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Ductile Fracture

Ductile Fracture One of the most important and key concepts in the entire field
of Materials Science and Engineering is fracture. In its simplest form, fracture can be described as a single body being separated into pieces by an imposed stress. For engineering materials there are only two possible modes of fracture, ductile and brittle. In general, the main difference between brittle and ductile fracture can be attributed to the amount of plastic deformation that the material undergoes before fracture occurs. Ductile materials demonstrate large amounts of plastic deformation while brittle materials show little or no plastic deformation before fracture. Figure !below", a tensile stress#strain cur$e, represents the degree of plastic deformation e%hibited by both brittle and ductile materials before fracture.

&rack initiation and propagation are essential to fracture. 'he manner through which the crack propagates through the material gi$es great insight into the mode of fracture. In ductile materials !ductile fracture", the crack mo$es slowly and is accompanied by a large amount of plastic deformation. 'he crack will usually not e%tend unless an increased stress is applied. On the other hand, in dealing with brittle fracture, cracks spread $ery rapidly with little or no plastic deformation. 'he cracks that propagate in a brittle material will continue to grow and increase in magnitude once they are initiated. (nother important mannerism of crack propagation is the way in which the ad$ancing crack tra$els through the material. ( crack that passes through the grains within the material is undergoing transgranular fracture. )owe$er, a crack that propagates along the grain boundaries is termed an intergranular fracture. Figure * !below" shows a scanning electron fractograph of ductile cast iron, e%amining a transgranular fracture surface.

On both macroscopic and microscopic le$els, ductile fracture surfaces ha$e distinct features. Macroscopically, ductile fracture surfaces ha$e larger necking regions and an o$erall rougher appearance than a brittle fracture surface. Figure + !below" shows the macroscopic differences between two ductile specimens!a,b" and the brittle specimen !c".

On the microscopic le$el, ductile fracture surfaces also appear rough and irregular. 'he surface consists of many micro$oids and dimples. Figure , !below left" and Figure - !below right" demonstrate the microscopic .ualities of ductile fracture surfaces.

'he failure of many ductile materials can be attributed to cup and cone fracture. 'his form of ductile fracture occurs in stages that initiate after necking begins. First, small micro$oids form in the interior of the material. /e%t, deformation continues and the micro$oids enlarge to form a crack. 'he crack continues to grow and it spreads laterally towards the edges of the specimen. Finally, crack propagation is rapid along a surface that makes about a ,- degree angle with the tensile stress a%is. 'he new fracture surface has a $ery irregular appearance. 'he final shearing of the specimen produces a cup type shape on one fracture surface and a cone shape on the ad0acent connecting fracture surface, hence the name, cup and cone fracture. Figure 1 !below" shows cup and cone, and brittle fracture in aluminum.

'he &harpy and I2od tests measure the impact energy of a specimen. 3y using an apparatus and impacting a specimen with a weighted pendulum hammer the impact energy can be measured. ( primary use of the &harpy and I2od tests is to determine if a material e%periences brittle to ductile transition with decreasing temperature. 3rittle to ductile transition is directly related to the temperature dependency of the impact energy absorbed. (lso an e%amination of the failure surface can pro$e $ery beneficial. If a section of the failure surface seems to demonstrate the $isual properties of both brittle and ductile fracture, then brittle to ductile transition is e$ident at that temperature range. It is $ery important to remember that with most specimens, there is a fairly wide band of temperatures that support brittle to ductile transition. 'herefore, for many specimens it is nearly impossible to predict any one temperature as the transition temperature. In figure 4 !below", a graph is gi$en that determines brittle to ductile transition through an impact test for a 5 6 hot#rolled steel.

In most design situations a material that demonstrates ductile fracture is usually preferred for se$eral reasons. First and foremost, brittle fracture occurs $ery rapidly and catastrophically without any warning. Ductile materials plastically deform, thereby slowing the process of fracture and gi$ing ample time for the problem to be corrected. Second, because of the plastic deformation, more strain energy is needed to cause ductile fracture. /e%t, ductile materials are considered to be 7forgi$ing7 materials, because of their toughness you can make a mistake in the use, design of a ductile material and still the material will probably not fail. (lso, the properties of a ductile material can be enhanced through the use of one of the strengthening mechanisms. Strain hardening is a perfect e%ample, as the ductile material is deformed more and more its strength and hardness increase because of the generation of more and more dislocations. 'herefore, in engineering applications, especially those that ha$e safety concerns in$ol$ed, ductile materials are the ob$ious choice. Safety and dependability are the main concerns in material design, but in order to attain these goals there has to be a thorough understanding of fracture, both brittle and ductile. 8nderstanding fracture and failure of materials will lead the materials engineer to de$elop safer and more dependable materials and products. ################################################################################################

Griffith theory

'he 9riffiths e.uation describes the relationship between applied nominal stress and crack length at fracture, i.e. when it becomes energetically fa$ourable for a crack to grow. 9riffith was concerned with the energetics of fracture, and considered the energy changes associated with incremental crack e%tension. For a loaded brittle body undergoing incremental crack e%tension, the only contributors to energy changes are the energy of the new fracture surfaces !two surfaces per crack tip" and the change in potential energy in the body. 'he surface energy term ! S" represents energy absorbed in crack growth, while the some stored strain energy !U" is released as the crack e%tends !due to unloading of regions ad0acent to the new fracture surfaces". Surface energy has a constant $alue per unit area !or unit length for a unit thickness of body" and is therefore a linear function of !crack length", while the stored strain energy released in crack growth is a function of !crack length"*, and is hence parabolic. 'hese changes are indicated in the figure below:

'he ne%t step in the de$elopment of 9riffith;s argument was consideration of the rates of energy change with crack e%tension, because the critical condition corresponds to the ma%imum point in the total energy cur$e, i.e. dW/da < 5, where a < a*. For crack lengths greater than this $alue !under a gi$en applied stress", the body is going to a lower energy state, which is fa$ourable, and hence fast fracture occurs. dW/da < 5 occurs when dS/da < dU/da. 'he sketch below shows these energy rates, or differentials with respect to a.

R is the resistance to crack growth !< dS/da" and G is the strain energy release rate !< dU/da". =hen fracture occurs, R < G and we can define Gcrit as the critical value of strain energy release, and e.uate this to R. )ence Gcrit represents the fracture toughness of the material. In plane stress the 9riffith e.uation is:

where, to get the fracture stress in M>a !the standard SI engineering unit", the critical strain energy release rate is in /?m, E is in /?m*, and a is in m. 'his pro$ides an answer in /?m* !>a", which needs to be di$ided by 51 to get the standard engineering unit of M>a. In plane strain:

magnetization or B-H curve

Magnetization Curves Any discussion of the magnetic properties of a material is likely to include the type of graph known as a magnetization or B-H curve. Various methods are used to produce B-H curves including one which you can easily replicate. !igure M"A shows how the B-H curve varies according to the type of material within the field.

#he $curves$ here are all straight lines and have magnetic field strength as the horizontal a%is and the magnetic flu% density as the vertical a%is. &egative values of H aren$t shown 'ut the graphs are symmetrical a'out the vertical a%is. !ig. M"A a( is the curve in the a'sence of any material) a vacuum. #he gradient of the curve is *+.,--. which corresponds to the fundamental physical constant /-. More on this later. 0f greater interest is to see how placing a specimen of some material in the field affects this gradient. Manufacturers of a particular grade of ferrite material usually provide this curve 'ecause the shape reveals how the core material in any component made from it will respond to changes in applied fiel 1iamagnetic and paramagnetic materials 2magine a hydrogen atom in which a nucleus with a single stationary and positively charged proton is or'ited 'y a negatively charged electron. Can we view that electron in or'it as a sort of current loop3 #he answer is yes and you might then think that hydrogen would have a strong magnetic moment. 2n fact ordinary hydrogen gas is only very weakly magnetic. 4ecall that each hydrogen atom is not isolated 'ut is 'onded to one other to form a molecule giving the formula H5 - 'ecause that has a lower chemical energy 6for H 'y a whopping 5,7 k8 mol-,( than two isolated atoms. 2t is not a coincidence that in these molecules the angular momentum of one electron is opposite in direction to that of its neigh'our leaving the molecule as a whole with little 'y way of magnetic moment. #his 'ehaviour is typical of many su'stances which are then said to lack a permanent magnetic moment. 9hen a molecule is su':ected to a magnetic field those electrons in or'it planes at a right angle to the field will change their momentum 6very slightly(. #his is predicted 'y !araday$s ;aw which tells us that as the field is increased there will 'e a an induced <-

field which the electrons 6'eing charged particles( will e%perience as a force. #his means that the individual magnetic moments no longer cancel completely and the molecule then ac=uires an induced magnetic moment. #his 'ehaviour where'y the induced moment is opposite to the applied field is present in all materials and is called diamagnetism. Hydrogen ammonia 'ismuth copper graphite and other diamagnetic su'stances are repelled 'y a near'y magnet 6although the effect is e%tremely fee'le(. #hink of it as a manifestation of ;enz$s law. 1iamagnetic materials are those whose atoms have only paired electrons. 2n other molecules however such as o%ygen where there are unpaired electrons the cancellation of magnetic moments 'elonging to the electrons is incomplete. An 05 molecule has a net or permanent magnetic moment even in the a'sence of an e%ternally applied field. 2f an e%ternal magnetic field is applied then the electron or'its are still altered in the same manner as the diamagnets 'ut the permanent moment is usually a more powerful influence. #he $poles$ of the molecule tend to line up parallel with the field and reinforce it. >uch molecules with permanent magnetic moments are called paramagnetic. Although paramagnetic su'stances like o%ygen tin aluminium and copper sulphate are attracted to a magnet the effect is almost as fee'le as diamagnetism. #he reason is that the permanent moments are continually knocked out of alignment with the field 'y thermal vi'ration at room temperatures anyway 6li=uid o%ygen at -,7? @C can 'e pulled a'out 'y a strong magnet(. "articular materials where the magnetic moment of each atom can 'e made to favour one direction are said to 'e magnetiza'le. #he e%tent to which this happens is called the magnetization. !ig. M"A '( a'ove is the magnetization curve for diamagnetic materials. 2n diamagnetic su'stances the flu% grows slightly more slowly with the field than it does in a vacuum. #he decrease in gradient is greatly e%aggerated in the figure - in practice the drop is usually less than one part in A ---. !ig. M"A c( is the curve for paramagnetic materials. !lu% growth in this case is again linear 6at moderate values of H( 'ut slightly faster than in a vacuum. Again the increase for most su'stances is very slight.

Although neither diamagnetic nor paramagnetic materials are technologically important

6geophysical surveying is one e%ception( they are much studied 'y physicists and the terminology of magnetics is enriched there'y. A short Buick#ime movie 6?77 CB( demonstrates diamagnetism. !erromagnetic materials

#he most important class of magnetic materials is the ferromagnets) iron nickel co'alt and manganese or their compounds 6and a few more e%otic ones as well(. #he magnetization curve looks very different to that of a diamagnetic or paramagnetic material. 9e might note in passing that although pure manganese is not ferromagnetic the name of that element shares a common root with magnetism) the Dreek mEgnes lithos Fstone from MagnesiaF 6now Manisa in #urkey(. !igure M"B a'ove shows a typical curve for iron. 2t$s important to realize that the magnetization curves for ferromagnetic materials are all strongly dependant upon purity heat treatment and other factors. However two features of this curve are immediately apparent) it really is curved rather than straight 6as with non-ferromagnets( and also that the vertical scale is now in teslas 6rather than milliteslas as with !igure M"A(. !igure M"B is a normal magnetization curve 'ecause it starts from an unmagnetized sample and shows how the flu% density increases as the field strength is increased. Gou can identify four distinct regions in most such curves. #hese can 'e e%plained in terms of changes to the material$s magnetic $domains$) Close to the origin a slow rise due to $reversi'le growth$. A longer fairly straight stretch representing $irreversi'le growth$. A slower rise representing $rotation$. An almost flat region corresponding to paramagnetic 'ehaviour and then /- - the core can$t handle any more flu% growth and has saturated. At an atomic level ferromagnetism is e%plained 'y a tendency for neigh'ouring atomic magnetic moments to 'ecome locked in parallel with their neigh'ours. #his is only possi'le at temperatures 'elow the curie point a'ove which thermal disordering causes a sharp drop in permea'ility and degeneration into paramagnetism. !erromagnetism is

distinguished from paramagnetism 'y more than :ust permea'ility 'ecause it also has the important properties of remnance and coercivity.

!errimagnetic materials Almost every item of electronic e=uipment produced today contains some ferrimagnetic material) loudspeakers motors deflection yokes interference suppressors antenna rods pro%imity sensors recording heads transformers and inductors are fre=uently 'ased on ferrites. #he market is vast. 9hat properties make ferrimagnets so u'i=uitous3 #hey possess permea'ility to rival most ferromagnets 'ut their eddy current losses are far lower 'ecause of the material$s greater electrical resistivity. Also it is practica'le 6if not straightforward( to fa'ricate different shapes 'y pressing or e%truding - 'oth low cost techni=ues. 9hat is the composition of ferrimagnetic materials3 #hey are in general o%ides of iron com'ined with one or more of the transition metals such as manganese nickel or zinc e.g. Mn!e50*. "ermanent ferrimagnets often include 'arium. #he raw material is turned into a powder which is then fired in a kiln or sintered to produce a dark gray hard 'rittle ceramic material having a cu'ic crystalline structure. At an atomic level the magnetic properties depend upon interaction 'etween the electrons associated with the metal ions. &eigh'ouring atomic magnetic moments 'ecome locked in anti-parallel with their neigh'ours 6which contrasts with the ferromagnets(. However the magnetic moments in one direction are weaker than the moments in the opposite direction leading to an overall magnetic moment. >aturation >aturation is a limitation occurring in inductors having a ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic core. 2nitially as current is increased the flu% increases in proportion to it 6see figure M"B(. At some point however further increases in current lead to progressively smaller increases in flu%. <ventually the core can make no further contri'ution to flu% growth and any increase thereafter is limited to that provided 'y /- - perhaps three orders of magnitude smaller. 2ron saturates at a'out ,.A# while ferrites will normally saturate 'etween a'out 5--m# and H--m#. 2t is usually essential to avoid reaching saturation since it is accompanied 'y a drop in inductance. 2n many circuits the rate at which current in the coil increases is inversely

proportional to inductance 62 I V J # K ;(. Any drop in inductance therefore causes the current to rise faster increasing the field strength and so the core is driven even further into saturation. Core manufacturers normally specify the saturation flu% density for the particular material used. Gou can also measure saturation using a simple circuit. #here are two methods 'y which you can calculate flu% if you know the num'er of turns and either #he current the length of the magnetic path and the B-H characteristics of the material. #he voltage waveform on a winding and the cross sectional area of the core - see !araday$s ;aw. Although saturation is mostly a risk in high power circuits it is still a possi'ility in $small signal$ applications having many turns on an ungapped core and a 1C 'ias 6such as the collector current of a transistor(. 2f you find that saturation is likely then you might 4un the inductor at a lower current Lse a larger core Alter the num'er of turns Lse a core with a lower permea'ility Lse a core with an air gap or some com'ination thereof - 'ut you$ll need to re-calculate the design in any case. Materials classification #a'le M"8 categorizes 6in a simplified fashion( each class assigned to a material according to its 'ehaviour in a field. #a'le M"8) Materials classified 'y their magnetic properties. Class M dependant on B3 1iamagnetic &o "aramagnetic &o !erromagnetic Ges Antiferromagnetic Ges !errimagnetic Ges &i A5. Mn>' H7. Mn0!e50?J H.? G?!eH0,5J HA-

Cr05 MnAs Dd 1y <u0

?7A ?,7 5N5 77 AN

-----------------------------"ermea'ility) "ermea'ility in the >2 Buantity name permea'ility alias a'solute permea'ility Buantity sym'ol / Lnit name henrys per metre Lnit sym'ols H m-, Base units kg m s-5 A-5 1uality with the <lectric 9orld Buantity Lnit "ermea'ility henrys per metre "ermittivity farads per metre G?!eH0,5J HACr05 ?7A MnAs ?,7 Dd 5N5 1y 77 <u0 AN

Although as suggested a'ove magnetic permea'ility is related in physical terms most closely to electric permittivity it is pro'a'ly easier to think of permea'ility as representing $conductivity for magnetic flu%$O :ust as those materials with high electrical conductivity let electric current through easily so materials with high permea'ilities allow magnetic flu% through more easily than others. Materials with high permea'ilities include iron and the other ferromagnetic materials. Most plastics wood non ferrous metals air and other fluids have permea'ilities very much lower) /-. 8ust as electrical conductivity is defined as the ratio of the current density to the electric field strength so the magnetic permea'ility / of a particular material is defined as the ratio of flu% density to magnetic field strength /IBKH

<=uation M"1

#his information is most easily o'tained from the magnetization curve. !igure M"C shows the permea'ility 6in 'lack( derived from the magnetization curve 6in colour( using e=uation M"1. &ote carefully that permea'ility so defined is not the same as the slope of a tangent to the B-H curve e%cept at the peak 6around 7- A m-, in this case(. #he latter is called differential permea'ility /P I dBKdH. 2n ferromagnetic materials the hysteresis phenomenon means that if the field strength is increasing then the flu% density is less than when the field strength is decreasing. #his means that the permea'ility must also 'e lower during $charge up$ than it is during $rela%ation$ even for the same value of H. 2n the e%treme case of a permanent magnet the permea'ility within it will 'e negative. #here is an analogy here with electric cells since they may 'e said to have $negative resistance$. 2f you use a core with a high value of permea'ility then fewer turns will 'e re=uired to produce a coil with a given value of inductance. Gou can understand why 'y remem'ering that inductance is the ratio of flu% to current. !or a given core B is proportional to flu% and H is proportional to the current so that inductance is also proportional to /) the ratio of B to H. Lnlike electrical conductivity permea'ility is often a highly non-linear =uantity. Most coil design formulQ however pretend that / is a linear =uantity. 2f you were working at a peak value of H of ,-- A m-, for e%ample then you might take an average value for / of a'out -.--A H m-,. #his is all very appro%imate 'ut you must accept inaccuracy if you insist on treating a non-linear =uantity as though it was actually linear. #his form of permea'ility where / is written without a su'script is known in >2 parlance as a'solute permea'ility. 2t is seldom =uoted in engineering te%ts. 2nstead a variant is used called relative permea'ility descri'ed ne%t. / I /- R /r --------------------------------------------

4elative permea'ility 4elative permea'ility Buantity name 4elative permea'ility Buantity sym'ol /r Lnit sym'ols dimensionless 4elative permea'ility is a very fre=uently used parameter. 2t is a variation upon $straight$ or a'solute permea'ility / 'ut is more useful to you 'ecause it makes clearer how the presence of a particular material affects the relationship 'etween flu% density and field strength. #he term $relative$ arises 'ecause this permea'ility is defined in relation to the permea'ility of a vacuum //r I / K <=uation /M"< !or e%ample if you use a material for which /r I ? then you know that the flu% density will 'e three times as great as it would 'e if we :ust applied the same field strength to a vacuum. #his is simply a more user friendly way of saying that / I ?...R,--A H m-,. &ote that 'ecause /r is a dimensionless ratio that there are no units associated with it. Many authors simply say Fpermea'ilityF and leave you to infer that they mean relative permea'ility. 2n the CD> system of units these are one and the same thing really. 2f a figure greater than ,.- is =uoted then you can 'e almost certain it is /r. Appro%imate ma%imum permea'ilities Material /K6H m-,( !errite L A,.--<--H !errite M?? N.*5<--* &ickel 6NNS pure( ..H*<--* !errite &*, ?...<--? 2ron 6NN.7S pure( A.57<--? !errite #?7 ,.5A<--5 >ilicon D0 steel H.-?<--5 supermalloy ,.5A /r 7 .HA-?--H--,---*---,-----Application LH! chokes 4esonant circuit 4M cores "ower circuits Broad'and transformers 1ynamos mains transformers 4ecording heads

&ote that unlike /- /r is not constant and changes with flu% density. Also if the temperature is increased from say 5- to 7- centigrade then a typical ferrite can suffer a 5HS drop in permea'ility. #his is a 'ig pro'lem in high-B tuned circuits. Another factor with steel cores especially is the microstructure in particular grain orientation. >ilicon steel sheet is often made 'y cold rolling to orient the grains along the laminations 6rather than allowing them to lie randomly( giving increased /. 9e call such

material anisotropic. Before you pull any value of / from a data sheet ask yourself if it is appropriate for your material under the actual conditions under which you use it. !inally if you do not know the permea'ility of your core then 'uild a simple circuit to measure it. Variant forms of permea'ility and related =uantities 2nitial permea'ility 2nitial permea'ility Buantity name Buantity sym'ol Lnit sym'ols initial permea'ility /i dimensionless J

2nitial permea'ility descri'es the relative permea'ility of a material at low values of B 6'elow -.,#(. #he ma%imum value for / in a material is fre=uently a factor of 'etween 5 and H or more a'ove its initial value. ;ow flu% has the advantage that every ferrite can 'e measured at that density without risk of saturation. #his consistency means that comparison 'etween different ferrites is easy. Also if you measure the inductance with a normal component 'ridge then you are doing so with respect to the initial permea'ility. J Although initial permea'ility is usually relative to /- you may see /i as an a'solute permea'ility. <ffective permea'ility <ffective permea'ility Buantity name <ffective permea'ility Buantity sym'ol /e Lnit sym'ols dimensionless J

<ffective permea'ility is seen in some data sheets for cores which have air gaps. Coil calculations are easier 'ecause you can simply ignore the gap 'y pretending that you are using a material whose permea'ility is lower than the material you actually have. J <ffective permea'ility is usually relative to /-. "ermea'ility of a vacuum in the >2 "ermea'ility of a vacuum Buantity name "ermea'ility of a vacuum

Buantity sym'ol Lnit name Lnit sym'ols Base units

alias "ermea'ility of free space magnetic space constant magnetic constant /henrys per metre H m-, kg m s-5 A-5

#he permea'ility of a vacuum has a finite value - a'out ,.5H.R,--A H m-, - and in the >2 system 6unlike the cgs system( is denoted 'y the sym'ol /-. &ote that this value is constant with field strength and temperature. Contrast this with the situation in ferromagnetic materials where / is strongly dependant upon 'oth. Also for practical purposes most non-ferromagnetic su'stances 6such as wood plastic glass 'one copper aluminium air and water( have a permea'ility almost e=ual to /-O that is their relative permea'ility is ,.-.

2n !ig. M"T you see in cross section two long straight conductors spaced one metre apart in a vacuum. Both carry one ampere. #he field strength due to the current in conductor A at a distance of one metre may 'e found using AmpUre$s ;aw H I 2 K d I , K 65+( A m-, <=uation M"2 where 2 is the current in conductor A and d is the path length around the circular field line. 9e know from the definition of the ampere that the force on conductor C is 5R,--. newtons per metre of its length. However flu% density B is also defined in terms of the force ! in newtons e%erted on a conductor of unit length and carrying unit current B I ! K 2 I 5R,--. K , tesla <=uation M"0 >ince we now know 'oth B and H at a distance of , metre from A we calculate the permea'ility of a vacuum as -

/- I B K H I 5R,--. K 6, K 65+(( I *+,--. H m-, <=uation M"! >uscepti'ility >uscepti'ility 6magnetic( in the >2 Buantity name >uscepti'ility alias 'ulk suscepti'ility or volumetric suscepti'ility Buantity sym'ol M Mv Lnit sym'ols dimensionless 1uality with the <lectric 9orld Buantity Lnit magnetic , suscepti'ility electric suscepti'ility , !ormula Mmg I /r - , Mel I V - ,

Although suscepti'ility is not directly important to the designer of wound components it is used in most te%t'ooks which e%plain the theory of magnetism. 9hen you work with non-ferromagnetic su'stances the permea'ility is so close to /- that characterizing them 'y / is inconvenient. 2nstead use the magnetic suscepti'ility M - via the permea'ility M I /r - , <=uation M"> 2n paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials the suscepti'ility is given 'y MIMKH <=uation M"H >uscepti'ilities of some other su'stances are given in ta'le M"> where the paramagnetic su'stances have positive suscepti'ilities and the diamagnetic su'stances have negative suscepti'ilities. #he suscepti'ility of a vacuum is then zero. >uscepti'ility is a strong contender for the title of $most confusing =uantity in all science$. #here are five reasons for this) #he counterpart to permea'ility in electrostatics has a distinct name) permittivity. Lnfortunately the counterpart to suscepti'ility in electrostatics has the same name. However the electrostatic suscepti'ility should 'e given the sym'ol Me. >usceptance has nothing to do with suscepti'ility. #here are variant forms of suscepti'ility the main two of which are listed 'elow. Authors do not always e%plicitly state which variant is 'eing used and worse still there is incomplete agreement a'out the names and sym'ols of each variant. #he sym'ol Mm is somewhat overloaded) magnetic suscepti'ility mass suscepti'ility or molar suscepti'ility3 #ake your pick. Most reference 'ooks and many instruments still present suscepti'ility figures in CD> units. 0ften the units are not made e%plicit and you are left to deduce them from the conte%t or the values themselves. #he procedures for converting to >2 are not o'vious.

>ome =uite prestigious pu'lications incorrectly a''reviate the units to $per gram$ or $per kilogram$. )-6 Measurement of suscepti'ility is notoriously difficult. #he slightest whiff of contamination 'y iron in the sample will send the e%perimental results off into the twilight. "u'lished figures fre=uently show differences of HSO and H-S is not rare. #a'le M">) Magnetic suscepti'ilities Material Mv K ,--H Aluminium W5.5 Ammonia -,.-A Bismuth -,A.. Copper --.N5 Hydrogen --.---55 0%ygen W-.,N >ilicon --.?. 9ater --.N-

#he international sym'ol for suscepti'ility of the ordinary 6$volumetric$( kind is simply M without any su'script. 2>0 suggests Mm to distinguish magnetic suscepti'ility from electric suscepti'ility 'ut this may risk confusion with mass or molar suscepti'ility. >ome writers have used Mv to indicate volumetric suscepti'ility. Although electromagnetism is already up to its ears in su'script soup this seems a good solution. #a'le M"&) Variant forms of suscepti'ility &ame <=uation 'ulk suscepti'ility MKH mass suscepti'ility Mv K X molar suscepti'ility Mv R 9a K X or molar mass suscepti'ility Hydrogen --.---55 0%ygen W-.,N >ilicon --.?. 9ater --.Nwhere X is the density of the su'stance in kg m-? and 9a is the molar mass in kg mol-,. #o appreciate the difference for each variant think of it as 'eing a separate way to get the total magnetic moment for a magnetic field strength of one amp per metre. 9ith 'ulk suscepti'ility you start from a known volume with mass suscepti'ility you start from a known mass and from molar suscepti'ility you start from a known num'er of moles. 1epending upon your application one form will 'e more convenient than another.

"hysicists like molar suscepti'ility 'ecause their calculations derive from atomic properties. Deologists like mass suscepti'ility 'ecause they know the weight of their sample. #he definition of suscepti'ility given here accords with the >ommerfeld >2 variant. 2n the Cennelly variant M has a different definition. Mass suscepti'ility Magnetic suscepti'ility 'y mass in the >2 Buantity name Magnetic mass suscepti'ility alias specific suscepti'ility Buantity sym'ol MX Lnit sym'ols m? kg-, Magnetic mass suscepti'ility is simply MX I Mv K X m? kg-, <=uation M"# where Mv is the ordinary 6$volumetric$( suscepti'ility and X is the density of the material in kg per cu'ic metre. Lnfortunately some ta'les of mass suscepti'ility even in prestigious pu'lications a''reviate the units to $suscepti'ility per gram$ or $suscepti'ility per kilogram$ which is at 'est a source of confusion. #ake care to distinguish MX from MM or molar suscepti'ilityO that is a different =uantity. >o if you know the mass of your material sample you need only multiply 'y MX to find its magnetic moment when the field strength is one amp per metre. #a'le M"M) Magnetic mass suscepti'ilities Material MX K 6,--7 m? kg-, ( Aluminium W-.75 Ammonia -,.?7 Bismuth -,..Copper --.,-. Hydrogen -5.*N 0%ygen W,??.A #his definition of suscepti'ility accords with the >ommerfeld >2 variant. 2n the Cennelly variant M has a different definition. -------------#erminology for intrinsic fields within materials -

Magnetic moment Magnetic moment in the >2 Buantity name magnetic moment alias magnetic dipole moment or electromagnetic moment Buantity sym'ol m Lnit name ampere metre s=uared Lnit sym'ols A m5

#he concept of magnetic moment is the starting point when discussing the 'ehaviour of magnetic materials within a field. 2f you place a 'ar magnet in a field then it will e%perience a tor=ue or moment tending to align its a%is in the direction of the field. A compass needle 'ehaves the same. #his tor=ue increases with the strength of the poles and their distance apart. >o the value of magnetic moment tells you in effect $how 'ig a magnet$ you have. 2t is also well known that a current carrying loop in a field also e%periences a tor=ue 6electric motors rely on this effect(. Here the tor=ue Y increases with the current i and the area of the loop A. Z is the angle made 'etween the a%is of the loop normal to its plane and the field direction. YIBRiRAR <=uation M"L sinZ

#he unit of Y is the newton metre. #his puzzling =uantity appears to have the dimensions of force times distance ... which is energy. Hmmm. #he =uantity i R A is defined as the magnetic moment m. #his gives Y I B R m R sinZ <=uation M";

"articular materials where the magnetic moment of each atom can 'e made to favour one direction are said to 'e magnetiza'le. #he e%tent to which this happens is called the magnetization. Magnetic moment is a vector =uantity which has 'oth direction and magnitude. #his is important 'ecause although the atoms in most materials may have magnetic moments they are not easily 'rought into alignment in one direction so the moments cancel each other leading to weak magnetization. #he <arth has a magnetic moment of 7R,-55 A m5. A single electron has a magnetic moment due to its or'it around the nucleus which is a multiple of N.5.R,--5* A m5 6known as the Bohr magneton /B(. 9e have then two ways of looking at the 'asis of magnetism) one is the idea of a pair of opposing poles and the other is current circulation. <ach viewpoint has some advantages over the otherO and this gave science a hard time deciding which to prefer. #he reason this is worth mentioning is that different definitions arose for several =uantities in magnetics. Both models however function more as convenient mathematical a'stractions rather than literal descriptions of the physical origins of magnetism. Magnetization Magnetization in the >2 Buantity name Magnetization Buantity sym'ol M Lnit name ampere per metre Lnit sym'ols A m-,

Magnetic fields are caused 'y the movement of charge normally electrons. #his movement may take place in a wire carrying current. #he wire then develops a surrounding magnetic field which is given the sym'ol H. 2n a 'ar magnet you may not think that there need 'e any current 'ut the magnetic field here is also due to moving charge) the electrons circling around the nuclei of the iron atoms or simply spinning a'out their own a%is. Atoms like this are said to possess a magnetic moment. #he average field strength due to these moments at any particular point is called magnetization and given the sym'ol M. 2n most materials the moments are oriented almost at random - which leads to weak magnetization and $non-magnetic$ properties. 2n iron the moments readily align themselves along an applied field so inducing a large value of M and the familiar characteristics in the presence of a field. Magnetization is defined M I m K V A m-, <=uation M"V

where m is the total vector sum for the magnetic moments of all the atoms in a given volume V 6in m?( of the material. 9e can then say B I /- 6 H W M( teslas >ommerfeld field e=uation #his e=uation is of theoretical importance 'ecause it highlights a closeness 'etween H and M. #he H field is related to $free currents$) for e%ample those flowing from a 'attery along a piece of wire. M on the other hand is related to the $'ound$ 6$AmpUrian$( currents of electron or'itals within magnetized materials. 2n practice with ferromagnetic materials M tends to 'e a very comple% function of H including values of H in the past. As a designer of wound components you therefore pretend instead that B I /H ... and hope for the 'est[ Magnetization occurs not :ust in materials having permanent magnetic moments 'ut also in any magnetiza'le material in a field which can induce a magnetic moment in its constituent atoms. 2n the special case of paramagnetic and diamagnetic materials this magnetization is given 'y M I M H A m-, <=uation M"T 2ntensity of magnetization 2ntensity of magnetization in the >2 Buantity name 2ntensity of magnetization alias Magnetic polarization Buantity sym'ol 2 Lnit name tesla Lnit sym'ol # 2ntensity of magnetization functions in the Cennelly variant of the >2 as an alternative to the >ommerfeld variant for magnetization M. 2 I /- M teslas <=uation M"\ 9e can then say B I /- H W 2 teslas Cennelly field e=uation &ote the units of 2) teslas not amps per metre as in the >ommerfeld magnetization. >o don$t confuse intensity of magnetization with magnetization Magnetic polarization Magnetic polarization in the >2 Buantity name Magnetic polarization alias 2ntensity of

Buantity sym'ol Lnit name Lnit sym'ols

magnetization 8 tesla #

Magnetic polarization is a synonym for intensity of magnetization in the Cennelly variant of the >2