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PSY2012 Term 2013-1 Exam 4: Chapters 10-12 Prof.

Palau Questions 1-44 Instructions: Please read each statement carefully and choose the best answer. 1. Psychologists use ________ to assess individuals mental aptitudes and compare them with those of others. a. heritability estimates b. reliability coefficients c. intelligence tests d. the g factor 2. Who would have been most enthusiastic about the value of a single intelligence test score as an index of an individuals mental capacities? a. L. L. Thurstone b. Charles Spearman c. Howard Gardner d. Robert Sternberg 3. In 8 to 10 seconds, the late memory whiz Kim Peek could read and remember the contents of a book page. Yet, he had little capacity for understanding abstract concepts. Kims mental capacities best illustrate a. autism. b. Down syndrome. c. emotional intelligence. d. savant syndrome. 4. The characteristics of savant syndrome most directly suggest that intelligence is a. a diverse set of distinct abilities. b. largely unpredictable and unmeasurable. c. a culturally constructed concept. d. dependent upon the speed of cognitive processing. 5. Those who define intelligence as academic aptitude are most likely to criticize a. Spearmans concept of general intelligence. b. Binets concept of mental age. c. Gardners concept of multiple intelligences. d. Sternbergs concept of analytical intelligence. 6. Which of the following persons best illustrates Sternbergs concept of practical intelligence? a. Jamal, a student who quickly recognizes the correct answers to multiple-choice test questions b. Gareth, a graduate student who generates many creative ideas c. Shelley, a newspaper reporter who has established a large network of information sources d. Cindy, a young mother who prefers cleaning her house to supervising her children 7. When Professor Richards asks her students to answer questions in class, she can quickly tell from their facial expressions whether they are happy to participate. Professor Richards perceptual skill best illustrates a. analytical intelligence. b. divergent thinking. c. emotional intelligence. d. factor analysis. 8. Associations between intelligence and brain size are most notable in specific areas within the

a. frontal and temporal lobes. b. parietal and occipital lobes. c. frontal and parietal lobes. d. temporal and occipital lobes. 9. Brain size (adjusted for body size) is ________ correlated with intelligence. The speed of taking in perceptual information is ________ correlated with intelligence. a. positively; negatively b. negatively; positively c. positively; positively d. negatively; negatively 10. Five-year-old Wilbur performs on an intelligence test at a level characteristic of an average 4- year-old. Wilburs mental age is a. 4. b. 4.5. c. 5. d. 80. 11. The distribution of intelligence test scores in the general population forms a bell-shaped pattern. This pattern is called a a. standardization sample. b. reliability coefficient. c. factor analysis. d. normal curve. 12. A measure of intelligence based on head size is likely to have a ________ level of reliability and a ________ level of validity. a. low; low b. low; high c. high; low d. high; high 13. The ability to learn a new computer software program is to ________ as knowledge of state capitals is to ________. a. intrinsic motivation; extrinsic motivation b. extrinsic motivation; intrinsic motivation c. crystallized intelligence; fluid intelligence d. fluid intelligence; crystallized intelligence 14. Intelligence scores are most likely to be stable over a one-year period for a a. preschool student whose intelligence test score is 80. b. second-grade student whose intelligence test score is 125. c. sixth-grade student whose intelligence test score is 115. d. tenth-grade student whose intelligence test score is 95. 15. An IQ of approximately 70 or below and difficulty adapting to the normal demands of life is most clearly an indication of a. savant syndrome. b. divergent thinking. c. convergent thinking. d. an intellectual disability. 16. The similarity between the intelligence test scores of identical twins raised apart is a. less than that between children and their biological parents. b. equal to that between identical twins reared together. c. equal to that between fraternal twins reared together.

d. greater than that between ordinary siblings reared together. 17. Todays researchers have identified many different chromosomal regions important to intelligence. This indicates that intelligence is a. triarchic. b. intrinsic motivation. c. polygenetic. d. divergent thinking. 18. The importance of environmental influences on intelligence is provided by evidence that a. general intelligence scores predict performance on a variety of complex tasks. b. the cognitive development of neglected children is often delayed. c. identical twins reared together have more similar intelligence scores than fraternal twins reared together. d. mental similarities between adopted children and their adoptive families increase with age. 19. Girls are most likely to outperform boys in a a. grammar test. b. mathematical reasoning test. c. computer programming contest. d. chess tournament. 20. On average, the intelligence test scores of the Dingbats are much higher than those of the Dodos. The difference in the average test scores of the two groups might be a product of a. genetic differences between two groups with similar environments. b. environmental differences between two groups with similar genetics. c. genetic and environmental differences between the two groups. d. any of these things. 21. Intelligence tests are biased in the sense that a. test performance is influenced by cultural experiences. b. the reliability of intelligence tests is close to zero. c. the heritability of intelligence is very high. d. numerical scores of intelligence serve to dehumanize individuals. 22. Psychologists have used four perspectives in their efforts to explain motivation. These include an emphasis on instincts, optimum arousal, a hierarchy of motives, and a. drive reduction. b. 360-degree feedback. c. refractory periods. d. basal metabolic rate. 23.An instinctive behavior is one that is a. designed to reduce drives. b. triggered by a sexual incentive. c. similar in all living organisms. d. unlearned. 24. Which theory of motivation most clearly emphasizes the importance of genetically predisposed behaviors? a. drive-reduction theory b. instinct theory c. hierarchy of needs theory d. arousal theory 25.According to drive-reduction theory, a need refers to a. a physiological state that usually triggers motivational arousal. b. anything that is perceived as having positive or negative value in motivating behavior.

c. a desire to perform a behavior in order to avoid punishment. d. a rigidly patterned behavioral urge characteristic of all people. 26. Victims of a famine will often eat unappetizing and nutritionally poor foods simply to relieve their constant hunger. Their behavior is best explained in terms of a. arousal theory. b. instinct theory. c. drive-reduction theory. d. incentive theory. 27. Which theory would be most helpful for explaining why people are motivated to watch horror movies? a. instinct theory b. drive-reduction theory c. hierarchy of needs theory d. arousal theory 28. According to Maslow, our need for ________ must be met before we are preoccupied with satisfying our need for ________. a. love; food b. adequate clothing; self-esteem c. self-actualization; friendship d. political freedom; economic security 29. Peoples preferences for sweet tastes are ________, and their preferences for excessively salty tastes are ________. a. needs; incentives b. incentives; needs c. universal; learned d. learned; universal 30. Given an obese parent, boys are at a(n) ________ risk for obesity and girls are at a(n) ________ risk for obesity. a. increased; decreased b. decreased; increased c. increased; increased d. decreased; decreased 31. In most nonhuman mammals, female sexual receptivity is greatest when a. testosterone levels are lowest. b. testosterone levels are highest. c. estrogen levels are lowest. d. estrogen levels are highest. 32. Professor Langley emphasizes that premature sexual activity among high school students involves the interplay of alcohol consumption, mass media norms, and teens underestimation of their vulnerability to sexually transmitted infections. The professors emphasis best illustrates a. the evolutionary perspective. b. human factors psychology. c. a biopsychosocial approach. d. the sexual response cycle. 33. Among unmarried American teens, sexual abstinence is more likely for those with ________levels of intelligence and ________ levels of religious engagement. a. higher; lower b. lower; higher c. higher; higher

d. lower; lower 34. Research on the environmental conditions that influence sexual orientation indicates that a. homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been sexually abused during childhood. b. homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been overprotected by their mothers. c. homosexuals are more likely than heterosexuals to have been raised in a father-absent home. d. the reported backgrounds of homosexuals and heterosexuals are similar. 35. A birth-order effect seems to play a role in sexual orientation among a. men who are right-handed. b. women who are right-handed. c. men who are not right-handed. d. both men and women who are not right-handed. 36. Foolish conformity to peer pressure is most likely to be motivated by ________ needs. a. safety b. belongingness c. achievement d. self-actualization 37. Cassandras mother told her, You know you are in love when your heart beats fast and you experience that unique trembling feeling inside. This remark best illustrates the ________ theory of emotion. a. Cannon-Bard b. two-factor c. catharsis d. James-Lange 38. Noticing that his heart was pounding and that his palms were sweaty while he was taking a difficult test, Harley concluded that he was anxious. Noticing that his heart was pounding and that his palms were sweaty when an attractive lady asked him to dance, Harley concluded that he was falling in love. The differing emotions experienced by Harley can best be explained by the a. relative deprivation principle. b. James-Lange theory. c. two-factor theory. d. catharsis hypothesis. 39. Evidence that people can develop an emotional preference for stimuli to which they have been unknowingly exposed has convinced Robert Zajonc that a. our thoughts are not influenced by our emotional states. b. our normal feelings of love and anger are typically irrational. c. the two-factor theory of emotion is essentially correct. d. sometimes emotion precedes cognition. 40. Rapid fear reactions to sensory input in the absence of conscious thought are possible because certain neural pathways bypass the a. hypothalamus. b. amygdala. c. thalamus. d. prefrontal cortex. 41. The level of physiological arousal typically associated with peak performance tends to be a. lower on tasks that are well-learned. b. higher on tasks that are difficult. c. lower on tasks that are easy.

d. lower on tasks that are difficult. 42. Employees who have just been laid off are asked questions that encourage them to express hostility toward their employer. Research suggests that this opportunity to vent anger will a. calm their emotions and reduce their anger. b. lead them to perceive their employers actions as unavoidable. c. rechannel their anger into constructive motivation. d. increase their hostility. 43. Psychologists define stress as a. the experience of realistic anxiety. b. the process by which we appraise and respond to threatening or challenging events, whether real or imagined. c. an attempt to reach some important goal. d. physical, emotional, or mental exhaustion. 44. Attempting to alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor is known as a. psychoneuroimmunology. b. biofeedback. c. problem-focused coping. d. spontaneous remission. Questions 45-50 Instructions: Please read each statement carefully. Answer A if you believe the statement is TRUE and B if you believe the statement to be false. ( A= True, B=False) 45. Familial mental retardation is the result of an impoverished environment. 46. An effective way to deal with an emotional hijacking experience is to count to 10. 47. Womens level of arousal is lower to that of mens when exposed to erotic material. 48. Women are more likely to cheat on their partners when estrogen levels are at their highest. 49. Whether you drive a Mercedes or a bicycle, no need to worry. Most likely, women will still find you equally attractive. 50. Events that are positive in nature should not be considered stressors.

END OF EXAM! Good luck to all.