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BACK MUSCLES Latissimus dorsi Action: Adducts, extends, internally rotates, and horizontally abducts the arm Rhomboideus

major Action: Adduction and downward rotation of the scapula Rhomboideus minor Action: Adduction and downward rotation of the scapula Teres minor Action: External rotation and horizontal abduction of the arm Levator scapulae Action: Extension of neck, downward rotation and elevation of the scapulae Trapezius Action: Elevates, depresses (depends on area of muscle being activated), adducts and upwardly rotates the scapulae Erector spinae Action: Extension, lateral flexion and rotation of the head and neck houlder, !hest and Arm "uscles S !UL"ER# C EST A$" ARM MUSCLES C EST %ectoralis major Action: Adducts, flexes, extends (depends on fibers being recruited), internally rotates and horizontally adducts the arm %ectoralis minor Action: #epresses, protracts and downwardly rotates the scapulae "ELT!&" Anterior Action: Abducts, flexion, internally rotates and horizontally adducts the arm Medial Action: Abducts the arm %osterior Action: Abducts, extends, externally rotates and horizontally abducts the arm Coracobrachialis Action: $lexes and horizontally adducts the arm

R!TAT!R CU'' Subscapularis Action: %nternally rotates the arm &n(raspinatus Action: Externally rotates the arm Teres Minor Action: Externally rotates the arm Supraspinatus Action: Abduction of the arm MUSCLES !' T E ARM Biceps brachii Action: $lexion of the elbow and shoulder, supination of the forearm Brachialis Action: $lexion of the elbow %ronator teres Action: &ronates the forearm Triceps brachii Action: Extends the elbow, adducts and extends the shoulder (long head) Anconeus Action: Extends the elbow Supinator Action: upinates the forearm %ronator )uadratus Action: &ronates the forearm 'le*or carpi radialis Action: $lexes and abducts the wrist 'le*or carpi ulnaris Action: $lexes and adducts the wrist %almaris lon+us Action: $lexion of the wrist E*tensor carpi radialis lon+us Action: Extends and adducts the wrist E*tensor di+itorum Action: Extends the wrist

LE,S -UA"R&CE%S Rectus (emoris Action: hip flexion and knee extension .astus lateralis Action: knee extension .astus medialis Action: knee extension .astus &ntermedius Action: knee extension !T ER Sartorius Action: flexion, external rotation, and abduction at the hip, flexion and internal rotation at the knee ,racilis Action: abduction, flexion, and internal rotation at the hip, internal rotation of the knee %ectineus Action: adduction, flexion, and horizontal adduction at the hip Adductor lon+us Action: adduction, flexion, and horizontal adduction at the hip Adductor ma+nus Action: adduction, flexion, and horizontal adduction at the hip AMSTR&$,S Semimembranosus Action: extension a the hip, and flexion and internal rotation at the knee Semitendinosus Action: extension and internal rotation at the hip, flexion and internal rotation at the knee Biceps 'emoris Action: extension at the hip, external rotation and flexion at the knee ,luteus ma*imus Action: extension, external rotation, horizontal abduction, and adduction at the hip

,luteus medius Action: abduction, horizontal abduction, internal rotation (anterior fibers), and external rotation (posterior fibers) at the hip ,luteus minimus Action: abduction, horizontal abduction, and internal rotation at the hip L!/ER LE, Tibialis anterior Action: dorsiflexion and inversion of the foot E*tensor di+itorum lon+us Action: dorsiflexion and eversion of the foot E*tensor hallucis lon+us Action: inversion of the foot %eroneus lon+us Action: plantarflexion and eversion of the foot Soleus Action: plantarflexion ,astrocnemius Action: plantarflexion of the foot, flexion of the knee TRU$K0AB"!ME$ Rectus abdominis Action: flexion and lateral flexion of the trunk E*ternal obli)ue Action: flexion of the trunk, lateral flexion (same side), and rotation (opposite side) &nternal obli)ue Action: flexion of the trunk, lateral flexion (same side), rotation (same side) Serratus anterior Action: protraction and upward rotation of the shoulder girdle Tranversalis abdominis Action: compresses the abdominal'pelvic cavity(

Sports science related words Abduction1 "ovement of a body part away from the midline of the body( Adduction1 "ovement toward or beyond the midline of the body in the frontal plane( A+onist1 A contracting muscle that is resisted or counteracted by another muscle, the antagonist( Andro+en1 Any substance that aids in development and controls the appearance of male characteristics( Anta+onist: A muscle that produces an action that is exactly the opposite of the agonist( Anterior: )efore or in front of( Anterior tilt: $orward tilt of the pelvic girdle Assistant mover: A muscle that aids the prime mover to effect *oint movement( As2mmetr2 3bod24: +ack of symmetry of sides of the body( Atroph21 A wasting or decrease in size of an organ, tissue, or body part owing to disease, in*ury, or lack of use( A*illa1 ,he armpit( Biomechanics1 A branch of study that applies the laws of mechanics to living organisms and tissues( Bursa1 A sac or saclike bodily cavity, especially one containing viscous lubricating fluid( +ocated between a tendon and a bone or at points of friction between moving structures( Bursitis1 %nflammation of a bursa( Calisthenics1 Exercise performed without weights or outside resistance designed to develop muscular tone and promote physical well being

Chiropractor1 -ne who practices a method for restoring normal condition by ad*usting the segments of the spine( Circumduct1 An act of moving a limb in a circular manner( Concentric contraction1 .hen a muscle overcomes resistance causing the muscle to shorten and the *oint angle to be reduced( Contralateral1 ituated on the opposite side( Cranial1 /efers to the head or skull( "epression1 #ownward movement of a part of the body( "istal1 $arthest away from the point of reference( "orsal1 &ertaining to the posterior portion of a body or segment( "orsi(le*ion1 )ending the body part towards the rear, opposite of plantar flexion( "orsum1 ,he upper, outer surface of an organ, appendage, or body part( "o5n5ard rotation1 "ovement of the scapula as the arms are lowered, and the superior border of the scapula moves away from the midline (spine)( Eccentric muscle action1 (a(k(a( eccentric contraction) .hen resistance develops sufficient Elevation1 0pward movement of a body part( E*ercise1 &hysical activity, the purpose of which is to improve some component of physical fitness( E*piration1 Exhalation of E*tension1 ,he act of straightening or extending a limb1 the position assumed by an extended limb( E*ternal rotation1 An outward, clockwise rotation of a bone, away from the midline of the body(

Eversion1 ,he movement of the foot away from the midline of the body at the ankle *oint( Also see pronation( 'le*ion1 "ovement resulting in the reduction of a *oint angle( orizontal abduction1 ,he movement of the arms from horizontally across the body( tarting from a position where the shoulders are flexed at 23 degrees, hands extended in front of the body, moving in the transverse plane to end in a position where the arms are flexed at 23 degrees out to the side of the body( 2pere*tension1 An extreme stretching or extension of a body part beyond the normal range( 2pertroph21 Enlargement of a body part due to an increase in the size of its cells( 2perventilation1 Abnormal, prolonged deep breathing that causes a depletion of carbon dioxide, a fall in blood pressure, and possible fainting( &diopathic1 !ause of in*ury unknown( &liac1 /efers to the area of the hip bones on either side of the body( &n(erior1 Away from the head1 relatively lower in position( &njur21 Act that damages or hurts( &nnervation1 4erve stimulation of a muscle( &nversion1 ,he movement of the foot towards the midline of the body at the ankle *oint( Also see supination( &psilateral1 ituated on the same side( &schemia1 +ocalized anemia or lack of oxygen( &so6inetic contraction1 Accommodating or variable resistance( "ovement of a body part through a range of motion at a constant speed( &sometric contraction1 "uscular contraction that does not result in a change in the length of the muscle(

&sotonic contraction1 "uscular contraction that overcomes resistance, resulting in a change in the length of the muscle( 7oint1 ,he articulation of two or more bones( 7oint cavit21 ,he space between bones that is encapsulated by a synovial membrane and articular cartilage( Ketosis1 A condition brought about by the restriction of carbohydrate intake, resulting in excessive acetones or other ketone bodies being secreted by the body1 stored fat becomes more available for energy( K2phosis1 An excessive posterior curve of the thoracic (upper) spine( Lactate1 ,he end product of anaerobic metabolism of glucose1 the disassociated form of lactic acid( Lactate threshold1 ,he point during a graded exercise test at which the blood lactate concentration suddenly increases1 a good indicator of the highest sustainable work load the individual can perform( Lateral (le*ion1 $lexing the trunk or neck to either side in the frontal plane( Le+1 ,he portion of the lower limb between the knee and the Lever1 A rigid bar (like a bone) pivoted on a fixed point 5 used to transmit force, as in raising a weight at one end by pushing down on the other( Li+ament1 ,he connective tissue that connects bone to bone( Limitin+ (actor1 A characteristic that determines the upper limit of performance on a particular task, exercise, etc( (muscle fiber type, cardiac output, and oxygen uptake)( Lordosis1 An excessive forward curve of the lumbar (lower) spine( Lumbar1 /elated or pertaining to the low back( ,here are five lumbar vertebrae located above the sacrum( Ma*imal1 ,he highest level possible, the greatest effort attainable(

Ma*imal aerobic po5er1 ,he most oxygen that can be taken up and used by the body during maximal work( /elates directly to the rate that the heart can supply the muscles with oxygenated blood( Ma*imal heart rate1 ,he highest heart rate attainable( Estimated by subtracting an individual6s age from 773( Moment arm1 ,he shortest or perpendicular distance from the point of force application to the *oint or axis( Motor unit1 ,he functional unit of muscular contraction consisting of a motor nerve and the muscle fibers it innervates( Muscle +roup1 A group of specific muscles that are responsible for a particular movement or action at the same *oint( M2ositis1 %nflammation of a muscle( %lantar (le*ion1 Extending the foot away or 8pointing one6s toes, opposite of dorsiflexion( %l2ometric1 ,he eccentric or lengthening contraction of a muscle immediately preceding a concentric contraction( %osterior1 /elated or pertaining to the rear( %osterior tilt1 )ackward tilt of the pelvis( %osture1 ,he position or carriage of the entire body( %ro+ression1 A gradual increase from the current level( A term to indicate the use of greater resistance to overload a muscle to effect adaptation( %ronation1 $oot 5 eversion combined with abduction of the forefoot( $orearm 5 rotation of the wrist and hand towards the radius( %rone1 +ying with the front or face downward( %rotraction1 $orward movement of a body part, (e(g( scapula'shoulder girdle)( %ro*imal1 !loser to any point of reference

Retraction1 )ackward movement of a part( Rotation1 "ovement of a bone around its long (longitudinal) axis( Super(icial1 External1 located close to or on the body surface( Superior1 /efers to the head or upper1 higher( Supination1 $oot 5 inversion combined with adduction of the forefoot( $orearm 5 rotation of the wrist and hand laterally( Supine1 /efers to the body lying with the face upward, opposite of prone( S2ner+ist1 A muscle cooperating with another to produce movement that could not be performed by either muscle individually( Thoracic1 /efers to the chest( Thora*1 ,he portion of the trunk above the diaphragm and below the neck( Tissue1 A group of similar cells and fibers that form a distinct structure( Tonic1 ,he state of being in a consistent state muscular or neural activity (tone)( Tor)ue1 ,he effect of producing a force through rotation1 the product of force times length of the force arm( Umbilicus1 ,he navel 5 the site that marks the where the umbilical cord was present( .asoconstriction1 ,he narrowing of blood vessels( .asodilation1 ,he widening of blood vessels( .ein1 A vessel that carries blood away from tissues and towards the heart( .elocit21 ,he rate of motion of a body traveling in a particular direction( .entilation1 ,he process of oxygenating the blood through the lungs(

.entricle1 A small cavity or pouch1 chambers of the heart that push blood out to the tissues( .erti+o1 A feeling of dizziness, as though the environment was revolving( .iscosit21 ,he state of being sticky or thick( .ital capacit21 ,he total volume of air that can be exhaled following a maximal inhalation( .oluntar2 muscle1 keletal muscle1 muscle under one6s control( /arm8up1 +ight to moderate physical activity performed prior to exercise( /or61 ,he movement of force through a distance( /or6 rate1 &ower or work generated per unit of time(