ imp"ementation o$ po"icies they identi$y as critica" $or their we"" #ein! #e$ore they participate in any $urther research% There are seventeen other recommendations o$ varyin! nature #ut a common thread o$ empowerin! and ena#"in! A#ori!ina" women to ta.e char!e o$ their "ives runs throu!h them and they ran!e $rom #etter chi"dcare po"icies to a more appropriate educationa" curricu"um% There was considera#"e attention !iven to the inequities o$ the 5ndian Act and the need to re$orm it so that women are equa" participants in the !overnance o$ their communities% Policy and esearc! Gaps This overview documents that women in 0anada have made some considera#"e strides since the 78?2s% /ace* poverty* A#ori!ina" status* and disa#i"ity* a"on! with many other issues* continue to #edevi" the "ives o$ women% The "iterature revea"s some !aps and the need to do eva"uative studies on the po"icies made to reso"ve some on!oin! pro#"ems rather than to study the pro#"ems one more time% a% Poverty is a si!ni$icant pro#"em $or women and the de#ates on education and emp"oyment have "ed to some improvements #ut much remains to #e done% We need to identi$y throu!h eva"uation ,a- what po"icies have #een desi!ned to a""eviate womenQs poverty $or e%!%* in post3secondary education and ,#- what has chan!ed $or non3traditiona" students as $or e%!%* sin!"e mothers in he"pin! them continue with their education? Do they have access to a$$orda#"e and $"e(i#"e chi"dcare? #% Dac. o$ daycare has #een identi$ied as a critica" pro#"em $or womenQs search $or economic independence and se"$3su$$iciency% What are the myriad arran!ements women have cu""ed to!ether to meet the needs o$ their youn! chi"dren in di$$erent re!ions o$ the country* what wor.s and why? 5s there a need $or speci$ic re!iona" studies? >r #y popu"ation !roups? c% Women $requent"y wor. in the in$orma" sector ,and this trend is increasin! rapid"y-% What are some o$ the disadvanta!e women e(perience in meetin! the requirements o$

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 27 <mp"oyment 5nsurance and how can they #e amended to ma.e it more equita#"e $or a"" emp"oyed wor.ers% d% Bureaucrats and po"iticians have enthusiastica""y adopted the concept o$ diversity yet pro#"ems o$ re"i!ious* ethnic and racia" discrimination continue% What is the e(perience o$ racia"i+ed* "es#ian* and disa#"ed women with the comp"aints process o$ the Cuman /i!hts 0ommission? What chan!es mi!ht #e needed to #etter address the needs o$ racia"i+ed* "es#ian and women with disa#i"ities? e% WomenQs representation in decision ma.in! #odies is critica"% Cow can a $air process o$ se"ectin! women #e put into p"ace? 5s there a need to eva"uate current ad hoc strate!ies to #etter represent the diversity o$ women in a"" $edera"* provincia"* and municipa" decision ma.in! #odies? $% Mio"ence a!ainst mar!ina"i+ed women continues to esca"ate% Do service providers re$"ect the diversity o$ women in he"pin! women who are survivors o$ vio"ence? Cow can we #etter address the needs o$ disa#"ed women or those who come $rom minority ethnic and re"i!ious communities especia""y in she"ters $or women? !% Do dispara!in! representations o$ a#used women on we"$are or A#ori!ina" or re"i!ious minorities as $or e%!%* @us"ims "imit their access to hea"th care? Do these representations "ead hea"thcare providers to unconscious"y screen out their a#use and respond inappropriate"y? Does the disc"osure and identi$ication o$ a#use "ead to a more appropriate response #y hea"th care providers? 5s there any re"ationship #etween increased identi$ication o$ a#use and improved outcomes $or women?

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 22 eferences A!new* Mi;ay% 788F% 1esisting <iscrimination: !omen from (sia (frica and the Caribbean and the !omen>s Movement in Canada% Toronto: Gniversity o$ Toronto Press% 111% 7889% In Search of a Safe 'lace: (bused !omen and Culturally Sensitive Services% Toronto: Gniversity o$ Toronto Press% Andermahr* 4onya* Terry Dove"" and 0aro" Wo".owit+%* eds% 2222% ( Glossary of Feminist Theory% Dondon: Arno"d% Bacchi* 0aro"% 7888% !omen 'olicy and 'olitics: The Construction of 'olicy 'roblems% Dondon: 4a!e% Ba.an* A#i!ai" P Audry Eo#ayashi% 2222% &m)loyment &*uity 'olicy in Canada: (n Inter)rovincial Com)arison? >ttawa: 4tatus o$ Women 0anada% Be!in* @onique% 7882% The /oya" 0ommission on the 4tatus o$ Women in 0anada: Twenty Oears Dater% 5n Changing Times: The !omen>s Movement in Canada and the 0nited States* eds% 0onstance Bac.house and David &"aherty* 27339% @ontrea": @cGi""3Lueens Gniversity Press% But"er* Audith% 7882% Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity% )ew Oor.: /out"ed!e% 0anadian Cousin! and /enewa" Association% 2222? /n .er /#n: 4oung !omen and .omelessness% >ttawa: 4tatus o$ Women 0anada% 0anadian Pane" on Mio"ence A!ainst Women% 7883% Changing the +andsca)e: &nding ,iolence -(chieving &*uality% >ttawa: The Pane "% 0ode* Dorraine% 7887% !hat Can She "no#$: Feminist Theory and the Construction of "no#ledge% 5thaca* )ew Oor.: 0orne"" Gniversity Press% 111% ed% 2222% &ncyclo)edia of Feminist Theories% Dondon: /out"ed!e% 0o""ins* Patricia% 7887% Black Feminist Thought: "no#ledge Consciousness and the 'olitics of &m)o#erment% )ew Oor.: /out"ed!e% 0row* Bar#ara P Dise Gotte""% 2222% /)en Boundaries: ( Canadian !oman@s Studies 1eader% Toronto: Prentice Ca""% Davies* Dorraine et a"% 2227% Social 'olicy Gender Ine*uality and 'overty% >ttawa: 4tatus o$ Women 0anada% Do#rowo"s.y* A"e(andra% 2222% The 'olitics of 'ragmatism: !omen 1e)resentation and Constitutionalism in Canada% Don @i""s* >ntario: >($ord Gniversity Press% Doe* Tanis P 4a""y Eimpson% 7888% &nabling Income: C?'?'? <isability Benefits and !omen #ith <isabilities% >ttawa: 4tatus o$ Women 0anada%

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 23 Gam#"e* 4arah* ed% 2227% Feminism and 'ostfeminism% Dondon: /out"ed!e% Carasym* 4arah% 7882% The 'ost:Colonial Critic: Intervie#s Strategies <ialogues% Dondon: /out"ed!e% Cardin!* 4andra% 7889% 5s 4cience @u"ticu"tura"? 'ostcolonialisms Feminisms and &)istomologies? B"oomin!ton: 5ndiana Gniversity Press% 111% 789?% The Science %uestion in Feminism% 5thaca: 0orne"" Gniversity Press% Coo.s* Be""% 7898% Talking Back: Thinking Feminist Thinking Black% Toronto: Between the Dines% 111% 7896% Feminist Theory: From Margin to Center% 0am#rid!e* @A: 4outh <nd Press% Eenny* 0aro"yn% 2222% 3orth (merican Indian M=tis and Inuit !omen S)eak /ut (bout Culture &ducation and !ork? >ttawa: 4tatus o$ Women 0anada% Devan* Andrea% 788F% Mio"ence A!ainst Women% 5n !omen and Canadian 'ublic 'olicy ed%* Aanine Brodie* 37833B6% Toronto: Carcourt Brace and 0ompany% /eitsma34treet et a"% 2227% .ousing 'olicy /)tions for !omen +iving in 0rban 'overty: (n (ction 1esearch 'ro2ect in Three Canadian Cities% >ttawa: 4tatus o$ Women 0anada% /istoc.* Aanice and Aoan Penne""% 788F% Community 1esearch as &m)o#ering: Feminist +inks 'ostmodern Interru)tion% Don @i""s* >ntario: >($ord Gniversity Press% /othen#er!* Pau"a% 7882% The 0onstruction* Deconstruction* and /econstruction o$ Di$$erence% .y)atia B ,7-: 623B?% /oya" 0ommission on the 4tatus o$ Women in 0anada% 78?2% 1e)ort of the 1oyal Commission on the Status of !omen in Canada% >ttawa: 5n$ormation 0anada% 4ayers* Audith et a"% 2227% First 3ations #omen governance and the Indian (ct: ( collection of )olicy research re)orts% >ttawa: 4tatus o$ Women 0anada% 4e!a"* Dyn% 789?% Is the Future Female: Troubled Thoughts on Contem)orary Feminism% Dondon: Mira!o% 4mith* Dorothy% 789?% The &veryday !orld as 'roblematic: ( Feminist Sociology% Toronto: Gniversity o$ Toronto Press% 4pe""man* <"i+a#eth% 7899% Inessential !oman: 'roblems of &Aclusion in Feminist Thought? Boston: Beacon Press% 4tatus o$ Women 0anada% 78?8? To#ards &*uality for !omen% >ttawa: 4tatus o$ Women 0anada% 4tatus o$ Women 0anada% 7889% Gender:based (nalysis: ( Guide for 'olicy:Making Brevised edition 6778C >ttawa: 4tatus o$ Women 0anada%

Gender and Diversity: A Discussion Paper 26

111% 7889% Genderin! immi!ration=inte!ration: Po"icy research wor.shops proceedin! and a se"ective review o$ po"icy research "iterature% >ttawa: 4tatus o$ Women% 4tout* @ade"ine P Gre!ory Eip"in!% 7889% (boriginal !omen in Canada: Strategic 1esearch <irections for 'olicy <evelo)ment? >ttawa: 4tatus o$ Women 0anada% Weir* A""ison% 2222% &rom the su#version o$ identity to the su#version o$ so"idarity? Audith But"er and the 0ritique o$ Women's 5dentity% 5n /)en Boundaries: ( Canadian !omen>s Studies 1eader eds% Bar#ara 0row and Dise Gote""* 633B2% Toronto: Prentice Ca""% Ouva"3Davis and Pnina Wer#ner% 7888% !omen Citizenshi) and <ifference% Dondon: 2F