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# Unit 2

## Applied Thermal Engineering II (MEC 316) Gas Turbines Tutorial Sheet

1). A closed cycle regenerative gas turbine operating with air as working medium. Assume the following data: P1 = 1.4 bar, T1 = 310 K, P2/P1 = 5, Tmax = 1050 K, effectiveness of regenerator is 100 %, net output = 3000 kW. Assuming the compression and expansion to be isentropic, calculate a) thermal efficiency and b) mass flow rate of air per minute. 2). A gas turbine with a regenerator has got the following data: Compressor inlet and outlet temperature: 290 K and 460 K Turbine inlet and outlet temperature: 900C and 467C. Assuming no pressure drop in the heat exchanger, calculate a) the pressure ratio of the compressor and turbine, b) specific power output, c) overall efficiency of the cycle d) work required to drive the compressor. 3). In a gas turbine, the pressure ratio to which air at 15C is compressed is 6. The same air is then heated to a maximum permissible temperature of 750C. First in a heat exchanger and then in combustion chamber. It is then expanded in two stages such that the expansion work is maximum. The air is reheated to 750C after the first stage. Determine the cycle thermal efficiency, the work ratio and net shaft work per kg of air. 4). An ideal Brayton cycle gas turbine plant using air operates in an overall pressure ratio of 4 and between temperature limits of 300 K and 1000 K. Assuming constant value of specific heat Cp = 1.005 kJ/kgK and Cv = 0.717 kJ/kgK, evaluate the specific work output and thermal efficiency for each of the modification below and state the percentage change from the basic cycle. Assume optimum stage pressure ratios, perfect intercooling and perfect regeneration. (i) Basic cycle (ii) Basic cycle with heat exchanger (iii) Basic cycle with two stage inter cooled compressor (iv) Basic cycle with heat exchanger and two-stage inter cooled compressor. 5). A closed cycle gas turbine plant develops a power of 1500 kW. The pressure and temperature at the inlet to the compressor are 1 bar and 20C respectively. The pressure ratio is 6. The maximum temperature at the turbine inlet is 800C. Find the isentropic efficiency of turbine and mass flow rate of air. If the isentropic efficiency of the compressor is 85% and overall efficiency of the plant is 0.2. 6). A regenerative reheat cycle has air entering at 1 bar, 300 K into the compressor having intercooling between 2 stages of compression. Air leaving first stage of compression. Air leaving first stage of compression is cooled up to 290 K and 4 bar pressure in intercooler and subsequently compressed to 8 bar. Compressed air leaving 2nd stage compressor is passed through a regenerator having effectiveness of 0.8. Subsequent combustion yields 1300 K at the inlet to the turbine having expansion up to 4 bar and then heated up to 1300 K before being expanded up to 1 bar. Exhaust from the turbine is passed through regenerator. Consider compression and expansion to be isentropic and air as a working fluid throughout the cycle. Find the Efficiency.

Tutorial Sheet Jet Propulsion MEC 316 For Air: a = 1.4, Cpa = 1.005 KJ/kgK, (a 1) / a = 0.2857 For Gases: g= 1.33, Cpg = 1.147 KJ/kgK, (g 1) / g = 0.2481 1). A turbojet power plant uses aviation Kerosene having a calorific value of 43 MJ/kg. The fuel consumption is 0.18 kg per hour per N of thrust, when the thrust is 9 kN. The aircraft velocity is 500 m/sec the mass of air passing through the compressor is 27 kg/sec. Calculate the air-fuel ratio and overall efficiency. 2.) In an aircraft power plant, the gas expands through a turbine to an intermediate pressure and on leaving the turbine it expands from intermediate pressure to back pressure, generating kinetic energy for jet. All the power of turbine is absorbed in driving the associated compressor. In such a unit gas enters the turbine at 4.5 bar and 800C and expands therein to 1.75 bar. Turbine absorbs 75% of the available enthalpy drop. Expansion occurs through the jet from exhaust condition to 1.03 bar. Assume that the velocity of gas entering the turbine jet (nozzle) is negligible. There is no heat loss and conversion of kinetic energy is 100% of the available adiabatic enthalpy drop. Calculate (i) temperature of the gas entering the jet (nozzle), and (ii) velocity of the gas leaving the jet. Assume Cp = 1.05 KJ/kg K and = 1.38. 3). The effective Jet exit velocity from a jet engine is 2700 m/sec. The forward flight velocity is 1350 m/sec and the air flow rate is 78.6 kg/sec. Calculate (i) thrust, (ii) thrust power, and (iii) Propulsive efficiency. 4). A turboprop aircraft is flying at 600 km/hr at an altitude where the ambient conditions are 0.458 bar and 15 C. Compressor pressure ratio is 9:1. Maximum gas temperature 1200 K. the intake duct efficiency is 0.9 and the total head isentropic efficiency of compressor and turbine is 0.89 and 0.93 respectively. Calculate specific power output in KJ/kg, thermal efficiency of the unit taking mechanical efficiency of transmission as 98% and neglecting the losses other than specified. Assume that exhaust gases leave the aircraft at 600 km/h relative to the aircraft. (Hint : No thrust as the unit is Turboprop). 5). In a turbojet unit with forward facing ram intake, the jet velocity relative to the propelling nozzle at exit is twice the flight velocity. Determine the rate of fuel consumption in kg/sec, when developing a thrust of 25000 N under the following conditions: Ambient pressure and temperature: 0.7 bar; 1C, Compression total head pressure ratio: 5:1, Flight speed: 800 km/hr, CV of fuel: 42000 kJ/kg, Ram efficiency: 100%, Isentropic efficiency of compressor: 85%, Isentropic efficiency of Turbine: 90% , Isentropic efficiency of nozzle: 95%, Turbine Pressure ration: 2.23. Assume the mass flow of fuel is small as compared with the mass flow of air and that the working fluid throughout has the properties of air at low temperature. Neglect the extraneous pressure drop. Assume Cpg = Cpa = 1.05 kJ/kg K.

MEC 316

## Applied Thermal Engg. Tutorial Sheet 3 Centrifugal Compressors

1. A centrifugal compressor has to deliver 35 kg per sec. The impeller is 76 cm diameter revolving at 11500 rpm with an adiabatic efficiency of 80 %. If the pressure ratio is 4.2: 1, estimate the probable axial width of the impeller at the impeller tip if the radial velocity is 120 m/sec. The initial conditions are 1 bar and 47 C. 2. A centrifugal compressor has an inlet eye 15 cm diameter. The impeller revolves at 20000 rpm and the inlet air has an axial velocity of 107 m/sec, inlet temperature 294 K and inlet pressure 1.03 kg/cm2. Determine (i) theoretical angle of blade at this point and (ii) Mach number of the flow at the tip of the eye. 3. Determine the impeller diameters and the width at the impeller exit and the power required to drive the compressor. Given data is: Speed = 12500 rev/min, Mass flow rate = 15 kg/sec, Pressure ratio = 4:1, Isentropic efficiency = 75%, Slip Factor = 0.9, Flow coefficient at the impeller exit ( ) = 0.3, Hub diameter of the eye = 15 cm, Axial velocity of air at entry to and exit from impeller = 150 m/s, Temperature at inlet = 295 K, Pressure at the inlet = 1 bar. Assume equal pressure ratio in the impeller and diffuser. 4. A centrifugal compressor has a pressure ratio of 4:1 with an isentropic efficiency of 80% when running at 15000 rpm and inducting air at 293 K. Curved Vanes at inlet give the air a pre whirl of 25 to the axial direction at all radii and the mean dia. of eye is 250 mm. The absolute air velocity at inlet is 150 m/sec. impeller tip dia. is 600 mm. Calculate the slip factor. 5. A centrifugal compressor running at 16000 rpm takes air at 17C and compresses it through a pressure ratio of 4, with an isentropic efficiency of 82%. At the exit the blades are radial. Slip factor is 0.85. Guide vanes at inlet give air a pre whirl angle of 20 to the axial direction. The impeller eye diameter is 200 mm. The absolute velocity of air at the inlet is 120 m/s. Find the impeller tip diameter. 6. A centrifugal compressor compresses 30 kg of air per second at a rotational speed of 15000 rpm. The air enters the compressor axially, and the conditions at the exit sections are radius = 0.3 m, relative velocity of air at tip = 100 m/sec at an angle of 80 with respect of plane of rotation. Take P1 = 1 bar and T1 = 300 K. Find the torque and power required to drive the compressor and also the Ideal head developed.

Applied Thermal Engg. Tutorial Sheet 4 Axial flow Compressors 1. A 10 stage axial flow compressor provides an overall pressure ratio of 5:1 with an overall isentropic efficiency of 87 %. The temperature of the air is 15 C. The work is equally divided between the stages. A 50 % reaction is used with a blade speed of 210 m/sec and a constant axial velocity of 170 m/sec. Estimate the blade angles. 2. Air at 1.0132 bar and at a stagnation temperature of 288 K enters an axial flow compressor stage with an axial velocity 150 m/sec. The rotor stage has a tip diameter of 60 cm and a hub diameter of 50 cm and rotates at 100 rps. The air enters the rotor and leaves the stator in the axial direction with no change in axial velocity or Radius. The air is turned through 30.2 as it passes through rotor. Assume a pressure ratio of 1.2. (i) Construct velocity diagram at mean dia. for this stage, (ii) mass flow rate, (iii) Power (iv) Degree of reaction. 3. An axial flow air compressor of 50 % reaction design had blades with inlet and outlet angles of 45 and 110 respectively. Pressure ratio is 6:1; overall isentropic efficiency of 0.85, inlet static temperature is 37 C. The blade speed and axial velocity are constant throughout the compressor. Assuming a value of 200 m/sec for blade speed. Find the number of stages required of the work done factor is (i) unity, (ii) 0.87 for all stages. 4. Air at a temperature of 290 K enters a 10 stage axial flow compressor at the rate of 3 kg/sec. The pressure ratio is 6.5 and the isentropic efficiency is 90 %, the compression process being adiabatic. The axial velocity of 110 m/sec is uniform across the stage and blade speed of each stage is 180 m/sec. Determine the direction of the air at entry to and exit from the rotor blades and also power given to the air. 5. Determine stage efficiency and work done factor of an axial compressor, if the actual pressure ratio developed was 1.35 and actual temperature rise was 30 K. The blade inlet and outlet angles are 47 and 15 respt. The peripheral and axial velocities are 225 m/sec and 180 m/sec respt. 6. A 50% reaction axial flow compressor runs at a mean blade speed of 250 m/sec. the pressure ratio developed by the machine is 1.3. Determine the blade and air angle if the mean flow velocity was 200 m/sec. Condition at inlet are 1 bar and 300 K. MEC 316