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Department of Aeronautical Engineering, Nitte Meenakshi Institute of Technology. Bangalore.


Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, UVCE, Bangalore.


Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, BIT, Bangalore. *Email I D: santhoshnagaraja@gmail.com

The Scenario of fuel consumption across the world is ringing alarm bells, urging us to find an alternative. The main source of fuel used today is fossil fuel. However with the rise in prices of crude oil and depletion of the resources, petroleum products are becoming increasingly difficult for an average man to afford, it has thus become inevitable to explore new possibilities in fuel production sector. Initiating from this view point various sources were looked at for production of alternative fuels .Most of the raw materials like seeds, grass, and bio mass have been in the line of successful experimentation. Hence a unique raw material that is the milk dairy wash water scum has been selected. By trans-esterification, methyl ester can be obtained from the scum which can be blended with diesel to get a new form of bio diesel. Further study of the properties of biodiesel developed and its performance characteristics when used to operate IC engines can open up new avenues in the research development and characterisation of bio fuels. Keywords: Milk Scum, Trans-esterification, Methyl ester, Performance, Engine.

Biodiesel is a biodegradable and nontoxic diesel fuel consisting of long polymeric chains of alkyl esters. Biodiesel is an alternative fuel that can be used in late-model (after 1992) diesel engines without any need to modify the engines beforehand. Biodiesel can be produced from straight vegetable oil, animal oil/fats, tallow and waste cooking oil, milk dairy wash water scum. The Milk Scum is a waste product (effluent) obtained from the wash water of the milk dairy. The Milk scum is produced by the sequential order of processes involving dairy wash water collection and its treatment in Effluent treatment plant (ETP). The biodiesel is obtained from milk scum by Trans-esterification process. Transesterification process is the reaction of a triglyceride (fat/oil) with an alcohol to form esters and glycerol. A triglyceride has a glycerine

molecule as its base with three long chain fatty acids attached. The characteristics of the fat are determin ed by the nature of the fatty acids attached to the glycerine. The nature of the fatty acids can in turn affect the characteristics of the biodiesel. During the esterification process, the triglyceride is reacted with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst, usually a strong alkaline like sodium hydroxide. The alcohol reacts with the fatty acids to form the mono-alkyl ester, or biodiesel and crude glycerol. In most production methanol or ethanol is the alcohol used (methanol produces methyl esters, ethanol produces ethyl esters) and is base catalysed by either potassium or sodium hydroxide. Potassium hydroxide has been found to be more suitable for the ethyl ester biodiesel production; either base can be used for the methyl ester. A common product of the trans-esterification process is Methyl Ester produced from oil reacted with methanol. Methyl ester is generally refined and the moisture content is driven out by successive heating. The end product thus obtained can be further blended in various volume fractions with diesel and tested for its influence on performance characteristics of CI engines.

P Sivakumar et al [1], In this work, the potential of using dairy waste scum as a feed stock for bio-diesel production was investigated. Present study optimized the parameters involved in transesterification process of Dairy Waste Scum Oil. Gas chromatography was used to determine the fatty acid composition of Dairy Waste Scum Oil. Results revealed that the low free fatty acid content was a notorio us parameter to determine the viability of alkaline transesterification. The yield of bio -diesel reached 96.7% when 1.2 wt.% of Potassium Hydroxide, reaction temperature of 75 C, 30 min of time and 6:1 Methanol oil ratio at 350 rpm. Thermo gravimetric analysis followed the evaluation of transesterification process. The analysis confirmed that bio-diesel from dairy waste scum is quite suitable as an alternative to petroleum diesel with recommended fuel properties as per ASTM standards. This new way for using dairy waste scum reduces the cost of production of bio-diesel and the problem related to the disposal of Dairy scum. Venkata Subbaiah et all [2], used Rice Bran oil as Bio -Diesel with Methanol in a single cylinder, four stroke, and DI diesel engine. When fuelled with conventional diesel fuel, pure biodiesel, a blend of diesel and biodiesel and three blends of diesel -biodiesel-methanol were studied over the entire range of load on the engine. The experimental result shows that the highest brake thermal efficiency was observed with 30% methanol in diesel -biodiesel-ethanol blends. The exhaust gas and sound reduced with the increase of e thanol percentage in diesel biodiesel-ethanol blends. The NOx and CO2 emissions increased with the increased percentage

of ethanol in diesel -biodiesel-ethanol blends. The HC emissions increased with ethanol but lower than that of the diesel fuel. Concluded that, the rice bran oil biodiesel can be used as an emulsifier to mix higher percentage of ethanol with fossil diesel to improve the performance and reduce the emissions of a diesel engine. Pugazhvadivu [3], used pongamia oil as Bio -Diesel with ethanol i n a Single cylinder, four strokes, water cooled, DI Diesel Engine. In his work, experimental investigations were carried using B25, B50, B75 and B100 biodiesel diesel blends with 5% and 10% ethanol addition. The engine performance and emission characterist ics were investigated. The thermal efficiency, NOX and smoke emissions were found experimentally. Concluded that the addition of ethanol to biodiesel diesel blends did not alter the engine performance significantly. The engine produced lower NO X and smoke emission with ethanol addition. PrommesKwanchareon et al [4], In this work, they studied the phase diagram of diesel-biodiesel-ethanol, methanol blends at different purities of ethanol and different temperatures. Fuel properties (such as density, heat of combustion, cetane number, flash point and pour point) of the selected blends and their emissions performance in a diesel engine were examined and compared to those of base diesel. It was found that the fuel properties were close to the standard limit for diesel fuel; however, the flash point of blends containing ethanol was quite different from that of conventional diesel. The high cetane value of biodiesel could compensate for the decrease of the cetane number of the blends caused by the presence of ethanol. The heating value of the blends containing lower than 10% ethanol was not significantly different from that of diesel. As for the emissions of the blends, it was found that CO and HC reduced significantly at high engine load, whereas NOx increased, when compared to those of diesel. Taking these facts into account, a blend of 80% diesel, 15% biodiesel and 5% ethanol was the most suitable ratio for diesohol production because of the acceptable fuel properties (except flash point) and the reduction of emissions. Fernando et al [5], Ethanol, which is the oxygenate in e-diesel, is a renewable fuel that reduces the dependency of non-oil-producing countries on foreign petroleum. However, a major drawback with e-diesel is that ethanol is immiscible in diesel over a wide range of temperatures. Studies have revealed that biodiesel, which is another renewable fuel, can be used successfully as an amphiphile (a surface-active agent) to stabilize ethanol and diesel. Research also has revealed that methanol-biodiesel-diesel (EB-diesel) fuel blend micro emulsions are stable well below sub-zero temperatures and have shown equal or superior fuel properties to regular diesel fuel.

Micro emulsions of certain component concentrations have shown substantially increased lubricity without compromising the cetane numbers and energy values. Despite methanol having a considerably lower energy value, cetane number, and lubricity value than biodiesel or diesel fuel alone, the heat of combustion and cetane numbers of the B-diesel blends remained steady, without significant reduction. The minimal change of the heat of combustion suggested that micro emulsions may be contributing to the overall combustion process in a positive way. This work has paved the way to formulate a new form of bio fuel blend from renewable materials, a blend that has energy values comparable to those of fossil fuels but also has superior lubricity and environmentally friendly characteristics.

Arul et al [6], An experimental investigation is carried out to establish the performance and emission characteristics of a compression ignition engine while using cerium oxide nano particles as additive in a neat diesel and diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends. In the first phase of the experiments, stability of neat diesel and diesel-biodiesel-ethanol fuel blends with the addition of cerium oxide nanoparticles are analyzed. After series of experiments, it is found that the blends subjected to high speed blending followed by ultrasonic bath stabilization improves the stability. The phase separation between diesel and ethanol is prevented using vegetable methyl ester (Biodiesel) prepared from the castor oil through trans-esterification process. In the second phase, performance characteristics are studied using the stable fuel blends in a single cylinder four stroke computerized variable compression ratio engine coupled with an eddy current dynamometer and a data acquisition system. The cerium oxide acts as an oxygen donating catalyst and provides oxygen for the oxidation of CO or absorbs oxygen for the reduction of NOx. The activation energy of cerium oxide acts to burn off carbon deposits within the engine cylinder at the wall temperature and prevents the deposition of non-polar compounds on the cylinder wall results reduction in HC emissions. The tests revealed that cerium oxide nanoparticles can be used as additive in diesel and diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blend to combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly. Alanet al [7], In this review the properties and specifications of ethanol blended with diesel fuel are discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the factors critical to the potential commercial use of these blends. These factors include blend properties such as stability, viscosity and lubricity, safety and materials compatibility. The effect of the fuel on engine performance, durability and emissions is also considered. The formulation of additives to correct certain key properties and maintain blend stability is suggested as a critical factor in ensuring fuel compatibility with engines. However, maintaining vehicle safety with these blends may entail fuel tank improve complete

modifications. Further work is required in specifying acceptable fuel characteristics, confirming the long-term effects on engine durability and ensuring safety in handling and storing ethanol diesel blends. Benson verghese Babu et al [8], Transesterification is the process of reacting a triglyceride with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to produce fatty acid esters and glycerol. It is difficult to produce ester from scum oil using alkaline catalyst (NaOH/KOH) because scum oil used is having high free fatty acid (FFA). Therefore, a two step transesterification process is chosen to convert the nonedible scum oil to its methyl ester. The first step acid catalyzed esterification reduces the FFA value of the oil to about 2%. The second step, alkaline catalyzed transesterfication process converts the products of the first step to its mono-esters and glycerol. In acid esterification, 1000 ml scum oil is heated to about 50 C; 150 ml methanol is added and stirred for a few minutes. With this mixture 2% H2SO4 is also added and stirred at a constant rate with 65 C for one and half hour. After the reaction is over, the solution is allowed to settle for 24 hours in a separating funnel. The excess alcohol along with sulphuric acid and impurities floats at the top surface and is removed. The lower layer is separated for further processing (alkaline esterification). In alkaline catalyzed esterification, the products of the first step are again heated to about 65 to 70 C. With this mixture, 6.5 g NaOH dissolved in 150 ml methanol is added and stirred for 90 minutes. After the reaction is over, the solution is again allowed to settle for 24 hours. The glycerin settles at the bottom and esterified scum oil rises to the top. This esterified scum oil is separated and purified with warm water. After washing the final product is heated up to 105 C for 10 minutes .The esterified scum oil so prepared is referred as scum biodiesel. Finally 850ml of biodiesel and 150 ml of glycerin was obtained from 1litre of scum oil.


The sequential treatment of wash water used for cleaning milk silos and other container in Effluent Treatment plant and other units such as screening chambers, fat removal unit, acid phase reactor, anaerobic sludge banker, Aerobic tank and clarifier yields Milk scum. 10 kg of overall Milk scum thus processed was collected from KMF Mother Diary, Yelahanka and heated to 100oC to drain all the moisture content away. The milk scum was then filtered to remove coarse and floating impurities. Finally after filtration process, around 6.2 litres of scum oil was obtained.


One litre of scum oil was taken for tranesterification process, which involved two major steps. In the first step known as the acid catalyzed esterification process, the scum oil was acid catalyzed to reduce its FFA (free fatty acid content) to about 2%. While in the second step, known as base catalyzed transesterification process, the products of first step were converted to its mono esters and glycerol. In acid catalyzed esterification process, 1 litre of scum is heated to 75 degree centigrade and is transferred to the round bottom flask of the esterification setup. 350ml of methanol and 10ml of sulphuric acid mixed thoroughly is added into a beaker in the setup and slowly allowed into the flask containing scum. This mixture of milk scum, methanol and sulphuric acid is stirred continuously until the FFA forms a separate top layer. Once FFAs form a separate top layer, the mixture is allowed to settle for around 12 hours and the FFA, Impurities floating on the top surface is removed. In base catalyzed esterification process, the products of acid esterification process is once again heated to 75 oC , the heated scum is then transferred to the round bottom flask of esterification setup and to this mixture, 8 g of NaOH pellets dissolved in 300 ml of methanol in beaker is added by slowly opening the valve. The mixture is then stirred until glycerine forms a separate layer, once glycerine forms a separate top layer, the mixture is allowed to settle for around 12hours and the glycerine floating on the top surface is removed. Finally 820 ml of esterified scum oil, which is nothing but biodiesel is obtained after the removal of glycerine.

The biodiesel obtained is washed 4 times with water to remove the catalyst. If clear wash water is got back it indicates that the catalyst is not present in the biodiesel. This is later heated to 100 degree centigrade to get dry biodiesel which is free from moisture .Thus neat bio diesel is obtained.

The bio diesel is then blended with the fossil diesel in different percentages as shown in table 1.The blending process was carried out with the help of a measuring jar and beaker. The appropriate percentages of diesel and biodiesel were added to the beaker and then transferred to bottle. The bottles were agitated well and were allowed to stay upside down to ensure proper mixing of fuels The bottles were stored in dry place and kept still for the next 24 hour. Blends were checked for every 6 hrs time intervals for any layer formation. All the blends were stable and passed the 24 hrs stability test and were ready to be used on engine.


The blended fuel samples and biodiesel were tested for different chemical and physical properties. The first test conducted was the flame test for the produced biodiesel to make sure that it is in anhydrous form. This test was conducted with the help of a spirit lamp to check whether it burns without sparks and with a blue flame. Second test was to find out calorific values of the blended fuel samples and also for regular diesel. This is done by testing 50 grams of fuel in a bomb calorimeter and directly obtaining the calorific value of the fuel. The next test conducted was the viscosity test with the help of a Red Wood Viscometer for the blended fuel samples as well as regular diesel to check whether they hold good for ASTM fuel standards. The fuel samples were also tested for the flash points. The results have been furnished in table 2.


In the present investigation, the characteristics of fuel are analyzed by drawing different graphs, some of the important properties like kinematic viscosity; density and calorific value of different blends on the addition of biodiesel are also studied by comparing results with that of fossil diesel and 100% biodiesels. The engine performance and emission characteristics are also discussed and different graphs showing the performance and emission characteristics are drawn and those graphs are analyzed in detail.

The kinematic viscosity of Diesel, Biodiesel and blends are shown in graph (figure 2). This test was carried at a temperature of 400oC (ASTM standard).From the graph we came to know that the viscosity of diesel-biodiesel blends were less compared to fossil diesel. And as the percent of biodiesel increases the viscosity of the blends increases slightly, but comparing with fossil diesel the viscosity of blends are very much less.

SPECIFIC GRAVITY The specific gravities of Diesel, Biodiesel and blends are shown in graph (figure 3). This test was carried at a temperature of 250oC (ASTM standard). From the graph we can conclude that the specific gravities of the blends increase with the percent volume of biodiesel. The specific gravity of biodiesel is 0.855 and it is more than fossil diesel (0.815). DENSITY

The density of Diesel, Biodiesel and blends are shown in graph (figure 4). This test was carried at a temperature of 150c (ASTM standard). From the graph we can conclude that the densities of the blends were less compared with fossil diesel as % of biodiesel increases the density increases slightly. The density of biodiesel is 848kg/m3 and it is more than fossil diesel (0.869kg/m3). CALORIFIC VALUE The calorific Value of Diesel, Biodiesel and blends are shown in graph The CV of B100was found to be 40188.58 KJ/Kg and the CV of different blends were also determined according to ASTM Standards. The CV of blends was found to be less than the fossil diesel (44515.6 KJ/KG). FLASH AND FIRE POINT The flash and fire point of B100 is 1400c and 1520c, the flash and fire point of fossil diesel was found to be 750c and 790c respectively. The flash point and fire point of blends is less when compared to the biodiesel and fossil diesel REFERENCES

P Sivakumar, K Anbarasu, S Renganathan, Bio-diesel production by alkali catalyzed transesterification of dairy waste scum, Fuel, Volume 90, Issue 1, January 2011, PP 147-151 G. Venkata Subbaiah, K. Raja Gopal and Syed Altaf Hussain, The effect of Biodiesel and Bioethanol Blended Diesel Fuel on the Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Direct Injection Diesel Engine, Iranica Journal of Energy & Environment , 1 ( 3 ) : 211 - 221, 2010.

Prommes Kwanchareon, Apanee Luengnaruemitchai and Samai Jai-In, Solubility of a diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blend, its fuel properties and its emission characteristics from diesel engine,

V. Arul mozhiselvan, R. B. Anand and M. Udayakumar, Effects of cerium oxide nanoparticle addition in Diesel and diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends onthe performance and emission characteristics of a CI engine , ARPN journal of engineering and applied sciences, vol. 4, no. 7, September 2009 S. Fernando, D e v e l o p m e n t o f a N ovel Biofuel Blend Using Ethanol-Biodiesel-Diesel Micro-emulsions: EB-Diesel, Energy& Fuels 2004, 18, 1695-1703.

5. V. Arul mozhiselvan, R. B. Anand and M. Udayakumar, effects of cerium oxide nanoparticle addition in Diesel and diesel-biodiesel-ethanol blends onthe performance and emissioncharacteristics of a CI engine , ARPN journal of engineering and applied sciences, vol. 4, no. 7, September 2009. 6. Alan C. Hansen, Qin Zhang and Peter W.L. Lyne, E t h a n o l diesel fuel blends, a review, B i o r e s o u r c e T e c h n o l o g y , 96 (2005) 277285. 7. Stern DI. Reversal of the trend in global anthropogenic sulfur emissions. Global Environ Change 2006,16(2),pp 207220.

Kinematic viscosity in cp

Figure 1 Kinematic Viscosity of different Blends



CALORIFIC VALUE (kJ/kg) 44515 43632 43193 42745 40188

DENSITY (kg/m3)


DIESEL B10 B20 B30 B100

75 76 76 77 79

844 833 834 836 868

3.8 3.3 3.35 3.38 3.8

Sl. No. 1 2 3

Bio diesel percentage 10% 20% 30%

Diesel percentage 90% 80% 70%

Notation B10 B20 B30