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3

Armenian Massacres in Akhalkalak District in 1918 and 1920.


Ashot Melkonyan


1918 1921.

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21
. , ., 1993, 266 1919-1920 .:
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24
. , , 24 , 1992, 12
25

Summary(Rus)
1918 1920 .

1918 .
. .
. , ,
35 , 80 , .
1918.
.

1921. .

Summary
Armenian Massacres in Akhalkalak District in 1918 and 1920.
Ashot Melkonyan
Having conquered Western Armenia and the Kars region in May,
1918 the Turkish troops invaded the Akhalkalak district. Georgian military
forces left the district almost without any opposition. After determined selfdefence the population was forced to leave the native land moving to the
Bakurian forests and Tsalka. In the result of Turkish raids, hunger and
epidemics out of 80.000 people 35.000 akhalkalakian refugees were killed.
Only in November and December, 1918 the refugees were able to
return to the district plundered and deserted by Turks.
In May, 1921 the Armenians of Akhalkalak underwent new
massacres as a result of the invasion by Kemalian Turks.

13

The Kemalist Policy of Extermination of


Armenians in 1920-1923. Karen Khachatryan


1920-1923 .


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2000, 101-107, , , 1:
2
, . 2, , 1958, . 725-726.
3
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4
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5
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6
. , . 3, , 1932, . 102.
7
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8
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. . , , 1998, 308-310:
10
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11
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12
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13
. . . ., 318:
14
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15
Housepian M. The Smyrna Affair N. Y., 1971: . . 1918-1923 ., , 1986:
16
, . 5, . 2, . 92, . 43.
17
, . 108, . 5:

20

Summary(rus)

1920-1923.

1919.
. .
,
.


.
1920-1923.

, ,
.
, ,
; , ,

.
.

Summary
The Kemalist Policy of Extermination of Armenians in 1920-1923.
Karen Khachatryan
From the beginning of 1919 Turkish national movement under the
leadership of M.Kemal was growing in Turkey. The programme statements of
the Kemalists showed that they would go along the path of extermination and
violent assimilation of non-turkish population of Turkey. In connection with the
Armenian people the Kemalists were direct successors of the policy of genocide
by the Ottoman and Yangturkish governments of Turkey.
In 1920-1923 the Kemalists organized massacres of Armenians in
Kilikia and Izmir, in Alexandropol, Kars, Akhalkalak districts and in Shoushy in
Armenia. As the result of Turkish atrocities about half a million of Armenians
were slaughtered, died from cold, hunger and epidemics, hundreds of thousands
Armenians were captivated, assimilated, deported by force from their native
places.
All these dont leave a shadow of doubt for the Kemalists atrocities as
politically planned and accomplished genocide.

21

The Armenian Government of Mocks


(The 15 of May 15th of July 1915) Vahan Melikyan
th


(1915. 15 - 15


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3
. , , 1947, 295:
4
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5
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6
, , 1915, 10 :
7
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8
:
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10
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11
, , 1915, 28 :
12
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13
. , 214:
14
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15
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16
, , 1991, 45:
17
7500 , , 308-310:
18
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19
, 1918, 13 :
20
. , 308-310:
21
, , 1915, 29 :
22
, 1915, 13 :
23
, 4 :
24
, , 1967, 242:
2

25

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26
, 1918, 13 :
27
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28
:
29
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30
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31
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32
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28

33

, 21-22, 24 :
. , 53:
35
:
34

Summary (rus)


(15 15 1915.).

1915 , , , , , .
,
, - , .

,
,
. -, , 14 .

Summary
The Armenian Government of Mocks
(The 15th of May 15th of July 1915)
Vahan Melikyan
After the liberation of Mocks in May 1915 the provincial
provisional administration of Van like the other districts formed a local
administration here, which was called Government of Mocks.
It account for the fact that the leaders of the heroic defense of Van
Aram Manoukian, Armenak Yekarian and the others tried to give national-civil
Character to the exclusively militarized administration creating by the Russian
command.
In complicated and tragic situation of the Armenian genocide and
active hostilities in Western Armenia, the Armenian population of Mocks
could escape mass slaughter and in a short space of time create stable and
affective civil power. After the April self-defense this administration
contributed to stabilization of military-political, administrative and economic
condition of Van. That is why it deserves a special attention among 14 districts
of Van province.

29

The Participation of Chircassian Bands in the Armenian


Genocide of 1915. Arsen Avakyan


1915.


- , , ,

,
:
1878.

:

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:

1914. ,

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30

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. (Kyama, erkez, kyama tatl
canma: Yeni nianlm var karalar balar):3 1915.
27-



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34

, 1915.

: ,
:

. 1915. ,
, 1999, . 67-86; , .,
, 2001, . 224-232.
2
Taner Akam. Insan Haklar ve Ermeni Sorunu Ittihat
Terakkiden Kurtulu Savana, Istanbul, 1999, s. 227.
3
.
, , 1997, 9:
4
Taner Akam. . ., 238:
5
Ahmed Refik Altnay. Iki Komite Iki Ktal, Istanbul,
1992, ss. 42-43.
6
Zurcher E. J. The Unionist Factor. The Role of the Committee of Union and
Progress in the Turkish National Movement 1905-1926, Leiden, 1984, p. 13.
7
Ahmed Refik Altnay. Iki Komite Iki Ktal, Istanbul,
1992, ss. 42-43.
8
, 42:
9
Falih Rfki Atay. Zeytinda, Istanbul, 1981, s. 67.
10
:
11
Ahmed Refik Altnay. Iki Komite Iki Ktal, Istanbul,
1992, ss. 42-43.
12
. 1915.
, , 1995, 22-23:
13
Ahmed Refik Altnay. Iki Komite Iki Ktal, Istanbul,
1992, s. 39.
14
(1913-1919). , ,
1995, . 405.
15
. , . 1995,
. 137-138.
16
. , , 1974, 22:
17
. , 1990, 18:
18
, 54-55:
19
(1913-1919)... . 224.
20
. , 1990, 57:
21
(1913-1919)... . 403-404.
22
, . 151, , . 482,
. 4073, 1914-17 ., . 93.
1

Summary (rus)
1915.

1915.

35

, .
1915. ,
,
.
,
.
.

1915.,
--,
.

1919-1922.

Summary
The Participation of Chircassian Bands in the Armenian Genocide of 1915.
Arsen Avakyan
The Circassian bands were the keystone of the "Special
Organisation" bands created by the branch of the East vilayets calling upon to
bring about the deportation of the Armenians from the places of habitation to
the Syrian desert. In the history of Genocide of 1915 are famous the names of
Cicrcassians Ahmet and Halil, which organised the deportation and mass
killings of Armenians from the vilayets of Artvin and Van, as well as the
assassination of Grigor Zohrab and Vardkes Serengulyan. The main role in the
mass killings of Armenians of the Erzurum vilayet was played by Circassian's
bands known by the name "Unity of Islam". In Trabzon and in vilayet had been
functioning the bands of Yaghya Kaghya and Ahmed Barutch.
More notable participation of Circassians in the history of the
Genocide of Armenians in 1915 is when by their hands Turkish authorities
brought about the mass killings of the deported Armenian population in Ras-ulAyn, Ter Zor and Shidadye.
The participation of Circassians in the Armenian Genocide were the
main reason of their mass involvement in the national movement of 1919-1922.

36

The Organization of the Russian Rule in Western


Armenia in 1915-1917. Valeri Tounyan

. 1915-1917.



.1
,
,
.
. 1915.

.
. .
. 6 1915.
.2 .
7 1915.
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. 1915-1917.

37

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49

- . , , . .
- , .

. . . ., 1965;
. . 1914-1917 . ., 1971; . . . ., 1997.
2
. . . 1991, N12, . 164, 165, 186, 187.
3
. . : . ., 1991, . 467, . .
4
. . : - . ., 1990, . 97, . .
5
, . 96-102.
6
. 1915-1916 . .
1. ., 1995, N26, . 21.
7
. . . ., 1998, . 222.
8
(
), . 113, . 3, . 1597, . 2.
9
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11
, . 3.
12
, . 3 .
13
. ., 1842, . 21, . 2, N20701.
14
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15
. . .., . 187, 188.
16
.., N63, . 181.
17
, N64, . 189.
18
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19
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20
, . 20.
21
, . 27, 27 .
22
, . 129.
23
, . 129 .
24
, . 78.
25
, . 79.
26
, . 98.
27
, . 98-100.
28
, . 2168, . 1, . 268, . 20-24.
29
.., N143, . 209.
30
. . . .,
1967, . 172, 133; . . .., . 360.
31
. 1917, 14 .
32
(
), . 1, . 2, . 13, . 18, 20, 46.
33
, . 1917, 11 .

50

34

, . 1, . 2, . 117, . 149, 150.


, . 2168, . 1, . 268, . 23 .
36
, . 27.
37
. .
. .
1967, N2, . 114, . .
38
. . .., . 149, 150.
39
. . .., . 116.
40
, . 376, . 1, . 1, . 1-43.
41
, . 2, . 3.
42
, . 13235, . 1, . 19, . 18.
43
. . .., . 44.
44
. . .., . 150.
45
. . 374, . 1, . 12, . 22; . 17, . 24-26, 66-69.
46
. . . , . 359, 360.
47
, . 374, . 1, . 21, . 13.
48
. .- . 1917, 8 .
49
, . 2100, . 1, . 1, . 37-38.
50
, . 1917, 8 , . 20.
35

Summari (arm)


1915-1917.

:
: ,
: :
1915. : :
1916. - -: 1917.
, ,
: , : 1917.
, -, , :

. 1915-1917.

51

Summary
The Organization of the Russian Rule in Western Armenia
in 1915-1917.
Valeri Tounyan
The Organization of the Russian rule in the occupied regions of
Western Armenia was ditated by the military situation and local peculiarities.
The current require-ments assisted to the establish-ment of the Vans Armenian
Administration under the leader-ship of Aram Manoukyan. The civil power was
carried out by Armenian Authorities, while the military- by Russian Officers.
The Heads of the Caucassian Army were for the creation of military rule.
In Autumn, 1915, the Rule in several occupied regions of Western
Armenia was organized by a special Instruction. The power was handed over
to the Chiefs of the military divisions, who had the rights of general-governors.
The military regional rulers were replaced by the military general governors by
Temporary Statement in June, 1916. The Temporary Government occupied
the Valleys of Alashkert, Bayazet, 1917, expanding the Russian boundary
towards the depths of the Asian Turkey. The regions of Van, Erzrum and Bitlis
were recognized as regions of Western Armenia. In September, 1917 the
Governing Statement of Western Armenia was put in action, due to which the
general-commis-basis of 3 units: Erzrum, Van and Khnus.

52

The Armenian Genocide and the Attitude of the Triple Agreement


Powers in 1915-1916 Lilit Hovhannisian


1915-1916.

,
,
: , , ,
,
, :
1915-1916. :
,
1.5 ,
:
:
200 ,
,
:


,
, :
, , , , :1

1915-1916.

53


:2
, : ,
,


:3
, , ,


:4 , , , -, , ,
, ,
: ,
, ,
:5

:


, 1915. 7-
5- ,
- , .
:
. :6 ,


,

54

:
, . , :7 4- 5-
,

:8
, , , ,

: , ,
: : , , ,
, :
, ,

: ,
,
, , ,
:

:9 :10 150 :


: ,
, : , : , 1915. 24- ,
: -

1915-1916.

55

. , :
, , , , , , : :
:

:
, ,
. , , , :11
,
:

, 1915.
, 1894-1896. ,
:
:
:
,
:

, ,
, ,
, :
1916. : , -- .
: , -

56

:12 , :
, ,
20 (
-
:


,
, :13
,

, :


, :14 : ,
1915. 18- .
, , ,
:15 ,
, ,
:
, 1915. ,
1916.
,
:

, :
,

: ,
1915. , .
:16 , -

1915-1916.

57

: :
- : 1915.
1- , - , , , -
: -
:
1915-1916.:
, , , , ,
:
1915-1916. ,

: , :

(
, . 422, . 1, . 824, . 55:
2
, . 282, . 1, . 40, . 2, 4, 5: . 1915 ( , , , 1930 , 33:
j,!=*% d. q. , 1989, 182:
3
. 57, . 5, . 96, . 26-47: Bryce V. The Treatment of Armenians in
the Ottoman Empire, 1915-1916. Documents presented to Viscount Grey of Fallodon,

Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs. With a Preface by Viscount Bryce, Laid Before
the Parliament as an Official Paper and Now Published by Permission, London, 1916,

638: , ,1996, 10-36:


4
(1913-1919).
. . .
, , 1995, . 16.07.1915, R 14086, Ab. 22101 ,
. 05.08.1915, R 14088, zu Ab. 28584, . 10.18.1915 ( 1), .
03.09.1915, . 06.09.1915, Konst. /Ankara, 170, Ab. 53a.

58

Deutschland und Armenien 1914-1918. Sammlung diplomatischer Aktenstucke.


Herausgegeben und eigeleitet von Dr. Johannes Lepsius. Potsdam, 1919, 96-97:
. .
, 1915. . , 1991, 68:
. .
2- . ., . 1,
, 1991, 102:
6
, . 57, . 5, . 26, . 34-35, 37, 38, . 28, . 156-157, 159-160:
7
. 1915-1923, , 1994, 74:
8
:
9
Les Grandes Puissances, Lempire Ottoman et les Armeniens dans les archives
Franaises 1914-1918, documents runis et presentes pur Artur Beylerian. Paris, 1983,
67:
10

1828-1923, ( .,
, 1972, . 215, 376-377: . . ., 75:
11
:
(. , ,
1991, 727:
12

, . 216, 377-378: , . 197, 499:
13
. . ., 83-84:
14
, . 198, 500:
15

, . 218, 379-380:
16
. 1914-1916., , 1967, 414-415:

Summary (Rus)

1915-1916.

, 1915-1916.
. , - .

.
,
. ,
.
24 1915
.
. , .
,
, , , , .

1915-1916.

59

Summary
The Armenian Genocide and the Attitude
of the Triple Agreement Powers in 1915-1916.
Lilit Hovhannisian
It is well known, that the Armenian Genocide in 1915-1916 was
carried out under the direct guidance of the Young Turk Ittihadist government.
The criminal policy of the Turkey was supported by its allies in World War I Imperial Germany and Imperial Austria. Their reprehensive behaviour was
skillfully used by England, France and Russia to win the public opinion over
Triple Agreement Powers. It was highly important for them to influence on the
American public opinion to involve the neutral USA into the war against
Germany and its allies. At the same time it was no less important for England,
France and Russia not to lose the support of the Armenians towards them in the
war.
On May 24, 1915 the Triple Agreement Powers declared that they
blamed the Genocide of Armenians. It was the first time, that the Great Powers
had admitted and declared the Armenian Genocide a crime against humanity
and civilization and put all the responsibility of the Genocide on the Turkish
Government. Unfortunately, the policy of Allies didnt go beyond the
mercenary purposes they aimed and successfully achieved.
The facts, given in this article, bring us to a conclusion, that the
prevention of crimes like Genocide is possible only by understanding and
appreciating mutual interests and the persistent and successful realization of the
corresponding international juridical and political norms.

60

For Sources of Historiography of Genocide of the Armenians


1915-1916 years. Mher Karapetyan

1915-1916.

. ,
, , , , , , : , ,
,
,
, ,
:

, , ,
: -
, ,
, ,
, 1915-:
, , :1

, . ,
: , .


: . ,
:
. 2, . 3, . 4, . 5,
:

1915-1916.

61


-6,

:
,

, ,
,
, , :
, ,
,
, , - :7 , ,
, , , ,
,

: , , , - :8
, , , ,

, ,
, - , ,
, ,
: ,

,
:

, : :

62

,
1868-1870 :9 ,
, 1870-1877. , , ,
. , , ,
, :10


( , ,
:
- , , , , , , , :11
, ,

, . :12
. 1.
, , 2.
, 3.
:13

,
: , .
,
: , , :14
, , , , ,

,
, :

1915-1916.

63


, , ,
, :15

- ( - :16 , , -
1915- , ,
:

, :
22 ,
( , - ,
, , ,
1912: :
, , :
, -
, , , ,
, , :

:
-:17 . . ,
24- :
, - ,
, , , , , , ,
: ,
, :
, . ,
95 -

64

:

,
, :18
.
, :
. ,
14
,
:
, , ,
, , , , , ,
, , ,

:
, , , , -,
, :

- 19, , ,
, , :
. , : , , ,
,

, , , ,
:

20
, , : . - :

,
: -

1915-1916.

65

.
, 1914-1918. :
: ,
, :21

-
: ,
,
:
: . [ - . .]
,

, ,
:22 ,

, , ,
:
,
, ,
:23 , , 1916- , :
. , , ,
7-8 , ,
:24
: .
200000
, 56000- :

,

:25
( : , , ,

66

, , 1919-, 4- ,
:26
761 , :
, , , , 1939-, :


:
,
, :27 (1915-1918
, .
, ,
, ,
,
:
-, ,
, .
- :
, ,
, : ,
, ,
,
:
, , . 250 , , ,
, , , ,
,
:
8126 ,
:
, ,
28,
-

1915-1916.

67

:
, . , , , , , , , , ,
,

, , :29
.
, . 1.
20-46 ,
, 2.
,
3. , 4. , , 5. :
,
,
1915 7-

, :30
:
1915. : , ,
. 1.
,
(
, , , . 2.
,
, 3.

:31 , ,
, -

68


:

, ,
-: ,
: , , ,

, , , , , , , , :
1916-

, ,
1918-:
:
, :
32 . , , , 1
, :

:33
1913-1916. -
- ,
. , 1919-:34

. - :35

, - ,
,
, 1919-:36
,
, :

1915-1916.

69

. , , 1915:
2
. , , 1915:
3
- . , ,1916:
4
. ,. , 1920:
5
. , , 1921:
6
. ( ,
, 1916:
7
. ., 5:
8
. ., 6:
9
.. ., 19:
10
. ., 21:
11
. ., 28:
12
. ., 42:
13
. ., 44:
14
.. ., 65:
15
. ., 66:
16
-. 1914-1915., , 1917:
17
. , . , 1920:
18
. . ., 150:
19
- . . (19141915, , 1920:
20
. .
, , 1921 ( 1919-:
21
, 1965., 234-235:
22
. ., 23:
23
. ., 39:
24
. ., 56:
25
. ., 243:
26
. , . , 1919:
27
. , , . . -, , , . , 1919:
28
. . ( , . , , 1922, , , 1959:
29
. ., 57-58:
30
. ., 70-71:
31
. ., 111-113:
32
. , , . , . , 1919:
33
. (1915-1916, . , 1919: , . , ., ., 1920:
34
, , , 1919:
35
. : - , . , ., 1919
36
., . , . . , ., 1919:
1

70

Summary (rus)


1915-1916 .

- ,
, .
.
, , - ( -), , -, , ( ), ,
, ,
. , ,
.
. , . , . , . , .
, . ,

.

Summary
For Sources of Historiography of Genocide of the Armenians
1915-1916 years.
Mher Karapetyan
Some historico-practical analysis of a number of memoirs and
historicographical studies, written and published immediately after tragical
events, with fresh impressions are undertaken in this article. From this point of
view the similar transactions represent authentic documentary value and are a
source of huge facts for the consequent explorers.
The transactionses of Tigran Andreasyan, Archbishop Mushegh
(Hovannes Der-Martirosyan), Sepuh Akouni, Egishe Der-Parsamyan, Aram
Antonyan, Teodik (Teodoros Lapchinyan), Hayk Achemyan, Grigoris Palakyan
are considered, in which in this or that measure the basic reasons of genocide of
the Armenians, the program of young turkish of beating the Armenians are
revealed, the methods and forms of accomplishment of this program are
depicted. The simultaneously indicated writers push problems of the
responsibility of the parties in fault of genocide, implication in a crime of the
great powers, the false version of the turkish falsificators about imaginary revolt
of the Armenians in disallowed.
The general features present transactions of a number of the Russian
and foreign writers A.Mandelshtaim, I. Lepsius, J. Brays, G. Morgentaw, G.
Givonsa, P. Pinona, who in miscellaneous times were translanted into the
Armenian language and had a reference value for the consequenr Armenian
writers.

71

The United States Press Coverage of the Armenian


Genocide (1915-1917). Tigran Zakaryan


(1915-1917.)

-
1915-1916. : - , ,
,
:
- ,
, : , -
1917- , , :
-
(.
, ), , , , , , : , . . ,
() , :
- .
,
:
- :
,
, -
,
:

72


. . -
(1915-1922 ,1 - :
, ,
- ,
:
-
, -
:
( - :
:
- - ,
: ,
, :
- - ,
: 1914. ,
:2 1915.

:3 1915-
,
: , , , ,
, , , :4
24- 25- . - - :

: - , , : ,
, 28- .
, . 100-

:5

(1915-1917.

73

, 1915- - ,
: , ,
,
:
1915. - -
, ,
: 23-
,
, :6
: 4- - - , , .
:7
,
, , :
- , : ,
,
.
: -
- : , ,
, , , - :
1915. -
: ,
. : , 1915.
10- .
: [] , .
:8
. 16- .
,
,
:9
, -

74

: 14- - . ,
- :10 19-
, , . , ,
,
,
, ,
, ,
:11
, ,
- : 1915.
: - -
. 550 000 - , , , :12 - : , - -
25- , -

. : ,
:13
1915. - (Armenian Atrocities
Committee),
, 4-
: , - .
1915. : , , , , :14 ,
,
, - , , :
,
: .
- 1/3-
1915. - :15

(1915-1917.

75

,
:

,
, :
28- - - -


, , , , ,
:16 29- ,
.
:17
( ,
: , , , :18
8- , ,
. 1915. 9- .
, ,
:19
9-, -
,
. -
, , :
,
: ,
,-
:20
- - 13-

, ,

-
: 800000 :21
,

76

, : ,
, ,

:
15- - -
- ,
:22

17- : ,

, , , :23
: - - 18- - , :
, , ,
:24
: -
- 1915. 22- ,
- . , : , - , ,
: , - , - :25
25- - -

:
,
,
: , , :26
- - :

(1915-1917.

77

30- ,
: , , : .
:27 ,

,
. :28
5- - - . , .
, - :29 -
,
. . : , 7- , 30 000 , 8- , . 100 000 :30
- -

: 18- , -
: :31
1- , 30 , ,
,
, ,
,
:32
14-
( ,
, )
- , :

:33
- - : , , , , ,

78


: 7- ,
800000 :34
22- ,
( . ) 850 000
, 200 000- :35
- - 1915. 15-
, , ,
:36
1916. 10- ,
,
, :37

- , , : , 1915. 8- ,
, :38 10- . :
, , - ,
:39 -
- 1915. 16-
, -

, . , -
:40 - , 1915. 23- - 9- , ,
,
8-, 2,5 :41
1915. 23- ,

, ,
, :42
- - 1916. 18-
. , , -

(1915-1917.

79

, . , ,
: ,
-
:43
, - -, , , :
: - -,
, , , :
1915.
(The Missionary Review of the World) , , :44
,
: 1915. 18- (The Outlook) :
, :
:45
- :
1915. 27- (The Independent)
,
, : ,
, -
:46
(The Outlook) 1915. 29- , ( - )
, : ,
:47
-

80

: , . , - (The Literary Digest), 1915. 350 000 :48 1915-


800 000:49
- 1916. 20- .
,
,
10%- , 1 : ,
, 900 000 :50
- (The Saturday Evening Post) 1916.
5- , 1,5 :51
1916. - -
, :

,
- -
(Current History) (1916. ), (The
Living Age) (1916. 5): 1916. (The Athlantic Monthly)
, , , , , ,
, , : , , ,
: ,
,
: ,
:52
-
: , 1915. 29-
- ,
- , ,
,
, , .

:53 1916. 5-

(1915-1917.

81


-
, - ,
-
:54
1915. 18-
, , . -, ,
, -
:55 1917 1918. , , , , - :
, , 1915-1917. ,
, .
) -
,
, , ,
:
) - 1915.
- , ,
: , , -
,
-:
) -

:
, , , . : ,
:

Richard D. Kloian. The Armenian Genocide: News Accounts from the American
Press (1915-1922), Berkeley, 1985:
2
, 2:

82

, 3:
, 4, 7.
5
Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1915, Supplement, the
World War, Washington, 1928, file no 867.4016/58.
6
Richard D. Kloian. . ., 14:
7
, 23:
8
Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1915, Supplement, the
World War, Washington, 1928, file no 867.4016/74.
9
, file no 867.4016/74.
10
, file no 367.116/341.
11
, file no 367.116/341.
12
Richard D. Kloian. . ., 30, 31:
13
, 36:
14
Revue du monde armnien moderne et contemporaine, tome 1, Paris, 1994. Sarafian
A. The Paper Trail, the American State Department and the Report of Committee on
Armenian Atrocities, p. 127.
15
Richard D. Kloian. . ., 17:
16
, 42:
17
, 47-48:
18
, 47:
19
Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States, 1915, Supplement, the
World War, Washington, 1928, file no 867.4016/173.
20
Richard D. Kloian. . ., 63:
21
, 72:
22
, 74-75:
23
, 78-79:
24
, 84:
25
, 87:
26
, 88:
27
, 48:
28
Lowry H. The Story Behind the Ambassador Morgenthaus Story , Ankara, 1990.
29
Richard D. Kloian. . .- 56, Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the
United States, 1915, Supplement, the World War, Washington, 1928, file no
867.4016/218a.
30
Richard D. Kloian. . ., 62:
31
, 82-83:
32
, 106:
33
, 108:
34
, 61:
35
, 86:
36
, 124:
37
, 140:
38
, 63:
39
, 66-67:
40
, 75:
41
, 126:
42
, 88:
43
, 140:
44
, 17:
45
, 25-26:
46
, 40:
47
, 43-46:
48
, 51-52:
3
4

(1915-1917.

83

, 93-105:
, 199-201:
51
, 130-133:
52
, 190-193:
53
, 43-46:
54
, 151:
55
, 80:
49
50

Summary (rus)

(1915-1917.).

(19151917.)
. .
.
.
, .

Summary
The United States Press Coverage of the Armenian Genocide
(1915-1917)
Zakaryan Tigran
The research on the US press coverage of the Armenian Genocide
enables to make clear the attitude of the US government and the public opinion
on the Armenian Genocide. The American press made use of different sources
for covering the Armenian Genocide events in 1915. This makes it a
frustworthy and valuable record of the Armenian Genocide. The article reviews
materials of the American press in chronological order, paying special attention
to outstanding dates and periods. On the whole the US press attitude on the
Armenian Genocide was neutral.

84

The Academician M. Nersisyan and the Problems of Studying


of the Armenian Genocide . Norair Sarukhanyan



,
:
1930- ,
:
,
, , , ,
: , -
, 1920-1930-

- : ,
-
, :



,
- 1928-1929., , ,
, , , 1950
-

. .

85

:
, , :
,
, , -
, ,
:
. 1850-1870. :1
,
1946
1955 , :
, ,
,
-
, , :
.

,
:
-
. , , . ,

:
- ,
. . 1900-1917.
,
, , 1915-1916. : 1960- 1862. , , -

86

:
50- 1966-, .
(
2, 2- :
,
, , : - ,
- :
,
, ,

:

,
: ,
, : ,
1806-1812, 1828-1829, 18531856, 1877-1878. - : (

:

, :

,
, : -
-

. .

87

:
,
, , :
3
( . :
, , , 20- :
.
, ,
, , , ,
:

. .
1850-1870., , ., 1955, 531 :
2
. . .
. . . ., . ., . ., , - . , 1966, 561 .
3
. . ( , , ., 1998, 343 :

Summary (rus)

.



. . . ,
,
,
II . , ,
( . 18901870., , , ..). .

88

2- XX .

Summary
The Academician M. Nersisyan and the Problems of Studying
of the Armenian Genocide.
Norair Sarukhanyan
Tne movement for freedom of the Armenian people against the
Turkish yoke and the Genocide of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire is one of
the main components of the Academician M. G. Nersisyans historical
inheritance. Deeply and comprehensively analysing the leading trends of the
movement for freedom and its ideology, the Scholar worked out a proposed and
substantiated concept of the movement for freedom. In his works M. G.
Nersisyan highly appreciated the activites of the democratic oriented members
of that movement, and enriched the concept of the Russian orientation of
Armenians. In his works The Struggle for Freedom of the Armenian Nation
against the Turkish Despotism, 1850-1870, The Genocide of Armenians in the
Ottoman Empire, The Falsifiers of History and i.g., M. G. Nersisyan
exposed the distortion of Turkish and some Western historians, concerning the
struggle for freedom, the situation of the Western Armenians and the policy of
the Genocide of the Turkish Government during the reign of Abdul Hamid II
and the Young Turks. There are various articles, collection of documents and
materials published by M. Nersisyan; Papers from the New History of the
Armenian people, devoted to the problems of the Armenian Question and the
Genocide of Armenians. The works of M. Nersisyan had an essential influence
on the research tendency of the Armenian Historiography of the II half of the
XX century.

89
. ,

The Armenian Genocide in Policy of Russia.


Conceptions and Reality. Armen Maroukian


.


,

:
:

, ,
:
: 1915. 26-

,
,

,
,
:1
,
:
, :2

,
, :3 ,

, , -

90

. ,

, , ,
:

, , , : ,

, , , : ,

.
,
, ,
: :4
,
:
, , ,
, : 19141918.

,
,
: ( -
, ,
:5 , ,
,
:
,
:

:6
, ,
, :
, ,
:

91

, : , : , ,
, ,
, , :
:
, , , : ,

, , - : - ,
, , ,
, , :

:
, :

: ,
, , , ,
:
, , 1914.
26- -
: , , , ,

7 , ,
,

, , , ,
:
1914. 26- -
-

92

. ,

, , .

:
, :
,
:
1. .
.
: 150 000 ,
: , :
, ,

, :8 . , ,


: .
. ,
, ,
, , :9
:
. ,
:
,
,
,
, , :
, , : ,
, :10 , , , , : , , , -

93

:
2.
,

: . . - , ,
: : , , : :11
,
- 1915. 5- , .
,
, ,
- :12
,
- ,
: ,
-
, ,
,
, :
, :
3. , :
,
, :

, , : ,
:
. , ,
, ,

94

. ,

, : ,
, :13 ,

: ,

, : ,
,
,
,
, , , ,
:
,
,
, , :

, , : , . ,
, ,
:
,
, :
, ,
:

:
-
, ,
:
,

, :
, , , :

95


, , ,
, , :
,

, , , ,
, , :


, , ,
,
: ,
, , : ,

1914. 26- - ,
, , :

:
,


:
,
,

:

, 1915. :
[1915. 24- ,
- . .]
,
[ - . .]

:14 , ,
,
: ,

96

. ,


, , ,

:
, ,
, ( ,
,
: ,
- ,
, :
:15 ,
,
:
, , :
- :

,
, , :
, , , , :

,
,
: , :
,

,
( : , , , , : .

,
- :
, 1914. 26- .
-

97

, - , ,
, :

1915. , : , 1915. 24- : 1916.
: ,
,
: , 1916.

:
, , ,
:
,
:

: ,

, - , , : , :

, ,

:
: :
, ,
, , , :
,
-,
, -

98

. ,

, :16 :17 -
, , ,
:
,
:
,
: 1914-1916 .
, 1917 , ,
:18

II-, ,
:

:19 ,

, :
, : , ,
, :20
:
,
,
,
-- :
, ,
: , ,
, , ,
,
:
, -

99

:
,
, :
, .
, :
:

:
1916. ,

, :21
, , , :
.
: , . ,
: ,
: , , ,
,
:
, ,
: , , , :
, : - , ,
:22
, : ,
:

100

. ,

(,
,
, , , , , : , , ,
, ,
1914. 26- - :

:
1916.
. ,
, ,

,
: ,
: , ,
, ,
, :23 ,
, , : ,
,
, :
,
: , ,
:
: ,
.
, ,
,
:24 ,

101

, , (
:
( ,

:
, , ,
, , , :

, , ,
:
,
:
, :
, ( , , , :
, ,

, , , ,
, : , ,
:
,
: ,
: , ,
:

, ,
:25
, , , , ,
, ,
: -

102

. ,

, ,
: :
, ,
- , ,
- :26
1913.
28-
, ,

(, : ,

:27
1913. ,
1914. 26- ,
:

: , , ,

, :
, :
, ,
,
:
, ,
,
, ,
:
,
, : ,
, :

:

. . ,
., 1990, .18.

103

, 19:
. , ., 1965, 78:
4
, 83:
5
. . ? . 1998, . 20.
6
, 22:
7

. ., ., 1972, 349-350:
8
. 1914-1917, ., 1969, 243:
9
. , ., 1965, 78:
10
. ,
., 1971, . 412.
11
, 415:
12
. 1914-1917, ., 1969, 270:
13
. ,
., 1971, . 418.
14
. . - ,
., 1990, . 2.
15
. , .,
1965., 89:
16
. . 1914-1917., ., 1971, . 316.
17
:
18
, 366:
19
, 316:
20
. . 1914-1917, ., 1971, . 319.
21
. , . 414:
22
, 415:
23
. . , . 314.
24
. , . 207.
25
. , . 207.
26
, 208:
27
, 136:
2
3

Summary (rus)

.
.

.
,
,
, - , .
,
, .
,
. ,
.
, . , -

104

. ,

,
.
1915-1916 .
, .
: .
, .

Summary
The Armenian Genocide in Policy of Russia.
Conceptions and Reality.
Armen Maroukian
The Soviet historiography had stereotip approaches to Armenian
question and Armenian genocide. In the biginning policy of Russia not only in
Armenian genocide, but also in Armenian question was priced as absolute
good, because Russia was regarded the saver of small peoples and particulary
Armenian people from Turkish domination.
Subsequently this approach was revised under the ideological
influence and was priced as absolut evil. That was the other extremity.
At last time it was in circulation the other opinion , according to which Russian
policy to armenian people was pricing as the smallist evil during armenian
genocide years. This position was followed comparing the policy of Russia with
policy of other great powers in Armenian question.
In our time these questions are escape from ideological and political stereotips.
According to new opinion, which is more objective than the others ones, the
interests of Russia were conceded with aspirations of armenian people, therefore
Russia had drived great partly proarmenian policy.
The policy of Russia during the Armenian genocide in 1915-1916
was not simple, it had many ascillations and zigzags. It was explaned of
political fighting of two tendencies in russian government: proarmenian and
antiarmenian. The policy of Russia was depended on victory of one of these
tendencies in the definite historical time.

105
. ,

Testimonies of the Armenian Genocide Eye-Witness


Survivors as Historico-Factual Documents. Verjine Svazlian





, ,

:
, , , ,

- ,
:
1956 , ,
, 1960 , 1996 - ,
(
-
, , 70
,
550 - (600 , - , :

106

. ,


, 1915 .
, (1921 .
(1922 . :
, , ,
: . , , , , , , ,
(, , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
, , , , ,
, :

: ,
: :
, , , , , ,
, :
,
,
:
, ,
, : , -
,
:
-
, , , - , , (,
, (, , -

107

, , , , , ( , , , ,
,

(1915 . , ,
-, , , ,
1920-1921 . , , ( ,
, ,
, ,
, ,
, , ,
:
(290 , :
- ,
, , ,
, , (, , ,
-, , ,
:
, ,
, , ,
, ~, :
:
,
:
,
, , - , ,
:
, , ,
, ,
: -
: , ,
:

108

. ,

:
, (,
, , ,
, ,
, , , , :

,
-

:
85 , - - , , , , (transformation , :
(50
, ,
:
(310 ,
, , ,
, , , :
, :
,
, :

, , ,
(, , , :1 . , , : ,

109

:2 ,
, , , ,
:
(. 1904 , ,
, ,
: ,
:3
,
,
:
(
,
, ,
: , ,
:
1956 -
(. 1888., .

, , , :
. ,
, : , . ,
~ : , , : - .
[ . .] - ,
- . : . - , . :
: -
:4
1956 ,
, , .
-
,
.
:5

- ,
,
.
:5


,
,
.
:6

,
,
.
:6

110

. ,

, , :
,
, :
, -

, , :



: , ,
, :

. , -, 1934,
698:
2
. , . ., , 1953, 5:
3
. . , ,
1995, 133:
4
, 38:
5
.
, , 1997, 13:
6
. . , , 2000, 419:
1

Summary (rus)


- .

,
. , , -
.
1956 , , ,
,
( ),
- 70 ,
.
.
-

111

, , , , ,
, -, , , (1920-1921 .)
.
-
, ,
, .

Summary
Testimonies of the Armenian Genocide Eye-Witness Survivors
as Historico-Factual Documents
Verjine Svazlian
During the past years, interest toward the fatal events of the Armenian
Genocide has grown, especially when Turkish historiographers obstinately tried
to distort the true historical facts. In this respect, the popular songs and memoirs
created under the immediate impression of the said events are, besides the
official published documents, of an exceptional historico-cognitive value; in
spite of their importance, however, they had almost not been recorded and
studied until recently.
Since 1956, by our own initiative, we have inscribed oral memoirs
and folk songs of historical character (in Armenian and Turkish languages) in
Armenia and partly in the Diaspora; they have been narrated and sung by
Armenian repatriates, representatives of the senior generation of eye-witnesses,
miraculously saved from the Genocide and deported from 70 localities of
Western Armenia, Cilicia and Anatolia. In the process of recording the
materials, we have tried to be faithful to the oral speech of our 550 narrators and
to the specific dialect of their language .
These factual documents truthfully depict the mobilization, the armcollection, the mass exile, massacre and slaughter organized by the government
of Young Turks, as well as the heroic self-defensive battles of Van, Sassoun,
Moush, Shatakh, Shapin-Garahissar, Moussa Dagh, Urfa and later (1920-1921),
of Ayntap and Hadjn.
The presented oral testimonies, which have been inscribed (written
down, audio- and video-recorded) word by word, fragment by fragment in the
course of 45 years, are, by reason of their originality and historical value,
unique factological and documental evidences reflecting, in a simple folk
language, the tragic events of the Armenian Genocide.

112

Quantities of the Armenian Population in some of the


Kazas of the Province of Erzerum (1914-1915). Gegham
Badalyan




1914-1915.


, 1914. 1
,
, : 25-26-
,
:2 , , , 3, 1915. : (
, .

, ,
, ,
1915. (, , , :
, 1914-1917., , (, ,
: ( ,
: :

113


1915. 30-
1916. 14- 4, ,
:
, , ,

, ,
, : ( . . - 5, , ,
, , , , - :
, , , ,
: ,
1912-1914. ,
: , : , 1914.
11 :6 ,
.
- ( -
, (, 1912
, ,
1909. ,
( 1890- .- 1908-1909.: , , , , :
,
,

114


- : 1914. (. . : , ,
, 1915. 30-
( ,
-: 7
12890 (1545 :8
, 692
( , , ,
:9 , 1914. ,
1545 13.6 : , , 1915. 30- ( :
, , 1914. - ,
: , 1914. 190-195 ,
1915. 30- 174- (
20 10.2%: , 1914. 132 120- (. 12 9.1 %, 130 89- (. 41 31.5% :10 ,
110 (
1000 :11 , , ,
14.6 : ,
15.5
( :12 ,
( : ,
, - ( 18 97 ,
, 23 13,
0.8% : ( ,
, 9 ,
-, 3.4 :14
15.5
: 1912. ( 1330 , ,
(nfus-i umum , 10
15, -

115

, ,
(, . - .
:
, ,
: ,
: ,
16740 (1772 :16 ,
.
. 1992.

,
:
: -

: 1772 ( ,
57:17
, - : ,
16740 ( ,
. ,
: 1909., ,
- : ,

,
, 1912-1913.
:
, (,
,
1915. 30- :
15 ,
( .:18
30- 1476
12.4 : ,
1400 , 640- ,
700- - : , 1914. 15 13.8 : 11 : -

116

, 2.8 25.5%-:
, , 1908-1914. : , , ,
1914. 21 :
, 2
: , 1914. 18-19 ( - 16-, 23- :
, ,
- , 5 , , ,
(:
: 5- , (
-
, : 1914. ,
23760 (3245 : , ,
2280 , , ,
:19 ,
3245 26040 : 1912.
13412 :20 , ,
,
:

: , , 25211
( 26251 :21 , ,
27.4 (27393:22 ,
1914. ,
:
: ,
, , , (
: 4
, , 20120 (2725 , 2115 :23
2725 22235 :

117

,
:
. (
380 24 :25
. , ,
( -
, , : 53
(500 + 114 =614 , 63 (660 + 105 =765
:26 ,
: ,
. ( - ,
1914. ( 90
:27 ( 11.6 ( ,
- ..,
1000 : -,
1252 (161 ,
. 1700 (178 :28 ,
, , 1500 :
1915. 30-
50%- (
61%- - 44%- ( 51%-: ,
1340 ,
( 220- 116 : ,
1120 : ,
(, , , -
29, ,
:
. 1914.
3 (30, , , ,
(
150 ( :
. , , 1914.
( :
2
( 7- , (
(2-3 , (9 - (10-12
170 ( - ..: 4-,
(, , ,
, :
, ,
-

118

1915. 28- 5 , :31 ,


1915. 15
:32 1914. 4 :
, 1914.
50 ( 350 33,
35-: , , , ,
1914.
250 :34 , ( 7

420-450 : , 35,
2.5 -2.6 , 2 :
. , , ( 1914. (
3650-: 4 20120 , 2115 , , 25.9 :
,
3.8 (3798 520 :36
, 3 (, , : ,
( 37,
570-770 : , ,
( ( . 65 38: 30.01.1915. , :39 : ,
(
. : 4886 , 4582
:40
4.7 4.8
: 1912.
2619 :41 , , 1914. 30.7
, 17 (129 %--sic! 1912. :
.
. 1914-1917.
-

119


:
. , , , , :

:
. ,
: , , , , :

,
(..:
2

, 28, 1, N
128, 73-75 ( : -.
1914-1915 , , 1917, 107:
3
- , , , 1915, N 61, , 1:
4
. , , (, , .) 19141915., , 1915: , . 28, . 1, . N 132, . 30-35: , , - , . N
839/176, . 1-5:
5
Kemal H. Karpat. Ottoman Population. 1830-1914. Demographic and Social
Characteristics, Madison, Wisconsin, 1985. J. McCarthy, Muslims and Minorities. The
Population of Ottoman Anatolia and the End of the Empire, New York-London, 1983.
6
, N 276:
7

24-:
111 (17 : , . 44/45:

. .:
. .:
10
. , ,
N 273, 2: 11 , , N
276, 3: , . 28, . 1, . 128, . 74:
9

11

, ( 8.8 ( - . .:
12

, . ., . 11:
, . .:
14
Kevorkian R. H., Paboudjian P. B. Les Armenians dans
lempire Ottoman a la veille du genocide, Paris, 1992, pp. 449-451:
15
Karpat, pp. 170/171:
16
. (). , --, 1914, . 68.
17
-, 179-180: Les Armeniens, . .:
13

120

18

, , , , ,
-, , , , , , , , : , . 28, . 1, . 128,. 74:

19

, 1-2:
Karpat, pp. 170/171.
21
Les Armeniens, pp. 59, 458-460. ,
, 16466 (
, . 68: ,
20

, , , : , ,
,
: , 3054 (22.8%-) - . .:
22
23
24

-, ., 1917, N 6, 4-5:
, . .:

. 448, 387 : 420


, , , , 30.01.1915. ,
41 (6 , 2
, -..:
25

, . 48
. .:
27
. , , . 9, ., 1961,
166: , ,
20- 30 : -. .., 119:
28
- 154 (. .:
29
, 46/47.
26

30

1915. 30-
: 22 . (3 : . .:
31

, . 57, . 5, . 54, . 18-19: .


, , . . . ., ,
1983, . 284: , 1915, N 153, 1:
32
, . .:
33

, . , ( Les
Armeniens, p. 460: -, 1916, N 15, 9:
- ( , , 216-217:

34

- 7.1 (
):
35
, 1563 ( 1624, . Les Armeniens, . . 1938 (. , . .:
,
, 1912-1914.
: ,
1:200000 1330 , . . 1911-1912 , [], 19151917, . 1:210000, IV-16: : ,

, 1/3- , . ( :
.
- (2 203 - . .:


36
37
38

121

, . .:

, 30.01.1915. - . .:

-, 1917, N 6, 4:
, . 46/47:
40
Les Armeniens, p. 458: -, . .:
41
Karpat, ibid.
39

.
15
( 1914
1915. 30-
(
1909.
NN

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15

1
-

(
(

1909

30.01.1915

111

1075

172

1434

39

1473

1470

160
134
103
54
110
3
27
35
47
48
142
64
57

1538
1206
978
498
1037
29
243
312
390
456
1298
608
540

185
122
128
61
120
4
25
60
48
95
174
89
71

1525
1095
1149
489
917
35
200
480
446
815
1308
777
680

62
54
61
46
46
2
17
27
26
41
78
69
20

1587
1149
1210
535
963
37
217
507
472
856
1386
846
700

1600
1150
1210
535
1160
40
260
510
470
860
1570
1140
700

90

810

122

1076

55

1131

1130

1185

11018

1476

12426

643

13069

13800

NN 6, 8, 12-13 ,

30. 01. 1915.


80 ( 8.8:
2
Les Armeniens-
( : - ,
:

.

( 1914
,
(1 . (2 : ,

122

1914. 1915
30- , ,
, :3 , 7148 , 1914.
(23760 30%- :

: 15 , : ,
(, -, ,
. : ,
:
( : 1911-1912.
[ ( 1:210000 III-16: -, III-17: IV-16: ]:
Les Armeniens.., pp. 458-460:
-, 1916, N 14, 9, 1917, N 6, 4-5:
3
.., . 46/47.
1
2

1. 1914
NN

1
2
3
4
5
6


(-,

(-

(.

120

1200
2500

7
70
30
2272

37
774
375
4886

130
250
8
15
60
35
498

1360
2180
65
97
570
310
4582

1280-1300
2300-2350
65
801
670
340
4735-4805

. 1915. 15-
- ( 64 ): , . 28, . 1, . 408, . 1:
2
:
2. 1914
NN

1
2
3
4
5

(
(,

(,
(-
(-, -

(.

45

45

15

140

50

100

17
5
35

150
35
300

15

114

30

257

130
35
280


6
7
8
9

(-
(-

322
45

39

387

45
12
10
50

NN

10
11

37
6

400
78
76
448

360
701
80
420

(.

70

50

60

319

30

280

300

1612

1768

212

1798

1880

(
(. ,
,

123

. :
2
:
3.
1914
NN

(.

185

190-200

(-

3
4

18

15

11

116

52

80-85

10

(-, -

320

2250

400

3100

28002

20

20

11

12

13

14

(-,

15

16
17

18

19

20

20


21

196

25

20

20

30

30

135

15

112

120

249

25

197

225

20


29

520

20

50

422

490-500

17

127

130

91

923

80

786

865

120

1320

85

865

1100-1115

44

574

45

384

505-510

53

22

40

73

712

65

490

7903

36

50-55

748

7048

840

6828

7540-7580

NN 1, 3-4, 8 12 1914. ( , 1-2:


100 :
2
NN 10,13, 15-17 - 1915. 01.30- (

124

: , 342 2392 + 96 . = 2478 . , 51 . 432 . + .


23 . = 455 . . ., 80. 779. + . 28 . =807 . . ., 109 . 870 . + . 39 . =909 . . ., 62 . 404 . + .
32 . = 436 . . .: .., . 48/49:
3
NN 19-20 30. 01. 1915.
, -
92 767 . + . 23 . = 790 . . ., 4
51 . + . 2 . = 53 . . . (. .:
4. 1914
NN

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13

(-,
(-, ,

- (,
, -
(
(

(-
-

(-
-

(.

204
8
115

1581
65
740

247

2099

205

1790

1840
65
14251

63

515

78

664

10002

160

1400

145

1088

104
146
40
161
84
76
11614

824
134
1322
214
354
32
475
64
1252
178

650
94
768
98
9946

1142
1819
240
488
1700
799
748

1489

12577

12451250
1000
1630
320
480
1500
203
725
760
1201012015

NN 3, 7-8 30.01.1915 : , 132. 1002


. + . 54 . = 1056 . . ., 168 . 1392 . + . 63 . =
1455.. ., 39 . 257 . + . 20 . = 277 . . . (
.., . 46/47:

: (. .:
N 1 :
4
:
3

5. (
1914
NN

(1

(.

24

13

50

400

150

984

11

88

10

65

20
100010502
75

33

280

4653

1909

(-, -

(-

(-

16

58

60

48

48

60-654

(-

(-

15

120

10

40

NN

155

12

65

100

30

35

(.

19

152

13

76

110

5-10

1909

11

12

13

12

14

- (-

15

40

16

(-

24

200

17

10

80

2
17

5
35

18

(-

40

34

35-40

19

13

107

17

1006

20

39

287

1938

40
25802655

189

96

1451

125

11

82

85

15

84

80-85
30
200
60

- :
. - 28.05.1915. 150
( , . 57, . 5, . 54, . 18:
( - 7.1 ( N 34 :
3
- 411 (50
: , 16: ,
( , , - , N
2

839/143-11, . 6:
4

30.01.1915. (. 46/47:
. - ,
2 (x 7.1 - . .:
6
, 1914. ,
1915. 2 ( - , , ,
. : - : , . 1890- .
20 ( ., , , . 5

, 1894, 296:

. - , 1909.
(, 2 , (, 2 ,
( , 2 , (, 5 , (2 ,
- (1 : ,
( 1914. - . .: 18951896. ( 20-30 ( . .,
- , . 2, . 2, .,
1890, 392/393: , . .: . , ., 1882, N 38, 594:

, 1890- . , -

126

, 20-
,
:

Summary (rus)

(1914-1915.).

,
, ( 5- ) . , ( , . .) , 21 . , 1912 . (1330 . )
10 .
, 30,7 . ( 13,4
.). , 1914 . 23,7 . ( ).
.

Summary
Quantities of the Armenian Population in Some of the Kazas
of the Province of Erzerum (1914-1915).
Gegham Badalyan
Based on census statistics of Armenian Refugees, which repeatedly
were collected during 1914-15 on the territory of the Transcaucasian provinces
of the Russian Empire, the author provides a more precisel a number of the
Armenian population of the kaza (district) of Basen and sancak of Bayazet
(which consisted of 5 kazas) of the Erzerum Vilayet (province). With the help of
these facts and the statistical data of a number of the Armenian sources (the
statistical lists of the Armenian Eparchy of Erzerum, also the lists drawn up by
the private persons etc.), it became clear that before the World War I there had
lived about 21000 Armenians in the kaza of Basen, while according to the
Turkish official census of 1912 (1330 Hicre) the whole Armenian population of
the kaza was shown somewhat more than 10000 (!). We can say the same about
the Bayazet sancak also, where there lived 30700 Armenians (officially only
13400). We must note, that at the end of 1914 in the Transcaucasus there were
registered more than 23700 Armenians from this sancak (without taking into
account all the casualties). Therefore, the Armenian statistics are nearest the
truth and most reliable, compared to the official Turkish.

127

DISCUSSIONS,
DEBATE

The Orphan Care Activity of the AGBU between 1910-1930.


Edward Melkonian



1910-1930- .

, , ,
: 1915.

,
, , : 1,5 ,
: :
XX.
:
1918 , ,
( -
, , ,
:
, , , , :1
:
1906.

128

, : ,
,
59 , 41 ,
,
:
(- -: 1909.,
,
, : 13
,
, , , :
:
, , , , - : - 1912. , 11-14 95 , 5 ,

:2 , , , 1915. :
1915. : : 1915.
,
4058 , : , ,
: 20- ,
, ,
25 -: 1917.
- (- ( , 1918.
:

:
, ,
, ,
1919. 400 :

. 1910-1930.

129

,
:3 ,

:
, 1918.
,
: , , , :

, , , :4
1919. - : : 1921. 404
, :
120 - , :
:
350 :
,

:
, -, , , ,
1921. 679 :
, 200 : :
:
, :5 , , , , 1919.
, 300 :
1918. -
: , 1919. , : ,
, :6
1920. ,
: .

130

, , , .
. , : ,
, ,
: ,
:
,
:
, , : 7

, 1916-1922. , ,
. , ,
:8 1921. -
:
,
, : ,

, ,
: , , :
1920. , ,
. ,
,
, : :9

, :
:
, :
-
. 1922-1930.
350-400 : 1931. 234 1932. 90 :
, , ,
, :
:
1926., -

. 1910-1930.

131

,
300 - : 1928.
65 , 53 :
,
, ( , , . -. . . . 61, 35- 26- :
26- 6-9 , 33 10-15, 17 19 : , . , , : ,
,
:10 , ,
: , 1930.
,
:

,
: , , ,
, :
, ,
600 . : , 1926 1928-1931.
- 500 : ,
:

, ,
: , ,

:11 -
- :
:12 13 1932. :

132

1921. , (
- ,
: , 1921.
3000 ,
:13
, , :
, , -- :
: , , , ,
: , ,
,
400 , , ,
:14 ,
:

:
, ,
,

:15 , , .
, , , :
,
(, , , : ,


( ,
: ,
:

. 1910-1930.

133


:
. ( ( : ,
, , , ,
: ,
47 , 1922.
:
, ,
: 816
, , . :
:
. ,
, . ( ,
, , ,
: , ,
, , , , :16

,
,
: -, . . :
: : .

: , ,
. .
, : ,
. ,
,
: ,
, :
. ~ ,
:
. , . : , ,
: :17

134

( , 816 582- , 103- , , .


, , . :18 , , 1922.
300- :
: - .
,
- , :
:
, :

: ,
, , : :19
1923.
353, 259- , 94- : -- , (
, :
1923.
434, 40- .
:
(
, , ,
: 1923. .
:
.
: :
, :
, - , -
, :20
-,
. ,
. , .
, .
, :
, : :
. ,
:
, : ,
: , , .
, ,
. : ,

. 1910-1930.

135

, :
:
. , , , : : . , ,
, , :21

, ,
, :

,

: ,
: , , 40 , :
,
, , , , : , , ,
:
1924.
- ,
:
- ,
. 1924. 6-
:
: , , , :
:
,
, :22

, , . ,
, :23
, , ,
: , : - , 40 , - . , , , :
1935-1940. :
, :
: , ,
: .

136

40 500 .. :24
:
1925. -
,
:25

1926. : , , , 100 , , , ,
- :
1923. .
:

,
:26
,
,

:

, :
,
- : 1921.
-,
: - 1926., :

, , , 298
: 1925.
. ,
: -, , :27
, -
, :
1918. , ,
-: 1920. -

. 1910-1930.

137

, ,
: ,
: , , , , , , , ,

:28 ,
,
,
: ,

, : 19181921. 161 , 100-
:
50 , , ,
: ,
: , ,
,
:
, :29

, 1918-1921. 3 - :30

: - , ,
, ,
: , -
, , :31
, ,
,
:

138

,
, -
.
,
, :32
, 1923. ,
, , : 1925. , 1924.

, 12 212 :33 1924.

:

31-:
. 1924. , 1925. -, :
, 130 : , - : 1931.,
,
: - 1929., 24
:
1923. ( -,
,
, , , , , :34 .
- : , 1923-1924. ,
:35
,
,
, . , , . , . , :36 ,
, , , -

. 1910-1930.

139

:
. ,
: , : 1923. , . ,
,
, ~
: - , . : ,.
,
, , -
:37

,
:
:
, ,
, - 1928. , :38
,
300 , 1928. ,
1929. ( ,
Girls Home, 1935 1933
., ,
:39
, ,
.
, , -
,
:40 1923.
:41 1924. ,
- 250
, :
, 100-

140

:42
, ,
- :
, 1910-1930- .,
:

,
:
. . . , 1,
1

, 1995, 2, , 1999:
2
.
1912-1913, 43: ( - :
3
, 1919, . 66, 90:
4
, ,
1919, 26:
5
, 1920, . 76, 57:
6
, . , 1996, 185:
7
, 1906-1931,
, 1935, 141:
8
, . . 2. ., 1957, . 416.
9
, . 430, . 1, . 332, . 6:
10
. - , 1931, .
5, 168:
11
, 1923, . 78/83, 770:
12
, 1930, . 137, 265:
13
. , .
, 1949, . 2, 17-26; . , , 1985, 75-83:
14
, 1921, . 7/8, 52:
15
, 1921, . 11/12, 88:
16
816 , , 1922, . 1/2, 8-9:
17
- , . 12:

( , - :
. , 1922, . 5/6, 20:
- . 13:
20
, 1923, . 81/86, 851:
21
- . 13-14:
22
, . 12-13:
23
, 1924, . 9/10, 78:
24
. 14:
18

19

. 1910-1930.

141

, 1925, . 1/2, 3:
, 1923, . 9/10, 75:
27
1925, 28:
28
1920-1921, 119:
29
, 120:
30
:
31
, 1923, . 85/90, 928:
32
, 1923, . 81/91, 850:
33
. (1918-1927. , 1965,
43:
34
. , . 1, 107:
35
. . ., 46:
36
, . 430, . 1, . 241, . 9-11:
37
, 1925, 4 , 419:
38
1928, 39-40:
39
1935, 56:
40
1922, 27:
41
. , 1923-1937. , 1999, 26-36:
42
1924, 28:
25
26

Summary (rus)


1910-1930- .

, ,
.
/
1918 ./ , , .
1906 .
//,
1912 .
- .
1918 . - //
. 1919 . , , . 1921 . - - . 1922 . 800 . 1921 .
, , , . . 1924 .
250 .

,
.

142

Summary
The Orphan Care Activity of the AGBU
between 1910-1930.
Edward Melkonian
The History of tens, thousands of Armenian children orphaned
through the Genocide of Armenians in Turkey in 1915, remains almost
unexposed so far.
The saving and care for the orphans was the purpose of a number of
foreign and Armenian benevolent organizations. The Armenian General
Benevolent Union /AGBU, established in 1906 in Cairo/ has a special place
among these organizations. The AGBU established its first Kelekian
orphanage-school in Deort-Yol /Cilicia/ as far back as in 1912.
By the end of 1918 the AGBU established in Port Said /Egypt/ the
first orphanages for saved children outside the Motherland. In 1919, following
the defeat of Turkey in World War I, the AGBU established orphanages and
asylums for widows in Cilicia Mersin, Adana, Hajin, and reopened the
Kelekian orphanage. By the end of 1921, when France handed Cilicia over to
Turkey, the AGBU moved the Kelekian and Sisvan orphanages to Beirut.
In 1922 the AGBU established two orphanages for 800 orphans in Jerusalem,
the Araratian and Vaspourakan. During those years the AGBU also founded
orphanage-workshops in Aleppo, Beirut, Athens, etc. In 1924 it made every
arrangement to send 250 orphans to Soviet Armenia.
The AGBUs orphanages ensured the survival of thousands of
children, and the preservation of the their ethnocultural identity.

143
Congress: The Armenian-Turkish Dialog about the Armenian
Question Today. Hamo Moscofian

-

. 17 2000.

2000.
17-
-
:
, , , , , -
:
, , , , , , ,

,
:

, ,
,
21- : ,


,
(CRDA - - ,
,
, ,
: ,

144

(2000. , , ,
- :
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- , : , 40
,
( :

- 21- .
, , , , , ( :
, , , , . - : , -
, , : .
- :

:

, :

145

To Come out from an Unhappy History . Ragiph Zarackolu






:
, , , ,
: ,

, ,

: ,
:
, 1915

, , , , ,
, , , , ,
: , ,
:

: 1894
:
: , 1893 , : , : -

2000. 17- - :

146

, , , , , : - ,
:
:
(
, ,
:

: , , : , 1915 ,
, ,
, , - (,
: , . ,
,
,
:

:
,
, :
: , ,
, :

: , , , , : , 1915

, :
1915
:

, :

147

, , , , : ,
:
1908 , ,
:


,
:
, :

, , : , : ,
,
, , , , , : , : , ,
:
, ,
,
, ,
: : ,

,
, , , ,
,
, (
, 1914
16 ,
:
: , ,
:

148

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:
,
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: , ,
, , , : ,
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:
:
,
: ,
. : , ,
,
, : ,
: ,
, ,

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,
. , 50-
:

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, ,
:
, , : :

149

: , 1908 ,
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: ,
: , , ,
:
:
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:

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:
, , : : ,
.

: , : :

, : , :
, :
:
,
, ,
:
: ,
:
, : : , ,
, , :
, , ,
: ,
, ,
: ,
, :

150

The Dialog between the Armenians and the Turks: A New


and Promissing Way . Jan-Klog Ckebabdjian


.
-
, 1980
16-
,
: ,
:
,
, ,
1980 12- :
:
, ( , , 1900
.
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: , , :
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2000. 17- - :

151

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152

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154

The Future of Turk-Armenian Relationship. Mete Tunchai





, 1998. 5-
( 114 :
,
, ,
1915.:

, :
, , ,
: , , , , :
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:
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2000. 17- - :

155

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158

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159

To be Able to Live with Armenians .

Oral Chalshlar

1988- ,
:
: :
1990 . : , , , , :
, :
, : , , , : 1920- ., ,
: :

:
: ,
: ,
:
, :
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2000. 17- - :

160

, , , : , : :
, , : (
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100 000 : ,
XX : 1915-
1922- :
1940- , 1955. 6- 7- , 1964.

:
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161

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162

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, , 1915-:
: , : ,
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163

To Look Over the Past, to Think about the Present, and the
Future of the Armenian-Turkish Relationship. Girair Libaritian
, .
-

- ,
: , , , ,
,
,
, :
:
:
,
:
: :
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, ,

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2000. 17- - :

164

1915- :
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165


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:

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167

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,

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About the authors



Ashot Melkonyan

Vahan Melikyan

( (1915.
15 - 15.

,
, :
, , -

:

( (.,1994, (., 1998, .
(., 1999
, :


:

,
, :

1914-1920.
: ( ,
- 1917. (.
1997, ( 1918-1920. (. 2000

:

1918 1921..

Karen Khachatryan
( 1920-1923..

,
:

, ,

:
19201922. , ,
1920.,
:

:

Arsen Avakyan
(
1915. .
,
, :
, - :

,
, : ( (
XIX - XX .) 2001.; 1915. 1999.; " 1998.):

Valeri Tounyan
(
. 1915-1917).
, ,

:


(,
, ,
:

1878-1897. (.,
1997,
(., 1998,
(., 1999,
19001917. (., 2000, (., 2001
,

Lilit Hovhannisian
(
1915-1916 ..

,
:

, :
19141917.

:


:

Mher Karapetyan
(
1915-1916. .

, , .


:

- , -
,
:
-

19-20-
., - 1915-1916. -

(, 1998,
19- II (, 1987,
(, 1993 :

Tigran Zakaryan
(

(1915-1917 ..

-
:
-
:
1915-1917 .: :

Armen Maroukian
(
. .
- , :
, , ,
- :
1915-1916. (.,
2001,
1915-1916. (.,
2001 ,
-

Verjine Svazlian
(
.
-, , -,
:
, ,
,

( :
,
- (1998, (1984,
. (1995,
(1997, 1997, 1999, (2000, . (2000
: : ,

Gegham Badalyan
(



1914-1915. .

,
,

Edward Melkonian
(

1910-1930- ..
, :

:

(., 1979), (., 1981,
.), , 19231937. (, 1999 , :


THE ISSUES OF THE HISTORY AND HISTORIOGRAPHY OF THE ARMENIAN GENOCIDE

THEISSUESOFTHEHISTORYANDHISTORIOGRAPHYOFTHEARMENIANGENOCIDE

CONTENTS
Documents of Genocide
3 Armenian Massacres in Akhalkalak District in 1918 and 1920. Ashot Melkonyan
13 The Kemalist Policy of Extermination of Armenians in 1920-1923. Karen Khachatryan
21 The Armenian Government of Mocks (The 15th of May 15th of July 1915) Vahan
Melikyan
29 The Participation of Chircassian Bands in the Armenian Genocide of 1915.
Arsen Avakyan
The Genocide and the other States
36 The Organization of the Russian Rule in Western Armenia in 1915-1917. Valeri
Tounyan
52 The Armenian Genocide and the Attitude of the Triple Agreement Powers in 19151916 Lilit Hovhannisian
The Historiography of the Genocide
60 For Sources of Historiography of Genocide of the Armenians 1915-1916 years. Mher
Karapetyan
71 The United States Press Coverage of the Armenian Genocide (1915-1917) Tigran
Zakaryan
84 The Academician M. Nersisyan and the Problems of Studying of the Armenian
Genocide Norair Sarukhanyan
The Genocide. Conceptions and Problems
89 The Armenian Genocide in Policy of Russia. Conceptions and Reality. Armen
Maroukian
105 Testimonies of the Armenian Genocide Eye-Witness Survivors as
Historico-Factual Documents Verjine Svazlian
The Demography of the Western Armenia
112 Quantities of the Armenian Population in some of the Kazas of the Province of
Erzerum (1914-1915). Gegham Badalyan
The Chronology of Existence
127 The Orphan Care Activity of the AGBU between 1910-1930. Edward Melkonian
Discussion
143 Congress: The Armenian-Turkish Dialog about the Armenian Question Today.
Hamo Moscofian
145 To Come out from an Unhappy History Ragiph Zarackolu
150 The Dialog between the Armenians and the Turks: A New and Promissing Way JanKlog Ckebabdjian
154 The Future of Turk-Armenian Relationship Mete Tunchai
159 To be Able to Live with Armenians Oral Chalshlar
163 To Look Over the Past, to Think about the Present, and the Future of the ArmenianTurkish Relationship Girair Libaritian


(1915-2000 .

(1997- 1999.

(14 1999.
DIE ARMENISCHE FRAGE UND DIE ROLLE STERREICH-UNGARNS UND DEUTSCHLANDS
, -


2000. 3-


(1915-1918 ..

(1915-1917.
19151916.
,

1915-1916 .