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PREFACE.

intended mainly as a book of reference, and for this purpose is printed with a copious index. It has been written chiefly for those students who have learnt, or are now studying, Persian in India. It

THIS work

is

should be borne in mind that considerable differences exist between the


Persian of Afghanistan
diction
'

and
is

of Persia, not only in pronunciation

and

but also in construction.


It

Many

of

these differences are

illus-

trated in this work.

hoped that the notes on composition and

rhetoric will prove especially interesting to Indian students,

many

of

whom

for their benefit that these subjects

have to study Persian through the medium of English, and it is have been treated from an English

point of view. These notes, however, are not intended to supplant the study of Arabic or Persian rhetoric, but merely to supplement it.

The author, not being a


Prosody.

poet, has

made no attempt

to deal with

In writing this grammar, the works of Platts, Ranking, Rosen,

Chodzko, Haggard and Le Strange, Tisdale, Socin, Thacher, Wright, and others, including several works in Urdu and Persian, have been My acknowledgments are specially due to Agha freely made use of.

Muhammad Kazim
ers,

ShirazI, Persian Instructor to the

Board
(

of

Examin-

who has
also

assisted throughout in seeing the


his

and

to

brother-in-law,

the

late

work through the Press, Shams"' l- Ulama* Shaykh

Mahmud

Jilani,

and other Persian


of a large

friends, for constant advice.

The addition

amount

of Arabic (viz. portions of the

Qur'an, the Alif Laylah and other Arabic works) to the Persian Course has necessitated a far larger amount of Arabic grammar than was
anticipated, a task for which I felt myself

This portion of
set for
it.

by no means competent. the work has grown much beyond the limits originally
thanks are chiefly due to Shams^lYusuf Ja'fari, Khan Bahadur, Head Maulavi of
it,

In compiling

my

'Ulama*

Muhammad

the Board of Examiners, to

Shams u 'l- Ulamd* Shaykh Mahmud


(

Jilani,

and to Maulavi Hidayat Husayn


I

of Presidency College,

and

others,

who

dil

" clean, " In modern Persian, for instance, fcwuzjA+1 means dimagh " order, medal." J,> "stomach," imtiyaz jULo)

U> "nose,

IV

PREFACE.

helped

me

'/hroughout

its

compilation

and

also to Professor L.

White-

King,

C.S.I., of

Dublin,

who

assisted in revising the proofs

and at whose

suggestion numerous additions were made.

Owing

to the

War and

proofs at sea

and

to other unfortunate causes, this

the consequent loss of manuscript and work has been un-

duly long in issuing from the Press.


D. C.

PH1LLOTT,

Lieut. -Colonel.

CAIRO US. March 1918.


:

>

TO

THE HON'BLE

MR. JUSTICE

ASUTOSH MOOKERJEE,

C.S.I., D.L., D.Sc., F.A.S.B., F.R.S.E.,

VICE-CHAN CELLOE OF THE CALCUTTA UNIVERSITY, CHAIRMAN OF THE

TRUSTEES OF THE INDIAN MUSEUM, VICE-PRESIDENT

OF THE ASIATIC SOCIETY OF BENGAL,


I

DEDICATE THIS BOOK,

IN RECOGNITION

BOTH OF PERSONAL FRIENDSHIP

AND OF THE SERVICES HE HAS


RENDERED TO ORIENTAL
SCHOLARSHIP.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
PART
I.

CHAPTER

I.

ORTHOGRAPHY AND ORTHOEPY.


Page
Sec.
1.

The Alphabet

..

..
..

.. ..
.
.

2.

Pronunciation of Consonants

..11
.
.

3.
4.

The Short and Long and Dipthong Vowels

21

Hamza and

the Short Vowels at the beginning of words


of words)
. .
.

23
27 28

5.
6.
.,

The letter (at the beginning Jazm or Sukun


. .

7.
8.

Taslidid

and Idgham
..
.

...
..
..

29

Tanwin
Waslah

..

..
..
. .

9.
,,

..
.
.

..30 ..31
31

10.
11. 12.

Solar and Lunar Letters

Abjad Numeral Figures


.

..
.

..
.

..
. .

..32
33

13

To

find

the year A.D. corresponding to the year of the


.. .. .. .. ..
.

Hijra
14.

..

Siyaq

..
.
.

..
.
.

..34 ..34
34
35

15.
,,

Letters in Poetry

16. 17. 18.


19.

,,

Handwriting Punctuation

..

..

..

..
.
.

..37
38
40
41

Abbreviations, Contractions and Imala

Summary
Accent

,,

20. 21.

Exercise in Translation
..

,.

..

..

..

..45

CHAPTER
Sec. 22.
23.

II.

Division of Persian and Arabic Gramnicar

48

24.

25.
26.
.,

Etymology .. The Article The Substantive


. .

,.
. .

..
.

..
. .

..48
.

48 48
51

. .

Declension

27. 28.

29.

Examples of Declension Formation of the Plural Plurals Modern Persian

56
58
.

Classical Persian

64

Vlll

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER

III.

PRONOUNS.
Page
Sec. 30.
,,

Personal Pronouns

68

31.
32.

The

Affixed Pronouns

.. ..

..
,.

.. ..
.

,,

Possessive Pronouns

..71 ..75
77

33.
,,

Reflexive and Reciprocal Pronouns

34.
35.
36.

,,

Simple Demonstrative Pronouns Emphatic Demonstrative Pronouns

82
87
. .

,,

,,

37. 38.
39.

Compound Demonstrative Pronouns .. Interrogative Pronouns ..


Substitutes for Interrogative Pronouns
Indefinite

88
98
98

..
.

..91

,,

,,

Pronouns

CHAPTER
Sec. 40.
41.
,,

IV.

THE ARTICLE AND THE RELATIVE PRONOUNS.


The Definite Article .. .. The Indefinite Article .. The Relative Pronouns and the Demonstrative or Relative
.

130

..131

42.

^
. .

141

CHAPTER
Sec. 43.

V.
. . . .

The Adjective

149
161

44.
,,

Compound

45. 46.

Adjectives Intensive Adjectives

169
171

Degree of Comparison and Comparative Clauses

CHAPTER
Sec. 47.
48.
,,

VI.

THE NUMERALS.
Cardinal Numbers The Ordinals
.

182
191

49. 50.
51.

Fractions

..

..

.. .. ..
. .

..

..
..

194
196
197

,,

Adverbial Numerals
Multiplicative Numerals

..
..
.

.. ..
.

,,

..
.
.

52.
.;

Distributive Numerals

198

53.

,,

54.
55.

Recurring Numerals Approximate Numbers Numeral Adjectives

198
199

199

CHAPTER
Sec. 56.
57.

VII
.

58.

Arabian Months The Turki Year-Cycle The Zodiac

200
203

204

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

IX

Page
Sec. 59.
60.
,,

The Seasons..
Ancient Persian year

.,
, ,

,.205
..
, ,

.. ..
. .

..
..
.

206
209

61.

Yazd-Gardi year

..
.

62.

Days

of the

Week

210

CHAPTER
Sec. 63.
64. 65.

VIII.
,
.

Money
Weights

. .

212 213

Measures of Length
.,

. .

,.

,.

.,

,.214

CHAPTER
Sec. 66.
67.
,,
. . .
.

IX.
. ,
. ,
.
.

68.

The Verb The Separate Substantive, Verb .. The Verb Transitive and Intransitive
Tenses from the Imperative Tenses from the Shortened Infinitive
.

217

, ,

..219 ,.221
. .

, .

223

225

69.

Active Voice

..

..
,
.

..
.
.

..
.

..229
.
.

70.
71. 72.

Verbal Adjective Negative Verbs

234
235
237

73.
74.

Euphonical Rules and Accents in the Verbs .. .. Interrogative Verbs

..
. .

,.238
. .

Roots or Stems

of

Simple Verbs
. .

239 248

75.
76.

Hybrid Verbs

The Auxiliary Verb


,,

tf^cw
Tawanistan
Giriftan

248
249

,.77.
78.
79.

,,

..
. .

..
. .

..254
. .

80.
,,

The Verbs " to begin, etc." The Auxiliary Verb Khwas tan

256
257

81.

Guzashtan, Dadan, Mandan " " to Permit, Allow

and Verbs
. .

261

,,

82.

83.
,,

Rajtan Dashtan

.. ..
. .

.. ..
. .

..263 ..263
. .

84.
85.

Impersonal Verbs Compound Verbs


Certain

266

274
280 282 285

,,

86.

Common

Verbs used

in the

Compounds
. . .
. .

,.

87.
88.

Causal and Reflexive Verbs


Passive Voice and Passive Verbs

,,

CHAPTER
Sec. 89.
,,

X.

Adverbs and Adverbial Phrases


Prepositions
. .

90.
91.

Simple Conjunctions

TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Page 354
366

Sec.

92.
93.

Compound Conjunctions
Interjections

. .

and Interjectional Phrases, Greetings, Compli.

ments, etc.
94.
95.

Signs and Signals

389

Bibliomancy, Divination, Superstitions,

etc.

. .

390

CHAPTER
Sec.
96.
97.

XI.
. . .
. .
.

Diminutive Nouns
,

394 398

Affixed C5 and Arabic Abstract

Noun
. .

. .

98.
,,

99,

The Terminal The Suffixes ban

404
406
407

or van, vana,

un and van
.

100. 101.
102.
103. 104.

gar, gar, gari, kar


ar, dar, al
. .

..

..
.

..408
.

The Turkish Suffixes ji, cht, .. The Suffix dan The Suffixes zar, sar, stan
gard, khana, shan,

bash, tdsh or dash


.

409 410 410

or istan, lakh, kada, gah, abad,


. . . .
.

na

105.

The

Suffixes

umand, wand, mand, nak, ak


bar,yar
ana,
..
..

413
414

106.
107.
,,

..
.
,

..413
. .
. .

avar, var, var, gan,

man
van
..

108.
109.
,

ma,

in, an, an, ra,

415
417

agin or gin

..

..

110. 111.
112. 113.

The Formative alif .. The Suffixes fam (pam and


,,

..

..

..417
.

warn), gun, charta

418 419

5.v5, sa,

san, vash, das, dis,


..

vand

114.

The Suffix urn The Termination

.. ..

..

ish

..

..'

..420 ..420

CHAPTER
Sec. 115

XII.

Verbal Nouns and Nouns and Adjectives derived from Verbs .. .. .. ..421 ..

116.

Compound Substantive

..

..

..

425

PART
CHAPTER
Sec. 117.

II.

XIII.

SYNTAX.

On

the use and omission of izafat


of
of

.. ..

.. ..

..

433

118. 119.

The Cases

Number

Nouns .. Nouns, Nouns

..445
Concord
464

of Multitude

and

their

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

\i

CHAPTER
Sec. 120.

XIV.
.

Pronouns

Page 476

CHAPTER XV.
Sec. 121. 122. 123.
,,

Adjectives

..
. .

..
. .

..
.

..
. .

..
.

490

Adverbs

405
502

Conjunctions
Prepositions

.. ..

..
..

..

..497
..

124.

..

CHAPTER
Sec. 125.

XVT.
.. .. ..

Use

of the Tenses

Aorist

505

CHAPTER
Sec. 126.

XVTT.
...

Subjunctive

Mood

..

'..

..

538

CHAPTER
Sec. 127.

XVITT.

COMPOUND AND COMPOUNDED SENTENCES.


128.
,,

Conditional Co-ordinate, and Optative Clauses. Conditional Clauses (continued)


.

545
552

129.
130.

Concessional Clauses

556
558
562 570 573

Relative Clauses

,,

131.
132.

Predicative (subordinate) Clauses

..

..

..

Subordinate Clauses (continued). Local and Modal) Clauses Subordinate Clauses (continued).
Causal) Clauses
. .

Adverbial
. . . .

(Temporal,
. .

,,

133.

Adverbial
.
.

(Final
.

and
. .

,,

134.

Co-ordinate Clauses

..

..

..

..

576

CHAPTER XTX.
Sec. 135.

Concord of Subject and Verb


,,

585
591 591

136.

(continued)
. . . .

Errors in Concord, etc.


137.

,,

Concord of Adjectives, and Pronoun with Noun Government of Verbs, Prepositions, and Errors

600 600

CHAPTER XX.
Sec. 138.

Order of Words and Phrases

604

CHAPTER XXI.
Sec. 139.
,,

Apposition
literation

614

140.

Repetition of

Words and Phrases

Jingling Sounds

Al-

622

xii

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

CHAPTER
Sec. 141.
,5

XXII.
Page
. . . .

Notes on Rhetoric and Composition

629

142.
143.

144.

Number of Words and Arts of Abbreviation, Further Observation on Style Examples of Errors in Rhetoric
. .
.

etc.
. .

644
652 659

APPENDICES.

Appendix A.

Arabic

Grammar

(with detailed
. .

list

of contents)
. .

675
899

Appendix B.

(Continuation of Sec. 125)

INDEX

909

Higher Persian Grammar.

PART
ORTHOGRAPHY (&>
1.

I.

p\*

AND ORTHOEPY
(

9dj5

The Alphabet.

<f ^>j*

).

The Arabs and other Muslims write from right to left and their printed books and manuscripts begin at what Europeans would call the end of the book. Their writing may be regarded as a species of shorthand,
(a)
,

the short vowels being omitted. In printing, each letter is not kept separate as in the

Roman

character;

there are no capital letters, no stops, and no paragraphs; in short, not one of the devices valuable alike to the printers and readers of Europe; from cover to cover their books appear to contain but one long unbroken sentence,

and many of the words are jumbled together, or, at the end of a line, written one on the top of the other. In some carefully written MSS. a line in coloured ink on the top of a word indicates a proper name or the commence,

ment

of a new paragraph, but even this aid is rarely given. Of existing alphabets the Arabic ranks next in importance to the Latin alphabet. It has supplanted the Greek alphabet in Asia Minor, Syria,
,

Egypt, and Thrace, and has supplanted the Latin alphabet in North Africa. It is the sole alphabet of Arabia, Western Asia, Persia, Afghanistan, Tartary,
1 Turkey and of all the alphabets employed in India, it is the best known. That the local alphabet of Mecca should have exterminated all other
; 1 '

Semitic scripts, and have established

and Asia,

is

an

illustration

be adduced, of the power of religious influences in effecting a wide and rapid


diffusion of alphabets.

"
to

******
more
striking

itself as

the dominant alphabet of Africa than any other that can

It took

no more than eighty years (632

712) for the

Arab conquerors

found a dominion wider in extent than the widest empire of Rome, and to extend the alphabet of Mecca from the Indus to the Tagus." 1 The Arabic and English Alphabets can, it is said, be traced back to the

same primitive Phoenician


1
'*

source.

The Alphabet," by Isaac Taylor.

THE ALPHABET.

in the

The Arabs originally used the Syrian alphabet, in which the characters are same order as in the Hebrew. Remains of this former order

still preserved in the numerical value of the letters, which in their numerical order are arranged in a series of meaningless words that serve as a memoria technica and correspond with the order of the Hebrew or Phoenician

are

alphabet.

The Arabic alphabet consists of twenty-eight letters, all consonants. The arrangement of the Arabic alphabet is morphological, 2 i.e. letters of similar
form are brought into juxtaposition for the sake of comparison and as an
aid to

memory. With the Qur*an, the Persians 8 adopted and adapted the Arabic
it

alphabet, though ill-suited to their requirements, adding to


or Farsi letters

the four 'Ajami


therefore

p,

ch,

jh

and

g.

The Persian alphabet

consists of thirty- two letters, all consonants; four of these letters are pure Persian 5 and eight 6 are peculiar to Arabic while the remaining twenty are
,

So far as their alphabets extend, i.e. up to <^> 400. " and " Other methods of arrangement are (1) form Gr. morphl logia." the Chronological, in which the letters are added according to the date of their adoption; (2) the Ideological, in which the characters are classed according to the meaning
1

From

c *

of their names (from Gr. 'idea "idea" + logia}; as in the arrangement of the hieroglyphic signs by Egyptologists; (3) the Phonological, the scientific arrangement of which the Deva-nagari is the most perfect example ; in this, the letters are arranged according

to the organs of speech by which they are articulated, viz. gutturals, palatals, etc., " each division being also scientifically arranged. Vide " The Alphabet by Isaac Taylor. " 3 For an account of the Ancient Persian The Alphabet" by Isaac Scripts, vide Taylor. At the time of the Arab conquest the Persians used the Pahlavi character.
* Also printed <-X In MSS. and in books lithographed in the East, the diacritical bar that distinguishes g from k is generally omitted. This puzzles a beginner. It will be noticed that the body of these four letters is identical with that of Arabic

letters,

and that the only


%

distinction

They
letters
5

are adaptations of

peculiarly Persian sounds as

by the diacritical marks. Persians do not always regard the J & nd -. (T new letters but occasionally represent them by the Arabic
is

"

they resemble

thus ^**t "horse


(JI?

' '

is

The four

letters purely Persian are


f

enumerated

frequently written in the school

^t.
rhyme
:

^ ^_* U. j

These eight

letters are

enumerated

in a school

rhyme:

The Urdu or Hindustani alphabet contains three more letters to correspond with three sounds, found in words of Hindi or Sanskrit origin; it thus consists of thirty-five
letters.

THE ALPHABET.

common

to

both

languages.

The

form of

many

of these letters

varies

somewhat according

to their position in a group of letters. In addition to the Alphabet, there are three vowel signs, which, written, are placed directly above or below the consonants to which
i.e.
:

if

which they follow in enunciation in writing, but are sometimes inserted in


belong,
beginners.
1

in practice they are

they omitted

books

printed

specially for

There are also certain orthographical signs, a knowledge


necessary.

of

which

is

The following table should be studied, in conjunction with the remarks that follow and elucidate it. The greater number of the letters are by
Persians * pronounced as in English:

signs, as

Qur'ans are printed or lithographed with all the vowel-points and orthographical it is considered a sin by Muslims to mispronounce a syllable of the sacred text. Notwithstanding this, most, if not all, of the editions printed or lithographed in India
1

have numerous orthographical


to

errors. Inserting the vowels and signs adds considerably the cost of production. The State edition of a Qur'an printed and published in Turkey, and said to be letter perfect, is sold in Baghdad at the rate of thirty rupees, a similar edition, but printed in the Roman character, would probably 2 a copy i.e.
:

be sold for

five shillings.

The Arabic

character, beautiful to look at,

is

an enemy

to

printing and an enemy to the diffusion of knowledge. The written character of a language is merely a collection of conventional signs, a

mere mechanical device used to give


their alphabet once.

it

expression.

The Arabs have already changed

Many Muslims
sider mutabarrak.
a

The Persian Shi'ahs however do not seem


10.

object to .printed or lithographed Qur'ans, which they do not conto share this objection.

Vide

(k)

page

THE ALPHABET.

THE ALPHABET.

.S

THE ALPHABET.

THE ALPHABET.
w
as

words,

of

beginning

the

At

THE ALPHABET.

02

H B

THE ALPHABET.
(d)

9
-

It will

be noticed that the letters

j and j never

alter

their shape,

and though they are joined to the

letter that precedes

(on (on

their

right),
;

their left)
is

they are not joined to the letter that follows hence if they occur in the middle of a word, a gap or

them them

formed nearly similar to the interval between two adjacent words. Inaccurate spacing is one of the difficulties in reading the cheap lithographed
interval

books of the East.


(e)

The

letters

with the letters


(/)

-t and Jo though they do not change in shape, yet unite both on sides of them.
-

The eight letters peculiar to the Arabic are & ^ u o^> Js & a and (J. The four letters peculiar to the Persian have been enumerated preIn the Table of Consonants these two sets are distinguished viously.
-

by the abbreviations Ar. and


Remark.

Per. respectively.

occurs generally in Arabic words, but is " kid " "comb of bees"; also found in Persian words, as *)(*& Jl
letter

The

ghayn

"shout"
(g)

"rouge."
resemble each other in shape and are merely

Those

letters ;that

distinguished by the position or


called huruf-i mutashabih
(

number
oj^^
),

of the dots,

(AjLfilxj

and sometimes

^ etc., are huruf-i mutamasil


-

ctfUko

o^

).

Sometimes also letters that have only an imperfect resemblance, such as and i>, are included in this term. j whose names are palindromes'2 (Ji) Those letters as mim,nun and vav (and these are all formed by three consonants) are called Maktubl ( ^j& ).
1

If,

however, the

first

and third

letters of the
(

anagram

differ, as in fim,

qdf, etc., the letters are styled Malfuzi

u&d*

).

Masruri ( is)jj~* ) is a term applied to by two consonants only, as etc.


L>

letters

whose names are formed

(i)
)

Letters distinguished by dots or Jiuruf-i mu'jama ( A*.^*^

are called
8
).

huruf-i

manquta

O^A.

Combined, these form the Arabic word nawm (fj* ) " sleep." palindrome is a word or sentence that, read either from right to left, or left to right, is exactly the same. Adam made the first palindrome when he introduced him1

self to Eve by, "Madam, I'm Adam." Letters transposed anyhow to make a new word or sentence are anagrams, thus rat is an anagram of tar and tear of
'
'
'

'

'

rate.'
3

A palindrome is
Nuqfa Ar.
)

also called
*

an anagram.
<^,

"a dot";
(for

sp^f

to

mark with
oj_>^
)

diacritical

points.
to

The term
alphabet

f^*Jl
which

ksJl
it is

is

also

applied

the

irrespective of the order in

arranged.

It

is

so called as containing dotted


.

letters, in contradistinction to the

ancient Arabic character called <*iMJi la^Jf, in which

there were

no

dots.

10

THE ALPHABET.
Dotted
letters are further
)

subdivided into fawqam

c^V

those dotted

above, and talitarii ( ^ilisu those dotted below. Dotted letters, whether fawqam or tahtam, are further distinguished by
JU

M
,
,

muwahhada *s*j*> ) musannat ( ^* } and musallasa ( <?^ according as they are marked by one, by two, or by three dots. (?) The system of transliteration in the present work is practically the Hunterian system. Modifications are q (instead of k) for <3, and m for & before a quiescent b or p for the final Arabic vowels, a small a,i, and u,
the epithets
/c
)
(

g*^

written above the line, and a small


cases where s-h

for the

and

z-h are separate letters, a

nun of the tanwn. In the rare mark or comma is placed be.


;l*ji

tweenthem. Ex.

asfialj^l
)

" more or most easy ", az,har

''blossoms."
is

A
"

final

<jj-

or &iv.

literated
self

by " and

pronounced like alif is a. In the few words where j


,

A
is

silent j as in

^'^

trans-

pronounced
"
.

short, as in

" thou "

it is

transliterated u.

The ya

or the

hamza

of the

"

ya

of unity

etc., or of

the izafat, are

transliterated as pronounced.

Hamza
Remark

in Arabic

words

is

shown by a hamza

as in fa*ida.

prolongation is omitted " this" is but expressed by fatha written perpendicularly over it; thus haza

/.In

some Arabic words the

alif of

always written |*& or at end of ) and <^.

IAA,

and

&\+*>j is

usually in Arabic

&+:*>)

vide also

Remark 1 1.
as in
<jASkj)<y*t, is

In Persian, an alif that is not mamduda or 'prolonged', " abbreviated", also by Indians incorrectly called maqsura

though

this latter

term
^5-.

is

properly applicable only to a final

and

^^
and
(

or

&

vide

under
It

letter

(k)

will

be seen in the table that there are two


h, four letters
(

letters
2,

transliterated

by
(

^
A

* J

and
all

Js

by

two

e>

by

/,

and three

&

(j*

by

s.

In Arabic

these represent different


affect

sounds, but the modern Persians

make no

distinction between the pronuncia-

tion of the various letters in each group.

few pedants and poets

the Arabic pronunciation, generally that of Baghdad. at the beginning of words, are frequently (I) Certain letters, especially each but above one another this is the case not other, placed, alongside
:

in combinations with r " ^

it

1: ""r r< 2 (m) In the case of a change in letters as ftl cUi Ar., from pil i>*J, P., will be found that a labial is changed into another labial, a dental into a

dental, etc., etc.

There are
i***

five labials j

o y
.

and

-^>

tdbaddul-i-huruf

THE ALPHABET.
Something similar occurs in the permutations
of

11

weak consonants,
^.^$-

a vowel (English) being usually changed into a vowel. Sometimes however, a palatal becomes a lingual, as in
,

and

"China"; JK and
2.

(m.c.)

"squint-eyed."

Pronunciation

(talaffuz

.kiAj)

of Consonants.
as an original
it is

Alif.

(a)

letter

ana not as born from

The Persians, unlike the Arabs, look on alif ^ or _. If it commences a word


itself
;

to be re-

garded as having no sound of

it

is

merely a prop for the vowel

4 (6). 1 (written or understood) that accompanies it: vide under If it occurs in the middle of a word, it is a prolongation of the short

vowel fatha and is transliterated by a, irrespective of its modern pronunciaIn this position most Arabs, Indians, and Afghans pronounce it like a in father Ex. V UT kitab " a book " some Persians and some Afghans would pronounce this more broadly, like a in "ball." This broad protion.
'

'

nunciation
in Persia.

is

characteristic

of

the

tent-people

and

of

certain dialects

In the Fars dialect, a before n or m is nearly always pronounced like u 99 Ex. v&* " a shop " is dukun c^, and bam " roof " is bum &. This incorrect pronunciation
of
is

in certain

common

words, the colloquial pronunciation

many
its

parts

of

Persia; for

example && "bread" and of "that"


,

as though spelt nun &jj etc. " wind " is thus ab bad broad promany pronounced nounced nearly like bawd,- the alif being given the sound of a in the English word fall. Some Afghans too have this broad pronunciation, but the Indians

and

compounds are generally pronounced


cases the alif
is

In

always' pronounce the alif like a in the English


if

word

father.

In Persia,

be used, the word will be taken to mean however, **> ba'd " after ', and even an educated Persian will be puzzled by it. In Khurasan, on the other hand, the j is turned into alif; Ex. andardn
this last pronunciation

" and khan c>^for ofjM for i^vM "the women's apartments c^ "blood." For the pronunciation of alif with a hamza (f ) in the middle of a word,
;

vide

under a in

this section.

Remark

I.

Alif in arithmetic represents the

number one ; and


It also signifies

in astronomical tables

and almanacs, 2 Taurus and Sunday.

an unmarried man.

In this case

it

is

usually called hamza, to distinguish

it

from

alif as

a letter

of prolongation.
*

are written in
*'

in which the days, etc., There are two kinds of almanacs, taqvlm-i Farsl (^*l^ f*^ in which signs and the letters of the full, and taqvlm-i-ruquml c^f) fljfi

are used to represent the days of the week, etc., etc.

12

THE ALPHABET.
In Arabic it is a particle of interrogation; Ex. A-lastubi-rabbi-kum, "Am " not Your Lord ? Quran VII. 168, whence the Persian o~Jf or
'

cJjf

jj^

the day of the original covenant between


1

God and Man

at

the creation.'

Poets frequently compare an erect stature, or the straight nose of a " from the creation of Also X~>* f* % jot JU| jf = beauty, or sighs, to alif.

Adam

to the birth

of the Messiah

' ' ;

' '

*>**!
is

-oJ|

the equinoctial line

' '
:

" the aUf, la alphabet," etc., etc.

Alif

also a sign of the

Unity

of

God.
alif

Remark
according to

II.
its

Indian Grammarians assign various names to the letter use


:

Kinds of
(1)

alif.

Alif-i rabita

*b-$j -^l

words that are identical;

as, o**o

"binding or copulative alif" joins two " from hand to lLoj> dast-d dast hand; (a

ready-money bargain)." This alif is also called alif-i ittisdl ( JlAif <JMt ) " the alif of junction", or alif-i inhisar jUaJ| <-aJ| ). Some Grammarians
(

style this alif-4 vast

JUj

otff

but vide
the

(10).
(

Similar to the above


alif,"

is

alif-i 'atf
;

<*-&*

UA)J )

which conjoins two dissimilar words


:

as, shab-a-ruz (jjy

"the conjunctive tf UA) night


diligent search
;

and day; always"


bustling."
(2)

tak-a-pu

(jj&

(or

iakdpuy

isj&)

"

Alif-i fa'iliyyat
(

oJUU'

ua)|

" the

alif of

"

agency

as the alif in
of

the adj. bina


participle.
(3)

U#

"seeing", which word has the force


CUJJ^AC^ *Jd\

a present

Alif-i maf'uliyyat
;

participle
(4)

as, ziba
Alif-i

( IAJJ )

"adorned
J^XA/O eo^f
)

"

that gives the force of the past


).

u^jjj

masdar

tives; as, Ujl (m.c.)

"warmth",
(

^
)

which forms abstract nouns from adjec" breadth", from grarmand pahn (m.c.)
alif

adjectives.
(5) Alif-i
i

tanwm
f

&}ju

the

of the Arabic accusative case; as,

in the adverb
(6)

U5b dd

'im an

"

continually, for ever."


(

Alif-i-

qasamiyya
;

*%+~3 -^l

the

a?i/

of the

Persian vocative

when expressing an oath

as,

When
it is

this vocative alif is


(

called Alif-i nidat

*'<*

O, or by, God not used in an oath, but as a simple vocative, " dila -&f heart ZwftmZa IbJb " oh
!

Haqqd U^
;

gil

"

"

lulbul\
If

"

as,

' '

^^

however it " hn b elp

is
!

used in words expressing

or oh distress

"

grief, etc., as in Uj)j>

"

alas,"
)

it is called Alif-i
(

nudba

&***

Jfcff

" the

alif of

"
plaint
1

or alif-i madd-i sawt

An

erect stature

is

also

compared to a cypress tree.

THE ALPHABET.

13

alif-i zd*id or
(9)

<-&,) "the precative alif in du'dutamannq ($+*) " " " kundd as, mabddd i^U/o "may it not be may he do. (8) Alif-i tahstn-i kaldm t^s~^ <-a't ) "the ofo'/ of embellishment " as, in & <( he said." This is also, and more properly, called x5fj <JJJf " vide '' alif

" verbs

(7)
;

Alif-i

superfluous
' '

(12).
<{

Alif-i
-ftJl

mubalagha
)

**>U

VA'.J
' '

kasrat

**J&
is

tives; as, in IWJA.

the alif of excess " Blessed How happy


!

the aK/ of exaggeration" or afo'/-i is found at the end of some adjec-

"

This

also called the alif-%

firawdm
)

\jb$j>

*-*'l ).

(10)

^'/-i wasli

j^j

CA),

beginning of certain Persian

words

said to be the superfluous alif at the " camel " as, in ushtar ^i-^f (or shutur)
is

and

also the alif in Arabic

marked with a wasl

cU>^

),

but vide

(1).

This

is

really alif-i za*id.

(11)

In certain cases the


(

alif-i

nida*, vide (6),

is

also called alif-i


/v^
351

mutakallim

JL^Lo oMf

as,

" oh

Dust-d muhtaram mihrbana IJI^

^ ^jj>
3

my

respected kind friend."


Alif-i zcfid
(

(12)

*5\) CA'I
:

"
)

superfluous alif"

is

sometimes, in poetry,

added for the sake of metre


cuwof
3-xJi^^

IA'UC

(^

c>xJlJ'*yolj

*J

AwAf b

Asii^

Verses written on the tomb of Mirza Sa^ib.

In rosfa ^*f;, chapa l^, sa&2a rawgr, J5j i^, the a??/ is Fi<Ze also Derivation of Words' for 'Formative Alif. tsJU CA)| ) expresses fitness or (13) Alif-i liyaqat (
'

capability;

as,

khwana
u.;

Gfja.

legible.
/; as,

5 in
(for

Persian words is sometimes interchangeable with


P. zaban &ty
f<

U^
11

(old)]

enough
as
*'
,

"
;

aw

(for
a

m; as, ghuzhm fie [for ghuzhb with v; as, vas <j^ J (for bas " with WOT khtvav and Tchaw l (for khwdb) " sleep v; Persian nahib the naJiw water (for 6) ^^^ )
)

"

tongue

"

zafan &l)

with

a single grape
' '

"

^)

' '

fear."

Pronounced as in English.

'

Ba-yi za*id ( *fy Verb Transitive and Intransitive


This letter
is

Remark.

^
'

"
)

superfluous
'

^
'

as in

fjj:

vide under

and

Prepositions.-'

often called ba-yi


*->.

muwahhada

the single-dotted b

'

to

distinguish

it

from

v_

is called bd-yi

farsi

^^ ^,

or bd-yi 'ajami
it is

u*^ ^-

There

being no p in the Arabic alphabet,

frequently interchangeable

1 Still

used in speaking by Zardushtis.


letter that

The

has been changed,

i.e.

substituted,
is

is

called

mubdal <>**, and the


t
^

'

original letter

from which the change was made

called mubdal

minh"

14

THE ALPHABET.
with
<i.x.v*

/
)

o, as fil J^' " white "


;

(for pil cAo

"
)

elephant
r

"
;

safid **&

(for

sapid

firuzi

csj^'

(f

piruzi

"
c^jjj/iJ)

victory."

CU

is generally written T; the Arabic under 8. vide nounced


:

in

Persian e and so pro-

s^> S

by the Arabs
Egypt

is

pronounced

like th in

Cuthbert, and sometimes

as s ; in

it is

pronounced &.
th.

Among
Some

the Persians and Indians, it is an English s. Afghans and some educated Indians give it the sound of

called jlm-i tdzi <^jfi p*&>, or jim-i 'ardbl


it

^j*

p**.,

to distinguish

from ^ ^L

It

is

the contraction for the two Muslim months

Jamadcfl-Ulq a,ndJumddq'l-Akhir. It is sometimes interchangeable " crooked " withc^ - and z\ with zhj as, kazh (old) (for kaj ^)
;

as, chuza

**

(old) for juja **>** (m.c.) *'a chicken,

of

a bird"; with g; as, Jildn for (old) for kash Caspian with sh c4; as, kaj
;

and the young Gilan a province S.W. of the


<JZ,^

"would that."
It
is

-^

Ch

called jim-i far si ij*jf*

^> or jim-i
It is

'ajarrii

^+^ +^

some-

times confounded with


sh <j2; as, lakhcha

^^J
(old)

(for (for

sometimes interchangeable with lakhsha *AiJ ) "flame"; with z j as,


pizishk

puchushk

V-=FVJ

J^}j)
"
}

"a

physician."
(for

In

Arabicized words

it

changes to <j>;
(for

as,
>J&*.

$w ^-h>

Ar.

Chin

(***')

"China"

J^> sanj, Ar.


ia^

chang

Called ha-yi hutti

^U,

hd-yi halqi

cymbals."

c5 lA > an(i ha-yi

muhmala
if

^U.
make
this

The Arabs, some educated Indians, and some Afghans,


something
like the

this a strong aspirate,

h in

"haul"

word be pronounced

in

the throat.

To

catch this sound,

the beginner should copy an Arab or an Afghan many times when he says the word .-^L* Sahib: (he should also note the sound of <jt>
in this word). the Persians this letter

By

is

pronounced

like

q.v.

Remark. Children in Indian schools are taught to make a distinction in but in , pronunciation when reading between ^ and *, and between u* and in speaking, no such distinction is made. practice,

Kh

called khd-yi sakhiz

iiJ ^UL, kha-yi manquta *&>& <^^, and

mu'jama A+SX**? ^lA.. Great care must be taken to make this a guttural and not a k. (There is a story of a doctor who seriously alarmed a patient by mispronouncing the word khun <l blood.")
kha-yi

c^

sometimes interchangeable with <J; as chakhmdkh flint or cock of a and with h as, uTb. chaqmdq (JjUs^ ) gun " earth." (for khdk ^()
It is
, < (

^U^ (for
(old)

' '

Ir Abjad,

it

has the same value as

viz. 3.

THE ALPHABET.

15

D called dal- iabjad*^

ghayr manquta J^a^c J\& or sometimes mulimala <*At<* Jf^. interchangeable with t o as, ^ jj " with z " black ) partridge ; ^fy (for durraj i; as, MsJaV " master " sazaj Ar. form of sada aalw a kind (for wstao' ilu.| )
;
}

Jli

ddl-i

It is

of

plant"

with z)

as, dizar

j^
7
;

(for oTa'aV y<x>^).


zo7-

j Z

mu'jama *+^&* jj^. it is sometimes interchanged with a a as, **tf for **tf By the Arabs it " when is sounded like the th in though," if, pronouncing it, the tip of the tongue be thrust well forward between the front teeth of
.

called zal-i

manquta

di^5ix Jf3, or

By
month
j

both jaws and slightly compressed compare with " zeal." It is a the Persians like or as z in
:

and

(jc.

j,

contraction for the


<>*&( ji.

Zu'l-hijjah &^**Ji ji, while


is

is

the contraction for Zu'l-qa'dah


r in
''

always rolled and never as

are."

11

Called ra-yi gh_ayr-i

manquta A%a\^
with
cc I

y.^ ^ctj, or ra-?/i

muhmala

*U^/o ^f^.

traction for either of the months Rabi'.


as riilufal
' ' ;

It is

it i s a con. sometimes interchanged


'

^j^

(for
1

mlufar

y^>

a convolvulus
<:

aZso

a waterlily
za-yi

chanal J

^
as,

(m.c.) (for

chanar

\^)

plane-tree."

called

havvaz j?&
^\).
)
;

mu'jama &^**>

It

<^\j, za-yi manquta ai^avo ^ij^ an(j 2^^ 8 sometimes is interchangeable with ^; as, 5il^
;

^>

(for sw23*-

with

gurigh

fejf (for
(

gunzj^

) ;

with

5; as,

.4 i/as

(for ^4?/a2)

with

q. v.

Zi

is

a poetical contraction of

the preposition Jf.

j ZA

called go-yi

/am

^jlJ ^fj, or za-yi 'ajami 4.5*^*


It is

<^lj.

It inters in

changes with ^ q.v. " measure."


yt

pronounced

as

in

French jour or as

called sln-i ghayr-i


(1

&\+fc

^>.
(

It

manquta Ab^ai/o c^^ interchanges sometimes with <j


'

ttj

and
;

sln-i

muhmala
{

as, Icustl

kushti

4 y^') wrestling"; a?so the Zardushti belt worn under the f or J^</ *musk.' Also sometimes with <jo; as, clothing, and

"

J^

(for

J^

O=A3 for ^fA5

/^^ called sAtTi-i

manquta

^Js^avo c .^i,

It is

an abbreviation
;

for

Shamal JU^
(for

and 5^m-^ mu'jama *4.sv*xj (^xi. Ci the North." It inter;

changes with ^ with ^; as, kaj


.

as,

pachan i^U-b
^asA

(for

ul

fc " pashan e;Ub ) scattering " also with " a pine ^r q.v.
;

pS

called
.

sad-i

ghayr-i

manquta

Ai^ftix)

^c

^U?,

and

5ao*-*

muhmala

It is the abbreviation for the

month

of >9a/ar

and

Pathans say ustaz in Pushtoo.


j and

J are sometimes interchangeable. Ex.^H* or used in speaking by Zardushtis. * The Bombay Parsees call this belt kusti, but the Persian Zardushtis
3 Still

call it kttshti.

10
also for

THE ALPHABET.
which shows that an genuine <ji^ (old) to so account has been audited hence sad kardan &jjf
the

word

' '

' '

sadiq

pronounced like ^> By than in sibilant harder and Educated In Arabic a stronger English. Indians and Afghans affect the Arab pronunciation: vide remark

mark an account,

etc.

the Persians

it is

to
i

h.

Pronounced by the Persians Z, zad-i manquta, or zad-i mu'jama. like the th in though if pronounced In like 3 i .e. like z in zeal. Ba.^hdad
.

with the tip of the tongue behind the root of the front teeth of the upper jaws. (In Egypt a hard palatal d).

b T

called ta-yl hutti ^ks* ^Us, ta-yi ghayr-i

manquta, and

ta-yi

muhmala.

the Persians pronounced like 01*. By the Arabs a hard palatal t. Educated Indians and Afghans imitate the Arab pronunciation. It

By

interchanges with

s>\

as, &&<&. for &''Jaat.


^lajai* ^Ife, or za-yi

t z

called za-yi

manquta

mushala

*J

^l.

By

the

Persians, likej.

In Baghdad

like

the th in though

pronounced

'

naturally. called 'ayn-i ghayr-i


*l+t*

manquta

ifejfti*

j*p

^c,

or

'ayn-i

muhmala

u*
j$

It is often in Persian not distinguishable as a separ-

ate letter (as prosody proves).

with

h.

It

is

transliterated

In some words it is interchangeable by an inverted comma.

Few Persians can imitate In Arabic the ^ is a strong guttural. the Arab pronunciation. At the beginning of a word, it is by the Persians treated as though it
were the prop for a vowel.
1

Ex.

e*j>Uc

ibadat "adoration

"

(as

though spelt

o^t). At the end of a word it is, in Persian, either quite silent as *.&. jam a or else more properly there is a slight vowel sound like a half a or half e as in tama' +&. The Persians never say jama 'like the Indians. 8 Many
1

**> man' are often like *^ jam' and pronounced with a drawl, and a peculiar intonation that sounds affected to English ears such words are not man If so pronounced they will pronounced in the least like /*^ jam or

words

often be unintelligible.

In the middle of a word this

letter

has a half-bleating sound like

By

the Persians

O^

is

pronounced as though spelt cJ;l but the Arabs would


,

give a distinct and peculiar sound to the consonant z before pronouncing its vowel u ^_ . 2> This at least is the case in Southern Persia with some words of three letters end-

ing in

In the more accurate pronunciation


slightly.

of the better classes in

Tehran the

final

is

perhaps always pronounced though


3

The Arabs

fully enunciate this final

though not quite

like

the Indians.

THE ALPHABET.
a double a; Ex.

17

^U^i are Arabic word pronounced [An with a mute hamza in the middle, has, in Arabic, and should have in

sa'd

is

pronounced

sd-dd. 1

Words

like

i-i-tibdr

and

transliterated, of course, i'tibdr.

correctly-spoken Persian, this same half-bleating sound; Ex. "ordered; a commissary" (pronounced ma'amur)].

j^^ ma^mur

a middle syllable of a word, there is a very perceptible ^ begins pause in the enunciation Ex. **UI qal-'a "a fort": care must be taken to
;

When
this

make

pause in the correct place, as the pronunciation generally unintelligible. The Arabs do not make this pause.
c.

ga-l'a or qal'a is

Gh

called ghayn-l manqutd, aJ^ai/o

^j^ or ghayn-i mu'jama

4Uaui/o

(:

^p

much

hard guttural something between gh and r, the r being sounded like the r in a " Parisienne." It
Parisienne,

by

represents

1000 in arithmetic and hence is with Persian poets a symbol for the bulbul-i hazdr ddstdn ^U-ata ;{_)& Jjb. It interchanges with <3
as ayagh
l>|

(old for

ayaq

<3U|)

" a cup."
sometimes interchanges with
<->

C_3
JJ

F called
Q

fd-yi sa' fas ^aA*** ^ti:

q.v.
c

called qdf-i qarshat

oJiy

Jljl.

Sometimes interchanges with

q.v.

In Baghdad and by Persian Turks often pronounced like a hard English g. A guttural like q pronounced from the depth of the throat as if undergoing
suffocation, or like ck in stuck
It

when pronounced
a

at the

back

of the throat.

must not be pronounced

like k,

common
i
,

English mistake.

By
it

the uneducated

it is

confused with

and even educated Turks give


:

this pronunciation in certain

common words

Ex.

j&

ghfidr instead of

In Turkish words used in Persian, the two letters seem interchangeqadr able: a Turk of Persia will often spell the same word with either letter
indifferently.

^.

The
and
U-f

"

distinction in spelling is generally observed

between Uf " a eunuch

' '

^K
LJ G

master" but both are


,

colloquially

dga.

called kdf-i tdzi

^fi

<J(, or kdf-i 'arabi


gdf.

<y^ oK.

It

is

in Persian

frequently confounded with


called kdf-i fdrsl

o^", or kdf-i 'ajami t^p^ o&. times interchangeable with for lagdm as lijdm ^,

^^

It

is

somebridle;

^^

"

halter" (Persia).

J
f

L is

an abbreviation

of the

month

shavvdl Jt>^.
tfi

Poets compare

it

to a ringlet.

is

an abbreviation

for the
c>;

month Muharram fj*^*


ban

It

sometimes

interchanges with n

as,

(m.c.) (for

6am, ft*
In ba'd

(m.c.).

Vide Haggard and Le Stranges' Vazir-i Lankuran.


is less

^,

the double

sound
*

perceptible.

Pronounced bun and bum.

18

THE ALPHABET.
N.
There
is

(j

no nasal n l in Persia.
is

In India, however, n

is

in

some

words almost nasal or


jahan
;

it is

then called nun-i ghhunna

imperfectly pronounced, as in chunan, * but before a vowel (and


;

consequently before an izd/at) the nasal sound disappears. It has usually the sound of ra f when it immediately precedes 6 ^ (or p Y). Ex. JAO (tanbal) "lazy" is pronounced tambal: note that
this is transliterated

m.

Nasal n always follows a long vowel.


s

W or

V.

At the beginning
it is

of a

word, or in such words as vlr^ javab

amongst Persians a consonant like v; but amongst Arabs, Afghans and Indians it is a w, like the w in we or it is pronounced like a v, or between a v and In p>yZ and w>mJ.

" a good work,"

^y
is
,

a w.
Before an

The v sound
alif

common

in Isfahan

and Kirman.
;

and after

j has, in pure Persian words, no sound


;

Ex.

(jiui^., etc., are pronounced khdhar, khdhish, etc.

there

is,

therefore,

no ditference in pronunciation between this khdstan " to rise


^Iwlk

u*~\j>
is

khwdstan "to wish" and

up":
is

silent^

transliterated w.

Khwish
of

<J^
In

and

its

compounds
^

are pronounced khish (transl. khwish).


alif
its
>*

In Arabic words,
pi.

however,
is

before

pronounced

Ex.
is

u*^

u^'A.

ew>^ "to eat" and

derivatives, the j

pronounced

khud "self", <Jbe* khush "pleasant", ^^)^ khurshid "the sun", ^i-;^ khursand " happy ". j*. and ^f^* are often pronounced chi and hamchi. A few Arabic words like ^^ ^az/a^ "life", saldt "prayer", are
transliterated u; also

du

"two",

tu

"thou",

like pish

L and

*^

generally in Persian phonetically written

eU^

and

d>3Ca.

is

sometimes interchangeable with o, as z/a/a k'U (old) [for ydvd\^ " vain, foolish". The vdv that occurs before an alif and is (m.c.)]
not pronounced, as
iJjti^o

in

Tchwdstan

^M^,
:

is

called vdv-i ma'dula

" distorted y^ vdv, or vav-i ishmdm-i


of

zamma

&>+>*

" the vdv that gives a smell


(

%il>o

^ vyX*

"

^*U^f ^fj

this is maktub-i ghayr-i malfuz

ghayr-i-maktub
td'us

vyx^Ac

vdv-i malfug-i written but not pronounced." ii^ALoyj ) sometimes occurs as in ^j-^Lb

"a peacock," but the more correct form c/^Lfc> is also found. In Ar. both the wdws have the sound of w in this word.

Remark.
harf-i

A letter
(

that
)

masruq under vowels

($ij~*

o^
and

is written, but not pronounced, is also called " a stolen letter." For further remarks on j, vide

(b)

(d).

In Arabic the nasal nun occurs before the


JB,

letters

*>,>,
-J

&9
*'

o,

(3, d), as in

the words

^*

" from thee "

" thou
-

Nun-i ghhunna only occurs after the weak consonants

45-

t.

THE ALPHABET.
8

19

H called ha-yi havvaz (Jy*>


ha).

mudawwara (***> <^k) (round decided aspirate like h in hope,, except when it ends a Persian word or a feminine Arabic word (which is always preceded 1 by a fatha ). In this case it is called the "obscure," "imperc5^), or ha-yi

h" and is transliterated a Ex. aJLk khdna &s& "a house", gufta "said" (Past Partciple). This 'obscure' h is in India pronounced like fatha, but in Persia it is pronounced like a short e, or i as khdne or gufte. (If the silent h precedes an && " I have it is there as in be a
ceptible" or "silent
,
;

alif,

said", said, may, slight f! breathing sound of the h, as guftah-am, but the writer is of opinion that this sound is imaginary and that the h generally remains silent.
first

In the
,

case,

i.e.

when

aspirated, the

* is called

ha-yi malfuzl

ha-i

muzhar or zahir (jfa> ^\A or


i.e.

_v*U), or ha-yi jail


is

(^
* or

"manifest,"

sounded; in the second case it " concealed ", i.e. mute. ha-yi mukhtaft or makhfi

((^^
AJ

cs

The h
nih

is

distinctly
*

but not too markedly sounded in


&*

nuh "nine",

*J

"place"
s

(Imper.),
*J

bih

"good"

(but

&

ba or

bi,

the preposition

"to"

or

"for"),

&>

bah bah (m.c.)

" well done, excellent," and in such

like words. 3

" what? In *** si " three ", &*. chi ", *T " " who ? " and the that", there conjunction
* is

H
is

no

the interrogative pronoun aspirate, and the final

"

, great Final

pronounced like short i. In *j na and **> ma " not ", it is silent according to rule; but A* mih s " a also and */o mah moon.
' ' ' '

after

mist, fog is fully sounded ^ or


,

Ex.

human excrement " etc., etc. In * *f guh moon " or a month " *j rah " a road where the
' * ,
' :

" U^b* padishah " a king " **> mah " the " shah
king
,

' '

fatha stands for alif, the

final

h
It

is

aspirated.
distinctly

must be

pronounced in words

like

^
<js

mahr, j^ mihr and

muhr and

in similar words, and in the proper

names cj!^ Tih-ran* and

Mash-had.

A final
1

silent

will

sometimes become

<ji

in Arabic, as fustaq (fi~> Ar.

Some grammarians consider the Persian silent * to be a vowel. Except when changed into S. The $ is not silent in Arabic. be silent (in Persian) when not an original letter. only
2 3

This final * can

Note that when

final

is

sounded,

it is

transliterated

by h and not by

a.

Ex. **

dah " ten."


*
6

Three distinct syllables, not two as in India. Two syllables, not three. In 1908 Persian

newspapers changed the spelling

to

20
(for pista *i~J P.)
(for

THE ALPHABET.
"a pista-nut"
'

also as ndkdj to be Arabic) ^, gfcti (said ndgdh iW> P.) suddenly.' In Arabic, final 8 is in certain cases written s and is then called by the Arabs id marbuta and by some Indians hd-td, and is in classical Arabic
;

"

pronounced

like

often pronounced

and written

except in pause or before a vowel. In Persian this is o^a. instead of *^. In English ci>; Ex.
i.e.

dictionaries this is generally treated as the fourth letter of the alphabet,

as o.

Sometimes the same word


significations.

is

written both with

and o, but with

different

Ex. &f dla

is

generally so written
1

of

an instrument or
aya
cs*3R*

apparatus,'-

but oJf dlat

when it has the signification when it signifies (pi. o^ff


)

"
<(

penis."
is

ai^
'

"
(^1

is this

paper correct

",

but

5>l>

A^ua *SjJ

this

paper signed

This distinction is, however, seldom observed and is considered pedantic, " and " thus jihat " cause qimat price" may be written both o.^ or A^ and o*&j or **AJ.
Fide also remarks on

oU^ and

ci>X
.

at the

end of j.

(^ T

yd-i tahtdmyya

AAJliso ^Ij

English consonant y\ also in vowel; Ex,. Ljf dyd ''whether."


initial alif of

At the beginning of a word is the the middle of a word after an initial long

When,

for

the sake of euphony,

the

a verb

is

changed into

this letter is

pronounced y as it

retains its original short vowel; Ex.


C{

Tjwn/a
fall,

don't come

"

from c*vof dmadan "to come", U* " to fall " he did not ^^'l uftddan "*, nayuftdd ^&s>

etc."
also represents the long vowel i (pronounced 3 (d). a ai: wide in pique) or diphthong At the end of a word it is a long ?, but at the end of the words ^Ij and
,

In the middle of words

as

^JU^

it is

sometimes shortened
It
is

khaili).

long in the verbal prefix

thus bale or ball and khayle (for khayll or thus ml-guft but is sometimes

^,

in careless talking pronounced short.


this prefix me).

(The Afghans and Indians pronounce

final

In Persia, as in India, the dots are never written under the where in some printed books, however, the dots are inserted. In Arabic the
:

dots should be omitted in the

alif-i

maqsura.
f

A
alif,

at the
is

end

of a

word, and preceded by a


:

fatha, is

pronounced

like
)

and

transliterated a

thus <^y a
is

(also

in India written &y*:>

is

pronounced da'wa.

This

in Arabic called
alif-i

;^ax>
(

01)1

alif-i

maqsura
'the

"the abreviated alif", as opposed to


1

mamduda

o>j<x/o

Jtf| )

Colloquially in Indian schools te-gird.


Aljib or

*^Lj

is,

in

modern Persian, often incorrectly


is

spelt

^^,;

it is

pronounced

baqile.
3

In Persian this

often written as

alif.

THE VOWELS.
prolonged alif" [vide
vasl\ thus

21

and is not sounded when in contact with alif-i " the contention of the moderns" is ^^(iJi ^}*3 pronounced
4
(d)],
\

da'vq'l-mutcfakhlchirin.
*

Note that in the Persian-Arabic compound y^j! or y^jf the ^ is in reality a final letter, and the comparative suffix y can be written separately,

asy
<_

J.\.

Remark
(

is

In Urdu or in Indian writing yd-e ma'kusi or " reversed yd " written at the end of a word to show that the has a majhul
I.

sound.

In

modern Persian the

'

reversed yd

'

has the same sound as the

ordinary ^. In the Turkish dU^x*. suyursat "supplies levied in kind", the


frequently omitted, both in writing and pronunciation; to omit it in both cases this word has no singular.
:

is

it is

however better

For further remarks on

vide

4.

Remark II. Even when quoting Arabic or reading the Qur'an, the Persians do not try to give the Arabic pronunciation to all the Arabic letters. Indians and Afghans, on the contrary, not only attempt but greatly exaggerate the Arab pronunciation of certain letters.
For the Arabic and the Persian pronunciation
form
of certain letters before the izafat, vide
'

of the alphabet

and the

Peculiarity of Arabic

Words/
t

In Indian dictionaries a letter preceding another is termed JAJ \* and one following another is styled vo I* thus in the word *_>;, the letter ra
:

is k

JAJ

U ma

qabl-i bd.

3.

The Short and Long and Diphthong Vowels


of words).

(in

the middle

There are no regular vowels in the Arabic written language, but the 1 (c)] which they call of the three signs r. 7 L\yide table, " " the movers" (lit. motions"), and one of these signs o'^^Jt alharakdt placed above or below a consonant determines its vowel sound. When
(a)

Arabs make use

" movers", it is called Jfy-* accompanied by one of these mutaharrik or "moving." The short vowels were originally quite unreprea consonant
is

**

sented.

As the "movers"
it is

consonant,

only give the vowel sound essential to a obvious that they cannot stand alone at the beginning of a

word: vide

(c).

For pronunciation, vide Table. (b) The letter having kasra or


having fatha or zabar above
pish,
it,

zir

below
(

it, is
),

called

maksur (>?**)> that

majtuh

*)&*

and that having zamma or


inflection, are called ra/,

mazmum
(c)

(_+***>

).

In Arabic, the vowels, as terminal signs of

22

THE VOWELS.
or nominative

or genitive (T), and nasb ( ) or ) accusative (1), and the words, not the letters, so marked, are styled marfu*

(&)

L,jar
),

yp

\_^

majrur

(^^
i

and mansub
i is

v^*^

vide

8.

Remark.
'fen' than
for
arcZ.

The short vowel


in
'

in Persian oftener
is

pronounced

like e in

like

fin.

Also faiha

locally so pronounced, as kerd

(c?)

Long vowels
and

Alif, j

the middle of words). are weak or infirm consonants


(in

or semi- vowels

and

correspond respectively with the "movers ", i.e. the short vowels a, u, i.* In Arabic writing the long vowels are formed by a combination of two
of

these affinities;

(Ex.
i

t ba, j* bu

and

^
"
'

bl)

and pronounced

like

a in

father,

in prude
I.

and
^,

in police or pique.*
afo'/ is
:

Remark
to the

In

the
in

v is prolonged
II.

sound

written to indicate that the fatha belonging 2 (a). vide

Remark
is

The^ and
2, p. 21)

are before (vide

^5 of prolongation and ^Aftjf vM (& or C^JL) a wasla shortened in pronunciation, thus j jiff

pronounced
(e)

fi'lfaivr (fl-fawr).
(in the

Diphthongs

middle of words).

By ^, the diphthongs ai or ay, and au or aw, are formed, and pronounced like ai in a/sZe (rare in Persian) or ' ' * Ex. <Jjjx> mai'Z 4 or mayl " inclination ey in they, and o% in sfott p*> saum
combining fatha with <^ and with
; ,

or

sawm

fasting."

In modern Persian the ay is most often pronounced like ey in they; Ex. (.5^ is pronounced both khaili and MeyZt (also khaile, etc., etc.) (vide under
^-); also the au sound, characteristic of the Arabic, Afghan, or Indian accent, tends towards the sound of o in hose.
letter
(f)

The

original Persian

vowel system was that of the Sanskrit, with the

semi- vowel r peculiar to the latter excluded.

"weak

letters'* is the
'

term applied to

(.5-

as opposed
:

to

^i-

OJJ^A. the

'

real consonants.

These are included in the school rhyme

Hence oK/

is
;

called ukht-i fatha "sister of fatha*';


is

vav

is

called ulchjit-i

zamma

"

sister of
3

zamma " and ya


C5
-

called ukhj-i kasra

'*

sister of

kasra."
huriif*' l-madd

When

"

'

prolongation", with a sufficiency of


*

or huruj^l iahba* alf}||


colour.'*

form vowels th^y are called <^t ^)J A " letters of

"

letters of

o?;^
like

filling

up

or impregnating

In modern Persian pronounced more

meyl and som.

HAMZA.

23

When

and

^
]

follow a consonant

unmarked by a short vowel or


;

by jazm, they were said to have an open sound called J>^ < majhul, or "unknown" (i.e. unknown to the Arab invaders) Ex. )y* mor an ant, ** sher " a lion " but when a 9 was preceded by a consonant pointed with L or a ^s with ~, then the sound was called ^jj**> ma'ruf or " known"
; ;

Ex.

<jS>x>

mush " a mouse "

" milk." shir

The majhul sounds o and e are still preserved in the Persian spoken by Afghans and Indians, but they are now unknown in Persia: in modern " an ant" is called Persian' mur, and there is nothing in pronunciation to " " lion from shir " milk." distinguish the word for
2

Remark

I.

There are thus, exclusive of the majhul sounds, at


a, a,
i t ?,

least nine

vowel sounds in Persian,

u,

u,

and diphthongs

ai, ay,

and aw.

The

last takes the place of the

au sound

characteristic of Indians.
f

Remark II. To sum up the remarks on the weak consonants, c5 - j ol* o^>) when ^ and (^ are initial, or are movable in the middle of a word, ( they are real consonants and are pronounced with their proper vowels; when
,

they follow a jazm they are consonsants, as in juzv *>', and when they follow a consonant that has neither a vowel nor a jazm they were in classical, and
are in Indian Persian majhul. or zamma ( ^_) the sound is

When
u
;

the consonant preceding ^ has a pish

when the consonant preceding

has a zir

orkasra

the sound

is t.

When j and
may
4.

^ follow
(*)

a consonant that has a zabar or fatha

they

be called diphthongs.

Hamza 3

and the short vowels at the beginning of words.

(a)

distinct

In endeavouring to pronounce a vowel without a consonant, a though slight effort is made with the muscles of the throat; this
is

jerked sound or hiatus

by the Arabs
*,

^impulse ", and

is

represented by
is

called hamzah, which signifies "prick, the form of which has arisen from the

Persia lion
sher

j&

" shir" and a


:

tiger f*. bdbr.


is

In India the tiger

is

called

and the lion babar

the word sher

also loosely

applied to the leopard,

panther, etc.
* i.e. in Persia. Dr. Rosen " The Persian of India may justly remarks in his grammar be looked upon as a petrification of the old classical language. It has also preserved the "majhul" vowels e and o for * and M, and differences of pronunciation. other many The Persian-speaking Indians, whose studies are mostly confined to the classics and
:

poetic exercises, have followed none of the developments of the modern language." The Persian of India, therefore, though far purer both in idiom and pronunciation than the language of Persia, sounds pedantic, and is almost unintelligible to ordinary Persians.
8

Denotes

of the alphabet is

" pressure" or puncture." Among Arab grammarians the more generally called hamzah.

first letter

24
letter
off of

SHORT VOWELS AND HAMZA.


of the word 'aj>. In other words hamza represents the cutting the stream of breath preceding or following a vowel. In Arabic, hamza is placed over or under alif, or over j and ^c, but

when final is written by itself, and may follow any of the letters. The letter marked is called jr*** mahmuz or "hamzated", a term also applied to a word having hamza for one of its radicals.
so

Remark.

Alif

when

it is

merely a letter of prolongation

is

not hamza.

In moat cases alif occurs as the (b) Short vowels at the beginning of words. bearer of hamza and then performs a function essentially different from that
9

in the

Remark
is

to

13

(d)

Ex. J[ ah,
I

v
,

ub.
.
{.

When an

sound follows, then

the sign *

placed under the bearer


of

as

For the pronunciation


under
silent,

silent
?*

hamza
'

in the middle of a word, vide

letter a

2.

and, having no vowel to give


in the beginning of the
,

In the word c^U> ma*zun "permitted", the hamza is it life, it represents the jerked sound
paragraph
;

mentioned

and, as the

first letter, viz

f is

pointed with -^ the two together in Persian give the half-bleating sound mentioned in the remarks on the letter 2.' In the word o**^; ra'is " a

head ",
x

"a

chief ", the

hamza

is

not silent,

but

is

marked with

and

is
*

con,9

sequently pronounced like ^ at the beginning of a word.


ifji,

In the words

-**j*1

has no vowel and also follows a letter without a vowel. The Arabs would pronounce the final * in these words something like shay-a, su-a 2 umara-d, but the Persians ignore the * in such Arabic words' they do howthe
final *
:

ever pronounce the * at the end of *jv, probably to distinguish


Persian word^.*. su "direction, towards." In the pronunciation of an Arab, the hamza
perceptible, especially
'

it

from the

is

when

it

9
-

begins a syllable that

is

an articulation very in the middle of a


jur-at.

word, as in

c;fy>

8 of^x which are not pronounced qur-an and

Note that though the is marked with * the hamzated' alif does not serve to as would be the case if hamza were absent from the thus prolong the sound of the to all intents and purposes alif-hamza (or hamza) and alif are two separate letters.
1
'

This

final * in
)

Arabic must not be confused with the Persian


/

following a silent

h
*

(or a

as a sign of the genitive case.

That the Persians do ignore the Arabic


+

^'
(Arabic broken plurals of

in such
their
-*J

words as dj*\ and *l^

^x

and

by
k

manner

of writing these words in a state of construction,


of the

^ j-^), shown thus: o^ c5"V'


J

is

Cfkx"'
3

"the nobles
is

time "
it is

When hamza

found at the end of syllable,

in

Urdu changed into the


**

letter *

of prolongation corresponding to the short vowel that precedes; thus^J^^


X
:

and

'

become

in

Urdu

_H^-> taslr

and

(^^

mumin.

LONG VOWELS AND HAMZA.


(c)

25

The

latest

the alphabet, and

alif

Arabic Dictionaries treat alij-Tiamza as the first letter of alone as a or for example, if it be desired to look
>

***

out the Arabic root J

scfal*

" he asked", the

must be looked

for at the

a " it beginning of the alphabet; if however it be desired to look out JU sdl flowed ", the alif must be treated as a ^5 and the searcher must look for a word
,

spelt

sm, ya, lam (instead

of sin, alif, lam), while for

;U

sar a

'

he scaled a
is

wall ", he should look forsm,

waw,
}

rd.
is

The reason is, that,

in Arabic, alif

not

considered an original letter, but


,

supposed to be the offspring of one of the

two weak consonants j or ^ and according to certain laws of euphony a weak consonant undergoes certain changes or permutations when it comes
toge her in a 'measure' or 'form' with a vowel that
it:
is

accordingly, in the last two examples, an original

or

tion been changed into an alif.

and the

letter after

must
is

Similarly be treated as the

^ "a prophet"
first
it is
it is

not analogous to has by permuta/'O'


is

from Uo

?<;
-

Ui ?

" the letter of alphabet."

The second

letter of

JL
* *

hamza, because

mutaharrik or movable, while

the second letter of

JU

is

called alif, because

a letter of prolongation.

Hamza, however, may be


(d)

sdkin, as in <jJ;.

Long

vowels at the beginning of words.

vowels are formed by a combination of


that
of
is its affinity
;

As already stated, the long a short vowel and the weak consonant

and the manner


in

words has been demonstrated


(6)],

of writing the long vowels in the middle It follows by rule [vide short 3
(d).

vowels at beginning of words

that the long vowels at the beginning of a

word are introduced by a hamza, thus

Vjf = ub

and ^Ji =

&.

Similarly wt

should = a&; but to avoid this awkward form the second


the
first,

alif is

written over

thus T
2

this alif

on the top

is

" the mark of madd or called madda

prolongation." at the beginning of words (e) By the same rule the "diphthongs"
are
vide

written
3
(e).

^1

aib (or

ayb),

and

v>?

>ub

for awb)

for pronunciation,

It will

be noticed that the three weak letters or semi-vowels are

alif,

vav and ya.

or The hamza is a strong letter, although in certain cases it is liable to modification consonants, real sometimes are vav and M hile likof the weak letters. ya change any letter of tha alif is not regarded as such at all ; but only as a prop for hamza, or as a

prolongation, as in the word


*

JU

An
2 3

ali/

so

marked

is

by some Grammarians

called alif-i

mamduda,

as

c^T

Pr

-ome."

Alif-i

r In Arabic the term


as in *UfcJ
,

mamduda can only occur at the beginning of a syllable: &\j> to a final alif foHowed by alif mamduda is restricted
alif

*U~, in contradistinction to

maqswa,

as in *+*

and

^-

26

LONG VOWELS AND HAMZA.


As
in Arabic,
I

hamza following a long a is written on the line, 1 the alif that precedes such a hamza is generally marked with a madda but this madda ' ' '* ' " he came.' for fU thus in Arabic has no effect on the
f
'

pronunciation

*U>,

This

is

also the case

when^

or

^ act as bearers of hamza, e.g. J5U qa*il


j-

u **

Final hamza in Arabic words (as

*Ufci 3

is

rarely written in Persian,

and

of the izafat; as, c^^tl writing before the always " medical officers of the * the the were retained, Military Department'

disappears in

^
:

^^
;

might be mistaken
26
(/)

for the

^
*

of unity

vide

Remark

to

(g)

vide also

(2).

(/)

In Persian the sign

over

at the beginning of words

is

omitted,

even in words fully pointed with the vowels, etc.; and in the dictionaries, Persian and Urdu, no distinction is made between alif and hamza i.e. both
;

are at the beginning of the alphabet.


4 corresponds to an English hyphen in such words as re-open, and is then written over a y (^) without the dots: in other words, hamza is thus written, instead of over the prop alif in those cases when (according to

Hamza

Englishmen) one syllable ends in a vowel and the next begins with one; Ex. **$^ fctida " benefit" instead of or *4<J. 6
s^tf

first

more correct to omit the dots in the and place the sign * over it, as e>*^ pafidan This to stand firm." word may also be written e*H*^ pzyidan, but in this case the first ^ must be

When two

come

together,

it is
:

treated as a consonant and transliterated

y.

Similarly gunjcfish

J^^*^

or

gunjdyish <J^'-au&
Strictly speaking

a hamza in Persian ought to be used whenever a

As a

rule

hamza has in Arabic no bearer when

it

is

movable by a fatha and


JP^

follows a long vowel, or


i.e.

when

it is final

and preceded by sukun.


is

In words like *A*h&

in

words where the long vowel preceding the hamza


<j?

C5, the
f.*

hamza
'

is

placed on
'
s

**
or

or above the line, or is written over a


a 8

(without dots)

thus

*Ub^
s

*-febV

In Modern Persian usually pronounced qayil. In Persian, it is optional to write or omit the In Urdu a hamza does duty
for

final * in
e.g.

such words.
1

a hyphen,

cJj*

*-

ja-uh

"may

go?",

y*

ja-o

"go." and Indians have extended the use


of the Arabic

It will be seen that the Persians

orthographical sign hamza.


6

jtf gav cow,

In Persian pronounced fayida. though Indians do write


*-x*U>

A hamza

is

not correct in such Persian words as

^
is

In

qa'ida
*.

and such words no hamza can be written, as

a strong

ci

and cannot take

THE LETTER 'AYN.


syllable beginning with a

27
1

vowel

is

added to a root, thus: ^'&*


is

(for

it and p*3*>* (for only observed in certain cases ), For the Persian ct /hamza " is necessary for distinction [vide Remark I (g)]. as a sign of the genitive case, etc., after an obscure h or after a final vide

*>*

but this rule

^\ when
^,

-*

26

(/)

as substitute for the

^ of unity, vide
rarely sayil c^U*.

41

(c)

(d).

(g)

Hamza

in the middle or at the end of an Arabic

word used in Persian,

is

often omitted, both in pronunciation and in writing; as,


<Jj'U*,

pM

qdyim for

jJU>

qcfim, but generally sa^il

Remark

I.

The

practical uses of hamza,

and

its
:

omission in modern
;

" by the following examples \&$ gadd beggar" " a beggar"; &^/ <^\*$ gadd-yiJi*? gada*i* begging"; <y *$ gada-i* Kirman " the beggar of Kerman."
Persian, are best illustrated "

be noticed that the distinction between the words for " begging" " lies in the accent and "a beggar (with of unity) only. " Mahl <ykU> fish " mnhi-i 3 (class ) a fish [^*U yak mah\ in " one month more " Jo m.c.] : j&i* U iJL yak mdh-i dlgar (m.c.) j&.t
It will

^^

"

^
:

^^

yak mahi-yi digar (m.c.) "one fish more"; also in m.c. ^Aid cj*^* mahi-yi digar-i and classically ^i^U mahi-t digar: ^Ui numayam "I show " we show." but

j&

gJUJ

numayim
II.

Remark
of

Note the division


is

of syllables

when

occurs in the middle

a word: O^A. or of^a.


<xJUxi

jur-at

(not ju-rat).

In the same

way

&\j*

Qur-an:

or All-** mas-ala.

5.

The

letter

the ^ (at

beginning of words).
at the beginning of a
-*** is

In Persian (but not in Arabic) the consonant

word
$
v^!
f

is

pronounced
y
v-yjjc

like the

and

'ujub (Ar.
20.

consonant hamza, thus " broken of


plural

pronounced

like

v^

defects, vices," as
is

though

spelt

v*t,

vide

In the
the
line.

Roman

character,

transliterated

by a

reversed

comma above

^&

would in modern Persian be taken to be badl-i

**

a badness,*' but in

t^'<^ juda'l the hamza is necessary. mark hamza is used to introduce it. line requires "a prop"; and this in

When
But
'the

a syllable begins with a vowel, the this hamza being written above the
is
I

case of a

in the case of

it is

that in the (with or without *), and in the case of * it is ^5* ), only initial form this last is [often] distinguished from the ordinary y by losing its dots e.g.
(with or without f
:

JV* wal "a question," J^"^


2 3

mas-ul "inquired of", **Sl fa-ida "advantage." Palmer '3 Concise Eng.-Per. Diet.

Note the
For

different position of the accents in the

two words.

28

JAZM OR SUKUN.
6.
(a)

Jazm

or Sukun.

In Arabic and Persian, the first letter of a word is always accompanied by a vowel, hence in the mouth of an Arab or Persian a word like Smith becomes Ismith (or Ismit).
1

by no vowel sound, it is said to be sakin e/ "*, i.e. quiescent, inert, or mute," and the symbol called /*>* jazm "cutting off, or amputation," or ()*
is
1

When

a consonant in the middle or at the end of a word

followed

"

sukun " rest " [ " men," the first


is

o
(

]
)

is

letter

is

"moved
'

placed over "

it.

In the word

^^

mardum
( ; )
;

by

fatha,

but the second

letter

"quiescent, inert, mute, or silent", having the sign jazm ( o) over it while the third letter ( ^ ) is moved ' by zamma or pish and finally the
;

last letter

is

"quiescent."
is

A
of the
first

letter so
aJ16

marked

called sakin

"

"
quiescent

or

majzum\

it

has none

olj^a*.

only

is

When two or more quiescent letters occur together, the termed sakin, the others being termed mawquf o^r* " dependent
"friend" the ^
is

on"

and 4j

or "supported''; thus in o,*jj> dust ei> are mawquf.

sakin and the

In Persian (but not in classical Arabic) the last letter of all words is quiescent; this being a rule, the sign jazm is omitted in the case of
,

final

letters.

Jazm

therefore signifies that (in the

Roman

character)
2

two

consonants in the middle or end of a word have no vowel between them.'


(b)

In such words as cUt


x

Jii

&& great care must be taken


9

in Persian

to avoid even the suspicion of a vowel between the two last letters ; many Persians pronounce these words almost like tifli, naqla, nagda, and in the two last words slightly dwell on the fatha. The Arabs and Indians pronounce

these words less affectedly;


naqed.
8

the Indians as though they were

tifel,

naqel,

Remark.

The presence

or absence of a jazm in a

word

of three letters,
;

sometimes completely

alters the

meaning,

e.g.

<_>& nafs

means "passion"
fissure

"the penis", but


privities of

a woman, 4

^b "

nafas means "breath";

but

" freedom from faraj grief or sorrow."

^y "a

and the

Fow

Indiana can pronounce two consonants at the beg nning. In Hindustani a few wo:ds begin with two consonants with no vowel between
illiterate
:

them.

In such cases a jazm is not written over the first letter as theoretically a quiescent consonant cannot occur at he beginning of a word. It is for this reason that a vowel is often inserted; thus Brahman is often pronounced Birahman. 3 Barf *'snow" is in India pronounced baraf; this pronunciation renders the

word
*

unintelligible to

many

Persians.
of either
sex.

In Arabic the
/or/.

privities

Uneducated Persians pronounce both

words

TASHDID AND IDGHAM.


7.

29

Tashdid

and Idgham.

(a)

A
*
(

doubled letter in the middle of a word


),

the sign

called
it

<v^
is

tashdid
it

is written only once, but " corroboration " or ''strengthening ", is

placed above

to indicate that

should be pronounced twice.


u^

A letter so
rated."

marked
first of

called

mushaddad

j*^" strengthened ",

"

corrobo-

The

the doubled letters ends one syllable, and the second

begins the following syllable. (6) In practice, the Persians strongly emphasize the letter that

is

marked

"

with the sign of duplication; Ex. ^^ khurram "joyful"; *iJ| albatta certainly." The Arabs however pronounce the doubled letter twice, unless

it

ends the word, when it can only be emphasized. words of only two letters are rare (c) Arabic

consequently words
)

like

ki and 5^

(shatt

and daqq) are three


(

lettered,

omitted.

For further remarks on

>>)

vide under

even if the sign (" solar 10. letters",

be

Remark I. word spelt like

quvvat strength." qut \^j In Arabic words a euphonic tashdid occurs when the article al precedes a word beginning with a solar lettter: vide 10.

Without the tashdid, there is nothing to show whether a " " food " or is

Remark

II.

Tashdid

is

said not to be found over

any

of the four letters


;

that are purely Persian. The word **o bachcha is an exception if the ( *.) be omitted there is nothing to distinguish it from a$u bi-chi, " for what"; " Peculiarities of Persian words." In compounds, the tashdid vide also

over bachcha

is

dropped, as sag-bacha, bacha-khar, bacha-Turk,


:

etc.,

and

also in
**>

the expression
'<

Bacha! mar-at bi-zanad


*

(a

curse).

Other exceptions are

hillock ",
(d)

and

"

thick, dense."
signifies inserting

Idgltam

V*M

one letter into another, coalescence, as

As a letter so assimilated (mudg&am shappara (from shab-para ^J v-* ) the two words with are practically synonymous. marked is tashdid, ) Remark
jadda
I.

Removing a
is

tashdid *^-^J from a word, as jada *^*> for

"path",

called

takhjif
jj

^^^

"lightened

mukhaffaf o&itx>. Doubled Arabic Remark II.


is
'

"

8.^ so and a word "lightening",


the last
letters

'

substantives in which

two

radical letters are the

same, in order to avoid two quiescent

coming

ba taahdU *J*i

In Arabic ^A-

radicals are the same.

" most emphatically an ass.'* L^aL (m.c.) "a i.e. one whose second and third muza'af verb, reduplicate The term muza'af is also applied to a quadrilateral verb of two

" equal syllables, as Jj^j

zalzaV

30

TAN WIN.
;

together, lose the tashdid <xjxJ before the Persian plural termination ha

thus

jinn er^

" a

spirit,

a Jinn" has for

its

Persian plural jinhd.

Similarly

from

saff

JU

" a

line

" comes the Persian compound


an
,

saf-dar )*&*>

" rank

' '

breaking

(an epithet of 'All).

in Persian, as

kaff

Ar.,

Such Arabic words frequently lose the tashdid " l un palm of the hand/' kaf *J6 P.; habb
,

I
*-**>
is

" a berry, grain,

"
pill

becomes in Persian hab.

Sometimes the tashdid

again restored before the <^ of unity, thus hob, P. (m.c.) becomes habb-i
(m.c.)

J*s*.

"a

pill"; fan

<J>

" "art", fann-1 ^xi; but kaf ciT palm

of the

hand ",

kaf-i

(m.c.) (not kaff-i J**).

Remark
exceptions.

III.

mushaddad
cf

letter

is

rarely found in a pure Persian


(or

word; arra (S. dra

saw";
8.

farrukh

farukh)

"happy, etc."

are

Tanwin

In

classical

Arabic the short vowels are used as terminations to express


:

* the three cases of nouns

is

the nominative

^
C

"7 is n. is

the genitive

Vide, also

(a).

the accusative )
is

If

the noun
,
,

indefinite, these terminations are

doubled and written


This
is

~
,

and pronounced with the nun or n-sound.

called

tanmn "

s giving the nun. Arabic nouns in the accusative case are in Arabic used as adverbs;

"

&ij&

Ex. tf&M
alif is

an
ittifdq-

"

" the accusative by chance

of

o ^. Note that the final


1

not sounded.

If the
l

word ends
<

in * or
5?

there

is

no

final alif;

Ex.

A^

*lij

bind* an if

"
alay-hi

accordingly ",
in

*4^

hikmat- an

"skilfully";
is
i

similarly

the

word ends

preceding the

lovingly." unsounded), thus <^>*>* hawa* In modern Persian the tendency is to omit the n and prolong the final d
the
is

^ and

^^ *

(in

such words the tanwm

written over the letter

"

Such words are considered by Lexicographers to be Persian. There is practically only one declension in Arabic. 3 In modern colloquial Arabic the final vowels and tanwin are with a few exceptions omitted: a noun in the accusative case, used as an Adverb, is given the tanwin.
i

Colloquial Arabic has, therefore, no distinction of case as found in the classical language.
*
*
*
:

The

alif

over the

is silent

^ajui ^?.

now seldom written, the word being spelt <^>A the ^ Words like uq l)a are generally written ^X** (without alif).
<_$

is

^^

<

In the

Roman

character, a final (^ pronounced like a

is

transliterated

a.

WA8LAH AND SOLAR AND LUNAR LETTERS.


in the

31
hal- a *
}

pronunciation of these Arabic


is

adverbs;

Ex.

3/U.

"now,

at present ",
' '

reality

is

always
jabr
an

modern Persian always pronounced hold V^ while He "in is pronounced both with and without the n. In some words the * " " retained Ex. <&* or
in
;

gkajlal**'*

suddenly

"by

accident ",

"

\j&*>

by force."
9.

Waslah.
is

This word signifies " a conjunction or joining " and the alif of the Arabic definite article Ji al " the " it
:

only found over

signifies that

the
;

alif

is

suppressed in pronunciation and the


o^**'

J joined

by the previous vowel


:

thus

amir ul l-mu*mimn &&*5*Hj**\ l " Commander of the Faithful"


II to
If
final

vide

Remark

3 (d)*

a word before a wasla ends in a long vowel or in an alif-i maqsura, the vowel is shortened in pronunciation before the alif with wasla, thus
is

pronounced

fi'l-jumla

and not

fi'l-jumla.

10.
(a)

Solar and Lunar Letters.


letters, fourteen in all, are

In Arabic the dental, liquid and sibilant


'

called Ax~*^Jf ojj-sJf al-huruf u s'h-s7iamsiyyat v or " solar letters

for the by " " no means obvious reason that the word shams sun begins with one of them. They are o->-i-a-j-j- u uS- uc-<j*-.b--J- e,. If an Arabic word with the article Ji begins with one of these letters, then, for

"

^^

euphonic reasons, the J of the


loss, the first letter of

article is not sounded,

the word itself is ^- f x " " the Peace of ^aJl .3U Salah^d-din (Saladin). Religion
sinniyya
a
-

but to compensate for its doubled and marked with --, thus
:

The dentals

**'**,

those that are enunciated by the aid of the teeth, 8 are


)

-.-by the

o. The lingual asaliyya ( ^JL>f aid of the tip of the tongue, and are
(6)

are those that are pronounced


-

^-J-^-uw-u

^- 4

The lunar

letters

because

qamar the moon begins with one of them. With them no such takes change place in the J of the article. The lunar letters are subdivided into the labials shafahiyya or shafawiyya

^J^

o^

huruf-i qamariyya are said to be so called

&
1

or *if

v5

^ ne

palatals

lahawyya

*^ ^
)

<3

The hamza

is

pronounced.

9
8

Difficulty of pronunciation or want of euphony is called istisqal ( Jl*&-l ). The loss of the front teeth prevents the people pronunciation of the dentals.

The

letters

u"

(J

are called

'*

j***>-)\ <*JJj^

sibilant letters."

32

ABJAD.

and the gutturals, halqiyya


c
-

(aJila*)

or hanjariyya

'

Remark.

Arab grammarians have themselves

fallen into confusion

over

these ill-defined divisions.

oj^ huruf'^l-laqlaqah clacking letters"; huruf 'z-zalq (J-'^l oj^ or *AflJjA// o^sJi al-huruf''zzawlaqiyyah letters articulated with the tip of the tongue and the lips they " soft 1 letters" are the liquids ; - & - J huruf^l-lin <^Uf Jj^ 3 - is 9 * " arched", viz. u^ - (j* Ji i nit'iyyah ***& letters promutbaqah *ft>Janounced by the tongue and the fore part of the palate (viz. ^ - ^ - Jt )
(c)

The Arabs further term


a

certain letters &JSJJ(

'*

" depressed (letters)" mustafilah AJ&~*O


not
rise.

are those in which the tongue does

11.

Abjad.

(a)

The
:

following meaningless words give the letters in their numerical

order

ooo o G5 oo 00 t> CO iO
r-1

T* CO <N

oooo

r-<

OQOt^Ci)

oooo
to mathematical

The use

of letters

as numerals

is

confined

works.

almanacs, and chronograms. 6

The sum

of the letters in the

name

of a

work, or of a brief sentence or

verse recording an historical event, gives the year of the Hijra in which the

event took place.


is

This practice of commemorating events by chronograms

common

in all

Muslim countries.
is

This system

called abjad* *?uf

and hisdb-i-jummal cUa.

v Ua.,

the

Arabic word jummal cU^ signifying "cable; addition." with tashdid &>*& is reckoned as a single letter.
(b)

letter

marked
of

Examples
f
f

When
coins
u
ft

Nadir
with

Shah proclaimed himself sovereign


Arabic
inscription as a
is
ta

Persia, he struck
xx x

the

chronogram

&

^ tf?-^*^'

'

allchayr

ma waqa

" the best

in

what happened."

The

sum
1

of these letters

1148 (A.H.)

A.D. 1735-6.

Letters formed in the uvula.

a
3

Also <jlJ! OJ^A..

Vulgarly abujad.

The Arabs
-

of

Morocco in the above words substitute u*

for <j

(Jf>

for \J*

^
-j

for (j
6

<j^ f r

^
letters,

As regards the four Persian


*-*

may have

the value of

"

of

of 3
letters.

of

^>

e.

they

may

have the same value as their corresponding Arabic

NUMERICAL FIGURES.

33

The date of Taymurlang's death is in the dramatic words <s&jt f 1^ Vida'-i Shahryari " Farewell to Royalty," this = 807 (H.) A.D. H04-5.

A new gate to the mosque at Kazimayn was constructed by Farhad u Mlrza, an uncle of Nasir - d-din, Shah of Persia, in A.H. 1300 ( = A.D.
l J

1882),

or

'

nom

and an Afghan poet of Bagdad, who wrote under the takhallus o*Jliu de plume of Shihab, immortalised (as his son says) the event in a
'

poem, the chronogram of which, according to custom, occurs in the the last two misra' a jo.*> (a line of verse)
:

last, or

)*

&>.\ jt

C*A|; <jr*jiy* hfJl^JtyJ

At

J^ b

*sJ

jjU

j|

(JijlfA

to
is

" Shihab in a " happy frame of mind fixes its date May your road Paradise be by this gate." The sum of the letters in the second misra*
1299, but the writer says at the

J-" and

these words

may
alif

end of the first line "ba dil-i-shdd J^b also be translated " with the heart of shad' 9 now
:

the heart of sTwd

is

which

'

one,

so this

makes the

total 1300.

Persians love obscurities.

The

letters of abjad

can also be used to represent

figures, thus b for 12,

K for 21, etc.*


(c)

In a certain style of almanac called taqwm-i ruquml

^j*)

f>.j&

the letters of the alphabet are used with special significations; thus the letter * denotes Thursday, the sign Virgo, the planet Venus and the moon when bright. Few Persians nowadays know these signs, and the almanacs
,

never contain a key.

The taqmm-i Far si

)^

!.j& is

preferred.

12.

Numerical Figures.
from the Hindus by the
1

(a)

The usual
:

signs for the numerals (borrowed

Arabs) are

0123456789
I

In combination these are written from

left to right as in

English thus,

M*f

s-1901.

Called

by

the

Arabs

the

Bab^-^l-Farhadiyya

and

by the

Persians

Bab-i-

Farhadiyya.

The abjad system is also used as a species of Morse alphabet for visual and auditory signalling, in a manner that will readily be understood by Military Officers. Double raps or long sounds, such as sighing or sucking a pipe, indicate the number of the word in the abjad system, while single raps or short sounds indicate the position
i

of the letter in that word.

Similarly, signs

made by

tongue in the right

cheek, or by the right hand or

the right eye or eyebrow, or .by the foot, indicate the word, while those

on the

left,

the letter.

Vide also

16.

34

SIYAQ AND LETTERS IN POETRY.


for 2, In MSS., variations in the signs for the numerals are or a for 5, * for 6, < for 7, and > for 8. or for 4,
,

(I)
(*

g for 3,

or

Fractional numbers are usually written as in English as

13.

To
Let

find the year

A.D. corresponding to the year


years and decimals.
:

of the Hijra:

M = the Muslim date in

E = the required English date in years Then E = M x 0-970225 -1-621 -54. The answer
Let
end of the year A.H. The year A.D. 1900 (1st May)

is

the date A.D. of the

1318 H.

14.

Siyaq

($#* V

Mustawfis (^5****) or Revenue Accountants, and Munshis keep their accounts in a system of figures called (jU- siyaq or ^(^ divam which is
'

India. nearly the same pSj raqam of this system, vide Appendix to Woolaston's of For a detailed account is a complicated one. English-Persian Dictionary. The system and merchants keep their accounts in a form of siyaq
(

<3l**

Shop-keepers they do not understand the diwani )


:

<j\jii>

or siyaq

jjU*.

of the

Mustawfi

the is applied to a system of writing a sum in a feceipt ) written in siyaq ( $>** ) and then in words underneath it; under this again, half the sum is written in siyaq.

^f^o
(

).
:

Euqumi

^j$)

sum

is first

15.

Letters in Poetry.

Persian poets delight in discovering fanciful resemblances in the form of letters. As already stated, an upright stature is likened to the letter
altf^ but bent

by
is

grief or

age

it is

a bent neck
in

is

like a, while a

drooping head

like j.

The Persian poet Jam!

his

beautiful

but

1 The revenue accounts being kept in siyak none but a mustawfi ij*j*~* or revenue accountant can interpret them. Persian officials are in the hands of their accountants. " I heard of one Governor who on removal from office had his accounts made up and was found to be a debtor to Government to the extent of 80,000 tumams (16,000).

He got
*

another mustawfi

^^*MM

to

examine

his accounts

and the

latter

brought him

out a creditor to the

amount

of 40,000
alif,

tumams."

Yates'

Khorasan and

Sistan.

Sighs are also compared to

HANDWRITINGS.
1

35

somewhat lengthy poem "Yusuf and Zulaykha'* compares the heroine's teeth to sin (-), her mouth to mim (, and her eyes to sad (*) or 'ayn (*) zulf is again compared to lam and jim.
;

16.

Handwritings.

and the

The two most important varieties of Arabic writing are the Kuft NasTch, and all the other varieties, national or calligraphic, may be referred to one of these two styles. The Kufic took its name from the town Kufa on the Euphrates, a
11

town that

at one time

was a seat

of

Muslim learning, and famous

for

a school of Arabic copyists. From authentic Kufic inscriptions,

it is

now no

longer doubtful that the

Arab employed the Kufic


foundation of Kufa.

style at the time of the con quest of Syria, before the It is now supposed that the naskh did not originate in

the second or third century after the Prophet but was used simultaneously with the Kiific in the time of the earliest Khalifas, and possibly in the time
of the Prophet

himself. 8
'

The
and

Ta'tiq

<JjJiJ

),

hanging' hand,
in Persia.

is

an elegant court hand that was,

still is,

much admired

Many
to

According to the Eastern romance Zulaykha saw and loved Yusuf in a dream At length she agreed suitors hearing of her beauty vainly sought her hand.

espouse the 'Aziz of Egypt, Qitfir (Potaphar of the Bible) believing him to be the Yusuf (or Joseph) of her vision. Her marriage was a rude awakening and her respect for her husband was doubtless lessened by the fact that he was, for

some reason or other, a eunuch. Joseph is recognized and bought in the slave market by Zulaykha and adopted by her husband. Zulaykha makes furious love to the unwilling youth. The ladies of Memphis discover her secret and talk scandal. Zulaykha hears the gossip, and faces the difficulty by giving a banquet to all the ladies of her acquaintance. While sending for Yusuf she gives each lady an orange to peel, with directions to observe Yusuf covertly the while. The ladies are so agitated at the sight of
beauty that they absently cut their fingers instead have to confess that Zulaykha has an excuse for her passion, They and she shut the doors and said 'come the temptation being so great. The Qur'an says " He said God keep me hither Verily my lord hath given me a good home and the But she longed for him; and he had longed for her, injurious shall not prosper.' had he not seen a token from his Lord." Qitfir dies and Zulaykha becomes a beggar, old, blind, decrepit, but Joseph retains his youth. Zulaykha builds a reed-hut on the
the

slave-boy's unexpected

of the orange.

'

Joseph fails to recognize in however has She the blind beggar-woman expiated her sin by her his wife. make to directed is Yusuf Her is and restored to her, youth suffering. Yusuf is a type of male beauty, the Adonis of the Muslims. common e^uxsr-* " of transcribers."
his former mistress.

way by which the man she

so faithfully loves has to pass.

girya

writing

is

in m.critt^, lithographed, or printed, in


i.e.

what is commonly

styled khatt-i

naaTch with all the points.

36

HANDWRITINGS.

The

nasta'tiq

^JUi-J
(

is
)
:

a combination of the naskh


it
is

^~i

or ordinary

hand and the

ta'tiq

<JH^

Persians for well- written manuscripts

a beautiful hand, chiefly used by the but the modern Arabs call the Persian

writing generally ta'tiq. Some old Arabic manuscripts written in Persia are in this style. hand is the term generally applied to broken or The shikasta *~
l ' ' '

1 In it the the cursive or running hand used by the Persians and Indians. dots are omitted and all the letters are joined together. It is very illegible

and puzzling even to natives. The ruq'ah <***; is used by Arabs and Turks
*
.%

in ordinary correspondence.
c

The diwam ^ji*,* tughra


1

f^-k,

sulsi

^^xb

(or

^li)

are

the

names

of

other ornamental hands used in the


edicts, etc.,

titles of

books, headings of diplomas or

and correspond to flourished

letters

and monograms amongst

Europeans. These several scripts are little more than calligraphic styles. In Persia, even at the present day, calligraphy is one of the

fine

arts.

One

or two lines written

by
(

certain old Calligraphists

sell for

many pounds
a species
;

sterling.

The

Khatt-i shajari *
is

^j^Z

or

' '

tree- writing

"
,

of

merely another application of abjad *u! in it an enigmatical writing, stroke represents as it were the trunk of a fir- tree in which the number upright
of branches

on the right indicates the number


left

of the

word

in abjad **v\,

and the number on the


first letter

the letter in that word.

Thus

in

^b

'Alt,

the

it is

occurs in the fifth word of the abjad system, namely in o^i**,, and the second letter in that word. All would therefore be written
'
:

\/

Vide also

11

(6)

footnote

2.

Remark.

In writing and in printing, Persian and Arabic words should

not be written half at the end of one line and half at the beginning of the next also dual words connected by j should not be separated. Only inferior
;

copyists make mistakes in

'

spacing and resort to the practice of dividing words.


of their
is

'

The Arabs have a

vile shikasta *JL~

own.
the
official

The dlwanl
The
(

-[??.&,

a bold round hand,

character, in Turkish

passports, etc.
S

Suls ^**J is a fanciful character with calligraphic flourishes.

4 Called also

secrecy in this form of writing as course written from right to left.

khapi-i sarvl (j$f* 1*** or "cypress writing." Ther*> Bought him it is widely known. Like the Ar c/r Sistan.

Vide Brownie's "

Year

Amon

PUNCTUATION.

37
if

A greeting
is

at the beginning of a letter

is

contained in one line

there

not sufficient room, instead of crowding in the last few words, they are written above the line in one or more lines decreasing in length.

Two words are often written in one, as: ^^f anmard "that man." Two words separated by an izafat are sometimes incorrectly joined in one as
(kitab-i

mam), which ought

to stand for kitdb-am-rd.

17.

Punctuation.

In Qurans or ornamental verses, punctuation is represented by various marks such as, . . etc. etc. but in manuscripts, as already : nor the other symbols. stated, neither are the short vowels written
;
.

Even

in printed

works an occasional tashdid ^jx&> or short vowel


This
is

assistance given to the reader.

is the only the the Persians one of reasons that

and Indians mispronounce so many common Arabic words. 2 The following punctuation marks ( &&sj dl/o&: ) are occasionally used:-

Comma
Colon
Full stop

'

aldmat-i waqfa
alamat-i mutlaq
alamat-i dyat
'

'

'

oof

o*x>2k
flfiJUaf

o (for &)
.

Mark

of interrogation
,,

alamat-i istifhdm
nida,
. .

j>*>^

o
&
^J

(/)

exclamation
L
'
'*

'alamat-i

farydd,
.

yd
.

ta'ajjub
. .

._>.2put3

&(jjs

j d&i cx>X;

(n)

Quotation, alamat-i iqtibas (^Uxj't

cu*^

Parentheses
brackets
f

), [

'aldmat-i
].

jumla-yi mu'tariza 4^i*< ad*^ cu^iLc, by

Poetry

aldmat-i

manzuma
5

In manuscripts, a dash ( ) called lakht cuij, is sometimes used to introduce the words of a speaker and consequently takes the place of u inverted commas. The modern sign over a word signifies either that
it is

a proper noun or that

it

begins a sentence.

These signs,

if

used,

are frequently in red ink.

In classical Arabic the short vowels are the most valuable part of a word: the

short vowel distinguished the person in a tense, the case of a noun, or the gender of a pronoun a short vowel makes the difference between the active and passive voice, and frequently between a transitive and intransitive verb, and the presence or " a triliteral absence of tashdid may entirely alter the sense: in the absence of "marks,
final
;

root

may
^

be pronounced in twelve different ways.


;

The vowels of even Persian words are misplaced the Ispahanis say amruz for A imruz, and in most parts of Persia padishah is the pronunciation of pad-shah. The Persian word common example is awaz of the Persians, instead of 'iwaz ( (j^^ )
'

girya

&

is

in m.c. gariya.

38

ABBREVIATIONS, CONTRACTIONS, AND 1MALA.


Abbreviations, Contractions, and Imdla.
is strictly

18.
(a)

An

abbreviation of a word

a part of

it,

as

A.D. for Anno

Domini;

diet., for dictionary.


is

A
for

contraction

the elision of letters or syllables from the body of a


is

word, made in such a manner that the whole word


" received payment."
gw
^

indicated, as

rec'd pay't

The term
contractions.
(a)
1

oi*l&xuc mukhaffafat is applied

to both

abbreviations and

Some

of the

most common abbreviations are


salam
11

(1) p.c

=,

*xic alay-hi-' s |1LJ|

" Peace be upon him.


l
' '

(2) f*l*>

a " God alay-U wa-sallam be gracious to him and give him prosperity (of the Prophet

= f L. j

*Lf

aJUj

^Le,

Salla-llah u

only).

For Christ

or other Prophets the

Muslim says

AjJLc ) ILxxi

^Ic

<dli

^^JUjj
^ ^ts

fJLJf &de j d\ }
li

^ IXAW

^JLc

(3)

^^AjJLc^f W JU.
to him."

Salla-llahu 'alay-hi"

"God
1

be gracious

Also

for'^^^e

^correct."

(4)

(f~ or)*
or

" The Peace of God be on him

(^e^

or) *jJU>*.U| f$L>

Salam^-Uah
(or

'alay-hi or alayhim.

them)."
c:

(5)

&<*)

&

AX*

AJKt

^^j.

Raziya-llahu 'arihu.
*'

May God

be

(6)

pleased with him." = ^t i'*a.;. -;

Eahamat v -lla

'alay-hi.

The mercy
curse

of

God be on him."
(7)

::

<3uJU

^aJt

i'iJ.

La'naf-'llafc

alay-hi.

"The

of

God be on him."
(8)

K = ^Uj

aJJfiJu.

Sallama-hv'llah u

ta'alq

(for

ordinary

persons, in letter writing).

Nos. 2 and 3 are used for the Prophet only.

No.

1 is

generally used for Saints, but not for the Prophet.

No. 4

is

used for the Prophet or for Saints.

Nos. 5 and 6 are used for anyone.

No. 7 for Satan; for Yazid.* the assassin of the Prophet's grandson; or for anyone specially obnoxious to the writer.

No. 8 for Mujtahids,

etc.,

when

alive.

The form
(9)

of writing the

^1, for
first

above Arabic abbreviations varies slightly. " and so on " (when the ByM' ^f, etc., in the sense of
of a quotation are quoted)
.

few words only

Also jlsuf^and

;^-^L

By

Shi' ah s

ABBREVIATIONS, CONTRACTIONS, AND IMALA.


(10)

39

5-

for

+^ plural
f
<j

(also in the

Qur*an for J5U> a lawful pause):

-^ for
6s*

(11) (12)

for

<&>.

*^ *^ plural of plural. " name of town "


(in

geographical works).

(13)

" " name of a for (geographical works). +sc place ^ " " town small works). a for t<& name of
(geographical

(14) &

Lsy~*?

" Christian era."


" Muslim era.
' '

* (15)

^sufc
9

="*! I* "note," and

JLcU

"subject"

(gram.).

(16)
(17)

(18)

u - Asu-i "note." Fzde 17, line 13. ^ = ^*>" " and so on." = ^dS* and y>*> "first," and and f
the order
'

'-'last,"
first

i.e.

'reverse

(read
,

the

word

with f over it
for

and with

over

it last)

C also stands for 4*xx*

"subject," and

^L

"predicate": vide

also (23).
(19)
(20)
(21)
-ftx:

u**
(jj

= Jywi* "object" (gram.). = *-flJ"&*> " author."


jj^xiU (a well-known dictionary).

=
=

(22)

oUlJf d:Up (a well-known dictionary).

(23)
(24)
(6)

f
-j

ot*A)f ^i^ii-o (a
fcL5
u^lifcjj

well-known dictionary)
.

vide also (18).

(a

well-known dictionary)
in

The following common contractions occur


:

words purely Persian

in origin

(1) An initial alif followed by a quiescent consonant is frequently elided and the jazm being removed, the consonant is then pointed by the same short

vowel that occurs in the second syllable of the original word, as c^f aknun, "now," ejjtf kunun; afsurdan &*j~i\ "to freeze, be dejected," fusurdan; " a &*&>< used women
:

," sifidaj rf by isfldaj ^itioAwot (obs.) paint (m.c.). If the initial alif is pointed with kasra, the short vowel of the first letter
of

the contraction

becomes kasra, as: istadan

()*&**[

or istandan

c;JoUu.i

" to take," sitadan c^UU* or siiandan &&&*. If the initial alif is pointed with pish and the second vowel
first

is

fatha, the
:

vowel of the contraction can sometimes be either


9
;

zir or pish, as

uftadan

&&&] " to fall"


is uftidan].,

fiiadan or futadan

&*& *

or

^Uj.

[Another form by imdla

(2)

Ishkastan (^Xi[ (m.c.) for shikastan i^^&b. Long vowels are sometimes converted into short

vowels

as:1

nigah

<*&,

shah
etc.

A^>,

digar^^, shukuh

*, budan &*>,

for

nigah

&, shah

^,

digarj&t,

(3) Examples of other contractions not subject to rule are: mar,)^ for bimdr jU# "sick," for madar } "mother", and for mayar jk* ''bring " " not chi, (vulg. and m.c.) for chiz, 3*^ thing" mi-ram, pj&o (vulg.

40

SUMMARY.
m.c.) for
,
',

mi-ravam fjj** ml-khay ^^i* (vulg. and m.c.) for mi-khwahi " happy ^fjA-x* sham p> for skavam (*j~ [shum, for Ar. shum] nusha A<y for &&yf anusha (old); chunuj**-, forjl cjy*. chun u 2t for ft'At ^y^ (tahi or " " $tt& (mod.) shdndan, ^(& for nishandan &^(&', a T (mod.) for empty and mi-dad are vulgarisms for mi-ravad, mi-shavad mi-shad tff; mi-rad, dqd

and

( '

and mi-dihad

ustaioi ustdd (vulg.); shazda for shdhzdda. are contractions for ftg-g/t sunduq, ru-yi mlz.
;

Tu sanduq and

19.

Summary.
be seen that the learner must take

From
(1)

the preceding remarks


:

it will

special care

to discriminate
;

between

^ an
(like

English k and
c& in stuck

M (latter pronounced
in the

like ch in foc&)
(2)

to
;

make

<J

a guttural

when pronounced

throat)

with the half-bleating sound when it occurs in the (3) to pronounce middle of a word and when it begins a middle syllable to make a pause before pronouncing that syllable and when it ends a word to omit it or half omit it, and to pronounce the word with a peculiar drawling intonation.
:

In such words as
(4)

toj,

the

must be

slightly

pronounced after the

alif;

to avoid the suspicion of a vowel


o
tifl
;

between the two

last letters of

words

like JjLk>

o
(5)

to aspirate the
&*>

(or ^), particularly in

words

like

j^* mihr, &\j^

Tihran, and

mih

(final silent

of course being exception).

As a rule every letter in a word must be distinctly enunciated must be no English slurring of words. An uneducated Persian learning English would have little inclination to fall into the objectionable
Remark.
;

there

'

'

habit of

' '

' '

clipping

his words.

must be made between fehe long and short vowels. have a passion for making the short vowels long they also expend a good deal of energy in shouting and putting the accent on every syllable. For accent vide 21. The necessity for enunciating every letter will be discovered in distinclear distinction

English people seem

to

guishing between such words as Ai^wo sirishta "mixed," Ax)^* sar-rishta " a ec good knowledge or experience of a thing," and sar-i-rishta &jj"* the

end

of the thread."
(b)

The pure vowel sounds are a, t, u, and a, *, u, besides the diphthongs 1 ay (generally pronounced ey) and aw (generally pronounced like owin cow).
1

In India ai as in

aisle

and au

as in the

German

haus.

EXERCISE IN TRANSLITERATION.
There
is

41

also the rarer

majhul vowel-sound

o. 1

26 (/)], hamza, in Persian, usually (c) Except as a sign of the izafat [vide occurs between two vowels (i.e. vowels according to English ideas) and thus corresponds to a hyphen.
(d)

A peculiar
it.

stress

must be given on a double


all

letter, i.e.

a letter with

a tashdtd on

(e) In printing and writing generally omitted.

short vowels and orthographical aids are

20.
(a)

Exercise in Transliteration.
are merely an exercise in reading

The following meaningless words


:

to teach the vowels


Short
of

an
(

&[ in

&1 un

t^ an
Long
Jf
(for Jf
<5l
t)

&
dl
cX>J.

'in
il

^
J^
or ol

'un

J/f ul
<ul

Jb
Diphthong
Jjf
cl*c

J*c

tZ

ayl ayl

Jy awl

Ji* 'awl

Remark.

All Arabs,

and many educated Indians and Afghans, make a


v-f
-

distinction in pronunciation between


(b)

*-*c, etc.,

but not the Persians.

The

following

is also

an exercise
is

meanings. the same.

Special attention

in reading, but all the words have directed to words that are apparently spelt

The learner

is

recommended

first

to cover up the right-hand column and


:

then by the meanings test his pronunciation

arose
earth
gain, interest
tribe, family

gul
gil

JZ clay

khdk

sud

qawm
bid

a willow
a hair
vine- stock

mu maw
young
of

u young, or the
for

anv thing

bachcha
bi-chi

what

in <^jt o-l, oh There are many words in Persian pronounced differently though to the eye the same ; these have different significations.
1
!

As

spelt

42
blood
the anus

TRANSLITERATION.

khun

kun
,

a squire a gentleman a table with the meat on


'

khan
it

'

khwdn
ru

face

go (imperative) * self
=-

raw khud
khud
dbru
l

a helmet

honor
gutter (for water)

db-raw

K*

become

or go (Imperative of the verb

shudan)
9

shaw
of the verb shustan)

wash (Imperative
J

shu

for

him, to him

(for jl AJ)

bi-du

run (Imperative of the verb davldan)


barley
rivulet

bi-daw

one grain].
ju

seek (Impera. of the verb justan)

ju

a follower, attendant
a
little

pas-raw
pisaru

son

a pledge
if

giraw
garu (for agar u
l

he (poetical contraction)

j\ j>\

a defect, vice
Ar. broken pi. of

ayb

above

'uyub

a day, Ar.
Ar., pi. of

yawm
above

ayyam
ruz

a day, P.

hope
table

umid
miz

or

ummid

In modern Persian abaru.

Or bi-shaw "become."

In modern Persian the Imperative )y** bi-shur

is

used

instead of the obsolete shuy**. 8 Also a " husband " (a word


*
6

In modern Persian >*^

&*"-/

much used by the tent-folk). "seek " instead of


ju.

The Indians and Afghans preserve the "unknown" sound

of the vowel (e) in

these words.

TBANSHTERATION,
lion

43

Mr
shir

milk

with
without
f

ba

U
puf
pufak

a blow or puff (with the mouth) a blowpipe (for killing birds)

month; moon
c

mah
mahi
ism
Tchwab
pi. of.
*

fish

name
sleep

mean, low,
,

o*~J

pastan
pistan

the breast, nipple


strangers (Ar.
sister
pi.)

khawarij

(sing.

khwahar 2

wretched, miserable boldness


<j^

khwar

a knocking at the door

u daqq 'l-bab

Civil

Code in Muslim law

'urf

an eye
(A. head) a
>

'ayn

cape

chief

a leaf a slave a Major

varaq

banda
ydvar
'Arab
vaqt

(pron. bande)

an Arab
time
t

pi. of

above

awqat
Ichurak
3

food
pleasant

custom

The Indians and Afghans preserve the "unknown"- sound


The ^ not pronounced
in these Persian words, vide 2
(

of

the vowel

(e)

in

these words.
*
s

2
).

(j

).

The J
The^j

is

pronounced in this Arabic word, vide

it

not pronounced in Persian. in this particalar word.


is
6 6

The Afghans, however,

generally pronounce

This Arabic phrase

is

common
2 under

with professional story-tellers.


2

Note the

half-bleating

sound of hamza, vide


*.

under 9*
like short u:

1
8

Final h silent, vide

This
2

is

one of the few Persian words in which the


.

is

pronounced

vide

under

44

TRANSLITERATION.
ftf

Adam
harm
Ar. standing, erect, firm
difficult

Adam
zarar

)j*> loss,

pjti
(c)

qa^im

The following

examples of transliteration should be studied khurd


kh w dstan
fi'l-Jumla

ma'nq"
ait *lxfcf
x*

atibba-and

*s

jamd'a-ddr

na'uzu

bi'lldh

bism^lldh

o&i*

or o*5oA

hay^at

Saldh u 'd

Dm

banda-yi u
Ichubi-yi

mashjiad
az,har

insdniyyat
(d)

As already stated in

1 (a),

the Arabic character

hand.

The following Persian puzzles are


:

a species of shortexercises in inserting the diacritical


is

points, the solutions being given below

(2)

Remark.

The

solution to No. 1

is

uu

No. 2 begins
(3)

6wa-*

wary y and ends with maw


j*^,
?

chi-Tcunam <*&*. &*.

What

is
till

the

word

at last he says, khar-am (" I am an ass "). khurram, etc., " *> is anchi gufti hasti vali in mst ^. ^\ ^y-A

The guesser says haram, jazm, jurm, jirm, The reply then what you have ^^

*^

said

you
(4)

are,

you are but


;

it is

not the answer to this."

e^<i?^*^ j|

ixjiu>

(.5^**^

Ox^J^fiAa.y S$

^^ c^**^.

The key to the answer depends on the various significations of ja'far The first Ja'farjA*^ is man's name, the second signifies " donkey," a J&AS*. " and the fourth " a a the third i: parsley bridge."
1
*

Practically

equals a hyphen in this Arabic word, but in m.c. the


*'

word

is

gener-

ally

pronounced
*

y, as qayim.

Ja

1ar is

a local word in Kirman for a " donkey


is

and

also for a bridge:

one of

the Arabic significations of ja'far

"river.'*

ACCENT.
(5)

45

A man

named Badri

^^ went to the Sadr-i A'zam ^\ ;x* or Prime


He
said
:

Minister and asked for money, but got nothing.

The
the last

first is

Badn-yam
sad riyam.

the second 6ad riyam (for

n-dam a crude word)

word

is

21.
(a)

Accent.
is

The general
Ex.
:

rule in Persian

that the primary accent


8^-J pfcartf

falls
;

on the

last syllable.

MsA " a led horse (old) " "a glove (m.o.)." means "an assistant to a falconer"]; (fit o^o^

*^

pasha

" a mosquito,"
;

to
'

<_' [In India this word


kashhd:
to do

"a boy "

o^

darakhtdn

' '

trees

' '
:

j,i*

handz

"yet";

'done"
3>

(Past Part.);

" better

^y

v>^

khub-tarln " the best, most beautiful," etc., etc.

^^ kardani

da$z
' '

karddn

"
:

cA^a
l

"that has

to be

done

"
;

^T kardd

bihtdr

Remark.

Ex.: darakhtdn-i bagh


or darakhthd-rd
(6)

The accent does not fall on the izafat nor on the affix tj. b ci^;^ "the trees in the garden"; darakhtdn-ra

fL^ " to the trees."


:

Exceptions are

(1)

For the sake

of

emphasis the accent

falls

strongly on the

first

syllable of all imperatives, negative or otherwise,


stress).
:

bi-kunid

Ex. ;f^ bdr-ddr "take away"; " " " do bi-ravand &*> md-kun, *&* md-kuriid "don't do ye " " " let them let me do." bi kunam go ^AV (2) The accent falls on the first syllable of the Aorist (or Present Sub;
:

(frequently with special bi-kun "do thou " ; ijJj

^y

junctive), of the Present,


affirmative.

and

of the Imperfect tenses,


p&>.

Ex.

" I was j**^*^ mi-kardam doing, etc." p&>*> ndmi-kunam c^_^+> ndmi-kardam. the accent seems to fall on the u, In the phrase ^'^ & td na-gu^i
*ixx9

mi-kunam "
;

kunam, ^ am
I

bi-kunam " I
;

may

whether negative or do, shall I do," etc.


:

doing, I will do, etc."


;

rather than on the negative

in ^AXJ

t>

td

na-bim

it

seems to

the negative or on the

first

syllable of the verb (&).

either on and Indians Afghans


fall

say

<f go*e.

Should these tenses be preceded by a preposition that is part of the verb, the accent still falls on the first syllable, i.e. on the preposition.
bar mi-daram fjl**"^ ddr nami-ravam. fjj*+ij$

Ex.

' '

I will take it

' '

away

p\**+>

j bar nami-daram
is

(3)

In the Preterite (except when


all

it is

negative) , the accent

on the on the

penultimate of

persons except the third person singular,

when

it is

prepared" has the accent on the second

syllable: the infinitive

amddan

is

obsolete

amada karddn

is

used instead.

46
last

ACCENT.

syllable.
:

" ordered

Ex.: f<H"^ pursldam


da'dawd
:

"I asked":

AJJ^*' farmfidld

Aiate

" *A~,J pur sid " he asked Prets. (4) In negative


by
a preposition, as

"they gave":
^^7* farmud
the accent

^^ "
;

guftim

"we

said,

etc.

"

"you
;

but

falls

he ordered," etc. on the negative unless preceded

mentioned in
:

(b) (2)

in the latter case the accent falls

" he did not fell," jiU%i ndyuftad on the preposition. Ex. aU't fall," but ^Ua^ j$ ddr na-yuftdd. not take the accent. Ex. cAM^P darakht(5) The affixed pronouns do " " his trees " kitdbhd-yitan your books" c> <^t^< madahd-yash khil-ishan "their income": owt &\S*> bds-i-tdn ast "it is sufficient for
: :

" he uftdd

c^t^

you."
(6)

The accent never

falls

on the

^ ^

of unity

[but

it

may

fall

on the

demonstrative ^].

Remark.
rule

nouns, as also adjectives ending in

and formed from adjectives and Abstract nouns ending in that are formed from nouns, follow the

and take the accent on the last syllable, i.e. on the ^. Ex. ^Q niki " " << (from nlk ^& "good" and dust friendship goodness" ^^^ dusti 2 o*jj> "a friend"), etc. It therefore frequently happens that there is nothing but the accent to distinguish between two words which are spelt the " or " dusti same; thus ^i*^ may stand for dust-i a friend friendship ", " " '* may mean a bride" or nuptials ( arusi}.
: :

'

(7)

The following
:

indeclinable particles have the accent on the

first

syllable
(

" " yes " L>f " or d'rii is to say or vdli 6 but yet, however ^xcf, yd'rii " whether or " not," etc." dyd (an interrogative particle) <^f dn yes, very " " (C *>JL bdlki well" *J**\ inak here is, behold perhaps, moreover, on the

U dmma

" but "

" that

llkin* " but

"

"

bale (or ball)

^^
:

" here I am." Idbbay (in Persian generally lobe) contrary " In the preposition ^f^j for the sake of" the accent is on the second f< 1 Khuda for God's sake." Ex. bard-yi syllable.
6
: :

"

tM

This rule applies equally to a Tiamza that stands for this c5

vide

(g).

^ 3

Afghans and Indians say nek,


In m.c. i^r*^
is

dost, etc.

a bride (not a bridegroom).


lakin

*
5

The Afghans and Indians say lekin, the Arabs Afghans and Indians wale, or wa-lekin.

"Here

am, yes"

for

Arabic

-jJ

ktbbayka.

Ldbbay

is

common amongst
Indians" say bara,e.

women.
7

Pronounce the
cS'Ltf

slightly as a consonant.

The Afghans and

bar ay

Impera. of

ACCENT.
(8)

47

have the accent on the first syllable: ashamldan " to drink o'*t^ khwabidan " to sleep" c;^T dmadan "to come." take no accent, neither do the particles *$ (9) The simple prepositions and &* or the conjunction ^. As pronouns, & and *. may take the accent.

" khurdan " to eat


:

The following

Infinitives
:

o&x/cl&f

The

particle cjj^ is accented, except


ki.

when

it

forms compounds, as in

chunan, chundn
(c)

A correct
i.e.

accent, pronunciation, and intonation can only be acquired

by

they must be caught orally. The rules given above have, however, few exceptions, and if carefully studied will prove a great aid to
ear,

the learner.
It

must, however, be remembered that there are dialectical differences in

accent, as well as in pronunciation: of

two well-educated Persians, one may

say pidar-i

first

another piddr-i man. Dr. to Rosen the only Persian noun with the accent on the According " a sdnndr is jlx* penny," a contraction of jli>a **c sad dinar. syllable

man and

This remark probably refers to the more correct modern Persian spoken at Teheran. In Shiraz, however, and some parts of southern Persia, the accent falls on the first syllable of the following common Persian and Arabic

nouns

l(

j<$ pidar

father

"
:

;,il<*

mddar

''

mother" j&\j^ khwdhar "


:

sister

"
:

value about three rupees or about four shillings) dinar "(an imaginary and infinitessimal coin, 50 of which go to one jtxja to one 'abbasi and 1000 to one qirdn) ^U* 'dbbasi (the fifth of a 200 shahi,

c>^P tumdn

(a coin, in

gj

qirdn)

^/AJ qdssdb

In;^

" a butcher/' " a brother," the accent baradar,


-

is

on the second

syllable.

There are probably other exceptions to the rules in (a) and (6). (d) In the old-fashioned classical Persian of India and Afghanistan, the
accent does not follow the above rules.

1 In the Past Part, the accent falls according to rule, from amdda " prepared " vide note 1 to 21 (a).
;

as,

amadd,

to be distinguished

*&;
2

In Arabic nouns of intensity of the form Jl*


^^ 7** Sartip-i

the accent

is

on the second

syllable,

mashshaq

a drill-master Colonel."

.d of
*~

a house

jr* J* war->

stallion

" and

'

mare "

k&ar vulg. means " the y in m.c.

CHAPTER
22.

II.

Persian and Arabic

Grammar

is

divided into

t^_

^ Sarf

EtyO^A)!

mology and *sO Nahw Syntax.


" accidence
is

The Arabs say

l^yt j-=cu^l
is its

f^\

f\

the mother of knowledge and syntax


23.

father."

Etymology vJL*.
Aqsam-i kalima
*

PARTS OF SPEECH

*U>\

There are according to Arab and Persian Grammarians three parts of which includes substantives, adjectives, numerals, (1) ^-f ismf speech
:

pronouns, and participles

(2)

J*J

fi'l,

the verb

(3)

J^

harf the particle,

which includes the remaining parts

of

speech, viz.

adverbs, prepositions,

conjunctions, and interjections. " and murakkdb " comThe harf is divided into mufrad "single, simple pound." The former consists of letters of the alphabet that are used singly as
particles, as )

and

for

the prepositions
-

jt

and *
-

these are said to be

twelve

^
It
is

1*>

^-

'

24.

The

Article.

customary to say that there is no article in Persian. There is, however, a means of rendering a substantive both definite and indefinite vide 40 and 41.
:

either

In the absence of any article a substantive like *->\j " wine " or " the wine," according to the context.
25.
l

sharab signifies

The Substantive 8

*Jy^o
^ti)

**l

Gender

^ju.
'

).

(a)

Alam

a proper

name
and

includes not only names, as


(
;

Ahmad

****\ 9
,

etc.,

but

titles (khitdb

ljai>>

Zogofr

noms de plume
(

(takhallus)

" accidence or 1 etymology (gram.)"; ishtiqaq j(sd^\ "derivation of Arabic Sarf " " cause of " words deriving words from an Arabic root vajh-i taamiya (lit.) naming
;
:

is

*'

derivation."
*

Not to be confused with kalam


'

(
'

j**^ ) sentence

proposition, etc.

Kalima
)

also

means the
fafz (

Muslim profession
is

of faith.
is

The

distinction

between

*+&

kalima and

&& )
(of

that the former


'

word
3

two or more letters) The term noun in English formerly included


'

a word with meaning whereas the latter without meaning.


*

may

be a

adjective

noun-substantive

and noun-adjective were the terms used. Ism-i 'amm ( fl* f~I ) " comr
(

*JLc

'atom ) Or ( j"(aL \~j&**~~* noun; ism-i ma'nq proper noun." Ism-i zat consonant. The Afghans and Indians sa, /*' " an abstract noun. /
' ,

THE SUBSTANTIVE

GENDER.
,

49

surnames or nick-names or epithets (laqab) of famous people as Euyin-tan er* eX&j "brazen-body," i.e. "invulnerable" (name of Isfandyar); any
s

by which a person is commonly known, alias ('urf J^ ), as Kalian (Indian) for Kola Khdn, Ma'rafi (Persian) for Muhammad Rafi, Mirzd; and the filionymics and patronymics (kunydt) of Arabs (which
contraction

common

precede the name) as Abu'l-Qdsim


&*[.**>

bin Yusuf. include 'alam (mentioned above) ; nouns (1) Definite nouns ( p>\ ) ordinarily indefinite that become definite by construction, as ghulam-i Zayd

Muhammad

any common noun given as a secret epithet o**^ "the (our) friend," dushman ^j+Jo ^A) ^t*^), "the (our) enemy" any common noun used as an epithet and commonly known (ma'hud-i khdriji ^5^;^ *^**> ), as Ghuldm-i Misr j*&*> f&e tl the slave of Egypt (Joseph), KhalU* ~lidh *JL/i JU-k the Friend of God" (Abraham) the muzdf of a pronoun and the personal and demonstrative pronouns vide 40
AJJ

p&c

" the servant

of

Zayd
1

"

(ma'hud"i zihni

as dust

(6)

Remark.
(2)

Indefinite

nouns

jXi ^,f

) ;

ya'ni ism-i har chiz-i ghayr-i

mu'ayyan

Remark.
indefinite
(6)

In kas-l rd shunidam

(***

\j>>~

the object

is

considered

though marked by the postposition

rd.

Persian.

Grammatically speaking it may be said that there is no gender in 2 Males and females are either expressed by different words, as:

and dushiza >xw ^ zan na-dida *:<x> mard " " lord, etc.," khdtun ^y ^ man," &) zan a woman"; khwaja^^"lady": or else they have the words y nar "male" and *^U mdda
dlv j>& ua

and pan

"

female,"

etc.,

added, as

" a bull," j " a lion"


;

*^Uj or ** ^ mada-gdv or gdv-i mdda

^^ or J^^ nar-gdv
" lioness "*
'

(Indian) or gdv-i nar (m.c.)

Jblxs^j^ shir-i
JJ^J

mdda

b$

cy [bwa

(m.c.) is ['

however generally widower '] to^ y " beggar-man,"


;

cow" y^shir-i nar mard-i btva *&> zj* and zan-i bwa means widow only and zan-murda it>j*> &j
;

" a

'

\*$

&j
;

"

beggar-woman."
feminine

Remark.
gender
:

Tazkir j*t& the masculine gender

ta*nis vi*jJU the

muzakkar^** and mu*annas


4

**i^o (adjec.) masculine and feminine.

Tamylz-i jins ^^i^


I

,x^

tl

distinction of gender."
\)

Asp

ra farujchti <J^Jj*

y^*t

" did you

sell

the horse

"
;

asp ra

is

Vide
4

26 (h)

Rem.

II.

Arabic nouns are either masculine or feminine, and when in Persian qualified by Arabic adjectives, distinction of gender is sometimes observed, as will be shown later.
8

Pronounced vulgarly
*jtf.

gab.

The Afghans and Indians say

ga,u, writing the

word

with a hamza,
4 Nar-shlr

Nar-i aab in are not used by Persians. and mdda shir " " " a great fat narrakh.ar-1 in m.c. means the yard of a house vulg. m.c. means ^j*> " the yard of a jack-ass.*' Nariyan and nar-/ khar vulg. means blockhead," but " stallion " and " mare " in m.c. madiyan

j& ^

j^ 8^
;

^y

50

THE SUBSTANTIVE
(c)

GENDER.

Arabic nouns form the feminine by adding ah (in Persian the " *JU> malika P. " a l to the masculine, as <-l< malik king ) imperceptible l "a queen" ; &&&* sultan; ailkL sultana P. (class.).

Many

Remark.
*G

In Arabic this feminine termination

is

called

id

marbutah

haia ( 8 ). ) and by Indians ( ifcy^c t in Persian written and pronounced


:

It is, however, only in certain

words

vide

is

also called td-yi ta*nis

+*&

remarks on

*.

This termination

).

Ex.

*^>

(d)

Khdnum

^^

" "a lady

is

the feminine of
,

cM

khan
*

"a
is

squire"

(at

present a title given to almost every officer) and begum Grammarians call this f , mim-i ta*ms. of beg ^#.
(e)

^J

the feminine

" a The Persian wordyb bdnu


is

lady, a princess," (a

word sometimes

also

added to female names)


e>b

"a

" female guardian of the cy^ csy^ bdnu-yi haram harem" (specially for the Shah). Vdv j must not, however, be considered a " Persian feminine termination >f|j zdlu "a leech >j zanu "the knee";
neat house- wite" 8
;
:

compounds, as

not the feminine of e^, a wo id only used in bag&-ban "a gardener," etc.: thus >b <*f kad-bdnu

jyzdaru "medicine, gunpowder, wine" and such words


culine nor feminine.

are neither mas-

In words like j^-J pisaru and j>y^o dukhtaru the j words are distinctly vulgar and should be avoided.*

is

diminutive

these

The

wordi^

khalu

''

a maternal uncle

"

is

from the Arabic

l^

and has

for its feminine

Remark.

the uneducated, j is sometimes added in familiar talk, as maharu bi-gir "take hold of the camel's mahdr (nose-string)"; " the fellow came and said" o-of j; U ydru dmad va guft ; (ydru is here

By

used in a

half- joking sense). 6

In Arabic the
of

* is

not silent &Lc.

jn

modern Persian haram-i shah

"wife
*

Shah."
;

mode n
8

Turks, also Afghans and Indians, give the e the broad majhul sound Persian the e is pronounced short as in the English verb *' to beg."
Also Icad-banu shud <X& ^ib
<i

but

the

girl

is

married,

i.e.

became a mi
added to

of a house."
4

In Kirman a vav

(^),

and

in

Teheran a ya

(^5), ia often vulgarly

names, as
6

Ahmadu *+**) and Ahmadl is*+^\ for Ahmad *+^l. Khala *)^ is properly the feminine of khal Jl^ Ar. "a maternal
In India yarn

uncle

" w!

is

not used in Persian.


*

is

often vulgarly used as the vocative of yar

jt|

DECLENSION.

51

" little in Kam-tarin ttfjU, the superlative of quantity," has in modern Persian for its feminine &*** kamina, which in modern Persian " I " or is used as a substantive by women instead of the pronoun "me," when writing to a superior. Ex.: or) >i** o^c aix^ kamina 'arz
(/)

'

(p^**

ml-kunad
c^jlojhi

&>& mi-kunam) "I (your slave) make petition"; " oU&| bi-in kamina javdb iltifdt bi-farmayid kindly inform me
(or
is

^^

^U
(i.e.

your slave-girl the writer)." Kamina &*+ the contracted superlative kamin.
(g)

apparently the feminine of

in the imperceptible

Arabic past participles, used as substantives, make their feminines Ex. * [vide (c)]. v-^j/o mahbub-i man "my friend
:

(male),"

&}**"

mahbuba-yi

man "my

friend (female)": (y^j*

marhum

"the deceased (male)"; &<0j**j* marhuma (female): <j>j*/o and &jj** a 8 1 "a divorcee" (set ma'shuq and ma'shuqa "beloved": aMk* mutallaqa
free).
(h)

Vide also

43

(t).

Real feminines,

are called

^5^^
* '

nouns expressing living things that are feminine, L*\ **i^, as opposed to ^Afl^ or Or ^J^x> {J j&
i.e.

^^o

* grammatical or irregular (Jit. heard') feminines," such as ' the earth," which are feminine in Arabic. the sun,' arz o^l
' '

Remark.
jannat
un
;

u&sd e*^/o are Arabic words that are feminine by form, as

^^ [fern,
26.

Declension, Tasrif or Qardan

jjljy

or

cjjyj

).*

There
(a)

only one declension. When indefinite, the accusative case


is
:

is

usually the same as the


B

nominative
(b)

when definite I; ra is affixed to the nominative. The dative is formed by prefixing the preposition
by
affixing
f^

*J

bi

to

the

nominative, or

m. 6
is used as a positive adjective signifying used in the plural or qualifying a collective noun to

1
'

In

classical or

modern Persian kamina


it is

mean,

vile.'

In the Panjab
followers."

signify

"camp

*>))* f***>

^ J^*
40

j*

e^y^ A|/

*$ e/f *****

^^

quit jfcamwo

an ki murad-i kj^af^r-i yaran barmasalih-ikhudmuqaddam darand (Sa*di). " he said the least (of their qualities) is that they put the desires of their f iends before an izafat after kamina is wrong. Here S'adi their own comfort, i.e. they are unselfish
:

used
*

AXk+S' as

a masc. superlative.
l

Vide

(a) (2).

or

v^
3

In classical Persian (jpil* ashiq is generally used for the male lover, while Jfj^** 25^ the beloved ' is generally considered to be feminine of necessity, and is not
'

therefore distinguished

by the feminine termination

vide also

43

(t) (5).

In Arabic

(3

^s

more usual for divorcee.


it

*
6

" These, especially gardan &\*jf, also signify conjugating a verb." Seldom written separately in its full form unless the word following

begins with

6.

The dative with

*J is generally used in m.c. in preference to f>

52

DECLENSION.
Remark.

The rd
-

\)

of

the dative case

is

sometimes considered the

in yak-l rd khar-i dar gil uftdda equivalent of the izdfat:

bud

c?^

&>UJ|

J?

(class.),

the same meaning could

be

expressed by

t)

j**

khar-i yak-i.

formed by prefixing ^5! ay or b yd the interjections calling attention. For the vocative in 27 (e) and 118. rhetorical language vide
(c)

The vocative

is

' '

oh

' '
,

or one of

aiif in poetical

or

(d)

The Ablative, Instrumental, and Locative


There
is

cases

are formed

by

prepositions.

no proper Genitive in Persian. This case is expressed by coupling two nouns together by a short i (or kasra r-^) called by gram" marians the kasra-yi izdfat oA*! \j~$ ("the i of annexation" or the The thing possessed t of joining"), or more commonly *l^f izdfa or izdfat. " ! malik the son the *->&> of is first. Ex. JXc
(e)
1
' '

placed

jXc

kitdb-i

king j~i pisar-i " the book of the son of the pisar-i malik king."
:

j~>*

Remark Grammarians enumerate many kinds of izafat (1) The izdfat-i tashbihi ( ^^^ eJLot ) 'the similitudinary
:

izafat,'

and
as

izdfat-i isti'dra
(2)

The
'

c^ V
(i)

the metaphorical izafat,' vide (12) and (2) (iv). ' the izafat of qualification/ ) tzdfat-i tawsifi ( &**& Here mardis termed the (noun) qualified.'
>l*iw cuiLef

'

^^

'

The qualifying

'

izdfat

is

subdivided into

The
The

i>j^f>

c$**y oJUl the simple


cuil^t

qualifying izafat as mdrd-i khub


,

(ii)

^ft^P

where

the substantive

is

qualified

privative adjective, as darkht-i bi barg cu^.5 " a man deficient in sense." kam-'aql cl^ f* *j*>
(Hi)

^>

'

a leafless tree

"

by a
mard-i

The o-&*y (j***j> ^lt where the substantive is compound agential adjective, as mard-i sutihan-chm (.&<*. (^u ing (fault-finding) man." Vide (vii). where the substantive (iv) The t^tf"** s^*^

qualified
li

by a

*j*

criticiz-

^^

is

qualified

by

a metaphorical (adjective, as mard-i sang-dil J^

^i

et

the stony-hearted

(v)

c<*/y

c^

(j***)*

pound privative agential " un dutiful son."

where the substantive is qualified by a comadjective, as pisar-i nd-sa'ddat-mand ***> e^U* b


tf*jl^'

In modern Persian
is

this i is often
is

pronounced
ol*A*o.

like the

e in bed.

The second

In modern colloquial Arabic the two nouns are placed in juxtaposition without any sign of the genitive case, as, ibn malik " a ** the son of the king," etc. son of a king"; ibnu'l-malik

noun

in construction

and

called

*(

DECLENSION.
(vi)

53
is

The

e^^Ls%*H
oA#
t5

oJLe|

is

where the substantive

qualified

by

two

adjectives.
(vii)

tJ>*j+J|

jective the first

a substantive to a compound adpart of which qualifies the second part, as asp-i tiz-raftdr

c?i^

v^jUel links

jli^^x) ^*>|
(3)

asp-i

tiz

Jx> -*-().
1
(

F^cfe
)

The

izdfat-i zarfi

^j& cuLt

'

<&* "bottle of rose water, or conversely db-i shlsha a^-w vjf gulab " tank water." " bottle birka dbi-i water," &?j>

v^

"

(m). the adverbial izafat,' as shisha-yi

(4)

The The
The

izdfat-i fa ill

shanda-yi kitdb ^li^ S*A*J>J*


(5)
<c

"

^^

vsJUi

"the
as

agential izafat,"

as faru-

seller of

books."
),

izafat-i maf'uli

^^*a/o

cJLa

sukhta-yi dftdb

*->\ti1

l2a^

burnt by the sun."


(6)

izafat-i

tamliki

izafat" or the

izdfat-i haqiqi

hakim

p*> J
"

"the

^^ oJUf ^^ cuUf
<c

)
)

"the
' e

possessive or property the true izafat," as ganj-i


;

Shah-i Iran

^t U

sage's treasure (i.e. the 1st chapter of the Qur*an) " the Shah of Persia." Vide also No. (8).

(7) Izdfat-i takhsisi

(^^^asj vsJU|)
*->
(

the particularizing or specificizing

izafat,

the butcher's shop." *a-'te. or ) izdfat-i baydni (^1^ o.*Uef) "the (8) Izdfat-i tabyini ( t^-HtV Cf Xb ou^U tild sd'at-i as a watch of gold." descriptive izafat," the The descriptive izafat includes ^Uj o*j'Uc( which shows posses1

as dukdn-i qassdb

<&* 0^,3.

"

jji*j

sion of the
jjj|

1st.

person singular, as,

kitdb-i

man

'

&*> ^(\f

'my book";
v^9 ^^ <y '-?

the

^o

^IxJus

^Uj

o^L^f which shows possession of the speaker and his friends

(i.e.

1st person plural) , as kitdb-i

ma ^ v-jlK

' c

our book

' '

the

^^

shows possession

of the person addressed; the &d\ ^U**j ^iUj

oJU^I shows

possession of the third person, as kitdb-i

u j\

wltf

"his book."
' c

These might also


(No.
6).
(9)

all

be

included

under

the

possessive

izafat"

Theizdfat-i tawziJil
' '

^^J^y
'

oJUcf

"the

izafat of manifestation,"

which

is

nearly identical with the


(

Gvlistdn

&\Z~>& ^JSS

the

izafat of specification (No. 7),' as, kitdb-i ' ' book Gulistan ; ruz-i shamba <wi^ )y

^Saturday."
Remark.

The

difference

between the two

is

that the members of the


^f* or Mash, had

second compound can be reversed, as Shahr-i Mashjiad *r Shahr yfi <i^x> ; but in the first they cannot be reversed.

^
(.
,

bdd-i
(

v.
(

as bi-'l-jins ( crisJb oJUf ) "the cognate izafat," " c ^j ) the morning breeze." " the izafat of 'Ati it-i ibm J^\ o.iU| filiation," as Abbds-i bas son of Ali." " as nargis-i tashbihi cJU| " the izafat of
izafat
l

zdfat-i

^^^

simile,

chasr
J

fj"
.y

the narcissus of the eye

(i.e.

the eye like a narcissus)."


chasm a metaphor.

B " a vessel."
nargis-chashm
is

an implied simile and

nargia-i

54

DECLENSION.

The

izafat-i

isti'ara S'jUI*.! oJUaf

izafat-i majazi t^)^-"

the izafat of metaphor" or the " the " the o>Lcf , figurative izafat ,' as dast-i 'aql J&* o-*o
'

hand of wisdom " and


the two
not.
(13)
is

daftar-i shikayat ji&. The distinction between that in the former there is an implied simile, in the latter there is

^&

For
the

falck-i izafat

oJUi!

^j>'

and

izafat-i

maqlubi

<^&o

cu'l^f

" the

inverted izafat" vide


(/)

117.

If

first

substantive terminates in a semi- vowel

(c^-^-l),

or in a
~^

silent h, 1 the izafat is

pronounced yi
it
is

and

is

then no longer written


&U*. Tcfmna-yi

but

as follows
(1)

After silent h

written

s-

or

*,

as,

^*

mard* " the

house of the man."

For the pronunciation eto.,t?fe41 (c). 3


Remark.

of

hamza when

it

stands for the

^
^Jy

of

unity,

After aspirated

8 it is

written ~^~

as, (j*Jy<M

*^>~#

6*5/

nuzdah-i amval-ash " nineteen- twentieths of his wealth."


(2)

After

alif or

vav

it is

in

modern Persian written

C5"V P^-y* rose (or flower)."

ward " the

foot of the

man "

^ ^^.bu-yi gul " the scent


*

<^,* without *, as
of the
$\**>

It used also to be written

or

$, asjl

ru-yiu,*&

sada-yi buland
cases as
correct. 6
also

but modern Persians maintain that

* is incorrect

in such
is

after

in

the latter case they maintain that kasra

Should however the

final alif

stand for *f at the end of Arabic words the


yf

izafat is, or should be, written in the ordinary


safk-i dima^-i ziyada az

way,

as ***
' '
;

hadd

' (

shedding blood to excess

j\ 8^3*^ *& ^U* sama-i


fc?1

In these two examples *Ua stands for *(** " " streams of blood," pi. of blood," and *U for A +~* (pi. ot^l.) vide also 4 (e). As however the final * of Arabic words is often disregarded in Persian, such forms as (?* ^^j commonly occur for &* z&j.

buland "the lofty sky."

1
f<

But not

after

an aspirated h as in mah,
yofc

"a moon;
to

&*

U> t^j ydk-mah-i digar

another month," but


2
S

wo^?-t digar j&te


is

The hamza-yi
After a final
;

izafat is Persian
*.

and has nothing

^U ^ do
is

another fish."

with the Arabi/


"j
tl

*"'*"'

c^
*,

the

e*2a/a

also written in the ordinary way,,

of *,
after

but

though perhaps more correct,

not used for

C5 in modern Persian though so used in India. * In order to distinguish it from the ^5 of unity vide
yi izafat.
5

41

(6).

This

ya-

Persians never write


4>tx>

jlji)

etc.

They

also

state that

J;

<5

Atx3 C5

L;a

incorrect.

DECLENSION.
(3)

55

<j? it usually written in the ordinary way T, as, " the fish of the mahi-yi darya sea"; but according to some grammarians it should be written t (or * ) as (^ As however final with * is liable

After final

is

^U.

to

be mistaken for the


(g) t

<_$

of unity

following a

weak consonant

(vide

the former method

is

preferable.
(i e. alif-i

After a silent

^ preceded by fathah
<jr,

*** vSjU at the end of Arabic words, the final


izafat

maqsura) or by to wm fathah is changed to alif and the

ma'na-yi an "its meaning." The Arabic ^U/o i is also pronounced in Persian ma'ni and may therefore optionally in the genitive be written of ^i** (or, as above c/f c5 ljjt>c )expressed by
as, c/f c5 lijt/0
*

oJU

it has the same meaning would be pronounced da' vi-yi ishan. Proper names, however, should not be, but often are, changed; thus

Similarly da'va-yi ishan

may be written

oik! c?L^, or uUjf ^5-^ though

>}**$ &*}*>
cfhambar

Muas

Payyjya,mbar or incorrectly j*+*# f

C5^

XJ
5

Musd-yi Pay;

"Moses

the Prophet"; #*~*>

^l~

for

f~*> ^f^c.

but

'Isi-yi

Mary am or 'Isa-yi Mary am. With the exception of case

(2),

the sign of the

izafat^^^

is

omitted

expressed by prefixing the " of or property.' belonging to the " " mclnz mal-i ast this is b;i JU ^t darya imported (belong. " the ing to, or coming from the sea) to the question, "whose son is this? answer might be e/ jl*> mal-i man "mine," or fj&tj* d(* mal-i baradar-am
is

in writing and printing, it being a short vowel. (4) In modern Persian an absolute genitive
c '

word JU mat " o*t earth


;

'

Ex.

(^yj JU mal-i zamin

j^

"

my

brother's."

In m.c. this word mdl Jt* is frequently inserted unnecessarily, especially the o ^** Jl* d~*9 qunsul mal-i Sistan " the Seistan vulgar. Ex. by Consul (i.e. not the Kerman Consul) o**f *j^ J^ mal-i qadim ast (for qadim
:

' '

asi)

"it
(g]

is

ancient, or of ancient days.'

'

(1)

and

(2)],

The Indians and Afghans do not pronounce the izafat like yi [vide (/) but whether expressed by * or ^5- they give it the classical prooy ^^ khana-e mard, Ijp ^fcU mdhi-e darya. After the semi- vowels and silent h, the izafat is by them generally
:

nunciation of ja-e majhul, as


(h)

written,

if

written at

all,

as explained in

(/)

(1)

and

(2).

kasra ij~$
of

however a company *or ^, as f^ 2*^1 banda-e Jchuda " the servant 3 " oj the place of the father "; or instead of a jafe padar

may " God


hamza

^^

is

the correct Arabic form.


plural

Tho broken Arabic


py/t

J>*t amwal

is

only used in the sense of

"

possessions,

wealth, etc."

modern Persian pidar )*.

56

EXAMPLES OF DECLENSION.
as, <J

and kasra may be written


in the Punjab.

bu-e gul )&*

^U. 1

This form

is

common

In practice the
tioned in
41
/.
(d).

with <^ of the izafat

is

suppressed for the reason men-

Remark
' '

In^

div
' '

clamour, lamentation
~) for the izafat.
II.

" a " demon," ^*^ khadw Khedive," gharw and such words the ^ is treated as an ordinary
i.e. it

consonant and not as a weak consonant or semi- vowel,


kasra
(

takes the

Remark
ism-i-'am
(

Nouns are
)
;

called proper

ism-i-khas
(

( <j"*^ f~t ) that has a concrete something zat) or si ma'na existence as opposed to an abstract noun ism-i ( ^i** fat or oJL0jt). The term abstract is specially applied to that class of nouns )
;

U ^ ^f

collective ism-i
is

jam

&*.

^^

^oj

common

generic

concrete noun (ism-i

the

name

of

is formed from adjectives and denotes character, as, "goodness" and more generally to all nouns that do not name concrete things, as, <^*->, jAl^b" kingdom."

which

Nouns are A noun is


For

also
'

"

primitive
'

"
(

**l+
)

f**l ),

and "derived
'

' '

"&*
*^o
).

p~\

).

definite

ma'rifa

*J^

or

'

indefinite
40-2.

nakira a

definite

and

indefinite articles vide

When

common noun is

definite, and, by an allusion that is understood, is used to supply the of a proper noun, it is called ^i^i ^.n** md'hud-i zihrii, thus an dust place
5

made

cu^j^f meaning
a

"

So-and-so, our friend about

whom

we're talking."

When

common noun
noun,

is

definite

it is

used as an epithet or nickname, i.e. as a proper and called <^"; thus Khaltt JxU- "The Friend (of

^^

God)," an epithet

for

Abraham.

Vide also

25

(a) (1).

(a)

Singular

27. Examples of Declension. Number *^, or ^* or, <*^ ^iXc.

Halai (oJI^)

case

"

N.

(J^\* d-Jlak

mard Jy man or the man. dast-i mard AJ* O-.A the hand f
-j

of the

man.

G.

CA>0f

oJla*.

Jchana-yi

V pa-yi
1

mard ,3^0 <xjlak. the house of the man. mard * t>j* ^b the foot of the man.
S.

The

izafat

o'^t
that,

in India.

Note

is occasionally expressed in these manners in old M modern Persians would saybanda-yi khuda, f<^ I<^J J

written

j'a-yi

pidar

Fa'il (cbk') subject." Maf'ul ( Jj*^ ) "object" is applied to &ny case governed by a preposition. 3 Of two words coupled by the izafat O^Lif the first is called the muzaf (
2

and the second the muzaf


*

ilayh ( *J| oLaxs ). In India and Afghanistan pronounced *y <XiU> Jchana-e mard and Sj* For another form of the genitive in m.c. vide 26 (/) (4).

^^ pa-e

EXAMPLES OF DECLENSION.
f
(

57

mard-ra
bi-mard &j

\j t>f>
l

to the

man.

to the

man.

C
5

mard-ra

\>

*+* the

man.

( mard ty man-

V.

*l^ vsJUk
or

a^

waw

c^l

oh man.

mar da
az

Ab.

^^ oJU*

ward ^yo

3'

from the man.


prepositions.

The remaining
Remark.

cases are formed

by adding the
also called
AJ

*<,*

The accusative

case

is

J*A* and the

ablative

is

sometimes called *i* J^ix and the locative *

The dative in Ij is considered the accusative. +* ) is declined in precisely the same manner. (6) The plural jam' ( In classical Persian and in modern poetry the particle j* mar is (c) sometimes added to some of the cases. It is generally redundant but
occasionally restricts the
' '

e/fx

meaning to the case in point. With the nominative it is emphatic; as &^j* mar jan* "the mar an that very.
' '

life

itself"

(d) Vulgarly the accusative sign ra |j vowels, thus marda, mardu or mardi for

is

mard

supplanted by one of the short ra. This is said to be a sur-

vival of a Pahlavi termination.

In asbu ra biyarfyt l;^*t, the $ is a vulgar diminutive. (e) A form of the vocative chiefly found in poetry is formed by affixing f( " <a to the nominative, as X*lj bulbula friend." nightingale "; Iwja dustd This form is found in the singular only. If the nominative ends in a or in
a long vowel, the euphonic rule in
IjlAi

28
still

(c) is

applied.

DanghjH ty*

' *

alas

"

and
in a
c$f
)

Khuddya

"

O God"

are

used colloquially.
thus,

The vocative
t-Ul?

cannot be followed by the

izafat,

bulbula (or ay bulbul*

This preposition
Fa'tt
(

JrU)

seldom written separately except before a " "subject." Maj'ul (J^*^ ) object" is applied
*J

is

v
to

any case

overned by a preposition.

Har ki daru dad mar jan-i mara Burd sim u zarr u marjan-i mara. Mawlavi. Whoever will heal my loved one He will get from me silver and gold and coral."
' '

Zarr for zar by poetical

license.

o bulbul of Persia (Sylvia luscinia) is a real nightingale and must not be with the bulbuls of India and Turkish Arabia : its song in the writer's opinion
ior to that of the

English nightingale.

58

FORMATION OF THE PLURAL.

" oh bulbul," but bulbul-i bagh-i ma U> xU cUb " oh bulbul of our garden.'* For this vocative qualified by an adjective, vide 118. Nouns ending in silent s do not admit of this form of the vocative. 1
28.

Formation of the Plural

*^

Classical Persian.

) There are two numbers, singular and plural. Old Persian ( p?.** ^j* had a dual later Persian had none. The following are the rules for formation of the plural in classical
:

Persian
(a)

Rational beings and animate nouns form the plural by adding

&].

Ex.
pi.

B^jb'j

aspan

^Iw

padshdh king," pi. Irani ^l^jt " a Persian,"


;

"a

cA^l^U padshah-an;
pi.

i_**l

asp

"a
"
it

horse,"

Iraniyan

Remark

I.

If

the

noun end

in

as

^^ hakl

" a narrator
:

follows

the general rule, the final <^ becoming a consonant, as


Similarly kay

c/i^

^"

king

" has kayan

hakiyan.

oU*', etc.

Remark
other words
(b)

II.

The

origin

of this plural

termination
i.e.

is

stated to be a

repetition of the demonstrative

" more than one."

pronoun

c/f,

"that and that," or in

by adding U
*'

Inanimate objects and sometimes irrational animals form the plural ha. Ex.: kitab "a book," pi. t^U^ kitab-M] -**f asp

^X

a horse,"

pi. l^*l

asp-ha (as well as asp-an &\$\).

Remark I. There are exceptions to this rule. Sa'dl uses the plurals ^ULkp and cAii^. This is perhaps done to confer dignity on these nouns, the Still under this supposiplural in c;f being more noble than the plural in I*. tion it is not easy to account for such plurals, as eJ>H^ ofjjl* o>U^ and The plural in an &) ,is frequently used both in prose and poetry for the ejUJj.
sake of rhyme.

Remark
creatures,
(Iqb.

II.

Rarely in classical Persian the plural in ha

is

used for living

as:

namburdaha U j^

"the

(people)

mentioned above

":

"

Nama-yi J., p. rid ed. Bib. Ind. of Beng. As. Soc.). Remark HI. In a few words a distinction is made, as saran &\j*
:

(m.c.)

chiefs," but

sar-lia

Rukh
;

has in modern Persian either rukhan c>^> or rukh-ha similarly angushtan cjtxi^i, and angushtha t LXi! "fingers"; akhtaran and akhtar-ha ^A>J^ " stars " abru-ha l*jj/>t and abruvdn &\jj*\ "eye)
l ;

(i

cheek

U^ "

" heads."

brows."

If they did there

would be no distinction between the plural and

this

form
to

of

vocative.
2

The word Yazdan


pi.

"God"

(also

Izad

*j>\

and Yazd &.

is

said

corruption of a Pehlevi

and to have been

originally used in a plural sense.

FOEMATION OF THE PLURAL.


(c)

59

from which a Ex.: L>|^ dand


tl

In forming the plural in an, is apocopated, a

if

the noun ends in alif


is

"a

I, or else in a j u inserted for the sake of euphony.

sage,"

pi. &\jti\t

dana-yan;
the

pari-ru (for

<j

fairy-faced," pi.

After a final

o^y^J pari-ruyan. j, when radically


of the

final,

^ is omitted.

Ex.

jjk
1

"the arm, the upper part


eyebrow,"
pi. cJb^l

arm,"

pi.

&\j^ bazuwan,

abru

" the

abruvan*
plural of
US

Remark
niyagan.

I.

The The

niya "grandfather, ancestor"

is

Remark

II.

with as plurals of sal


regular plurals of
(d)

* are occasionally met saliyan and and mah to. These are Jl* exceptions and rare. The these words are to be preferred.

plurals e>y

^^

into

in an obscure *. this is, before ol, generally changed " " ^, as *j>y> murda dead (past partic.), pi. murdagan. this is Sometimes, but rarely, the * is retained in writing, as &tf
If the

word ends

^^

8^

incorrect.

In poetry the plural termination gan

is

employed contrary to

rule

Qa-ani says

(e)

If

the noun

is

inanimate and ends in silent


:

h, this

^ usually and
lf*lj

properly disappears in the plural, as If however by the elision of the


better to retain
plural
IA

**>b

nama " a

letter," pi.
is

namaha. 3
its

any ambiguity

likely to arise, it is

it,

thus,

*lsu/o

mahalla*

"a
l

quarter of a
l*"> 5

town"
*

has for

alsi/o,

n preference
plural

to the correct

which latter might easily be


is

mistaken for the


retained.

of

JUuc.

In modern Persian the

generally

Must be distinguished from the word j^?T The plural of^i div and similar words
26
(ft)

ab-rti
is

" honour."

divan cJt^, or (mod. ) divha


Ufjl)
1
?

vide

Remark.

Modern Persians

often pronounce these bazivan

and

van eJ^yl .
3

As

If-*!.*

may

stand for either

namha

4-*^

" names" or nama-ha

IAAX5U

<

letters,"

it is

usual in modern Persian to write the latter

^ ^^>
for
I*

For the same reason the

plural namajat

otavcli

is

preferred.

Similarly other words,

^^

"houses"

for

instance, might in

modern Persian be mistaken


jazm be written
is

orthographical

sign

this

ambiguity

eJ^ Mian-ha khans. If the disappears. To avoid such

mbiguity the spurious plural <i>^!>^


*

used even in colloquial.

The

final 8 of

Arabic words ought logically to be retained.

60

FORMATION OF THE PLURAL.


Remark.

Nouns ending in * preceded by a long vowel l follow the ^ aU^lj; ; rah "a road," general rules in (a) and (6), thus aUob plural la Both the letters s shouldbe pronounced, i.e. the word should pi. *!; rahrJid.
be pronounced as written. Arabic words take the Persian plural or the Arabic broken plurals Ex.: v 1^ kitab " a book," Pers pi. l^lfe* kitdb-hd, Arabic broken pi.
(/)

a
;

kutub

J*U

'5wt7 " a labourer/' pi.

^
)

^JUU

'amildn and

*JU.*

amala. s
(

Remark.
are

The broken
in Arabic

(or irregular) plurals

jam

~i

mukassar

J~& &*
x-

commoner

to both rational

and

irrational beings.

than the regular masculine plurals, Some words in Arabic take the

and are applicable

regular as well as one or

more broken

plurals.

There are two kinds of broken plurals recognized by Arabic grammarians, 'the plural of paucity' and the plural of multitude,' vide Arabic Grammar but the distinction is not observed in Persian except by a few
'

pedants. In the rhetorical style, almost any Arabic word and its broken or inner plural can be used. Sometimes a word has several bpoken plurals if such a
:

word be used

in different

" a house or Ex. from o#. bayt plural in one sense and another in another. tent, a verse in poetry," we get o># buyftt "houses," and oUjf abyat "a "verses"; cUlc labourer," pi. *JU^ "labourers" and J^ 'ummal
:

meanings

in the singular, it will generally take

one

gtf^

"agents."
(g)

regular feminine plural in Arabic ends in of, which is an the regular feminine affix * ; thus, masc. p. of kanm un "kind," expansion

The

fern,

un and fern. f+jf karimat

pi.

oU^/

karimat un

in Persian karim, karima t

kanmat.

by

obscure,' but aspirated. Called also inner plurals because they are formed, not by affixed terminations, but internal change. They are really collective forms, and in Arabic are treated
1

This h

is

of course not

'

silent

'

nor

'

grammatically as feminine singular, even when they apply specially to males. These broken plurals are a difficulty in Arabic and only a less difficulty in Persian they are so irregular and various that no rules really help the student. Arabic

grammars

measures of these plurals which however give long tables of the various only bewilder the beginner. The broken plurals of all words met with in reading should be written down and committed to memory. If this be done, the learner will be
' '

surprised to find that in a short time they cease to be a serious difficulty. S In m.c. this word is used as a singular and the plural is formed by the barbarous

form 'amalajat *>^ *Uc. * Compare the English


'
'

'

'

plurals
'

pennies

pence

so

much

value

fishes

'

and

fish

'

denoting a number of penny-pieces and * * brothers and cows and kine ; ;


' '

'brethren.'

FORMATION OF THE PLURAL.


This regular feminine plural
sense, as
is

61

frequently used for nouns with a neuter

rU^ hammam
t

un

"a

bath,"

"condition,"
.

pi.

e^|U>

haldt un

pi.
a

oU>U^ hammamat un
sama un

1
j

JU. hal un
m

*U~

"heaven,"

pi.

f e>fjU~

samawat un The regular feminine

common
beings
is is

plural of Arabic nouns with a neuter sense is of occurrence in Persian, but the regular feminine plural of rational " an " rare; thus, j** 'aduv enemy (masc.) takes in Arabic the

regular feminine terminations, singular both masculine and feminine. 3

and

plural, but in Persian the

word

Remark.

The Arabic noun

of relation or relative adjective is

formed
of the

I
by
affixing the syllable

^-7 and

rejecting all such inflections as the


tf
5
<-

t " Mecca Co " a person feminine, or the dual and plural signs. Ex. */o t5 of Mecca." has no tashdid. In Arabic from the In Persian this final relative adjective a collective plural may be formed by simply adding the
' '
:

feminine termination

as

who

asserts the eternity of

n Persian dahri "one ^j** dahriyy^ (in matter and denies the resurrection or the world

^^J

to come, atheistic"; &j*J| ad-dahriyyat*

" the sect

who hold

this belief."

This collective plural in Persian (without the Arabic article) is AJ^AA ddhriyya. Only a few plurals of this description are used in Persian, principally those
of various religious sects.

reigning Shah)
(h)

is

Qajariyya used in m.c.

<*J;l^li

" the Qajars"

(the tribe of the

Plurals of plurals

(W

t^)-

An

additional broken plural

is

in

1 This plural is rare in modern Persian hammam-ha f*>A, is preferred both in speaking and writing. 2 In classical Arabic the alif with madda would be given the ordinary sound, then the hamza would be pronounced and finally the tanwln 4 (e) Remark. vide The modern Arabs have simpli6ed the word into sama, while the modern Persians say sama, In dtjU* the hamza is changed into j in Arabic also slightly prolonging the final alif. f
:

'

'

written
3

ci>|

U*.
*><**

In modern Persian the feminine


signifies

may

occur in writing.
of

*'**!

J^
4

'aduv-i

a' da

"deadly enemy"

(lit.

enemy

enemies):

dushman-i

dushmanan

i^U^ij (j^-^o has a different signification, viz. the enemy of (my) enemies, i.e. my friend, " the but dushmantarln-i dushmanan &\*+& &iJ (j^**o is used in this sense of
greatest
latter is

enemy." In Arabic j*& c5 Afi grammatically correct.


like

'

is

tne idiom and not ^l^t j**, though the

Words
and
*

naqliyyat and cijU*Aj wahmiyyat meaning "things narrated," things imagined," are the regular feminine pi. of the Arabic adjectives
(vide relative ^s)

oUUJ

and

^aj
its

has for

broken plural

p*j wahm f^t awham.


I

the substantive "conjecture, imagination

62

FORMATION OF THE PLURAL.


*>

Arabic sometimes formed from the broken plural, as,


(for L*t), pi. LS*J

yad

u*

" a hand,"

a ydi " hands,"

pi. of pi.

L?}

ayadl

"

hands; benefits."

Sometimes the regular feminine plural is added to the broken plural, as bayt "a house," pi. o^j buyut "houses"; pi. of pi. o^j buyutat "a, cluster of houses ";^A^ jawhar "a, gem, jewel," broken pi. j*>'j^ " jewels of various kinds ": jawdhir "jewels," pi. of pi. e!y*l^ jawahirdt A is the Arabic form of the Persian gawhar^^. 1 jawhar J

The shade
is

of difference in

meaning between a plural and a plural


5

of a

not always observed, thus there is apparently no difference in plural " meaning between <jj^b turuq (mod.) tfre broken plural of (Jo* tarlq a road" and the double plural oUr^t turuqat (class, and rare), though the latter ought " to signify many roads and ways."*
barbarous plural is sometimes made by affixing to an Arabic broken plural the Persian plural termination IA, thus ^jje zuruflia from " vessels the broken plural of zarf- 8 ^*UJ| " many kindnesses from zuruf
(i)
' '

' '

altaf

o^Wt broken plural of lutf. These double Persian- Arabic plurals occur only in nouns with a neuter
,

sense.

A few words purely Persian have been adopted by the Arabs and Arabic broken plural, and the Persians have in turn borrowed the an given broken plural of their own Persian word ; thus the Persian word ol^j farman
(j)

becomes fardmin u
vowel

c^y

in the plural, and in Persian without the final

of the classical Arabic, fardmin.*

" The word anagur j^\ 6 grapes word Persian the of angur ji^t. plural

"

is

vulgarly used by Persians as the

There are probably one or two other

Persian words, vulgarly arabicized in this manner by the Persians. Dastur ;y^a a Zardushtl priest, pi. dasdtir ^>Ua ; Khan e^, Persian, a title like squire, Arabic pi. ^j*> khavdnm (m.c.), used only in Persian.
(k)

In imitation
at is

of the regular feminine plural in Arabic, the termina-

tion

of

sometimes added to Persian words, thus ^s&jy navdzishdt


cc

" favours" and oliol^* farmdyishdt


jj

orders,

commands."

and >*!>* are used in m.c. Persian, but

^^l

and

^^\

only occur in

high-flown Persian.
*

In Urdu the same broken plural

may

be a plural in one part of India but a

singular in another.
8
*

Zarif

"

witty, ingenious
is

" has

w*

for its 9

common
'*

plural zurafa**

Such a word
is

said to be

^j** mu'arrab

made Arabic "

or " Arabicized

"
:

this

term

applied to any foreign word adopted into Arabic.

Similarly a

word

is

said

to be
6

o^, " made Farsi," i.e. adopted into Farsl or Persian. o*;*^ mufarraa Anagur is of course an imitation broken plural the correct form would be
:

anaglr.

For the Arabic dual with a purely Persian word vide

29

(i).

FORMATION OF THE PLURAL.

63

When the word ends in a silent h, the affix of this bastard Arabic plural " a written combecomes oU> and the h ( disappears, thus *iy navishta the munication" (past participle of pure Persian verb navishtan "to write") " a f ort " becomes olaJLiy navishtajdt, and the Arabic word **1* qal'a'1
1 )

becomes oksud*
sense.

qal'ajdt.

An

exception

oUJUc

This plural occurs only in nouns with a neuter : vide p. 60, note 3.
clas-

These imitations were considered vulgar and were rarely used in


sical Persian.

Remark.

have different
pi. *J^if

Sometimes the broken Arabic plural and the imitation plural " significations, thus from b* dawa AT. medicine," the broken " Arabic in but in modern Persian medicines," adviya signifies

"spices/' while the Persian plural


Persian
' *

e*^!^

davdjdt

signifies

in

modern

medicines.

' '

(/)

Regular masculine plural Arabic jam'-i sahih or jam' 4 salim


,

or

/J^
is

*^>

).

The

**. ( f*^ue in masculine classical Arabic has two cases regular plural
x

and
tw

formed by affixing to the singular &j un a for the nominative, and


remaining cases
:

for the

terminations.
is

Thus

these are an expansion of the singular Arabic in classical Arabic, the regular nominative pi. of JUU

&jl*\* 'amilun*

" workers."

In modern colloquial Arabic the second affix only is used with the omission of the final vowel, thus tr>J^.e 'amilin (for all cases) "workers."
In Persian, Arabic plurals in un a
classical

Arabic.

The modern
(in

^^Ux)
by
the

mu'asirin

only in quotations from the however is occasionally used. Ex. plural and writing speaking) "contemporaries."
:

^ occur

(m) Arabic Dual tasniyah (**&

).

The dual

in classical Arabic

is

formed

adding to the singular &\ an* in the nominative, and

^ ayn

in the other

cases.

&

In construction, or when followed by the affixed Arabic pronouns, drops out.


classical dual occurs only in quotations
is

The

from the Arabic.


:

In modern Arabic the dual


<oJ

very rarely used

it

is

formed by adding

ayn

for all cases.

The Persian tendency would be

to transform 8 into

*-*,

but the

suffix

being Arabic,

the Arabic-Persian letter


a Qal'a **A*
qila*.
;

is

substituted for the pure Persian.

the final h has no sound whatever.


plurals are

The Indians and Afghans say

The Arabic broken

^ and

64

PLURALS

MODERN PERSIAN.

4 '

In Persian this termination ayn only is used. Ex. " bi-cornous (an epithet of Alexander the Great)
;
' '

{&& j& zu-'l-qarnayn ^x^ ^ ^y ^'liLo Sultan-i


L
:

yj

barrayn o bahrayn
Vide

two continents and the two seas "the two harams," i.e. the shrines of Mecca and Medina. (.fr*^ haramayn
Sovereign of the
;

' '

29
(n)

(i).

Akh

Ar. " brother"

akh-l
l

as akhavi Husayn mi-guyad instead of akh- % generally say akhavi my brother Husayn says ." Hence akhavi has come to be regarded as one
:

^^

^t

Ar. "

my

brother."

The Persians
' '

word, as
(polite,

akham-yi

man

* '

vulg.

my

brother

' '

and akham-yi mukarram


&\j**\ is

in letters).

The broken

plural ikhwan

used in the sense of

brethren (religious), as: ikhvdn-i safa, i.e. ham-dman. The plural of ukht oA.f sister is akhavat olyu
is

akhavat-i

mukarrama

an address

in preaching.

29.

Plurals

Modern

Persian.

In the modern language, spoken or written, the plural in U> is by far the most used it is applied to nearly every substantive, animate or inanimate,
:

official documents or in rhetorical writing, the plurals as well as the Arabic broken plurals and the Arabic c;f used, regular feminine plurals of inanimate substantives Mullas, and travelled or educated Persians, frequently use these plurals in speaking, when ordinary

Arabic or Persian. 8
are
still

In

in

people use the plural in

I*.

Remark.

In the vulgar form of the spoken plural the


of

of

I* is

dropped.
for

Thus instead

bachcha-ha
is

khudha-mdn cjU^^L
(a)

the vulgar say bachcha. a double vulgarism.


*

WJ

tff

Khudaman

The

plurals

>Ut

"horses,"

iyfjyb

"arms," &\?~4 6 glsuvan

" curls

of helmet depicted on Alexander's coins

Various reasons are assigned for this epithet one is that it arose from the pattern another that it signified that he ruled for two
:

a saying of the Prophet ten qarn c>j* make a century, but qarn &j*. According to according to others the word means a space of ten years or any multiple thereof up to In m.c. it frequently signifies 30 years or 50 years. At this time the life is in 120.
danger
:

d)'A eJj*

*f^
.

etfl

in bachcha qarn darad (soothsayer's idiom) " the

life

of this

child is in danger."
*
3

In modern Arabic

c5^f akhuya

*'

my

brother."
sliiran

Zanan v^J, bharan

oJ|/^, aspan e/^f, gavan \&j$ 9 marduman e)^^y,


all

cyf^-, pisaran &\j~^i dufchtaran c*[y^^ etc., are plurals in ha. * In m.c. generally pronounced asban.
6

common

in m.c. as well as their

Gls

i_j""i*

or gr?SM f~**
zulf

is

also applied to a

woman's long

hair.

The

side locks

are called

vJiJj

and the

fore locks

^ia.

chaiar.

PLURALS

MODERN PERSIAN.

65

or long back hair," e>^x? "slaves or servants," e>U^ " trees" and others are still used by the professional story-tellers. 1 Muzhj* "eyelash" is in m.c. muzha y> and the common plural is

muzhaha

IA

y>.

The

old plurals

muzhagan ^(f}^ mizhagdn &%fy


5 ;

muzhgan

&&)* and mizhgan &%$* came to be regarded as singulars form muzhgan-ha ^(fyo or mizhgan-ha Ifjfcyo.
(6)

hence the modern

The
28

rule for writing the plural in

(*>

of substantives ending in silent

(e) and Remark) is often neglected in modern Persian, thus be written for l^laL and Ufj for A *;.* may

(vide

IA Ai(<L

(c)

A few Arabic
"

" thus *Uf ashya,* things ^t ay^aw "days" (plurals of &S> shay* and are never used in the Persian plural: the word yawm] (*! oij-aa. hazarat
"sirs,

broken plurals are used in speaking even by the vulgar

gentlemen"

(a

word common

in speeches) has

no Persian
"people"),

plural.

Fuqara*t*jti (pi. of faqlr


salatin
(pi.
(pi.

"poor"), ^Uf
>\

aAaZt

(pi.

of

aW

e^^

of sultan),
* '

zavvar
,

(pi.

of masjid

mosque

"
)

of zaftV "pilgrim"),

^1-*

masajid

and a good many others are in common use even

by the uneducated.
In the m.c. a few broken plurals are incorrectly used as *JU* cj yak 'amala " one workman," c**t *!*> ^f tw /a^a^a a5^ singulars. " this is a labourer." * For ulu (= zawu pi. of zu) vide under Zu.

Remark.

Ex.

'

'

Na*ib

-r^5^,

" a lieutenant," has for

its plural

nuwab
>>'

+* ^\ y but in Persian (the title), is

by a change

of the first

vowel the word navvab


<J^)\ (pi. of

<->\j*,

nawab 6

used as a singular.

Arbab

rabb

v_,j) is

in m.c.
:

" master" and has

for its Persian pi. arbaban ^Ijjt

and arbabha L^ly

the singular rabb v; means

" Lord

' '

(of the Deity only).

(d) Some Arabic regular feminine plurals are also used in speaking (as well as in writing), as e>UJt* "tracts of country"; e>!jU* 'imarat (m.c.)

"buildings." Persian words with the imitation feminine Arabic plural [vide 28 (k)] are also used in speaking (as well as in writing), as ouUb bagbat (rare) "gardens", t( e>U>^ dihat "wishes, desires", villages", c^UUl^a. khwahishat (m.c.)
:

or ^*
ma'ralcagir,
rectly
4
5

*A5 qissa-febiWan or qiasa-gu


i.e.

also

&$

OO'SA. liikayat-lcun and

* " one who


qiata).
is

collects a

crowd."

(In m.c. **^*

is

often incor-

pronounced qassa and

The

correct plural ^*

Wj

preferred in

modern

Persian.

In Persian generally (but incorrectly) zuwar.

In Arabic

zSftr

has

also

the

regular masculine pi. cJ^tJ.


4
6

aJLc broken pi. of J*Lc, vwie 28 (/): *!** plural of In India the tashdid is usually omitted.

66

PLURALS

MODERN PERSIAN.

When however the termination is ola. 1 the farmayishat glftjU^> "orders." silent h of the singular is often retained in writing, thus e^U* ^o* (instead
of

eU^>
(e)

mivajat "fruits."

few plurals of plurals with the feminine termination [vide

28

(/&)]

are also used in speaking (as well as in writing), as:

Oy ? umur broken
6

pi.

The double
also

plurals,

of^l amr). one Arabic, one Persian, mentioned


double

in

28

(i)

are

used in speaking.

Remark.

In
is

m.c.
'

the
'

plural

oUaJL^
:

"workers"
28
(k).

occurs,

though cUU
(/)

not a

noun

with a neuter sense

vide

The

plural of the Turkish

word

<Jl>t

il

" a wandering or

nomad tribe"

is

oUi?
(g)

iliyat

(and incorrectly sometimes


ci>'*y*aj

e>&>l ilat)*
t(

The substantive

biqsumat*

biscuits ",

and the Turkish word

" rations, requisitions ", are either singular e.L.jjj;- suyursat or oL^** sursat or plural. The termination of is not the plural termination.
Arabic plural, masculine, is occasionally used by (h) The regular educated Persians in speaking (as well as in writing). Ex. <j~k^ e.*y^ 6
:

hazirin-i majlis
;

' '

' '

gentlemen

(addressing an assembly

lit.

those present in
(Shah's

the meeting) &*&# U> ^.M^iU x+^ jami'-i multazimm-i " all our retinue were Diary) present."
(i)

ma budand

The dual
eH^r-le

is

also occasionally used in speaking (as well as in writing).

Ex.

fy

both sides of the road;


is

^^-^ Hasanayn
its

" the two Hasans,"

Sometimes an Arabic word

used in Persian with


ol-a.
;

correct Arabic pi. termina-

tion

and sometimes with the Persian imitation


is

thus *J(j^ havala


is

"a

transfer

consignment"

in

the plural

euty^

in Persian

e*3ll^ (rare)

used as well as

Hal

<4

state,

condition ";;
;

but only used in Pers,


unity) Ar.pl. pft
a

raqlm

^
is

Jt>M
"

ahval and &V\j^\ dhvalat, an Ar. double pi.,


;

letter

tablet

"
(in

Persian raqtma with the* of

^aqcfam, and

Pers. raqimajat.

(also
8

In modern Persian the olsdU* ).

generally retained in this word as well as in

oL>U.

cUlc has thus -agents, "(3 and 4)


(6) the regular

several plurals used in Persian

o*L>c

(1)

*JU*

workmen,"
double

(2)

and

U*U*
is

-workmen"
'amilin

(bastard

plurals):

Arabic masculine plural

(&^\*

( isJtjJA

(^^

'amilin-i divan

(m.c.)

Collectors of revenue "),


;

which

occasionally used as well as the classical form

g^LoU

the latter however

is

only used in classical Arabic or in a quotation from the

classical Arabic.

t%5**

adj., signifies *'a

man

of the

Iliyat

^^f

" and
and

has a plural

The word bisMt

ta^^

js

also used in Persian as singular

plural.

Hazir j*k>> has also a broken plural huzzar J^A..

PLUBALS
i.e.

MODEBN PERSIAN.
'Alt
:

67

Hasan and Husayn, the two martyred sons of two kingdoms," etc. vide 28 (m).
:

daulatayn

v&j* " the

In imitation of the Arabic, the dual


Persian words, 1 as
:

is

even occasionally added to

B'lsyar lab-i chu la'lu zulfayn-i

chu mushk;
(0.

" and many a ruby


(j)

lip

and musky tress."

K. 137 Whin).
lar,

few words are found with the Turkish plural

or j$ 9 as,

i.e.,

For an imitation broken plural of a purely Persian word vide one curl on each side of the head behind the ear,

28

(j).

CHAPTER
30.

III.

PRONOUNS.
Personal Pronouns

Ism -i Zamir

y***

**\

).

is no distinction between the personal and possessive pronouns are of two kinds, separate and affixed. they The separate personal pronouns are less used in Persian than the

There

personal pronouns in English, as, except when emphasis terminations sufficiently indicate the persons.
(a)

is

required, the verb

The
:

following are the separate

zamtr-i munfasil

<J*AAU _>A**

pronouns N.
Dat.
V

.o

man %
3

ma, or

UU

maha we

(also

mayan

Ace.

[yo ?wara

me, to

me

Afg.).

N.
Dat.
Ace.
}
S

tu*

thou

shuma, or

^ ^ shumaha
(

(m.c.),

!/

you
B

(also

sJiumayan ejL;U^ Pers. and


6

Afg.).

or

vo

ne
poetical)
.

ishan, or

e;'-*^!

N.
classical

ushan, they (also

and

is>LLj|

Ishdnan Afg.).
;

is used instead of man &* as, Jfa raftim p>&) U. Vulgarly, Give us a for the penny give me a penny.' vulgarism, English Compare The vocatives of the 2nd personal pronoun are ay tu ki a^y ^$1 and ay
*

ma U

'

shuma

ki *t

classical

^\ such forms however are unchaste (g&ayr-i Persian however ay anki <j>T ^t occurs as
:

fasih).

In

cu** s
^*

fj

o^jJ

^-)Lc

j^y J

^ *-^t

^5-1

bi-iqbal-i tu dar 'alam nist

Glram

ki ghfim-at riist glydm-i

ma ham n%st ?
(Gul. chap. I, st. 13).

pi.

j5U*.
f~t.
!the

It

must be

recollected

that

all

pronouns come under the head

of

"ism"
*
3

For

vocative of

man \&

as a possessive
\)

Sometimes vulgarly
is

in m.c.
(y).

man-ra

u^

pronoun vide but with the {

32
^

(b).

unity man-i-ra

correct: vide

41

*
5

Note that the j is pronounced short like .. p?A. The Afghans often say o. The Afghans say eshan, oshan and es^anan mafhul sounds.
;

PERSONAL PRONOUNS
The preposition
occasionally used:
*J

ISM-I ZAMIR.

69

with

j and <^

is

generally written

^ and <^
>V
is

but
very

also, especially in poetry, bi-du j*j

e^V is classical,
,

and and

^5^

bi-duy.
if

In m.c.

rarely,

1 ever, used in m.c.

The

preposition bi

when used

Vay
eJtf

<_? is

for the dative case is called ba-yi maf'ul J^*^ ^.. used for u $ for the sake of euphony in the following sentence :
,

(j-jj^t

bi-vay guft (m.c.


t

and

classical).

To avoid the

repetition of the
j\

second pronoun u j\ the vulgar also say u bi-an guft cJtf ^U him." It may be said that vay is not used in m.c.

" he said to

Remark

I.

The

first

personal
-*.feliuo

"speaker"; " and the third "present


;

the

second

v^ ghayib
34

pronoun is called ^iSXo mutakallim mukhatab "addressed" or _,<*(*> hazir " absent."

ii>f

For the third persons, the demonstrative pronouns ^\ In " this " and an "that" with their plurals iriha (m.c.) and anha (m.c.) [or inan o&f
(6)

class,

and anan

c^^T class., vide

(b)]

are

sometimes used.
c/f .

Also

j\

is

sometimes substituted for the demonstrative pronoun

Ex.

Andarun az ta'am

khali ddr

Ta
here j!
is

dar-u nur-i ma'rifat

bmi

(Sa*di)

used for of: vide also

34

(n)

No.
in

10.

Remark.
not u ki

A^ijT Sn-ki (classical

and

modern

writing)

is

"he who
' '

banda the slave and third persons singular, vyo mukhlis "the (your) devoted"; J^S ^>^\ ikhlas-kish* "the (your) most devoted;" vij>* kamtarin "the least " and for the feminine *xj-*r 25 (/) ] Jjjtf kaniz 3 <{ the (your) handmaiden or female slave," etc., [vide are often used when addressing superiors, and sometimes to equals out of
(c)

Instead of the

first

' '

respect.

In classical Persian (and in India and Afghanistan) these words are always followed by the third person of the verb, both in speaking and xixx> leave to represent" writing, as ijbj* %u banda arz ml-kunad "I beg
f
:

the slave makes petition), but in modern Persian (except in official documents) the first person is more usual even in writing, as u^* **V " I the slave make **; petition ^\ in banda chi taqsirdaram ? fj\* J*A&
(lit.
:

' '

^V

(m.c.)

"what
With^*

fault has this slave

(1)

committed
jl

"

fear

"on," )* dar "in,"

az

"from,"

etc.,

)\

and hlian el^jl are


jyf

generally

contracted into one word, as: jpi daru, c>l^j?

barlahan,

azu.

Chunu

is poetical.

cW kteh
Also

(classically fash) is

a subs, signifying " faith, religion


^XJo

"
:

in

compounds

practising, addicted to."


3

Ex.

(_r^

zulm klah " oppressive."

*^j&

kanlzak, properly the diminutive of kaniz

70
(m.c.)

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

ISM-I ZAMIR.

&
the
first

"the mean"; j$ U^ du'a-gu


"the least" are

(in writing);

^U da'i

(in

writing); cUf aqall (in writing)

also used as substitutes for

person.

With the exception of j&


:

haqir, these are all followed

by the

third person singular of the verb fi&* u^^xa^. haqir 'arz mi-kunam (m.c.) "I this humble individual make petition " djte j*p-x*~> 4,5^^ *<*. chi dakhl-i bi;

haqtr ddrad (m.c.)

"what has

this got to

do with poor me

"

etc.,

Remark. In Persia, a friend writing to an equal would use banda with the first person to use the third person would be too abasing.
;

>^J

In addressing the Shah *&, banda *v and haqir^s^ do not express


cient humility; such phrases as
at)

suffi-

*Jl^

"house-born (slave)", khak-sar ^U^'A,


*A*

fidaw ^)**, jan-nisar ;& ^U-, khdna-zdd A common etc., are used.

signature is (^Hj) d*&\ Jjff aqatt" 'l-'ibad (fulari) " the least of the slaves (so-and>J " so) Sayyids sign "aqatt u 's- Sadat" e>|*UJ( <JUf and Rawza-khwdns ^j^\'^\ Jff
:

"

Hajis may sign gU^I d&t aqall^l-Hdjj. After cyoa. ^a?m< " Highness," ^U* Qibla-yi l 'alam "Qibla of ^Lc the world," and similar respectful terms, the third person plural is used
aqall
:

u * z-zakirin"

(d)

In m.c., however,

(even when addressing people present), both in classical and modern Persian. " the second " after a ^J^janab-i 'all Your Excellency

^U

person plural is preferred (but not in formal letters). (e) As the plural is used instead of the singular in addressing people of standing, its place is frequently taken in m.c. by the double plural. The double plural in ejf of all three persons is used by the Afghans. In the m.c.
of Persian Ul* plural of c^Aft is
(/)

and ^AjU unknown.


is

are

common;

U.U

is

less

common,
these

while the

The following

an example of the use


8
(

of

polite

forms

of speech:

*&

aw

^^

Jk-t

e^a.

or

yisMt-i Jawab-i 'AUhali-yi banda na-shud

u ^ o r ^^ vJ^ ^^j^y farmd"I have failed to, grasp Your


1

Honour's meaning."

Remark I. Man o- is the only one of the personal separate pronouns that can properly be coupled to an adjective by an izdfat. Ex.
:

Chand
1 ' *

gu*t ki bad-andish

u hasud

How

Ayb-juyan-i man-i miskin-and? (Sa'dl). wilt thou say that the malignant envious seek to find fault long

with poor helpless


1

me ?

' '

&U*

of the qlblah, the direction of the face in prayer, especially the direction

Ka'bah

****, the sanctuary of


a

Mecca

the Arabic dual qiblatayn signifies Mecca and Jerusalem.

Janab

" and hence "Your honour, refuge,

v^
1

signifies

"

maigin,"
etc.":

etc.;

" threshold " and


signifies

hence

"a

place of

^General in attracting attention would say to a Consul, Janab-i Qunsal (-U>>> 8 Hazrat v^r^-^ is from the same Arabic root as^y^^ Tiuzur "presence ", and

<^

"high."

Even a Governor-

li^f ajatt
it

is

the Arabic comparative or superlative of


ajal

cUU.

jcdU

'

glorious, illustrious

"

must not be confused with cU-l

"the appointed hour

of death or

doom."

THE AFFIXED PRONOUNS.


r

71

x man-i bar-bad shuda (m.c.) " I the ruined one "


1

man-i mazlum

"
(m.c.)

jv^

eX

I the oppressed."
JW^J er*3
;

The Afghans say


Persia the izafat

wara-i banda, but classically


*^x> j^r*.

and generally

in

am

ffMttff a**t

^ c/

is

omitted

man banda

.Mem banda, ummid awarda

(Sa'dl).

a'za/aZ is also incorrectly joined to the pronouns of the second the first and second person plural as, *i;ld ;l &* \) yi ^y and person singular, * ra chi kdr ddrand (m.c. only) "what have they to do with tu-yi faqir " i*xi^< o^ii \jj*&& ^IA U maha-yi bi taqsir ra aziyyat you, poor creature ? " mi-kunand (m.c. only) they are punishing us though we have committed no
;

In m.c., the

fault"

*tf

*^ u**^
?

'>

^f^i^

l>

*>^5Hi^

^UU^
are

shumaha-yi bi chara

ra,

chira

inja hobs karda and

(m.c. only)

"why
8)Uuo

you

poor creatures imprisoned


used),

here?"
Instead
ajUuxj
<jr^Jf

of
is

ishan-i

bichara

^(^

(not

ariha-yi,

bichara
i

used in m.c., and an mardum-i bwhara

JJjlsuj

^^ ^
,

writing.

Remark

II.

Man utuj*)^"!
.

and thou "

' t ,

" both of us
-

is

an ex-

pression of frequent occurrence, especially in


\j~* ^~** >>

poetry

y j &M

^}V^ c^l

3'
:

ftojj^r

s
.

Bar-Wnz birawm az in vilayat Tu dast-i mara bigir u man ddman-i


31.
(a)
(1)

man u

tu

tu. s

The

affixed

Pronouns
:

AJuaLo^Slw zama'ir-i muttasila).

The

affixed

pronouns are
Singular.

Plural.

First Pers.

ft

am my

me*; to
;

me
to thee

^
&$
it

~^

i
{

man
tan

Second pers. e| at thy thee Third Pers. <j! ash his, hers,
;

its;

him, her,

it;

to him, to her, to

&&

~ ishan

was in all probability formed an to the singular, thus ff the termination u/f by adding plural regularly, am " mine, me, etc." would result in the plural ^U) am-an. However fatha
Remark.
plural of the affixed pronouns
i.e.

The

has

now given way


(2)

to kasra.
<ji

In classical Persian ash

and shdn

c^ 1

^ were used

for

animate
also.

things only.

In modern Persian they are applied to inanimate things

Bar j* " on " and bad iU the wind" " to tr. bar bad dadan &*\t destroy."
1
'

bar bad raftan

()
:

A^ij

to be destroye d

In m.c.

U^ >>

tuv Tch.uda is for


;

local.)
8

" " without perhaps a corruption pay, impressed In prose this would be tura.

|JAj fy

turd bi-khuda

tuv khuda'i

(vulg.

and

of muft-i &huda*i.

72
(3)

THE AFFIXED PRONOUNS.

In pronunciation these affixes should be, but seldom are, preceded by a slight pause in other words they do not affect the syllabic accent of their words, thus c>b^ JA.X> )& <^b *.U5f ^ ^yu* o^j/j ^A*f gj& darigh dmad-am " I felt a disinbi-tarbiyat-i suturdn va d*ind-ddri dar mdhfil-i kurdn (Sa'dl)
;
:

clination to teach beasts


of

the
it

blind";

"

as in the example. In words (4) terminating in the vowel *, the final letter becomes " his nose " or " nose " as blni a consonant, (_r-*^j bimyash poetically but it is Sometimes the affix is written separately, as: <jl binish.
:

" came to me

and to hold up a looking-glass in this quarter dmadam f^T would be "I came", but dmad-am f'^f

^^

^j

not so written by modern Persians.

Words terminating in alif-i maqsura *)y*A*> -A!| change the & to alif then insert the euphonical y, as: &)** da'va, Jtyje* da'vd-yash "his and claim or quarrel, etc." in m.c. often u^fy^: ma'nd-yash J^^i** and ma'ni(5)
;

yash

cr-jji*^

are both correct.

Remark. By poetical license the vowel of the affix can be omitted, as pidar-sh <Jy*J " his father."
as After Arabic words ending in Tcibriya*, the alif of the affix should be retained, thus <jt *L>^ o* ^' is poetical or modern colloquial. forms of the singular are written in full, (b) In classical Persian the full
(6)
,
1

A^
:

*>!. Jchana-am only after a word terminating in silent h. Ex. ft " cases the alif is omitted, as f;aU> mddaram my mother."

! :

in other

Remark.

Shaykh Sa

dl writes

Here
(c)

at could
t

After
' '

01

^ ^
' '

not be joined to **", but for the license of poetry. " is inserted for euphony, as a ^b pa-yam my foot
' '

"
;

-yat

thy hair

bdzu-yat o-j^j

thy arm

' ' ;

ot*jl^^ dast-hd yi-mdn

"our hands."
is often omitted, as In m.c. and in poetry, however, this euphonic bdzu-sh "his id dasthd-mdn e >Ul t (Jj$ diram-hd-sh place": jd-sh o^^ "his magic," also diramhd-yash) <Jj^ jddu-sh (better (J^^j*
;
; ;
.

jddu-yash.

(d)

Examples
(1)
(2)

of the affixed

pronouns are

^ ndn-am
(J^J

bidih

"give
I told

(to)

me bread."
him forward."

jUiit? guftam-ash

"

him."
"

(3) j*>

pish-ash biydr (m.c.)

bring

rarbiyar

So written (probably) to indicate that the h is not sounded. ha du ash ra Uyar, or )\# b LTb* J* har duyath In the m.c. \) c/2l^ " both of them," the <^ is omitted or inserted indifferently

bring

har duyiahan or c>^f

i*$)*

j* har

du-yi t8\an.

THE AFFIXED PRONOUNS.


digar bi-zabdn-ash naydvarad.

73

is

again mention him " him


the object
ei>l<x<>

' '

(lit.

"she will not him on her bring tongue) ash here


;

' '

(and
1

is

not

her

',

possessive).

(5)
(6)

fM>*LJ

(m.c.) sadd-'t

na-shantdam " I did not hear you."

j*i^ of

(7)
(8)

(m.c.) sadd-at kardam "I called you." "our father." padar-iman cA/ojAJ cAk^** sarhd-yishdn "their heads" (but v^^t
|4X*>

^ j^
A

sarhd-yi

(e)

Also colloquially sarhd-shdn. ishdn}. In classical Persian the plural affixed pronouns are not

much used

the separate pronouns are used instead. In classical Persian the affixed pronouns

may

be joined to almost

any word

in the sentence except to the simple prepositions


8
:

*&lif jl \) crixL [vide (h)] yak-t rd az kardand bd man-ash dusti bud (Sa dl) " one of those who mutinied had a friendship with me."

the conjunctions
ki ghadr

^ ^"^

^^ ^
f

and

to

some

of

dndn

be noticed that the plural affixed pronouns are preceded by the case of (c) by a ^). If, however, the noun end in (or &>^ khdna silent h* the izdfat is in modern colloquial often omitted, as
(/)

It will

a kasra

in

"their house," or o,U &li. Tchana-yi shdn. In classical Persian this would be u>U*|t iiU* khdna-yi-ishdn or ^l^iiU^ khdna-yi shdn; also in modern Persian it would be better to say c>^t &\&> khdna-yi ishdn than khdna-yi shdn
or khdna-shdn.

sMn

The kasra

is

omitted in the following

Examples of both

Zi-andarz-i

man

kas Tia-pichid ruy

Ki andarz afzun kunad dbruy (Shdh-Ndma, Book I, sending message from Salm and Tur to Farldun, p. 21). None turned his face from our advice. " Because advice
,

m.c. for sadayat.

In m.c. generally pidar.


Gar-at zi-dast bar-ayad chu naJchl bash karim Var-at zi-dast na-yayad chu aarv bash azad (Sa*dl)

free like the cypress

But if thou canst not, then like the date palm. the epithets karim pijS and azad t>\$ are frequently applied the conjunctions poets to these two trees. Note the affixed pronoun at is joined to "If thou canst, bo generous
' ' :

and vagar 3 if and and if." Final silent * is considered a vowel by some Grammarians. silent 8 in Arabic. 6 In modern Persian sometimes written (j'^^- (without the *)
gar
*

"

"

"

There

is

no

final

74

THE AFFIXED PRONOUNS.

man ar maghz-i tan shud tuhl Chird az khirad-(i)-tdn na-mdnd dgahi?


Zi pand-i

(Shdh-Ndma, same page as above).

^-f <>J3fy G e;l Bi-farmud-i shan id nawdzand garm Na-khwdnand-i shan juz bi-dwdz-i narm (Shdh-Ndma, Book I. Pddishdhi-yi Tahmuras-i Divo-xilj-iu

-^ o&

band

si sal

bud, p.

8).

Bi-ayvan-i Zahliak burdand-i shan

Bi-dan azhdaha-fash sipurdand-i shan

(Shah-Nama, Book

I.

Bar

takht nishastan-i

Zahhdk

va bunydd-i bi-ddd nihadan, p. 11).

Buvad khanahd-shan sarasar palds Na-ddrand dar dil zi- Yazddn hirds (Shah~Ndma same page as above).
t

Remark
to verbs,

I. In modern Persian the plural affixed pronouns, when affixed " retain their kasra, as &{&&{ guft-i-shdn "he told them cA*i# ;

guftam-i-shdn

"

I told

them."
be noticed that the affixed pronouns, when the

Remark

II.

It will

of the verb, i.e. when personal pronouns in the Accusative or Dative case, are not followed by \) rd vide 32 (a) for i> in m.c.

direct or indirect object

clear.

am might mean " my porter " j^*ij <&^L>* (XlU^/o A^xi oJ^j ^li js^y i^jJi ^y khwdhar-i tu az
9
:
i

is ambiguity which even the context does not make " you spoke ill to ^ft? {** bad-am guftl in m.c. would mean me", but it might also mean "you said that I was bad" in ** IA> ^Jb)A darbdn-am rahd na-kard " the porter did not let me go (or let me in)", darbdn(g)

Sometimes there
:

Ex.

'

^^

<-& c^Ht-^

>\

y ^lA

(^

khasisi misl-i tiijirhd-yi

1 Isfahdnl panir-rd tu-yi shisha karda nan-ash rd pusht-i sh'isha ml-mdlad (m.c.) "your sister who in miserliness is the equal of the Isfahan merchants,

* putting her cheese into a bottle and rubbing her (or its ? ) bread on the outside of the glass"; here nan-ash <_& instead of "her bread"

might mean "the bread of it."


1

In classical Persian a noun in the accusative to which a possessive affixed pronoun


'

attached often omits tj. a Here the ash would probably not refer to bottle and therefore does not belong to the bread. either her or its.
is
' ' '

cheese

'

as the cheese

is

inside the

Otherwise the ash could easily

mean

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.
(h)

75
fre-

In m.c. [vide also

(e)]

the singular affixed pronouns can be, and


:

quently are, affixed to some of the simple prepositions, as {j*>\j* bardyash "for him, her, it"; <j2j| "from him, etc." <jfy* "in him, etc."; oJ& for " " to him, etc." (Jfyj zir-ash under it" ^b fi bi-am <Jt *j, colloquially
:

dad
to

(m.c.)

"he gave
;

it

to

me "

at a

o^

bi-at

dad or oj

(m.c.)

" he gave

it

in kdr az-ishdn? thee"; az-am fjl az-at e>j> ''from me; from thee " are of this." not ^Ujj jf J ^Ji (m.c.) doing (Such expressions they capable are still considered vulgar, but will probably soon be recognized as correct). " " b " " without ba " with bi ", They are never affixed to j bar on " " " " 15 td and some others. J*. juz up to yj za&ar above except
;
,

"

' (

' '

When

the affixed pronouns

are possessive,

person is called mim-i izafat oJlt the third shin-i izafat vrJl^t ^^i. When used for the dative or accusative of a personal pronoun, the first /0 the second td-yi maf'ul Jj*JU ^U, and the is called mim-i maf'ul J^*** third shm-i maf'ul J^xj ^.^ or shin-i zamir-i maf'ul J^o^^a (1^.

^,

the pronoun of the first the second td-yi izafat o^'Ui ^G, and

modern vulgarisms that are creeping into writing " shumd tishnatan ^^] c> lx *i-/ L* "we are hungry Ma " ishan ast ^^-f && ^^ U^ "you are thirsty garm-i shdn ast o**| ^Li*^ c>^t " I feel cold. feel warm man sarma-m ast ^~\ "they (*l^-*> er* Persian the affixed pronouns can take the place of the (?) In modern reflexive pronouns when the latter are used as possessive pronouns vide 33 (h) i^A l^jUT ^i "the &\ (k) In kitab-ha hama-yi shdn khub ast o~*t v " = **A in kitdbhd hama khub ast of these books are
(i)

The following

are

gurisna-man ast
' '

>

1 '

whole
ow-of.

good

v-^

4^ e^f

The

singular ash u*' could be substituted for shdn ol

in the pre-

vious case; in kitdbhd hama-yash khub ast (m.c.) o*[ <-tj^- ijt **a> l^^ (^-jf " these books, the lot taken as whole, are good ", but in the sentence mikh-

hd az zamin chahdr vajab buland bud va


cJ ^
1

sar-i

shdn (or sarhd-yi-shdn)


J

tiz (m.c.)
<>Jf

cr^J J ^^Hi' the singular 05^ jjj ( ^UolAj*. or) j- ) could not be substituted as the various pegs give a scattered idea.

*& v^J ;W

Remark.

Vj^aix!

" attached pronoun, nom. case "attached pronoun, ace. case, etc."

^/

JL^al/e

^x^

"
;

ctalo j***

32.
It will be seen

Possessive Pronouns.
31
(a),

(a)

from

and

(/),

Examples

5, 7,

and

8, that the

affixed affixed
is

pronouns

are

pronouns when

possessive as well as personal. possessive are properly followed by

In the m.c., the


I;

when

their

in the accusative case.*

Ex.

^xj

f;

^io

dast-am rd bigir " take

my

noun " hand

or dast-am
1

Afghans and Indians say


In classical Persian
I;

be.

Ex.

third only used after the affixed possessive pronoun, person^ Yak-l az hukama* pisar-ash-ra nahl kard az bisyar kjurdan ki- 1; <^7~v *!***! J cr^
is

a philosopher warned his son against over-eating saying that

."

76

POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS.

classical

at

The dative and other cases are usually formed by prepositions, both in and modern Persian (and seldom by f;). Ex. *wof i**~. oJ^> } bi-gushrasida ast "have you heard? " pisar-asJi ra guft cuK } o^-J (Sa'dl).
:

Remark.
stantive,
it is

If the possessive affixed

pronoun
Ex.
:

refers to

more than one subkhurak-

affixed to the last only.

am" my
dear
life

If clothing and feeding." the comes last. adjectives, pronoun

+'bj^ the substantive

^"j* pushak u
is

Ex.: o>j_)c

"
! :

vide also

Remark

followed by qualifying 'umr-i 'aziz-at "thy

to

(6).

possessive pronouns can also be expressed by the personal separate pronouns coupled by the izafat, to the thing possessed. Ex. t-y ;AJ father (lit. the father of me)"; cjlAfl &l^ khana-yi ishan 1 pidar-i man
(b)
:

The

"my
shan

"their house/'
(Pidar-i
&\J

^ and khdna-shan

&(

*JUk

(m.c,)

would have the

same meaning).
In the accusative, the separate pronoun is put in its accusative form with f> Ex. ^*j> \j*> o*o,> a dast-i mard girift " he caught me by the hand."
:

u-ra f*}t pidar-i


bi

The dative can be formed with dddam " I gave it pidar-i u dddam f*\* jt ;^ *J.
Remark.

I;,

but preferably with

AJ.

Ex.

fj^t

to his father (m.c.)";

more commonly

In a continuous sentence,
to
(a)].

etc..

the separate pronouns also


\jj

come

last [vide
jJUr^Jux)
(^

Remark
^M^

Ex.

j\

#* $ J*>

oJij

^^

J^

j j&

^**^
u har

fabi'at-i

pur sharr u shur va

surat-i zisht-i bad-tar az div-i

kas ra mi tarsanid "his evil nature and ugly appearance


of a

worse than that

demon

The vocative
exist, as pidar-i
(c)

used to terrify all." of man <j/ as a possessive (not as a personal pronoun) does
,

mand U*

" oh

my

father!

"

In m.c. the affixed pronouns are preferred, but in writing and correct

speech the separate.


(d)

The separate pronouns can


Ex.
:

also be used in the ablative to express


Jt

possession.

<xUx*o^f

J(

<k

a3

cu^U*

^f

in 'imarat

na az shuma va
you nor to me."
vide

na az u mi-bashad (m.c. or class.) " him " in mdl az man ast 3 ou*f
:

this building belongs neither to


)\

JU ^f

"
(m.c.)

this belongs to

(e)

In certain cases the reflexive


" Mine

pronouns

denote

possession,

33

(a).

"
,

'

(/)

thine

"
,

"

his

"
,

etc. , are

expressed by the demonstrative

Afghans and Indians say fehana-e eshan.


In m.c. dast-am ra

*
3'

l^i
man

(affixed profioun)
ast

would be more commonly used.


.

Also in m.c. in mal-i

c*f

i*y*

JU ^|

REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS.


pronoun &\
,

77
j!

as

^^

j]

az an-i

man " mine "


it)
?

j>y

tf

c/l

az an-e

wi

"to whom did

it

belong (whose was

"

tafifa-i

bi-man guman-i ddrand zan-i khud-am chunan ki hastam hastam.


1

(K. Rub. 334 Whin.) " Each sect miscalls me, but I heed them not, I am my own, and, what I am, I am."

Sometimes

jf

is

omitted as:

here an-i tu
(g)

zamm-i, hama waqt an-i tu nist Digardn dar shikam-i mddar u pusht-i pidar-and nist vju~jo y ^/f means " does not belong to you."

Ay

ki dar ru-yi

In m.c. "mine, thine, etc." are generally expressed by JU mal-i man "mine" ,y|jj "property." Ex. U&^
:

JU>,
(

lit.
a

^*y

^ JU
c5j^*

mal-i

man u shuma
"
i^jj/h-?

tawfir na-ddrad
:

classical c/f is also used, as

gdv-i az an-i

^^f

er*^y

they had out a

bull

"whatever is mine is yours." Barahman birun dvardand uf jl belonging to some Brahmin."


and
in

The
8

Remark.

Possession, in classical

sometimes be expressed by the dative case, as " the ghuldm-i bud king had a slave."
33.

modern written Persian, can j>y \> *U^b pddishdh-ra


:

^^

Reflexive and Reciprocal Pronouns.

(Ism-i mushtarik
(a)

^j&> p)

also

tX/Uy^

Zamir-i

ta^kid.)

There are three reflexive pronouns in the

classical language,

,>>*

khud* (Ji<^ khwish? and v^j**- khwishtan, meaning "self": they are indeclinable and as a rule can refer only to the subject of the sentence they take the place of the personal and possessive pronouns when they refer to
:

the subject. of the three


use:
(1) oJJ)

Khudis
is

applicable to either animate or inanimate nouns, and the most common. The following examples will explain their

j^ &Uu jf
u

b%

" he went to his khdna-yi khud raft


raft

own house"

bi-khdna-yi u

"he went

to his (somebody else's) house";

Note plural verb after har. Note that JU> need not be repeated before I-*-* yj*^ taw/ir, A. increasing, etc." in modern Persian has come to signify " difference." S Broken pi. **A|y Barahima. * Note that the u is short, vide remarks on on ^ 2: khud signifies "a helmet.'* From bbrtd " self " is derived the Persian word Khuda " God " (the self -existing). 5 Note that the In modern Persian 2. j is not pronounced, vide Remarks on j " khwish means also " a plough." The Afghans and Indians say l&weah for self;'*
I

78
a.

REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS.


&U\j
l/o

ma
t;

bi-Tchana-yi

&l- >>

^J; ^x>
' '

khud raftim " we went to our own house " ; maw Za?/d ra oar khana-yi khud-ash dldam " I saw

Zayd

in his

own house

but

man Zayd

ra dar Wmna-yi Jchud didam

\)

&j (^

&1&. would mean " I saw Zayd in own house.' f&t, &jo* is used in classical as well as in modern Persian, as :

my

'

Khud-ash

"

A
In

stag that enters the haunt of lions,


its

home

will

make a

death- vacancy

(Anv. Suh., Chap. IV,


possessive pronoun.
(2) fi*> tjL. Jchud

St. 7): in

the preceding examples

j^

is

for

the

"

myself, I

went "
<2>>^

raftam

yii>;

forcibly *u>;

v*)U^|
I;

himself"; instances khud


(3)

cJtf

" I went j^ myself ", or more forcibly " *j^ khud raftand they went themselves", or more ba khud burd t>^ J "he took it away with khud ra kusht

^ ^
in these

^"

he killed himself":

is reflexive.

$>L Jac tj er^ **A Aama ^as-m 'ag^-i Mwd numayad (Sa*d!) "every one thinks his own brains perfect," and similar sentences, the reflexive pronoun is necessary hama leas u*^ *+*

In the sentence <xUi

JU?

bi-kamal

though grammatically in the dative must be considered the


the sentence.
(4)

logical subject of

With immaterial
The phrase
his, etc.,

things,

" fame " love ",

"
,

etc.,

khud
{i

or khwlsh

(J^.^- in their possessive sense are used,


(5)

and not khwishtan


' '

^>^.

^j-iu j>^k

khud bi-khud

"
,

signifies

spontaneously

"of

my, thy,
(6)

own

accord."

In the language of mysticism


'

^yi^j

bi-khudi or

^^^-^

oJla. halat-i

bi-khudi signifies a state of religious abstraction or ecstacy in temporarily leaves the body.'

which the soul


from Umar-i
AT
'

Note the meanings

of

khud ,^* in the following two


**

lines

Khayyam

*
:

*3 **

f^r-*

g
chi

SjLJi^ ^^LbjJi
?

c^^f

tu ba khud-i na-danisti hich

Farda

ki zi

khud ram

khwahi danist

Thou who

whilst in possession of thyself knowest naught To-morrow (i.e. the day of Judgment) when thou leavest thyself

"But,

(by death), what more wilt thou know ? if you know naught here, while still yourself,
of self,

To-morrow, stripped

what can you know? (0. K. Rub. 52 Whin.}.

"

suicide."

the

Khayyam "tent-sewer," the taTchflllua (poetical profession of Umar in either case the izafat.
*
;

'

nom de plume

')

or possibly

Past tense with present meaning.

For Jf

poetical license.

REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS.


A
j
31
15

79

A^

OM|

v^f^-

Asuljl

;l

IT

Jtt a^Z-i gwftflr

Ma& gashtand u
!

ghubdr

Bi-khud shuda va bl-khdbar-and az hama kdr Ear zarra zi har zarra giriftand kindr

Ah ! in chi sardb ast ki td "The tenants of the tombs


Nescient of
self,

ruz-i

shumdr

and

to dust decay, all beside are they;

Their sundered atoms float about the world, Like mirage clouds, until the judgment day."

Remark
rdy
"

I.

Khud

colloquially, as:

<^

^ ^
J>
;

(0.
is

K. Rub. 242 Whin.).


' '

largely used in

compounds, both
;

self- opiniona ted


;

" posure" esA^ khudi (rare) egotism." Remark II. In the speech of the vulgar, khud U^i. before the affixed pronouns, which is contracted

khud-bin "proud, self -conceited khudr khud-ddrl (m.c.) "self-possession, com-

^^
:

classically

and

^la^

has a plural khudrhd as follows


(vulg.)
;

Khudhdyimdn e>Mjkj>^, khudhd and so on for the other persons.


(6)

man

&\*{&zjs>*,

and khuddmdn

<JS

For emphasis, the Arabic phrase *~ij


(or

bi-nafsi-hi signifying in proprid


all
51

personnd

yM^b

U-n-nafsi)* can follow


:

^, etc., for
<*~ftij

speaking and
(

Ex. <**>* ( ^tiJl or) khud-ash rd biwriting. ^ o ' ' I saw him in his own person *--&ij *j^ ^Uo| nafsih or bi-n-nafs) didam tshdn khud bi-nafs-ih raftand "they themselves, personally, went." *xiiJ; (c) Khwish cAl^ can be substituted for tj^ in places where the latter
' ' ;

^
:

persons, both in

signifies

possession, but JS^^ rarely -like &j*> stands substantive. It is also classically used in compounds, as

alone

without a

<^# <JV.j^ khw%shbtn. As a reflexive pronoun tj^tj^ is not used in m.c., vide (/). Example of khwlsh Jb.j^ standing alone
:

Chu 3

dil bi-dustt-yash

khwlsh rd 'alam sdzad


'alam bar afrdzad ?
(Anvdr-i Suh., Chap. I, St. 15.)

Chird bi-dusJimani-yi

man

"My heart affection's flag for him displays Why should he then a hostile banner raise

' '

(East. Trans.)

But Ichud-rcfl subs. \) &js* The Persians usually follow the modern Arabic pronunciation and say bi-nafsih As already stated, the in the first instance and bin-nafs <j"JU*ta in the second. For the doubling of the n in the final short vowels are omitted in modern Arabic. In *~&? the final hi is the third person masc. affixed second instance, vide 10.

" : in Arabic this final * 4 he, it pronoun would be changed to agree with the this point subject or object, in number and gender, etc., but the Persians often neglect of Arabic syntax. In writing they, however, also do use the Arabic dual and plural
pronoun
forms bi-nafsihunia and bi-nafsihum,
8

Chu ^-

is in

speaking always

chi.

80

REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS.

Khwlsh Ju^. is applied to persons only, but cannot be employed to emphasize a noun or a pronoun man khwlsh raftam p&j JH^ w* cou ld not
:

be said.
(d)

Khwlshtan ^y&jja.

is

compounded

of

"

body

"
;

Jk^
:

khwish and
it

tan

it is

both possessive and reflexive, and unlike <J^y**

can stand

alone and can emphasize a noun or pronoun. Ex. oJ*' I; c&* j*> khwlshtan rd " he killed himself " kusht Ij (^y^o^ &$)\ (jj*> har has awldd-i ajla** khwlshtan rd dust ml-ddrad (m.c.) "every one loves his own offspring":
;

o^a

^=~*t

errft-

"
(class.)

e^*i^ ^^ l> ^LH^f ddaml-zdd man holds his own life dear", or "
Tarh-i dunyd bi-mardum

his

rd jdn-i khwlshtan shlrln ast own life is dear to man."

dmuzand

' '

To

Khwishtan slm u ghalla anduzand(Sa,'dl}. others they teach retirement from the world
While they themselves are engrossed in collecting
grain."
silver

and

Khwishtan ^i^j^L also occurs in a few compounds, as: khwishtan-bm


^AJ ^yL^sL
(class).

^y&^L is applicable to rational beings only. In modern (e) colloquial, although z^ is occasionally used alone, it is more usual for it to be coupled with the affixed or separate pronouns singular and plural. Ex. +M& (^ ^^L. khud-i man guftam* (m.c. only), or /*ii^ f&j^
:

Khwishtan

khud-am guftam
(m.c.

(m.c.)

"I

myself said"

ojjXfif

(+

^^L khud-i shumd guftld

only), or

**&

&\3 tj^.lchud-itan guftld (m.c. only)


raft (vulg.), cuf)

"

said";

^; u*^
"that

khudash

uf

(m.c. only)

man went

himself ";

^^

khud-i

you yourselves an mard raft

dar khud-i shahr (m.c.

only)

"in the city itself." The form.s khud-am fi>^, khud-at

ei>^a, etc., are also classical, as

j**

indn-i irddat bi-dast-i tu

Ya'nl ki man kiyam bi-murdd-i khud-am rasdn Khasm-at kuja-st zlr-i qudum-i khud-at figan Tdr-i tu klst bar sar u chashm-i man-ash nishdn
(Hdfiz, Letter

Nun.)

stani,

Note that (^s adaml "man" has three syllables and not two as in Hindubut adam-l " a man" also that fehwishtan &&?.f^ does not here refer to the
:
*

grammatical subject of the sentence. However in sentences of this kind where no ambiguity can arise, "his own, etc." must be rendered by a reflexive and not by a separate personal pronoun. Note the m.c. position of Wivd t>- and the izafat o-*Uf : classically

man

kh.ud guftam.

REFLEXIVE AND RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS.

81

In ordinary conversation the rule that the reflexive pronoun should be used when the pronoun refers to the subject, is frequently broken if no ambiguity can arise from the violation of the rule, thus *a>t^iujA>
I.
:

Remark

rd bi-shuram "I wish to wash my hands," PJ&J !^*X,A mi-khhwdham dastam instead of f)>& !/*>>* ^"** f**!* "** mi-khwdham dast-i khudam-rd bi-shuram khudam bi-chashm-i khud-am didam (m.c. and (m.c.): f*?.t p&>=^ jo^k
3

f*j* emphatic) "7, / myself, with

my
is

very

own

eyes saw

"

(it)

vide last

two

examples in

(a) (1).

Remark

U
is

^ &Uu
III.

II.

Though khud

ujlj/ are occasionally

indeclinable, such (incorrect) expressions as met with.


as possessives

The advantage of using the affixed pronouns with khud *j> shown in the last two examples of (a) (1).

Remark

again," while
vide lines in (a)

^^
(6).

In m.c., the phrase fty&* bi-khudam means

"I am myself Vi-khud means "foolish, useless; also in a fault":

is usually used as a substantive only, signifying (/) In the m.c. " a relation " khwishan u dustdn &\L*j*j cjl4?y^ " relations and friends " khwish u gawmi na ddrad "he has no kith or kin."
;

^^

va hukama* gufta and baradar ki dar band-i khwish ast na barddar ast va na khwish ast (Sa'dl) " and the sages have said that a brother who is wrapped " in this extract from the Gulistdn up in self is neither brother nor kinsman
:

there

a play on the two meanings of khwish *^>^J7? without the second ast].
is

[another reading

is

barddar-i ki

Khwishdwand
modern.
(g)

*>j(&jjL.

subs,

"a

relation,

kinsman,"

is

classical

and
the

Khwishtan w**>^
(d).

is

used in m.c. for the reflexive pronoun

(in

ace.)

for its use, vide

In modern Persian, spoken or written, the affixed pronouns can take the place of the reflexives when the latter are used as possessives, as " 1 want to wash mi-khwdham dast-am rd bi-shuram ^)^> fj my p>~* ^A^.iux/0 hands" (for dast-i khud rd \) (t^ o~-o or dast-i khudam-rd \) )
(h)

{^ ^o

1 dyd shumd dya-tdn rd khwdnda id?

^wi^

ylijf

U^

Lf "have you read

your verse
J^frXao

' '

The separate pronouns cannot be

so used.

It should

be noticed that

stand either for dast-am rd or dast-i mard, but tyo ^~* represents only dast-i mard. (i) Yak-digar jA^j and Jwm-digar j&.*+* "one another; each other"

may

are reciprocal pronouns: yak-digar rd mi-zanand


striking each other; fighting together."
i^y
*4.A

^y^

I)

are j&*&> *'they

(Gul., St.
1

IX, Chap.

Hama tawdi'-i yak-digar U-kunid to each I) "do you all bid farewell

Plural ayat-i tan ra.

82
other."

SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

For

misl-i

ham

p*>

JA* "alike

(like

each other), etc.", vide under

Adverbs of Comparison.

Simple Demonstrative Pronouns (Ism-i ishdra " this" (ism-i ishdra-yi qarib (a) The demonstrative pronouns are <^l in " " A ba'id an that **& x;L( ^.i) they IjUi p\ ) and e/T (ism-i ishara-yi refer either to persons or things, * and precede the noun they qualify. When
34.
;

qualifying a
e)j
etf!

noun they
"this

are indeclinable.

Ex.
&>.\

,y> i^l in

mard "

this

man

' '

in zan
i

woman";

n mardumdn " these men."

^^
is

in kitdb-Tid

"these books "

Remark.

The noun demonstrated

called &d\ jU-*.

(b) A more ancient form of e^Jt was im, which perhaps remains in J imruz "to-day"; JL~<| imsal "this (current) year"; v*** imshdb "to" this time " 9 "this Imsubh night"; and inject im&ar (old). ft
/*!.
'

morning
In
' '

"

^f*

also occurs,

but

is

not chaste.
inan
cjlxjt

are used for rational beings (zi-ruh jj?.& ) sometimes as a separate " and substitute for and in the sense of c^l " they IfM inha and t^Jf anhd for things ghayr-i zi-ruh These plurals are used only when the j>jt*

those

"

classical Persian the plurals

and anan o^f "these" and

j-

pronouns stand alone as a separate substitute for a substantive. Ex. AJJ lif those who existed before ***>&* ^ Jf <-!*$ ananilci qabl az ma mi-budand 8 us," Note the relative a^aw. In modern Persian 42 (</)] after c^f [vide
:

' '

these plurals in an of are rarely used even in writing and then only if followed " by the relative ki **. Anha lei ** l^T, or anhd^i ki A^jJl^t =" they who
(ishan ki a\JLl|t cannot be used).

Anhd

(ki) is

however

classically

used for " they

"
:

zir-i qadam farsudand V'andar talab-ash har dujahdn paymudand "The sages who have compassed sea and land, Their secret to search out and understand, "

(O.

K. Rub. 151 Whin.)

In conjunction with the preposition


:

and

e*^

bi-dan sabab, bi-din sabab or

frequently in classical and in m.e. jihat are used in m.c. ; but not bi-dan mard*J
* '

bi-dan zan.

The demonstrative pronoun for ** that must not be confounded with the Arabic word c/f '" time." The is) of these pronouns must not be pronounced nasally a common fault amongst English that are accustomed to speak Hindustani. In m.c. an
frequently pronounced un.
4

is

^f

iUwk y

*$

e/f Jacu
its (of

except this that

thou art

the house) neighbour "

f& guftam ba-juz an U tu hamsaya-yi ifi (Sa'di), " I said


;

here jf

is

used for e/f

vide also

30

(6)
8

and 34 (n) (10). In modern Persian budand ^i^ would be used. Har du jahan &^jbj& i.e., this world and the next.
t

SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.


*

SS

l^f

dmadand dar-jush shudand " have come and run their eager race." Many
ki dar
(c)

Anhd

In modern Persian the plural in ha


Lfjf

jjf

aU*

tnM "he

sa/?d

and those black


l^ijlj

"

m aw&a siydh and


"

' '

(Whin. Trans. Rub. 237.) only, is used. Ex. j x>Ju l^i these (things or persons) are white

bi-dnhd in'dm dad va ba-inhd


(or to

dushndm

(m.c.) afa fUJj L^iU

flij> (or lo the latter)."


(d)

gave rewards to those


*

the former) and abuse to these

For phrases

txuf^j (^oaj

"some

mine," etc., twfe ^/o e/f J| are of opinion" is classical


'

32
'

(/).

Ba'zi bar dn-and

as well

idiom occurs in the Iqbdl-Ndma-yi Jahdngiri,


Beng. As. Soc.

vide

as modern; this p. 19, Ed. Bib. Ind. of

" former
(/)

(e)

In
:

^
>

also

means " the

latter

"
(i.e.

the nearer of two), and

e/f

"the
Ex.:
c<

vide

Example second in

(c),

and Syntax.

&f $ means "for that reason,


c/f jt

**

f&

b cx<<=w

^f j

for that purpose," classical. va in hikayat bd tu az an guftam ki (class.)

reason for relating this story was

"

my

so also
'&y*

Shaykh Sa'd! says


s

;>^

*>jj*-

tt)t^Ju.(
8

*$

o^i dt

J(

c;U/o

A^

^,

^i^

Humdy
* '

bar

hama murgJian az an

sharaf ddrad

t>0^ Apparently
i$

Ki ustukhwan khurad va jdn-war naydzdrad The Huma * is exalted above all birds because It lives on bones and injures no living thing."
c/f
jt

stands
\j

in

such
7i

sentences

for

ojlj

e>f

31

fjji/o

Uj

^f j&su

mi-guyam

ki (m.o.)

"

(fijA>

^f
vide

harfhd rd bi-khdtir~i

an bi-shumd
."

I tell

you

all this,

only that (merely that) you


Conjunctions.

Remark.
(g)

Compare

*S

Uuf Ji

Compound

Note the employment classical and modern


gardam
fj

of e/f in the following

examples which are both


ast ki

^\^ M "

J:>

|/

*$ -=-^f
is this,
B

of tr* ouxU.
ki az

hdjat-i

man an

mard
;

dil-shdd
e/f

^A ^jjf ^
wound
1

my

need

that thou shouldst

make me happy"

&

f#
of

blm-i

an bud

zakhm haldk shavam "I nearly died

the

(lit.

there was a fear of that, that I might die of the wound)."


is
j<>

In modern Persian *$ c
After the prepositions J.

used in writing, but seldom or never man e and jt, the alii of these demonstrative pronouns
to their preposition in one word.

may be omitted, and they may be joined


titf'

Ex.

(jt.jb

for

)*
3

e^r?

etfjt

v*dk page 69, note

1.

No

wo/ctf after

&*A

mc
.

requires the iza/at.

The huma UA Or humay <^UA i s the bearded vulture or lammergeir and is not a fabulous bird as translators have supposed: vide Jl. As. Soc. Beng., Dec. 1906. There falls will are however fables attached to it; one is that the person on whom its shadow witl occur will death his kills one if rise to sovereignty it, another that any ausicious," etc. uaun " auspicous days from this word is derived the adjective elM ** humayun 6 The izafat cannot be omitted after blm.
*
; 1
:

84
\

SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

^Uy
(S'adl).

Gar kushi var jurm bakhshi ruy u sar bar dstdn-am Banda rd farmdn na-bdshad har-chi farmd*i bar dn-am

"Whether thou

slayest or pardonest,
;

Thy

slave

(I)

has no will

on thy threshold, my whatever thou decreest he accepts with


head
is

laid

resignation."

(GuL, Chap. II, St.

2.)

In classical and modern Persian the phrase

^f j

c^-a*? ba'zi

bar dn-and

"some
(h)

are of opinion/' etc., is of

common

occurrence.

In mystic poetry

c/f is

often a substantive and signifies something

that can be felt rather than defined, grace, individuality. The following two examples, which the writer does not attempt to translate, exemplify this

obscure meaning

"

JU)
a;fa

w>>J

jjx
}

ka. j^ta
i;ta ctft

o~*oi
***f

t5*f

**

of
lab-i la'l

Shdhid in nist ki ddrad khaLi sabz u

Skdhid an ast ki in ddrad

dn-i\

ddrad

Shdhid an
Banda-yi

nist ki
c

mu*iyyu
s

tal at-i-dn

miydn-i ddrad bash ki dn-i ddrad


:

in

In m.c. in u an signifies various things, as (i) u an shud "we talked of this and that (different & "neither this nor Na in va na an c/f &> j

<j/f

>

^\

o^3cu suhbat-i

topics)."

that, neither the one nor

the other"

Sufi shuda-i, in na-khwuri an na-khwuri? Dar-khwurd-i tu sang-ast; bi-raw sang bi-khwur (O.K.) " Sufis, you say, must not take this nor that,

Then go and eat the pebbles 4


In man-am
is

off

the plain."

(Whin. Trans. Rub. 251.)


ki

mi-ravam

to start, or I will go

"
;

(m.c.)

^^ &

in u'st

"

o~y

^
:

^o ^\
(or

am

just going or about

inak u'st o^jt

^j\

" here he

6
;

in u'st ki mi-ravad
is

"he
:

is

just going."

Var

poetical for j?\

am

at the

end

of the lines stands for

"I am " and

is

not the affixed pronoun.


1
8

Tashdldon the by poetical " face." or gal' at aspect


Sang Miwurdan eJ^jj^
Inak manram

license

"one hair."
* '
;

-&

also

means "to be stoned

there

is

a double

meaning.
5

** -A?', or Inja-yam ^jlijf m.c. **herel

am."

SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.


(j)

86

you,"

In the following m.c. sentence f**~) &*> ** o kar bi-kun va ilia in ast ki man rasidam " work or else I shall be down on " here I in ast is used in a dramatic sense and i.e. I'll
signifies

am,"

be with you but not in in

-xl

could be substituted for in ast ki o*~$"

&i.j|

in this sense'
this is

ast ki ba

shuma guftam

p&

**"

ut

which means "

the reason that I spoke to you."


(k)

l*</ c>f j in kuja e^f colloquial and classical phrase va an kuja " where is this and where is that," signifies 'you can't even compare the two one is so much the superior to the other.'
(I)

The modern

"

The following idiom


^iut
'
'

is old,
Jt

but

still

in use

ijjj

mara yad
remind

at |yo fj j\9 bidih

ji &f t*l I

when
' '
.

am

at leisure

&&$ chun az in ki from this (work) that

amongst the Afghans dar inam farigk shawam


:

am engaged in,

me

(of that)
(a) it

(m) In

was stated that the demonstrative pronouns precede their


:

nouns, but this rule is violated when emphasis is necessary. Ex. )\j~ * the horse I rode o~ijf %*, asp-i ki savar shuda budam in ast jo^>
' '

^A*.|

this

is it."
(n)

The following added instances

of

demonstrative pronouns perhaps


*

exhaust their meanings in the m.c.


(1)

u kushti mi-giriftam " otherwise in

fi^o ^^ j|

b c?&l~

^J &ti )*

J va

ilia

dar in panjah-salagi

ba

spile of these fifty years of


fifty years of

have wrestled with him, even with these No. (8).


(2)

mine
A

mine, I would ." Vide also

<^*i

rasidid;

arrived;

A^WJ *>.***} U^ UlAi| ittifaq an shuma waqti-ki nazdik-tar shudi an ham chara na-did "by chance you when you drew near, he too (the other party over there) saw no
ajU.

p*

elf

^^w

^j^

help for

it

."

Remark.

Note the slovenly change from plural to singular in the verbs.

Nazdiktar j&.ty means "nearer than you were " better u. Note the use of e)T for jf he ;
' '

when you

rasidid

(3)

<uiij \)jj*t *Z

**>*)

&]** )

&*j& &j&jtk**j

l
.

bar yak digar

mi-burdand va bi-dan rasid ki kaniz ra bi-kushtand


of

"

(class.)

they got jealous

one another and matters

reached to such a pitch that they

killed

the girl."

now";
^

also

Panjah-sala *JL.

panjah-aalagl
3

^U

" behold, lo" used in writing and in m.c. l^b a dj. from t^J "fifty" and "year": subs.
;

JU

Jjl-^ij

the state of being


:

Gbayrat

"a

o^ here jealousy

years old." this word has generally a good sense


fifty

and means

honour; jealousy for the honour of one's womankind." Bi-ghayrat &j**X (m.c.) is used as an abusive term by Muslims. In modern Persian hasad *-*> " " or rashk <-; would be substituted for ghayrat &j in the sense of envy in the
nice sense of

above example.

86
(4)

SIMPLE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.


e^l
Jt

**J

cs*^

chand-i

ba'd az-in (classical

and

"a ba'd-az chand-i

little after this

"
;

**f

amad
ddrad

(class.)

(5)

*& ow^

" a few days passed after this." ^jj AJ e~k&i A>" e;T clixj ^|^S

y (^ ^
oj

m.c.)

= f^***.

j|

jjy

<.$#) rwz-

c^cwd bar In bar

^l^U

'adatha-yi bad na(a little girl)

misl-i an-ki angusht bi-bini-yi khud-ash bi~kunad

" she

has

no bad habits such as picking her nose."


Remark.
after
it.

Angusht

is

used in a general sense and does not require

fj

(6) o**o

Ub a

Jti)

ls<..u

^jf in-ham panjah dana


no

tila *st

"and

here are

fifty

pieces of gold."

Remark.
fa

Note that there


tila

is

izafat after

dana ;

also ow-oXfc for

dana-yi

could also be said.

(7)

A^ ^ly
^^t

baray-i

an-M " because


i^f<V

."

(8) 4>U*|

Aa.

t/;^

^ia.j^

ai"

(*t^lx eJt^ip-

bi~dan buzurgi chi taur uftad (m.c.)

"I

hayran mandam ki dirakht-% remained lost in astonishment as to

how
No.

a tree of such size


(1).

(or in spite of its size) could

have

fallen

' '
:

vide also

Remark.
(9)

The
JU

clause after *$
f^

is

in the direct narration.

tejf

V^OKU* ^^JUii )&

Jftfcl

VJ^

darb-i utaq ra sakht du-dasti baz

karda

vtf ^) (^^ ^3 Z^6a khanum zud an " Ziba Khanum suddenly and violently

with both hands bursts open the other door of the room
(10) AJU/ \)J ty AU^ <_^a. erAJ pish-i man " I had a few girifta (Afghan) rupees by me; taking
8

."

^J
:

chiz-1
it

rupiya bud

u ra

." This

Remark.
idiom
is

Note

\^\

u-ra for

tj

e;T

the latter would be more correct.

common amongst

the Afghans. 4

(11) j e/f oJj e/f )& j f*j* j'< \^.\ u* o^j e^' )* dar ^n vaqt man * n kar mi-kardam va dar an vaqt an Mr (Af^an) "at one (special) time I did one

thing and at another fixed time another."


(12)

aUi

not."

i.e.

* o~| ^jf Jix misl-i m ast ki na-bashad "it "not worth speaking of, contemptible."

is

as

if it

were

an indefinite quantity; some a little while." Panjah ashrafi (now a two-tuman piece) or panjah lira or some such phrase would ordinarily be used instead of panjah dana tila. " a little.*' In m.c. nazd-i man 3 Chlz-l (sJfc*- m.c. and classical for <_>*' qadr-l chand rupiya-l or chand dana rupiya bud.
1

Classically chande,

j>\

and ishan

U^t

are strictly applicable to rational beings only


is

except in
2 to

the case of personification.

This rule

however frequently neglected.


jt

For
34
(a).

classical

examples of substitution of

for cut

vide

30

(6)

and footnote

EMPHATIC DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.


IS

87

td inki

and

af

13

anH

"until, before

a ln-ki dnjd rasidam u murda bud

had died"

^ ruz bi-ruz bar *j^iu t^y'f vlr* jtf ) p*jj*\ " dnki shardb asar ta nami-bakhshld miqddr mi-afzudam every day (m.c.) I increased the quantity (a little) till (at length) wine lost its exhilarating
:

13 (*^-; l?of *&jt (m.c.) "before I arrived there he


:

"

jt

^j^S.

effect."
(13)

In bud

ki

&f

^ ^f

"this was the reason

that": an
ki.

ki

*&f

(classically
(o)

and

in

modern

writing)

"he who "

not u

" behold here, here is," and anak J^f "behold yonder, there is," the affix appears to be the diminutive affix, but the signification is intensive J&f "behold, here I am " inak ml-dyad *jf' J&t " here p**> he is coming ": 'Usmdn Aghd (inak ndm-i u) ( j 'Usman ) l*f ^Ulc j*l> " behold here am I." such was his inak-am
In inak
cJouf
:

^1

A^ia

(for

name)"
"
! ;

ft

whXjt

(p)

Ant oJf

is
;

" that " for thee

"bravo and ant o*if or anat oJf, for an tura\j* of " also int bravo " and mt OA>| or in-at of &\ "this
!

for thee," occur only in poetry.


35.

Hamm
very one
of
' '

u-h**

"

Emphatic Demonstrative Pronouns. this same one, this very one" and &{+* haman "that
l

more emphatic forms of the demonstrative pronoun and are more frequent use in the modern language than in the classical. They are
are

ruz

simply the demonstratives strengthened by the particle = ham dar an ruz j$j of ^>, etc., etc. jj) cA*A j^

ham

/**

dar

haman
illus-

In m.c. the plurals

and ^U^ are also used. trated below. Examples


Ifjo+tb
:

These words have other significations


' (

(a)

" as

Haman&(+* haman &(+& signifies " soon as o^ oU-*


:

when

--then (that same time),"


birun amadan-i khun

haman va murdan-i baradar-am haman bud "


brother died,"
as well as m.c.
(b)
:

O^jt &*j*j

c^

o^^f &jj
."
2

as soon as he

was bled

my

"no

sooner was he bled than


(c).

This idiom

is classical

vide also

" the same." Ex.: also mean oU* ^\ " " this is the very same one you saw &.$ o*| in haman ast ki didM " we came >* jl ^2; Tiamm rah amadlm by this very road, this is A the same road we came by." j^j &*+*> e^ u^ [^ khwahish-i man hamln bud

Hamm

u*** and haman

o **
1

"

my

desire

was the same:


f!

this very thing

was what

I too

wished"
he

man

ham dn-am
&$

a>Ujk

<j*>

(m.c.)

" I

am

that very person, I

am

"
:

*^i** ^

^UA ma

hamishd hamdn-lm ki budim (m.c.) " we are always just as


are always the

we have been, we
1

same."
;

In m.c. often pronounced hamun


etc.

for

^1

f*>

and of f*,

jf

the emphatic p* are

Or birun amadan-i k&un va murdan-i baradar-am

yak-l bud (m.c.) c)

88
(c)

COMPOUND DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

" came, he went [Me


(d)

o^ j]

f **f

*$ (^i-*^
(a)].

hamm

ki

dmadam u

raft (m.c.)

" as soon as

hamm yak dana, " only this one " (classical and m.c.). f <x &L^ U ^x^ hamm ja kushta shud, " he was killed in this very (e) "= the spot"; t^j* e^** hamm fardd (m.c.) "not later than to-morrow
AJb <->
<irt+

English vulgarism
(/)

" to-morrow

as ever is."

&
bud

hamm

hamdn va sukhanhd-yash " such was his conduct and such were his words." (m.c.)
(j-i**

t&ty&^j

ejUA Jiote^ harakdt-ash

36.

Compound Demonstrative Pronouns.


l ,
:

" are like, manner, etc." Compounds with the adverb u^ chun " such = like and churiin ^am this) ^is<.+a> c^ (1) (.^ia. chunm (for " also adverb " in this manner." a one as this " such like that ') and c^? -** ham-chundn (2) c>^ chunan (for of c#*" " " in that also adverb manner a one as that ts*j* &&%- J cH^ chunm " so did so and va chunan kardl ^lU. j i^- J^ ey^e surat-i Ml you chunm va chunan bud the matter was so-and-so
(a)

'

' *

' '

' '

here chunan va

chunm
i^^-

'

(&**-j D&**

is

contemptuous,
cjlia-

Oh

So-and-so.'

Remark.

n^f *w

chumn s and
*

^f aw chunan are rather more

emphatic forms.
& chunm shakhs-l suhbat na-bdyad kard " one should not converse with such a person" cx*f n^^> chunm ast? (m.c.) " is the case so is it so ? " here chunm 1^3. is an adverb. 5
(6)

j>y

<xiUJ

o^sv-* ^^aiu^ ^jJu^ U

'<

Chunm &***- can be combined with <^l 6 as, ^cj^ ^f *A*>J ^^^ *^ *i^w pish-i man in chunm chlz-l na-bud ki 'iwaz bi-diham " " I had no such thing with me that I could give in exchange
(c)
;

^^

^ixj

15

f&*) f^J*

^^ ^

(m.c.)

c ^ un^ n

travelled a farsakh
1

"
;

ya ^

iars akh raftim

' '

here

m chunm &&*

(m.c.)
is

in

this

manner we

an adverb. 7

2
3

*
5

Chun cJ>^ also means " how?, because and when." Tu kaun hai ay aise taise ? (Urdu). Dar talash-i In chunln jcir-i budam f^ tP^ LJ*^ L^' U*^J^Or 65 chunln ashMLas oclsxAt ^t^ ^ (without (^ of unity).
Chunln ert^- and chunan c>^Similarly chunan
are asma-yi kinayat.

^^-

with an.

Ex.

va

faivr-i-ki

an murgh-ha avaz ml-kardand

an chunan gah-l na-shunlda budam j*^J js^iij^(f ^lisJf ^.^Cjxj Jt^f l^* ^f j I had never heard birds sing as those did." (class.) 1 The <^ of unity can be added to chunan &&* and ham-chunan &(^+* (but rarely if ever to chunln or ham-chunln) vide page 89, note 2.
'
:

^^

&\y
-*

Lc^b ^^l

/o

jf

*<jol

AA.

ki az madar-i parsa

(Shah-Nama,

Jild-i

Avval,

Birzayad, shavad bar jahan padishah Ra 9 y zadan-i Kaywus dar kar-i Sudaba va Siy 9aush).

COMPOUND DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.


Remark.
(d)

89

In the second exam pie )> ^t In tawr would be more usual.


*
' '

1 chundn u chunin kardan (or guftan) &*j* LrtJ^ J o ^crastinate, evade, have recourse to subterfuge."

to pro-

(e)

Chunmhd

lf*i^

and chundnhd

l^^ "such

like things

"

are not used.

ham-chunin is merely a more emphatic form of (&**- chunin. (/) ^isufrA "a Ex. cWf Lwijf ^-aiu* <.>*+* ham-chunin shakhs-1 mjd dmad (m.c.) person
:

exactly like this


4
(

act like

" this

came here": e^j^eJ*^ -**


1

fitMnrShunin kdr bi-kun (m.c.)


is

in the latter example ham-chunin

an adverb

&

^^AXSU^A

fj]&

/A

{.}*

Lj\z)jjji ham-chunin ki tu zur ddri


so

man ham-ddram

(m.c.)

"just

as

you are strong,

am

I too strong."
:

him "
"

Ex. ham(g) Similarly cjtisi+A is merely a more emphatic form of c)^-' chundn ddam-l rd dnjd didam p&z l?of tj ^af ^^+*> " I saw a man there just like him "; ham- chundn shakhs-1, man dar 'umr-i khud na-didam (m.c.) ^* " I have never in my life seen a man like ^AJJJ &j*> j+c )t> v* ^^s^i. e)^?
1
:

^^

(J*jz

ty *^USI*A ^/o

man ham-chundn
(or as

ki

bud

'arz

kardam

(m.c.)

I related it exactly as it

happened

was the case)."


s
j

Remark.

It will

be noticed that Jiam-chunln ^AXSU^A

s f or

near> an(j

ham-chundn
(h)

&(L^+*> for remote, things.

There are three other words that

may

be considered as demonstrative

pronouns and deserve notice, viz. ^-*A hamchu "so (in m.c. pronounced hamchi), such," and e*!*^ and cJl&x*- chandm* and chanddn "so much."
Their use
(1)

" the work must be done like this " *$ 6 bdyad kard (m.c.) o~*j^jJ,> j^f f&+Sb " ki he is ddam-i dilir-lst such a brave misl-ash nlst (m.c.) *s^*ojj ^ixc hamchu " 6 hamchu ruz that there's none like
:

best illustrated by examples. ^sb*A hamchu or ^^^^ hamchun. Ex.


is

^ ^U^sw* ^
\j

kdr-rd

hamchu

man

him"; iy^*^

(class.)

clear as

daylight."

Remark.

<^f^ hamchmis
is

also occasionally

used in m.c.
:

The

follow-

^aci+A j ^SL+A va hamchun hamchln-ash khusha &w^ crM^** hamchin, (vulgar) "he does it like that and like this, but this is the way that pleases him."
ing vulgar saying
1

an

illustration of these

two words

*
3

For *aFA. chunanchi and <*<a. chunanki, vide under Conjunctions. " I made a 'Arza daahtam in

^*li
is

&*>jf (m.c.)

petition

writing."

The

C5

of

unity added to

ham chunan

or

chunan

ki

occasionally
4

f* )***J? /** i^* " exactly as he was

by

Persians

** )^i
:

perhaps incorrect. Ex.: l^f^jt " I was (Afghans) entangled (or


vide

by the Afghans and ** (or *^^) ^^^F


1

imprisoned)

there

vide

Adverbs and Conjunctions.


39
(g).

*
6

For chand *** " a few, etc."

Instead of hamchu ;&+*> the words hamchunan &\*XL+*> or hamchunln ould be used here.
6

In (m.c.) misl

cU

WO uld

be used instead of hamchu

90

COMPOUND DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.


Khusha &j*> is vulgar for khush ast vr~t <J%j&. Instead of ham-chun and hamchm u*5^A the words chunan &&*. and chunm &*** would
,

be better.

Chandan oN^ " so much as that; so many; that amount; all that " all time," and chandin (&**<* this; this long time,'' etc., are used with or
1

(2)

without a substantive.

Ex.

chandan

ol^ia.

*>"

chandan sharab bi-man dad ki na-tavanistam bi-khuram (m.c.) " he gave f)j^i me so much wine that I couldn't drink it (all) " chandan misl-i u narm" danam ; jf Jx* ^|<xia. (m.c.)- "I don't know such a lot as he does
;

pl~J\j&

&]&

^v

f^

ut^

p>\**+>

chandan dakhl-^ bi-zaban-i Farsi na-daram pj\*> t5r)^ ^iV c$*^ " I have not a great knowledge of Persian."

ell***- (class.)

To chandan
murdand
ki
-

&>

Chandan-i az ta'un can be fixed as " such a number died of >^^o e/^UDjt ^t^^plague that ."
iy|<xia>

the indefinite

Chandan-l az

m malikhulya firu
**
ki

guft

ki bish taqat-i guftan-ash

na-mand

so

much

(GuL, Chap. Ill, St. 21) ^'^^9 did he rave like this that he ceased from mere exhaustion."
UJ^iuJU) ^jjf

yf^

'Umr chandan-i
^iLj Chandan
..."

kam bashad
life
'"

the shorter one's

parishani kam ast the less one's worry."


cXw
jliax>
j*lax>

also

means

fold"

&\<x*- *x*

i& Ijj .^fjf

chandan

ki

man

dar In

muqam mazlum shudam

sad chandan az an ziyada-tar istirahat hasil shud (m.c.) " in comparison with the oppression I underwent there, my ease was a hundredfold (lit. as much as
I

was oppressed there, a hundredfold more than that was ease obtained)."
(3)
jjX)6J

Chand/in
|j

(^^^

chandm
(e

sal ast ki

shuma ra na dida am
(i.e.

(m.c.)

^<^-

l*t

you

"
:

(*& iS o*.i JU,

it is

so

many

many)

years since I have seen

o^x

(^j|*iJ

bi-chandm

jihat (m.c.)

"for several reasons."

Remark.

Note that chandan


singular.

o!<*i^

and chandin (^.^'^ precede their

nouns which are in the


(i)

For chandanchi

chandanki &&\*i*. "as oft


etc., vide

Asuf^ "howmuchsoever, notwithstanding" and as, as many as, insomuch, although, as soon as,

Adverbs and Conjunctions.

(/) For bi-chandm martaba afzun &j_j\ the more/' vide Adverbs and Conjunctions.

*^

^^^

(class.)

"how much

With the

of

unity

chandan-i

^1^$- "of any amount, however much";

vide (3).
2
3

In modern Persian

rabt-l

Jo-^ would be used instead of <^k*O dakhl-l.

firu

^f*^" means "such a quantity" and not "such a long time." s be redundant, but I think it is meant to emphasize the fact that he raved jj may *
Chandan-i

in a low voice like one in delirium.

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.
37.

91

Interrogative Pronouns

Ism-i Istifham
:

^S^\
f\*

**!

strongly accented in speakthe verb or come close to it. for and immediately precede emphasis ing, which ? " both forms are used in kudam or eJ^ A > kudamin % (a)
***>

There are four interrogative pronouns or adjectives ' are ? and &* chi. 1 chand " how

kudam;

ki;

many

'

They

' '

fl*S

m.c. as well as in the classical language; they are applied to substantives,

animate or inanimate, singular or plural. Ex. oaiv f\& kudam shakhs " " which kudam rah (m.c.) " which road ? " ^jl^A) tij j*l^ (m.c.) person ? b <*j bi-farma*id bi-bmam man ba kudam pi*? pte cui, j tWf slf/ojsuoti f\*t be pleased to say let me see with what na-mahram-ha amad u raft daram " unwarrantable people have I comings and goings ? erf & ? /*c$^
:

' '

p)<*

o*f^>

f\**

3 vjXo nami-ddnistam ki an
I

kudam mulk u kudam nahr

ast (m.c.)

" I did not know (whilst


Remark.
questions.

was gazing) what country or what


^tJ/
is

river it

was."

It will be noticed that

used both for direct and indirect


is
;

[In the last example the Imperfect " " I was not knowing (all the time I was gazing)
(b)

ast cuvoi is

used in a continuous sense, dramatic present.]

f(<3/

g*

hich

meaning, as hich yak


(c)

kudam, "none, not one of them," has the same -& but Tiich kas ^y **** means " nobody (at all)." g*&
;
:

In the modern language ^J yak-i^is generally added, as ^~~+-> /t^ kudam yak-l-st " which one is it ? " v cJ ^^.^ j*f^ kudam yak-i-shan khub ast " which of them is good ? " The answer might be ftc
:

of

of

<tf

Remark. Kudam p\* can also be used instead of the accusative plural " who ? " vide Remark to
:

(h).

For r tATy, or "every," vide 39 (?) and (k). The (e) Afghans wrongly use kudam f\*!> in the sense of the Hindustan i <{ oAf Ex. some woman told me" t5 A * \) cr^ j*'^ kudam ko,t. jj+3 &j
(A)
: :

" each

j*t4>5"

kase-ra

dldi

"have you seen anybody?":

^1**"

jjj^

'

w* &**$ 39) 5

b ^>a. ^j\ j& tj ^UJi az roz-l amadan-i man ila imroz kuddme insan ra fjjj " dar in jazira na-dida budam, from the day of my arrival till to-day I had

tdJdJ

For chiguna

*>f

as a substitute for **>, vide


t^ is

38

(a).

In the accusative

of course added, as:


:

kudamkar ra

kardl

4< " kudam ra dadl " what work have (m.c.) you done ? ^td \j f\** (class.) to which " m.c. The *& in one did you give it ? or bi kudam kas (_r& j*t^ bi-ki dadl i&\&

ordinary prepositions can of course be used for other cases.


3

Ncirmahram

fysutflj

ship (brother, etc.) permitted


*
5

"unlawful man," i.e. one not within the degree to enter the " haram."
unity.
is

of relation-

Kudami c^f^

Yak ^j numeral "one" and <^ of for kudamln (^\^

used in

class.,

and modern Persian


&> instead of

in

writing, forkudam.

In correct Persian hich insan ra IjiUol

kudam

or

kudaml insan ra

92

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.
:

never seen any man in the island" some one " (for vJJw |j kas-i rd

v^

\j*^ kuddme-rd
?

bi-talab

"

call

^^
;

~bi-taldb).

(/)

Ki

*f "

who ?

"

ace.

|>

^ or I/ Hra " whom

"
;

dat. &*ra or bi-ki

"whose (property)?": <^A) (X Hra zacK \jf JU " whom didst thou " strike ? ^l^ *& or)l/ Hra (or fo'-H) dad? " to whom didst thou give it ?":>/ & ki kard " who did it ? " ^~l i*&~*\ *$ ki istdda " " " % ast who is standing ? i}*>^ * ki budand who were they ? " ** \> Jl~* " <>^-*> ** ki hastand &/ ckj sag ra ki vayl s kard " who loosed the dog? " who are they ? hikmat az ki amukhti * jf (or klstand *~*t " (Gul.) "from whom didst thou learn wisdom?
or A&. 1

Ex.: *$

ma?-* &t
:

1 '

) :

Remark
istifham
(

I.

^^ftLof

This interrogative pronoun (' noun or ol^ ) or kdf-i kudamiyya ( &**\*S oK ).


to

'

^
it

is

called kdf-i

When

used (interrogatively)
(

imply a negative
:

is

called

kaf-i

istifhdm-i naft

^&
(

^l^ai^i

o(^).

Ex.

^wU
The

^lx)|

fj^S o^^jf &Z

J&*2*

*^

lA^^/t
:

(Sa'dl).

particle

o^

tf is also a conjunction

for its various significa-

tions, etc., vide Conjunctions.

Remark

II.

In the accusative, &$


(h).

is

generally used in the singular only,

but vide Remark to


(g)

Before
j*l

am "I am" and

all its

persons, the
are
6
:

of ki is

changed into

4^ for euphony.

found: ^'^-J^
are they
' '

Ex.: J& " who is kist

y
it,

tu ki-i

"who
he
?

thou?" but

&

bi-t is

also

who

is

"

^^ o^l

ishan kiyand

"who

similar change

may
:

take place before

*i~&hastam "'lam, I exist"


' '

who are they ? and Ex. jii^ klstand (or ki hastand) persons. In the third person singular o**a> & is not used. [The contraction ^~~*f
all its

' '

stands for c^,f


(h)

vide foot-note.]
6

The

plural

cA/ kiyan

is

rare in classical Persian, but is

still

in

The remaining cases are


is

of course

dative and accusative


distinguish
it

also written

I;

formed as usual by the simple prepositions. The *>\ but in this case care must be taken to
*

kuh

&"

from the dative or accusative


be noticed that *$
plural ki-ha
is

of

*^ kih " small " or of kuh *$ poetical for

hill."
is

* It will

applicable to persons only, and to both singular and


'

plural.
3

The

also used in m.c.

Also pronounced vel to rhyme with the English bell.' is vulgar for ast. Vulgarly, *** kiya is also used final rather than of o~-a> *^. be the contraction of o*|
*
:

Kist *^~~*? appears to

6 6
(

*$ or **t Ordinarily written ^f

^.
the old Persian word

In modern Persian

e>^

is

used as the plural of

kay

=Shahin-shah), the term applied to the ancient kings of Persia before Islam.

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.
colloquial use
<io.wf
l amongst the Afghans. Ex. o&c eh!^ ^ dar in fikr u Ichiydl bud
:

93

ji

kujd bidin makdn diiU^ "he was wondering m.c. and amadand va kiyanand (class. Persian,, Afghan) whence they came and who they were."
ki ishdn az

In the m.c. of Persia the plural

kihd or IAA* ki-ha

is

of frequent use.

Ex.

xvJ& U&a.^ dJ*x>f UAJ" ki-ha

amadand va
'
:

chi-hd guftand? (m.c.)

" what

people came and what things did they say

Remark.
did you strike

The accusative
' '

\j penis." j>$ speech it might kasdn ra zadi (m.c.) might be used, or Jjl^f j*f^ kudam ddamhd-rd

" what <^j l^ kihd rd zadi people though correct is by some avoided in talking, as in quick " the &<*. chi Instead Tcir (j(<~ sound like
plural
l>

^^

In
AJJ>JJ
A*"

classical Persian the construction

would probably be

^jbj

^Uuil
signifies

ashkhas-i

ki zadi ki

budand ?
A;i

(i)

In m.c. the phrase o*~.x& A*

bi-kist

"who

is

with

whom ? "

disorder ^amongst people).

Anja ki o-oXj *fj*.


treat

raftid
*i s
?

shuma ra navazish kardand? Na khayr ki bi-ldst (m.c.) " ^H> ^ ^f when you went there did they Aid/ u43'y L>

you

well

No
j|

they were
sag-i kist

all

in a bustle."
is

(y)

o~~Af
of

cX

"whose dog

he

"

in m.c. signifies

" he

is

The idea is that a dog has no respect on its own nobody, has account, but merely some respect on account of its master, and ^^f sag kist consequently means 'he is the dog of no one of any account.'
no account."

Similarly f*~
(k)

^ *&* sag-i ki hastam?

pt^f

^~ U ma
great!

sag-i Tcistim?

*a.

chi

"what, which? what!

how

in

what manner

or

kind? why?,
Chi *^
*L?-

etc."

Ex.:

used for the singular or plural, generally for inanimate objects. ci^jolj^ &a. chi kitab-i'st ki mi-khwahi "what book do t you o~~*^ or better, want?"", ^fjw^o a^lir kitdb-i ki mi-khwahi chist? : &*. " cu l^Utf in chi kitabha-st " what books are these ? **J!>> AA. LJL.|j.iu x3
is

iHiXJ **

^
:

kitdbha-i ki mi-khwdsti chi

budand? (m.c.) "what books did you want? " &*. j| az chi jihat "for what reason?": &*. ^ty bardyi-chi "for what?": chi nishini ^^^ *** (m.c.) "why I wonder are you sitting " chi nishasta*i &^J &. ditto. here ?

&<A(^(i

c^

Note that

this first

&$ ki

is

really

a conjunction and not the interrogative pronoun.

For

this connecting
2

*\

vide Relative Pronouns.


?

Or kudam
'I

kitabha-ra nii-khwasti

^W^iu/o
boxes"
-

\)\^*$ f\*f vide (m).

knew what

things were in the


&*.

danistam ki chi chlzha dar sanduqha


this sentence is correct, a Persian

bud ty

^^i^ ;i

^)Jj^

*t

^AMJI^ (m.c.).

Though

would naturally
would say kudam

in

speaking omit the word chlzha


*<*
l

^-i^ and

say danistam
:

(ki)

dar

sanduqha chi bud &j*

^5oi^ )& (if) pi~*>\& ( O r chiha \^- less common) chizha ^J**- i*? instead of '^U^ ^^ chi chlzha.

an Afghan

94

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.

Remark
as, chist

I.

Chi &* like "

lei
?

*S often combines with the

^~-J- " what

is it

how

"
:

chisdn

e) l~^-

word following it, "in what manner ? "


for

how ? chiguna &j*Remark II. In m.c. az chi &* j! sometimes means " of what substance or material ? It usually means
* '
'
'
1

"

what reason ? "

The dative J^ chir a "for what?' is only used as an interro" why ? wherefore?" or as a causal conjunction (tf |^ chird-ki) gative, "because that." The dative formed by the preposition can however be used. Ex. SU bi-chi jihat "for what reason ? "
(1)
:

In m.c., chira of. course" (i.e. why not ?).

Remark.

[^

is

commonly used

in the sense of

"
certainly,

(m)
{tctf

An

accusative with ra after chi


:

is

rarely used: its place

is

taken by
l

kudam, as

i<xjJU>

bi-anjdm rasdnida-i pleted," or chi kar ra bi-anjdm rasanida-i i<xoU) ^Uo| AJ (; jfe &*> (rare). " which book do Chi kitab mi-khwahi ^tj^-J-* v ^ *^ (m.c.) you want
1

kar ra f^uO \> f\*f " tell me comwhat have work (m.c.) yourself you

j&

o,^

khud-at bigu

kudam

"
?

" what sort also


kitab ra
%

of

mi-lchwahi?
\t>f j6
' '

book do you want ? ", but ^ya.** " " which book do you want ?
*>*-

\j

V UT j*t<^ kudam

Remark.
taken to mean
(n)

chi kar karda-i could also

be used, but might also be


'
!

what
&<*

fault
is

have you committed ?

In m.c.,

generally followed byjjja. chiz


:

" " work ", or word, matter." Ex. harf " " what is he then ?" (i.e. nothing"); p%*?*. ** " are we hich-im

o^

o^f jj^

"thing", aa. j\ u chi

kar

chiz ast

chi chiz-im

" what are we ?"

(i.e.

/*jf

*$*>

nothing").

(o)

The following
4

are
?

common

colloquialisms
I to

8
:

&*.
?

business

is it of

mine

what have

do with
also

it

"
it

^^
:

bi-man chi
:

' '

what

*^^ etc.

ya'm
chi

chi

"what do you mean?",


;
;

"is

chdra "

to do?

what remedy?" 5>b iyl^ what can he do? 6 (nothing)"


a
i.e.

aa. c^' ;a/t

possible?": *>U* darad "what is he able

"what

guft ki chi
1

chi hdlat mi-kashad <x^* oJti. how aT oif miserable is he 6 !: state he is suffering," " he said what ? ": <^x^ tf o^f ^t* a^ 4 u chi sag-i ^J|b j

The ra necessary
Plural ace.

after

kudam
|j

1
3

kudam

kitabha ra
:

Vulgarly ^5*-

cM

(^

*^ cM
&*.

c^*

what

"

or

'*

what thing^ "

is

common

vulgarism.
4

t*j
?

^iij^a, AJ|^J
(Sa'dl, verse)

A^

of

bi-kushad
6 6

" what

J|

(yo

care I that the


<ijl

war g az %n chi moth kills itself


**
jt.

Also u chi jism


Also
c/ii

u jan darad ?

^^ ^

~^

baray-ash mi-guzarad

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.
ast ki
sar-i

95
(lit.

bala-yam

bi-nishmad

he

?)

to

sit (at table, etc.)

above

"who me "
?
t)

is

he then

what a dog

is

(p) &*.

What? Ex.

^t* ** jj^y>

^ <-M
a*.

shash nan ra har ruz chi


' '

mi-kuni

* '

what do you do with the


ji

six loaves every

day ?

,^^

jyHj^Hs*

mi-khwahi chi-kuni (vulgarism)


>\j>

olo
chi

*T

J.A

^U

cAt

"what do you want to do"?: ^f^o ml-danam shayad ki u ham najat ydbad " what do
' ' :

^
I

know but

that he too
(m.c.)

am

shud*

may escape ? ^.t ^itA>i warn? ddnam "I don't know what became of my horse"
*x
:

asp-

bakhshidam; kamzak ra (j c^i* fyxAiu^Ij sii/a/fc ^iT " " the I do with the girl? is but can what (Sa'di) negro yours
ra
fti-fat

chi

U* fj kunam

Remark.
** "

It will be noticed that ** is used in indirect as well as in

direct questions.
(q)
; '

How

how

fearful,

" " what " Ex. &# ^'^ >** *^ chi-qadr* hawlndk bud " &*. ^^o man chi kambakht am how terrifying it was ^fv^.io^'
!
! :

' '

unfortunate
(r)

&^

am I ": v^ J-^ *^ chi ma-nzil-i khub "what "How? In what manner? why?": i* J^U
!

a fine mansion !"

zan guft bar in love with

man chi me ? "


'

'ashiq shuda-i
:

" the woman


^ar
c

^
* '

&>"

J ^% &>

said,
?
<s

" it

o^

&*>

e^U d

fy

arf

have you fallen there is no doubt about

'

Why

J*j1 Afu S^**^ (3r^ jk* ** **& I) t*m*&~\ Iskandar-i Ruml ra Alexander the guftand ki diyar-i mashriq u maghrib bi-chi girifti ki (Sa'di) Great was asked how he had conquered the East and West, because " (lit. " oJkx) " ?) they asked, In what manner didst thou conquer ^b aTy
:

AT

'

^^&&j
what
tion?

^)\i*

tuki bi-inmihnat girijtar-l shukr bi-chi gvfi?

(Sa'dl)

"for
afflic-

(or how) can you return thanks since you are entangled in this

"
:

**!

e^^t ^A^Ue^ jJU ^jt^xk


!
:

a^. aXI|
' '

&{&* Subhana'llah! Chi Khuda-

wand-i 'alim u sahib u -' sh-shan ast!

Praise be to

God

What

" mighty God is he


' '

a wise and

^M^i &? J&& fulan some one said to him, Why do you remain seated here because ."* chi budi 6 (classical) would to God !" p?^ (t* or)^| ^AJJ A^. 6 chi budi agar (or ki) hakim mja ml-amad " would to God the uuii Governor had come here (or were to come here) This idiom is still in use amongst the Afghans.
&$*
**"

(^

kasl guft-ash chi nishmi ki

(Sa'di)

' '

' '

Foibala-yisar-am

(V^CS^J

better bala tar az

man &* $ j* ^.
" I don't know what
(sickness)

But nami-danam has come to it."


2
3

chish shud (vulg.) *** u*^> f*l**+*

Also qadarjb* "quantity"; etc.

($

(without hamza)

" a
\

ball."

6 But C5> f* J*^-* J *^ chi bashadagar bar-i digar mutarannim shavl, " chi bashad or ehi mishud what " how nice it would be if you were to sing again would it matter if ." 6 Chi budi mja birya yad *?\# ^?<-^l <^AjJ *$ (class.) " would that he would come &* or chi Tchjlah bud &}* <jj^ *% is used instead of chi budi in m.c. chi khub bud
'
!

'

^ ^^

96

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.
t>
>\

agar dar mufdvaza-yi u shab-i


inter-

falchir Jcardi chi

shudi?

(Sa'd!)

course with her, what then


(t)

"
?

" had he delayed but one night in his


chi-ha
:

The

plural of

&*.

is

it is

rare in classical Persian.


&<*-.

In

modern Persian the

plural

is

also written

Ex.

<>l^&x>

I*

<*^

chi-ha

IA &*. miguyand "what do they say, or what are they saying?": *$ *+&&&? (ft j tj& chiha Tci na-kard va chiha ki na-guft (m.c.) "there was

nothing he didn't do or say."


(u) Chi-chi
**.
-

&*.

signifies

"what

does

it

matter one way

or

the

" whether other"; also


bar takht

whether

murdan

chi bar ru-yi


;

Ex. ^^LSJ)J* *$" ^*J* ^^j* *^ chi ." khdk " what matters it to die on a throne or on

the bare ground ? ** ground":


^Afii

it

is

j**>\

the same thing to die on a throne as on the bare chi amir chi faqir (m.c.) "whether gentle or <*<$
;

" * gadd (m.c.) o*^ *^- )* **- chi dur chi sadaf whether simple " " a pearl or an oyster shell Q^J &* j **-*!}> A^ chisharif u chi wazi' as well high as low."
chi shah chi
:

"

Remark.
examples.
This chi
is

f^ khwdh

repeated could be substituted for &*.* in these

called chi-i (not chi-yi)

musdvdt (c*tj^

&*.

"the

of

com-

parison or equality." (v) It was stated above, in


It is

(k),

that

^ animate beings, as things. Aa. ^\ 3/ Shah pursid ki in chi ddamhd mi-bdshand " (m.c.) the oib l^f " in addm-hd kistand ? Shah asked who are these men ? (instead of
however

is generally

used for inanimate


:

also occasionally used for


'

^^

'

In the former case, however, &*. has rather the sense l^ojjf " what sort of &*. of ," whereas *Z merely asks who are they? ^-^ yo ^jf " what sort of man is this ? " in mard chi kas ast mard chi kdra ?
(MwjjT

^i)

'

'

^
"
,

(m.c.)
j^il

[in

ast

e~!
?

tyK
?

&s*-

"
:

tj*

(m.c.)

"what
-

sort of

man
is

is this,

or what
?

is

his

profession
chi
*a.

tu chi kdra-i ijf &*-j* (m.c.)

" what
8

your work

also

= 6i-^
to-

>w]

(S*y*j*

n)

-^'

&t\ er* (3d )* **

y c5~^ ^ chi kas-itu ki dar haqq-i

man

in ihsdn farmudi (class.)

"who
is

art

thou who hast acted so kindly

wards

me ?

' '

(w)

Chand***-

"how many "

applicable to things animate or inani-

mate, with or without. a substantive. in the singular.

The substantive,

if

used, must be

1 Note that the final letter is doubled durr J and must therefore in prose be pronounced with a stress on it. Here by poetical license the word is dur. " Hindustani 2 The distinction that exists between (vide 81^ and SteppingStones ") in Urdu does not exist in Persian between Bl^ and *^.

In m.c. this chi kas-l tu

y ^^

*% would be too

familiar an address to be followed

by ihsan farmudi

INTERROGATIVE PRONOUNS.

97

Chand *** is also an interrogative signifying "how much ? how many ? how long? to what length? etc." Ex.: axA<il^j| <xU. tS &\*>+> namiddnad ki cJiand az shab guzashta " he knows not how much of the night has " (Sa'di). passed (i.e. how near morning it is)
Pd-yi miskin piydda cJiand ravad K-az tahammul sutuh shud bukhti-'

(Sa'dl)

the weary foot-man go For the camel has no more endurance left in
far can
5 e>*ot ***$ jij&U^o

How

it

"

\y

Turn mushdhara chand a&t? Guft "hich."

(Sa'di)

"how much
often
?

is

your

pay?"
' '

He
long

said

"nothing":
?

birchand girifti* (m.c.) "


1 '

^^

**&*

how much
is

how

"

did you pay for (this)

";

j^. ***.

chand bar

oia.

13

td-chand

for

how

' '

Like chi

&*.,

chand *&*

occasionally used in exclamation.


jj^a.

years

Remark " or "


Remark

I.

In composition: *JL

of

how many
Chand

years

"

chand-sala, adj., signifies

"of few

according to the intonation of the voice.

II.

xxa. is

only used of things that can be counted.


<^j*3

For quantity that can be measured


In m.c., chand taab
*Jt
13

and

)*&*> are used.

<u^.

means,

measuring

five

^i by

five e

will this

howmany parterres of ground each stream water in twelve hours ?" A


chi A*,

"

plot of the size


(x) (1)

mentioned

is called

by

villagers *-*&$.

Grammarians distinguish the particle (o^)


Chi
&*(

by various names
chi-mi-khwdhi

as a simple interrogative, as ^Afj-iux/o


^'^fti(
**&.
)
.

A*,

?, is

called chim-i istifham

(2) Chim-i istifham-i nafi ( ^ftJ ^itx*! p**. ) implies negative interroga" " what does he know ? tion, as an kas chi mi danad <MJA*> **. ^^'^ nothing
:

vide also (6).


(3)

Chim-i nahi
l***

p**.

implies prohibition, as

in sada chi mi-kunt


it."

Lf'* *^
(4)

(^

(m.c.)

"why do you make


(

such a noise

Chim-i mubalagha

a*JU*
:

adjective

and

?= don't do

intensifies it , as

^(^4x5 Uj)
the

the ** of amplification precedes an " how &*. chi zibd mi-khwdnad


(m.c.)

nicely he reads."
(5)

Chim-i ta'zim
st

in chi mard-i
(6)

^~~J.^<

^^
this;

^*

?**
c<

*. of

honouring precedes a noun, as


is

what a man (brave) he

"

Chim-i tahqir (^a=3 p**. ) the **. of disdain" implies negative interrogation combined with contempt, as: o>W JbUi a^ ^| in chi qdbil ast " This chi " how can he do how is he fit for this ?
(m.c.)

business

^.

is

practically identical with chim-i istifhdm-i nafi (2) q.v.


(7)

Chim-i tahayyur
^-

chi mi-guyi

" the Aa. ^*su ^. ) expressing astonishment," as: " " what is this (m.c.) you're saying what do you mean
(
! !

A strong
7

breed of camel with two humps.

Also in m.c. dar chand girifta

t^^

***)&

or elliptically chand giriftl

98

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
(8)

CMm-i

tahassur

(^~*J

Falak bd

man chi

kardi

^^ **
me
' '
!

^
(*>*>
'

" as in " the ** of regret danghd ay b JUj ^t wheel of the sky, Alas
)

U^

how

has thou dealt with


(9)

For chim-i musdvdt vide


For chim-i
tasgl&r

'

(u).

(10)

j*>&

p**-

or

"the **

of

diminutiveness

"
,

vide

Diminutives.
38.

Substitutes for Interrogative Pronouns.

" Connected with a^, are the inter rogatives <w^ chiguna how? in what " from &*. chi and & and e>^ apparently state ? guna colour, manner
l
' '

' '

derived from
(a)

^ and the demonstrative pronoun


o*t

e>T .
9

Chiguna.
)

o~jj*yf AJ^a.

" what sort

For the m.c. at end of (v) 37.


Remark.

" of a man is he ? phrase ^~\ fyK &* *j+u.\ in mard

^^f

*^%- chiguna ddam-i

st (classical

and
vide

m.c.) (or

chi-kdra ast

example

In the above example, chiguna *>>^> qualifies the nounadaw


"

j*af

In the phrase &*& chiguna-i Ex. U>jy (&) Chun*


:

how arej^ou
?

"
?
,

chiguna

&*.
\j

is

an adverb. 5

^^

^ 6e-ma chun-i
what

el

away from
?

' '

^X* ^f*. o7^ J -* t^*^ ^ cf^'* darvish-i za' if hdl rd dar tangi u khushk%-yi sal ma-purs ki chun-l ? magar (Sa'dl) "don't enquire from the poor darvish during a famine year how he is, unless ."
6
1

find yourself tf

<

(lit.

how

art thou

art thou

"

ji

J^ ^^ Jij^^

us,

how do you

39.

Indefinite Pronouns

^^>

#>\

).

(a)
is

There are very few indefinite pronouns properly so

called.

The defect
from the

supplied by the
list

of unity or
:

by

substitutes, as will be seen

following

of

examples

Guna &lr,

also

gun &j*

be careful to pronounce the } long and the

final 8

like

e,

tejf^ chigune
*

& *j$

>^

chand-guna "of different kinds,

various"; also

guna-gun "of different colours or sorts."

Chiguna
'

^^- here equals )}&


'

*^- chi t&wr or

p~$

**- chi qism.

Note that the


'st

is
*

J-*^^)

that of unity (and is " what sort of a woman

" not that of <j*d adaml "


is

man "),

as in chiguna zan-l

she?

Note the
"
I

difference of

meaning

of *^*"^ in the following


>

two sentences
T*^^

Man

u-

ra dar Basra dldam;


(Sa'di)

haji chiguna bashad

*^

saw him in Basra; how can he then be a pilgrim from Mecca ? " chiguna " what sort of a pilgrim is he ? " Guftarn-ash chiguna-l dar In halatl hajl ast " " I asked him how he was *jla. (Sa'di) %^$feeling." * Chun is also in some districts vulgarly used for kun v)j& " the anus." c!^:

&J^- t5*^

V^

-^
'

U>' (i^

^^

Another reading is Tdvushk-aali Chunln e;i^> chunan eJ^ fulan


}

^^ e&x which
(>&*, etc.,

is

certainly a
>**-,

commoner word.

chand

chandan and

are called kinayat

^?^.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
(1)

99

"Other, another," digar j&.&, precedes or follows its noun, as: digar ruz )jj y^D, or ruz-i digar j*t> jjj "the next day" also "another day"; " another road " digar bar jkj&t, or digar rah *}j j&* or rali-i digar *.& " bar-i digar .* j* "another time; a second time, again dlgar-gun \y j&i* "in another state, altered"; jj> J'+S namdz-i digar (Afghan idiom) "the
9

!;

afternoon prayer digaran <jlj&t> or dlgar-ha lAjfc^ "others, other people 1 digar kas (class.), or better with J&A (class.), or kas-i, digar j>*

' '

' '

% of unity the kas-i digar " another person, some one else <^s.t (^ " " another the other 'azvha another (remaining) "; Ujapyo^ digar person, limbs"; digar barddardn-ash {*\)dj* j&i* "his other brothers" (Gul.,

j^ ^^

"

Book I, St. 3). The expression


other remained

"

^U ^j^d oJ>

yak-i raft digar-l

mand " one went,


*

the

is classical

as well as m.c. 3
j&.&+*>

Yak
other/
'

digar

^^.

and ham digar

are

reciprocal pronouns

each

one another.'
I.

In classical and m.c., digar j&& is frequently used as an adverb signifying "otherwise, again, any more, why then," etc., as: ,i^Lo ^jl^J j j*U jj^^^j va digar kas nam va nishdn-ash na-shinavad (Gul., Book 3, St. of the Boxer, No. 68) "and no one ever hears of him again" here digar ^.^ is an adverb " again," and does not qualify kas : digar paytn-

Remark

tofj&itjj&d (m.c.) "further down."

Remark
"

//.In compounds and

in poetry ^fd digar, as:


X

\s>

J>* digar-gun
*

changed, altered, otherwise."


<~*\ j>*

Bazarcha-yi qasab-farushan digar ast* store of Cairene cloth or silk have we."
(0.

^U^*

*-*/AJ

^j'3

"no
is

K. Rub. 58 Whin.);
another place."

lit.

"'the mart of the muslin- sellers

Remark

III.

For the

^ of unity with &gar j&&,

vide

41

(p).

For " the one


J^t* L5^;

the other ", vide yak-l


digar

(c) (1).

2/

ofc -*

" one

other, another
:

"
;

note position of <^ of unity in these


so

two words
chlz-i

c5-)4^ chlz-ldlgar " " the dlgar-l should mean thing of some one else

also in.j&.

ljFj*2& means "another person,"


;

C7^O$Instead of

in m.c.

however

it

often incor-

rectly

means "another

thing."

These expressions are exceptions to

rule.

chiz-idlgarj&.3 csOi^j 2/a& chlz-l digar ^.^ (J*?*- tJj could be used; vide also
to
(6).
3

Remark

j^5 j t)}^ j
)

o^^ijji

ju

A&T

^
.

^iX**

i^J cUc j

oAyof

*&f ^ic
Qasab

y'^y x^ii^j j** j *>*j* Vn^? #*) Here LS^&Z could have been used.
{

u^ >>
in

Bazarcha **. ^|jb dimin.


Persian).

*-*"&* fine linen

of

Egypt (word not used

modern

100

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
(2)
is properly a substantive (pi. aghydr "strangers"). Ex.: j*& ghayr 1 mdl-i ghayr "some one else's property" cJ ^^s. ^ai^ shakhs-i
:

j* JU
To

ghayr-l guft

"a

stranger,

some one

else said this."


?

the question " are you a relation of theirs


^x>

" the answer might be


'

m an ghayra hastam
zdtl
1 l

(m.c.),

" I

am an

outsider.'

Dar umur-i

own

va Tcdrhd-yi ghayr bd man kunkdsh namudl - j ^\& >y*\ " he used to consult me on his er* -?^ c5 *>(< (Tr. H. B. Chap. V) " " another affairs and those of the community ghayr-i ^sj** person, a

4^
' '

stranger.

Remark.

Ghayr

" un-, im-," etc., to form adjectives. participles, with the privative sense " or cc uninhabited" " uncultivated Ex. ghayr-i dbdd &$ j*P gltfiyr-i insaf
:

is

prefixed to substantives and adjectives,

and Arabic

oUflJfjjA*

"unjust"

(but

if

the

omitted, as ghayr insaf i

manqula
i.e.

" " immovable (property)

^^l

compound
(class.)
;

is

a substantive the izdfat

is

"injustice"); ^ax/o^p ghnyr-i t^jZisQj*? gkayr~i mankuha "unmarried,

illegitimate (wife)";

^;^*^
mod.

" not inherited " ghayr-i mawrusl


8

*^ j*

ghayr-i ndfiz "inoperative, of


(also

no effect"; ghayr-i mawrus &

Per.).

Va-ghayra

;^,

P. (for wa-g^ayr"-hu JJ^j, Ar.),

and

<~&)'&j**)
;

va ghayr-i

zalik (for Ar. tX/j^Ac^


)\ Jt

= " with j*?


The

but ghayr az u et cetera" ), and ghayr-i the exception of him." in compounds is izdfat vi*jUe| in modern Persian after gh.ayr

an cA j^- = "

perhaps a
ghayr
11

corruption
,

of

the final vowel of the Ar. noun, thus


khdlis,

u&^j& t

khdlis in

(6)

Ar., and ghayr-i "One another"


:

Mod.

Pers.,

**

impure."

(l)^jA^j yakdtgar (one word) classical (numeral) and dlgar >.* "another." Ex.:
dust

" one " compound of yak -& ra p*)\*y> ^*j& \j jj*&. yakdlgar
' '
:

j&i<& iiliu ^i^ raftim " we went to each other's houses." bi-khdna-yi yakdlgar Yakdtgar J&A& is used in colloquial only by educated people ham-digar
other
:

mi-ddnm

' '

we

are fond of ea,ch

^J>*A

is

used only by the vulgar.


I.

Remark
j***

This

reciprocal

pronoun must not be confounded

with

^-

yaki-dlgar "another individual," vide footnote 2, page 99.

dlgar-l
fi;*

the property of some one else."


is

The expression
;

Uw

c ghayr sha&hs, though correct, ^fc

not used in modern

Persian
3

shaMis-i yhayr-i is used instead.

In modern Persian the izafat

-i*Ll

is

used after

ghayr

j*

in

compound

adjectives.

In old classical Persian, however, the Izafat


after ghayr j*p*
It is

o^^l

appears to have been omitted

omitted

in India

and Afghanistan.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

101
is

Remark
It

II.

Note that in the second example A&>


but
less usual, to
:

used collectively.

would
(2)

also be correct,

use the plural

ba ham-digar nishasta and <y " (m.c.) j' cws aqab-i ham-digar (s*j&* f* mi-amadand (Shah's Diary) they (the ships) followed one behind the other." One " " some one " " any one and " a person.' (c)
digar (m.c.)
C

"

J&* ^> ham

they are seated together

^^

v^

' '

' '

'

(1)

yak-i (the numeral yak

"one"

with the

$ of unity).

Ex.:

j xxxU^^ cA^f 0""""?^ 'J ^-- ^ &jjB* (^j* ^iuw sukhun bar in muqarrar shud ki yak-i ra bi-tajassus-i ishan bar gumashtand va (Sa'dl) "it was decided to appoint some one to spy on them v^JU J| yak-i az muluk " some one knocked " one of the dar zad
1

' '

'

'

(Sa'di)

kings

*j)t>

^X* yak-i

(m.c.)

at the door."

anyak-i ^i e/f (m.c.) "that one," " this one." Ex. j*x p& )* ^. vd ^~"$ pusht-i and in yak-i &$ (m.c.) an yak-i dar qcfim shudam (m.c.) " I hid behind that there door."

The following are

colloquialisms

"The one
an

the other"

is

yak-i

^&

classical Persian digar digar-i ^j&.* uf. for digar-i ^sj^. Vide foot note 2.

In

^l digar-i <JT^*J or in yak-i " the other" also occurs

j^

Remark.

" the answer your average ? might be


,

Yak-i ^Xj

is

also a

numeral
Jto

thus, to the question,


8 ^xj yak-i dar dah
' '

"what

is

one in ten

(cartridges, etc.)."

Note the following idioms xi^j p*>^ "they were all of one mind, unanimous (
:

<w>

hama bd-ham
budand

yak-i budand
*>2j> J.b

man-yak-i-am

^^*

e^!f

3 (*"
1

^ ^
^1

yak-dil

-^)

.^

(Sa'dl)
9

"

am one, alone," I am the one who


first

but yak-i man-am az in miyan


."

For yak-i

^&
;

" in the adv.,

place," vide

Adverbs.

Yaki

^
^

is

also a subs, (note accent)

For yak Jo
vide

41

(a)

"unity, oneness, concord." as a substitute for the indefinite article, vide also under Numerals. Man yaka u tanha j * er* (m.c.
the numeral,

only)

"I

alone."

(2)

^^f

ahadi (the Arabic numeral

"one"
is

unity), though practically the same as yak-i <^, verb in the negative, vide " No one " (d) (6).
l

of with the Persian the with in m.c. used only

at,

but that
4

Note the Preterite tense is used to signify that not only was the decision arrived it was carried out. Hakim-i guft Mbilaf-i In 'ajab budi ki an yak-i bisyar-khwar bud fjaqctt-i bi-nava*-i

na-dasht halak shud va

an dlgar kj&wishtan-dar bud

^ j*
3

ISa'di)

the former
(or latter)

was a great eater and could not stand was accustomed to abstinence.' "

" a philosopher replied, 'the contrary would have been strange because the fasting, so he died but the second
;

Or yak- bar dah

102

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

Remark.
duals."

The broken
:

plural of ahad
(^$)\*

*M
j
l

is

dhdd o^f " units,


f

indivi-

Ex.

f/o

yJ

**

\j)

&.}*

*^ ol^*-

^ j ^^ e^T"^ y cJ^
&*

guft bar pisardn-i dhdd-i ra'iyyat


pisar-i

mard

(Sa'di)

chanddn jafd u tawbikh ravd nami-ddri ki " he said you do not treat the sons of any one of my

subjects with the severity

^ij

^K
(3)

{&*& 1j i^f jl <^<^\ " I never ahad-i az ahad ra na-didam ki chunm kdr-i bi-kunad (m.c.)

you use to

my

son

"

&y^*

saw any one

else

do such a
t

(disgraceful) thing as
}

you have done."


kas-i guft ki

or

u~
."
31

kas or kas-i.
Sa'dl says
*
:

Ex.

&? eJif ^-~

"some

body

said that

fi

f*jiJ

^a

e~*|*.

^Uj

^j*>

^^Lot;

Rastl mujib-i raza-yi Khuda-st Kas na-dtdam ki gum shud az rah-i rast

Rectitude (or truth) is the means of pleasing God. Never have I seen an upright man forsaken."

Gar

bi-ja-yi

nan-ash andar sufra budi dftab


ruz-i rushan kas na-dldi dar jahdn
(Sa'dl).

Td qiydmat
^^J

*&

**\t>

&1

^+te\->

oft^ guft bi-i'timdd-i

an

ki

ddnad ki
to

bi-kas

" he na-guyam (Sa'dl) replied because he relies on


I

what he knows,
in

viz. that
(a) (1)
:

won't repeat things to any one "


cr^J"?
o**^ >()f

vide also

u^^
' '

V-^^

^*&

example =E *s)y* /*^ ^ J*> ^iu*

Remark
*$ ki

sukhan juz

bi-hukm-i zarurat na-gufti va mujib-i azar-i kas bi-zaban-ash na rafti (Sa'dl) who never spoke unless it was necessary, nor unbridled his tongue to

hurt anyone's feelings"


AisJjj e>l-?

^ )^
Kas

(in m.c. kas-%

instead of kas)

;^

ijf

aiif

*l** j

j\

\jr^

va hukama*gujta and chahdr kas az chahdr kas


live in
:

bi-jdn bi-ranjand*

" four people

Wj"^ <j& J o^
Remark.

dread of four other people " J! Ij^ qaza-ra az kasdn-i u yak-i hdzir bud "by chance one of his

followers (people of the house)

was present." " noble"


;

^
~

is

also used in the sense of

(i.e.

a 'some-

body') as opposed to nd-kas


1

^^

"
ignoble,

mean"
Jcas

thus Sa'di says:


Care must
kuss).
(j^-*^-

In m.c. kas-l

^|

"some one," but

(j**^l In

"this person."

be taken to pronounce this word kas

(^
"a

and not kus <jf (whence the Arabic


person, a

Kas
* '

(jr$ is properly
' '

a substantive,

body"; chunln kasan & '*^

such persons. * In m.c. and in prose kas-i ra


3

^f an

kas

ash M-girift fa that person's house."


*

would be used for kas jj^ in the example. \j ( dast"that person." Ex.: &jjf J^l*^ ^ ^j ^^r^ (J&vt led to and him he took him by the hand bi-manzil-i an kas dar avard

^^

'

Bi-ranj
pi. of

fty "in

affliction"

and

**\

"are," or
:

else

bi-ranjand to-^Jj* the

3rd

person

the Aorist of ranjidan

&**^)

both correct.

INDEFINITE PBONOUNS.

103

Shamshir-i nlk az dhan-i bad chun kunad kas-i

Nd-kas

"

How
An

bi-tarbiyat na-shavad, ay hakim, kas (Sa'di). can a man make a good sword from bad iron?

ignoble

man becomes not oh


;

philosopher, noble

by education."
(m.c.)

p& y become a big person, a somebody, these days."

Imruzhd u ham kas shuda

ast wi*i

A~

^j^f

" he has

Bar khud

dar-i

kdm u

drzu dar-bastam

Vaz
"

minnat-i har nd-kas u kas vd rastam.

I close the

Nor sue

for favours

door of hope in my own face, from good men, or base.'


"

'

Kas u nd-kas
El-kas

^^

^
*'

(O.K., 315, Whin.)


high and low,
all."

tju

signifies

friendless, destitute,

an orphan."

Kam-tar

kas-i .^~$ j+S

"

scarcely a person."
,

These significations of kas <j


as well as classical.
(4)

nd-kas

^^,

and

bl-kas ^JN/^J, are m.c.

insdn "man"; (jc.s& ddam, ^tf ddaml, f&f "a shakes* ol^o o^*^ ^^f ddam hayrat mikunad ki "one person.", Ex. insdn could be substituted in such sentences (lit. a man) wonders that
1
:

"One":

^M

' '

the scent ji^x fj ^cjj bu-yi gul shakhs rd mast mi-kunad of the roses intoxicates one shakhs na-bdyad in, hama subuk bdshad ^lj C^XM. a^. ^f <xUi (JO.&& (m.c.) " a person, (a man) ought not to be so
' '
:

v^^c

(j&s^ Jl

l '

impatient."

Remark

I.

*A-\J

i^as^, shakhs-i vdhid,

or^j

'a person, some one." Ex.: single <>&j ^t^iu^ j& i b xa.tj ^afcuA shakhs-i vdhid bd dah nafar nami-tavdnad o**f bi-jangad "a single individual cannot fight with ten men":

"a

fard-i bashar, signifies

individual," and shakhs-i ^^iui

" some one came


"personal."

^&*

(to

me)"

but^iui

shakhsi adj

(note accent)

means

Adam

(*<if

and insan c>^l both mean


'

"man"

as opposed to

'*

beast," but the

latter is also

not a savage.' of, possessing politeness, good manners The following classical sentence, Mi-tarsam mabada bi-dast-i adam-i jangali bi-yuftam va In ham-churian ast ki bi-panja-yi shir giriftar shudan (^$*&^ ^^liT **"&) (i>U<c ptaji** ^jjXii j&j j** ^^^ *J *S ^**\ viAJ^ -** e^!t ^ *&%. (class.), would in modern Persian be

used in the sense

rendered

Va

In

chunan

ast ki

guya insan bi-panja-yi shir

giriftar

shavad c)^^

er^t

*
3

The

plural of shakhs
*f or

is

In m.c.

glj or glch

would be more used

in this sense.

104

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

Remark

II.

The

indefinite

pronoun

"one"
'

in English, or
:

may

often be rendered in Persian by AS^A har-ki whoever" " the nearer one c*M|j3 eiL&^ har-ki nazdik-tar ast panshdn-tar ast

"a man," <s~] j&ty tfj*


is.

the

more one
(v);
*>j*>

is in

anxiety,"

lit.

whoever

is

nearer

is

nan-ash

ajxij JAJ^SU ^Jli J^j na-khurand chun bi-mirad ndm-ash na-barand

<J~ck

i^
1

45 in great anxiety, vide *f dar harki zindagi )* j*>


(Sa'dl)

"when

man's bread
death."

is

not eaten
is

in his lifetime, his

name

is

not mentioned after


:

The following

often quoted

by dervishes and Sufis

" one" can only be expressed by putting the Aorist or the second Past into verb, Habitual, person singular, as, gu*i
(6)

The

indefinite

pronoun

*&&* ty*) <**?*j ^**>j &j <^&>\**\ \j&* izdihdm-i zan u mard chundn-ki agar sar-i suzan-t-anddkhii bi-zamm na-rasidl " such a crowd of men and women that were one to (H. B. Chap. XI) throw (or had you thrown) a needle's point amongst them it wouldn't have

"you would say"

f*\

reached the ground."


(d)
(1)

"No
^/^
:

2 one, none, nobody, nothing; no, some."

grJt<fc

Jiich kas>
citiuJ(

or

Sa'di says

^J

^u

j
"
;

kas,

with the verb in the negative.


iltifat

Ex.
' *

.$'

^j,*

hich kas bi-man


(m.c.)
:

na-kard
31

ta

no

one paid any attention to


hich ki az shumd-ha
' ' ;

me

4 <>jl~jo

^\ &$ UUw
hich yak az
is

&$

lai*q-i in kdr nistid (m.c.)

business
Idyiq-i

^i^J eX ^^Uaye

$
*

\A\+

jj

" none of you are

fit

for this

^^
of

shumd-hd

marhamat-hd-yi " kindness cJ^


;

man

^i-^.|^ii

^^
:

kardan na-tawdnistam one of the adventures

5
J '

you deserving of my hich yak mdjard rd qalam-band \) (^^ "I was unable to commit to writing any (Afghan)
riistid

(m.c.)

"none

->

^
"

*^^ o*^ J ; lx> c5 J )j* ***$ chaslim-i mur u " none has kas na-did ever seen ant's (modern saw) pd-yi mar u nan-i mulld 6 eye, snake's foot, or Mulla's bread."
1

oj&
'

^XA

hich na-guft
:

' '

he said nothing
(/) (2)

hich kas

naydmad

'

no one came"

vide also

and

116 (m).

1
'

Note
*

this

method
'

Nothing

is in

of forming the passive. English a noun.

Or hich yak <-j ^AA.

Grammatically, of course, this should be nlst ^^~~&', this 2nd person plural is an example of the slovenly thought so noticeable in modern Persian. 6 In m.c. this sentence would be hich yak az majaraha ra naml-tavanistam qayd iJo bi-kunam p&-> iSuJ* |j Uf^lo j(
6

Mullas

'

^wJf^AJ^J bleed people


'

and

are not bled.

^j^. In m.c., mulla-zada

ls\j

&c

is

almost the

equivalent of

stingy,' etc.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

105
is

Remark.

Hich

-*;*,

which

is

used adjectively and substantially

applicable to substantives, animate or inanimate. cedes its substantive.


1

As an

adjective,

it

pre-

(2)

"Some, any."
"
:

In composition,

without a negative someetc.

times implies

some," and with a negative "none,"

Example

Bi-hunar-rd bi-hich

Gar Faridun shavad bi-ni'mat u mdl Teas ma-shumar

(Sa'di).

" Even should he become a Faridun in wealth and possessions, Do not consider the ignorant (mean) person anybody."

^o^jAa. ^a> ($)***& (^i* tu-yi sanduq hich chiz hast "is there anything hich ddam-iinjd dmad "did any man in the box?"; **1 lavi-}! <y^ ^*A come here?": ^^ ^s^r* g& hich mard-i naydmad "no man came": " " is there hich Teas hast one there? *
g*>

dnjd

any

oJj

^A
"

hich vaqt

mara yad

mi-kurii

"do you

ever remember

me ?";
?
;

hich gah anja rafta-i (class.) " have

you ever gone there

bidiht (m.c.)
(3)

^\ ^l^iwo a^ ^j bi-Mch vajh mi-tavani "can you by any means complete this work ? "

m kar-ra anjdm

In answer to a question, hich


Ex.
:

negative.

mi-kuni " what are you doing g* " who is there ? "the answer nothing." To the question, cu^r Isuf might be ,***> "no one."
Q.

and

its

^s&*

&*. chi

compounds signify a " A. ? hich

"

Similarly \n
hich chiz nist
;

hama

hich ast ^~>\

&^

A^f-jf, signifies
**>

" this

is all

nothing

"
;

(chizri

^^^

or) J**.

"it

is

nothing"

J*J C5t.T'
In hama hich ast chun mi-bugzarad Bakht u taWit u amr u nahy u gir u
ddr.

"This is all naught, since it passes away, (viz.) fortune and sovereignty, ordering and counter-ordering, empire and dominion." (Sa'di.)
1

Hich vaqt vs*^

^A

ever

"
;

hich vaqt-na *i *^-j


^.)2

grJjA

"never."

Ex.

ghulam

hich waqt darya na-dlda bud

ty

t&>
rilst

" the slave had never -=^j *?*& (*^* (Sa'di)

seen (or experienced^ the sea.'*


*

The

m.c. phrase hich kas-l


),

o~~oj

^5^ gri*,

or hich mard
' '
;

rilst

^^^

Zj* ^i

(not mard-i (.sty*


also
signifies

signifies

" he is of no account, a poor creature


2>;!*J

the latter sometimes

hich mardl na-darad

4^^

manhood

(poUtely translated

" he has no

").

106

INDEFINITE PKONOUNS.

Dunyd
V'dn
]

didi va liar chi didi hich ast

niz ki gufti va shunidi hich ast.

" You

see the world, but all


all

And
'

you say, and


' '

all

you see is naught. you hear is naught/'


(0. K.,

Rub. 50, Whin.)


cu*.f

'

He

is

less

than nothing
hich-tar ast

az hich chiz kamtar ast %


^f.

JLJ JA*.

-wk

jt

(m.c.), or

u az hich

*^\ yw> *** jf

Remark. It must, however, be borne in mind that hich ^-AA properly means " anything," and hich-na &> *& " nothing " thus, " eating nothing is better than eating bad food would be rendered by hich na-khwurdan bihtar az ta'am-i bad khwurdan ast o~-t ^^^ ^ ^Ut jf j^ &d)j&j **>*> while hich
;

' '

khurak khmdan
at
all,

&y^ ^t^
ever?
' ' '
:

^
:

(Indian)

would mean,
better than

if it

meant anything

"eating anything

(or something)

is

."

(4) all
;

"At

all,

In interrogative phrases

implies "ever, at

in the least.

Example

Ay

ki hargiz fardmush-at

na-kunam
(Sa'dl).

Hich-at az banda yad mi-ayad?

" Oh Thou

whom
all

never forget,

Dost thou at
<y fi
*j
])j\

remember thy servant?

"
(Sa'dl).

* hich tar mi-zani (m.c.) "

^-Sao -XA

do you play the guitar at all ? hich mi-shavad u-rd bi-binim (m.c.) fl would it be (or

"
:

is

it)

at

all

possible for us to see

him ?

'

'

Remark.
futile."
(5)

^J ^

^^>

hich

u puch

c<

signifies

contemptible, anything

silly

or

Hich **A

(like
(of

"

(*t^ ^>jA tive, it signifies

either

harj&) can be joined with kuddm f\*f, as, hich kuddm two); anyone (of three or more)." With the nega-

"neither" and " none."

Remark.
Ism-i

Hich
(

^
p*\

and harj* [vide


)

(?')]

are called

p%&

o^ or

j*^4*

o^.

mubham ^x
( '

is

Indefinite Pronoun.

(6)

No one
:

"

(m.c.) AJ
(c) (2).

^A*. ahad-i

na

(m.c.)

(i.e.

ahad-i with the verb

in the negative)

vide

Example

^iu

p&j

LS ***\ Jf^M ahvdl-i ahad*i

barham na-khurd.

(Shah's Diary)

"no

one was upset (sea-sick)."

For Va an c/f

>
o.*l>A

2
^

Also ujuz-i hava ast

1)^

(m.c.).

Poetical for faramush-at cuw^l^

Could also be written

-J^

(rare).

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
(7)

107

CMz J*.

or

chlz-l

c>*$*

followed by

negative

verb

signifies

"

nothing," vide (p).


(e)

Persian also falan)

"So-and-So, such and such, Snooks, what's his name ": e>& fuldn (in is a designation of an undefined person or thing, present or
it
1

absent; as an adjective

precedes

its

substantive, as: fuld.n-kas

&%*
va

"such a person."

Ex.:

pt&f

<^*>j*S*.

oJj>j

tj

**Ajl

^j^G tf

^yf

e>;lijj

bashdrat dvard ki fulan qal'a rd bi-dawlat-i khuddvandi kushddim (Sa'di)

"
' ' :

and brought the good news that such and such a


\vl* ypb JJA. ji

fortress

had been taken

&*. tS

oJif

fj

^lo^b
(

eJ^>3?

3'

cf? yak-l az buzurgdn pdrsd'i

rd guft ki chi gu-*i dar Jiaqq-i fulan

dbid (Sa'di)

" a certain great

man

asked a pious ascetic what his opinion was concerning a certain religious " <vof (^acuw or ^^) <j*? &&*, or ^*f ^JU fulan amad, or person &~* or ()&'* (kas-l shakhs) dmad "So-aad-So came"
; :

/tt/an tdrikh fi sana-yi fulan

"on
is

you there." male or female. 4


vsjlb* L)
!

" ho

Fulan

Yd fulan such a date in such a year." also used to indicate the private parts of
etc., is used.

The feminine Remark


isjJU,

is <*i^,

but more often ^3 o^' fulan zan,

I.

as: In

fulan

The demonstrative pronouns are sometimes used with fulan "this So-and-So" and an fulan && of "that &%*

So-and-So."

Remark
came "

II.

In

vulg. m.c., ydru

j^Lj

is

used for

men

or

women and

sometimes for things, as: ydru dmad **f j^ "So-and-so (man or woman) " ** (or the goblet or gaming ydru rd biydvar >jUj Ijjjlj bring the wine
;

things: for anything forbidden).


(2)

i^J

fuldrii
is

refers
\)

to persons

only,

An

exception

;(#

^M*

fuldm-rd biydr (Tehran)

whether present or absent. " it


bring

A caller,

to avoid the mention of his

own name, might say


etc.
,

(wine)." to the servant

at the door, bigu^id fuldnl

dmad shumd tashrif na-ddshtid,


'

In poetry fuldnl

^^3 sometimes

signifies

a mistress.'

Fulan u Bahmdn

adand ^/of &\+^ j && " So-and-So with So-and-So came " fuldn u pashmaddn guftand *&s& ^!^*^ j o^ (m.c.) "they said such and such things."
;

j o^* and vulgarly Fulan u Pashmaddn ejt^^+^j ^ o^' are also used for persons or things when there are more than one, as Fuldn u Bahmdn dm:

1
i

In m.c. gushadan

cJ^

(not kushadan

The two words parso,


is

^)^

and
;

'abid *-'^
'56*cZ

former
3

Persian, the latter Arabic

^^

signifies properly

have much the same "

signification

the

worshipping (God)."

Note the

^ of unity.
ooHij
^3L?
(

The

m.c. abuse fulan-am bi-fulan-at

O r fulamash (J**^) has an inde-

cent signification.

108

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

Fuldn
the former
that
is, if

()&*
is

can be used as an adjective, but fuldni

^^

cannot.

Also
;

indefinite

referring to a person

(nakira *j&) and the latter definite (ma'rifa *(>** ) known to the speaker and his listener, fulani,

tJM would

be used, otherwise fuldn &&.

bistar (or btsdr) ^i-^ j for generally things, rarely for persons.
'

Fuldn u

o^'

is

also used in

modern Persian,

(3)

What's
-

his

name

' '
;

JAA. &$.

M
:

chiz, or chi chiz-l (m.c. )

Lcf

^Uu

jAa.

ASU biraw bigu bi-chi

chlz,
' '

bi-Hdji

Aghd

"
(m.c.)

>? #> tell and go


:

Ex.

what's his name, I mean Haji Agha ^-^ f JU, ^*>f e>* o^->*S- **$ c^li z " pish-i man dmad-ghuldm Hasan what's his name came to me -Ghulam

Hasan." In,jf bi-man ar, fulani


(4)

^ =

J>&>

c>O J*&
j&*^.

If* L^t

ay saba nakhat-i az ku-yi fulani

ma'shuq.

Bastar u bistar

$~# )

"So-and-So," are obsolete.


:

Remark.

In the following sentences


^j(>x.j &f
i

^ ^ ^ J* mar * n (.5*^ lr*3 j^ dard ra dava-i nlst magar zahra-yi adam-i ki bi-chandin sifat mawsuf buvad. (Sa'di) "for this disease there is no cure, but the gall of a human being who
has such and such qualities," the word fulan could be substituted for chandm e,^^ without materially altering the sense.
(/)

^j o?-^c o*j

^^ W ^

" "Both," and neither

of two.

"

(1)

^*J

* 4 *j&j* har-du "both." Examples: \>j& ;^ a/.>;b \> *&) j* j*> har du linga ra bar-i shutur karda mahar-i shutur ra girift (m.c.) "he

loaded the camel with both

its

loads and took hold of the nose-string


c

' '
;

^^^T C5^ J^
' '

o^ j^jtf bi-har du dast dar dumbdl-i kishti awkht.

(Sa dl)

of the ship

perhaps the rudder) guft biglr an har du ra id \> j* j*> \y j& ^.A^jjUu^ " turd sad dinar bidiham he said save both of those two and I will give you a

he seized and clung with both hands to the stern

"

(or

13

v^flf

hundred dinars" 5 p*j jt>j& " we both went." )


:

^ md

har du raftlm (or simply har du raftim

Note the demonstrative or

relative ^5.
(j).

2
S

Yorharj* "every
Linga *&)
is

", vide

" one out of a pair; the load of one side of a beast of burden,"
the camel leading-string attached to a
for instance) the

etc.

Mahar ){\*>

is

wooden key

in the nose.

In

certain districts

(Khurasan

mdhar

^V

is

not used, the leading-string

being merely attached to a rope halter.


bl

The

classical expression

mahar (camel without a

nose-string) signifies

" and sometimes "wan"refractory

j^ ^j^*

<shutur-i

dering aimlessly "; commonly used in India. 5 Formerly a coin of value. At the present day a dinar is an imaginary coin of infinitesimal value Note to, fifty go to one shahl or to a half penny of English money.
;

for

4<

and "

3 would be unidiomatic.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
In m.c.

109

l " we <*$>>>*> har du-yi ma dmadim following examples p>*1 or or ejlkf har du-yishdn, or har e/^ j^^** /*, <^j& j& " both of them " 1 )(# (j <j2( jay* Aar du-ash rd du-shdn, or har-du-yi ishdn biydr (m.c.), or jU? I; <Jb)*j* har du-yash ra biyar (m.c.), (or har du shan ra

j*^*
:

is

also placed before the separate


:

and

affixed

pronouns as

shown in the " both came

I*

eA^

biyar

lyU-

^ j&)

"bring both

of

them "

the last however

is

for living

things only.

Remark.

In m.c., hama

si

shahr j^ <u <UA, etc., might be used for har

si

"all three cities."


a is expressed by two) j& with a negative. Ex. " and both these & j& ^f ty j va turd In har du nist (qualities) are " ^~~> * A tj )j* j wanting in you, (you have neither of these two) )*j*> e^jl

(2)

"Neither

(of

va sarv rd hich az in har du mst


qualities
(3)

* '

and the cypress has nothing


Vide also
<^jjii|

of these

two

mentioned
" Both."
is

' '

(Sa'df).

(d) (1).

The Arabic dual


occasionally used

ithnayn

"both", pronounced

in

Persian isnayn,
(4)

by Mullas, or

in legal documents.

Indirect
:

ways

of expressing

"both"

are given in the following

examples

I* ; (you and me) go l^if ^ "let us both (us and them) ^jjj^ " <c go you go with j^j jt U l*^ shumd bd u (or shumd va u) bi-ravid (m.c.) 4 " him, let you and him both go ^ ^f p& ham in va ham an &* J/f rd biydr, or more commonly in u an rd-biydr j# \jtf j e>Jf *' bring both this and that (i.e. both)."

pljjlji ^

wwn u tu bi-rdvim " let us both md u dnhd (or md bd dnhd) birawm (m.c.)
e/
:

"

j& har du taraf also expressed by the Arabic " the two dual sides, both sides; the con^- jdnibayn or u&jle torafayn both tending parties, parties."
(5)
jt>
:

" Both sides " o^fc


1

e^

Remark.
etc.

Similiar to j<o*> har

du "both," are

A^yfc

har

si

"

all

three,"

Ex.
of

p**-jj*

^ &j&-

V^ T^J*

nar P^nj kitdb-i khud-rd farukhtam

"

I sold

all five

my
"

books."

Some, several, sundry, few." Ghand ***-, or chand-i ^^- "a few," signifies an indefinite quantity; it precedes or follows its substantive, of unity. which should be in the singular, and may or may not have the
(g) (1)

Or har du
(m.c.).

ta

man amadim
' '

p>.**

a)^

ji^A

(m.c.): or har

du

ta

shan

*> na. nor are expressed by &> na " You have not these both." * Note that the order of the persons is the reverse to that " and the " I and thou " say (or you) English you and I."
3

'

Neither

Lit.

in English

the Persians

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
p
jjua.
1
:

^b
J

a few times"

<*f

chand ghuta Tchurd (Sa'dT) "in short he sunk " a bar dmadfi&'dl) vt^.jj) *** chand ruz bar
bdr-1^

ai*.***!* kalima-i chand (Sa'di) "a few words "; few days after this"; " " I went a few ^U. steps (Sadi) x5o* J^A* qadam-i-chand biraftaim ,-frXJjj " a few cTwmd years." sdl-1 (Sa'di)
;

CTkwd
indefinite

is

an adjective.
'

If it follows its

noun, the noun requires the

<jr.

Remark.
ten.

Chand

\***-

a few

'

properly indicates a number less than

..

Khurush-i bar dvard Bizhan chu shir


Zi Turlcan bi-raftand chand-i
dilir.

Shah-Nama Book
(2)

4, Oiriftar

shudan-i Mahuy-i Suri va kushta sliudan-i u

Turk. bi-farmdn-i Bizhan-i

In modern Persian, chand^t*- precedes its substantive, which is in of unity, and the verb is generally in the the singular with or without the chand sarbdz raftand 8 "a few soldiers went ": Ex.: ***>>j 3^ j~ **$ plural. (^>^ chand-l murdand* (Afghan) "a few died"; jl&xi. *J^ chand

to&jto

khidmatgar "some serving men," but IAJ(&/C,>^ jf ^oia. chand-i az khidmatgdr hd " a few from amongst the serving men." verb is frequently put in the singular, Colloquially and vulgarly the
(3)

there were **? chand nafar Isfahan* nishasta bud the verb should be in the plural (budand some Isfahanis seated (there)

Ex.

*j*

ai~io

^^^1

' '

' '

In the m.c. sentence

^^ f* j&.& ^\AJ*
*j$

***

IJJA

chand kuhd-yi digar some other rocks," kuh


in the singular.
is incorrect.

ham budand, "in the midst

&{&)& dar miydn-i darya of the sea there were

the singular should be used with the verb

Chand kasdn &\~f

though sometimes used in m.c.,

(4)

The Afghans
u

substantive after chand *^..


tdjirdn
1

(not the Persians) in speaking frequently use a plural Ex. c^j AJL^J 7 cjUs^U ^ 6 \sJlj*& chand
:

^jf

sdhibdn-i kothi nishasta

budand (Afghan)

"a

few merchants and


:

*** (m.c.) " a few days." Ex. i^jjj (class.); also ^j^) *^ o**| e;f cui/ws^o maslahat an ast ki chand ruz-l bi-shdhr dar-ayl jz jf-> ^cjj) i^^ " it is (^n.c.) proper for you to come and stay in the city for a while."

Or

^^J

e^r?

2 3

The hamza
Chand

is for

the

^5-

of unity.
is

Colloquially, raft nafar-i

o^

the singular

used; but incorrectly.

4
5

murdand &*ty i^j^

Or bud d#.

Also kuh

a vulgarism and incorrect. should be in singular after chand ****


**i^-

*^

In m.c. chand nafar

t&jirj+j*

or chand nafar tajiran

but the singular


1

is

the commoner.

This

is

the Hindi word

^^

kothi.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

Ill

owners of warehouses were l angushtarha-yi tild "a few


In m.c..

sitting

(there)

finger- rings of

&> ^Uy&Xit gold"; *j*Lo!


;

"

^
***.

chand
chand
'

aqsam-i 'araqbud (m.c.) "there were several kinds of spirits."


(5)

several times.

LS***- chand-i, or yak-chand-i <^*i*. u&, means IA? Ex. : *~ **>* <jr*^- *?* -^UJ(

' '

alittle

bud injd buddida shud (Shah's Diary) " the Hakim- u-l Mamamlik " 4 Mamalik, who had been here for some time, was interviewed by us <joJ^. " I have been here for some Usuul e A chand-i hast injd hastam (m c.) ^iL*A
ki chand-i
;

^^

while/ Haktm-^l-

time"
J>3

c5^a. j|
T^

J.*j

ba'daz chand-i (m.c.) " after a

little

while "; )& &f tj?-?^

*I

r"

o~ J^"

^'^ ^***& chub-i ki dar dast ddsht chand-i bar sar-i u zad

Af.)

"he

struck
I.

him

several times with the stick he held in his

hand."
is

Remark
chand-gdh

It will be noticed that in m.c.


(classical),

chand-i c5"^i^

used for

& ^II.

aia. (classical jlj

and

m.c.),

chand waqt oJj and chand daf'a &**& *i^


in speaking.

***. (classical

and

m.c.),

chand bar

(m.c.).

The Afghans use chand gdh


Remark

Yak chand *^*>. is used in the sense of "a few" <**&> " a few chand persons were present." nafar-i budand (m.c.) L$J*> yak " tan-i chand (class.) signifies (6) cxva. sundry persons "; ^^ ^i3 " certain indivi&<*> O*ASI^> tan-l chand dar suhbat-i man budand (Sa'df)
;

duals were friends of


oJjJi

mine";
^^ li-^^?

t;

JtoyjT

--^

^^

A*^

c;lyojl

M^.

^u

<JAA.

v4^^^

l5

tan-i

dzmuda rd

bi-firistddand td dar shi'b-i

chand az mardan-i vaqi'a dida va jang " certain jabal pinhan shudand (Sa*dl)

experienced veterans were sent to hide in a ravine in the mountains." In m.c., instead of the classical <Ma. tan-i chand, j& *\*. chand nafar

is

used.
(7)

For chand

&**.

as an interrogative, vide
ti

37 (w).

(8)

Yak chand takes a


If

"a few, a little, somewhat." Yak-chand ^aaxj and chand td vide (5) Remark II. singular noun, but a plural verb td tf is added, however, the verb is in the singular, as yak chand td
<xU*
: :

mard
" so
36

bud.

Yak-chand-i, adv.,

is

" a short while

"

vide

(5).

Compounded with the demonstrative pronouns, c^<^ chandin much as this," etc., and chanddn &)*'** "so much as that," etc. vide
(9)
:

(b).

For chanddn
vide

ki

a&l^

" however much, as soon as, as long as,"

etc.,

92

(d) (13).
I.

Remark
1

Chand

***> is

connected with and

*Jt,

and andak

Or

singular.

In the m.c. of Persia, aqsam (*^f the broken plural of qism f~-* might occasionally be used under the impression that it was a singular word. 5 Title of the Shah's physician.
2

* i.e.
6

days, weeks, or months (not portion of one day).

Similarly for things

&

^^

chand

ta (m.c.) is used.

112

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
only used for things that can be counted. and ;*&<* are used vide (h). For quantity that can be measured For para a/J " some, a few," etc., vide (p) (2). " Somewhat, a little quantity," c>^ qadr-l. Ex.: (h). (1)
//.<*ia.

Remark

Chand

is

^^

gadr-l db bi-dih

"give (me) a

little

water"; jv *>^

"bring a little barley." " So this


(2)
(3)

Vide barkh-1

" " That much, that quantity is^x5


"

much,

"
quantity

^y,
j**

etc.,
'in

^^3 "a little."


qadr.
?

gadr-i

jaw biyar

is

^1

qadr.

c>f

an

(4)

How
vide

much, what quantity


etc., is

"

}&* &* chi gadr

Remark.

c>**,

only used for quantity, for things that can be


(g) (10).
:

measured "
(i)

Remark

II

All, every, the

whole"

(1)

&& hama
<UA

the whole, etc.

also

means "every "


:

(har).

In classical
8

Persian,

marduman

precedes or follows its substantive. Ex. (class.), or <*+* c^^y* marduman-i hama (Indian)

^^y "
all

***

hama
;

the

men "

*&j UA
the

men went "

^U^/o

or)

j*,y

mardum

(or

marduman hama

" all raftand

(class,

and modern).

In the Gulistan, Jiama <W* generally precedes its substantive (without an izafat), and the substantive and the verb are in the singular 6 or plural
according to the idea conveyed. Ex. *-*& *+* hama shab (Sa'di) "the whole " " the whole of one's life." night j+* ^*A hama 'umr
:

t;

** c)\*fc A

*A ^_j))l_AJ

; |) uflJU

j*

Naml-bml

ki gav-i dar 'alaf-zar

^^ X ^J ^
"
?

Biyalayad hama gavan-i dih-ra? (Sa'dl). " Dost thou not see that one ox in a meadow

Can contaminate
Ifaf
is
;

all

the oxen oi a village

<&&

hama 'aybha
is

the plural
1

(class.) "all the vices" (i.e. every vice there here used in an intensive sense 7 to signify numbers).

Qadr-l; qadr, A.

and

P., signifies

"quantity, value

'

'

and qadar,
' '

P. (in Arabic qadr)

signifies

"fate, preordained destiny."


the doctrine of free will
' '

Hence csj ^
4

qadarl (note accent)

who maintains
2

as opposed to

cri^

jabrl

"a person one who believes in

predestination, a fatalist."

To be

distinguished from

j**-

ju or
'

c^
'
'

or juy (also jub)


;

" and "a running brook


single grain of barley."

the Imperative of justan of juyldan


S

to seek

c^

jav-i

" a

No izafat. Mardum fty*


marduman

is

a collective
.

noun always treated

as a plural, though

it

has also a

plural
5
$

c^^"
noun
is

singular

often used in a collective sense and with a plural verb.

M.c. hama-yi 'aybha


Similarly

^
ages, long
g^

*^ muddat-ha

times"

is

stronger than
t i me)
'

^t^o muddat-l
^

"along time": *>U he was ill for ages."

UA^ ^J,A:

he was

for

a long

but u*

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

113

*+*J
(Sa'dl)

"they say
'
' '

perish
of the

here
'
:

'

guy and chi gham gar hama 'alam murdand. what concern of ours is it, if the rest of the world alam is a collective noun signifying all the people
f*
*'v
'

&*

world

Garchi sim u zar

Dar hama

sang ayad hami nabdshad zarr u sim sang-l


zi

(Sa'di).

and gold come from stone Though Not in every stone is found gold and silver
silver

dar gusist Halal ast burdan bi-shamshir dast (Sa'di).


hllat-l

hama

"

When

every

(single)

stratagem has failed

Then only
C5***

is it

lawful to resort to force."


*4.A
jt

~b
3

ojl/o

^ ^1U^

y*.

^^^

dushman chu az hama

hllat-i

dar

mdnad

silsila-yi dustl

bi-jumbanad

(Sa'di)

"when

(your)

enemy

has failed by every single stratagem (to injure you), he then tries to make friends with you." In the last three examples hama, with the
is of unity

added to the substantive,


i.e.

' '

signifies

each

' '

or

* '

' '

every

considered

separately,

har sang-i ^Xi*yk.

It is difficult to say

whether

*+*>

hama

is

a substantive or an adjective.

In classical Persian
follows
it

it

either precedes its substantive without

an

izafat or

in

apposition (of corroboration


l

**?$

without an

izafat,

as

*n^ ^tH* j o^<>j &+&


structions are used, it
is

In modern Persian, though the same confor hama A+A to precede its substantive and be usu$l
J|. t ; (^.

coupled to it

by an
its

In Indian Persian, hama *+*


it

precedes

obviously a noun. treated like an ordinary adjective, i.e. substantive without an izafat or follows it with one: it
izafat: in this case it is
is

can also follow in apposition. (2) In modern Persian, hama


5
:

*+*>

generally precedes the substantive

with

the izafat. Ex. <y>j/of l^J) <*. hama-yi zanhaamadand ^or zanhahama amadand) " all the women came." However, hama zanhd amadand is correct (though

Poetical for agar-chi *=^'.

^
3

For

zar)'}',

ta*hdid poetical license.

Or mand ^U

(Past tense) and jumband

" the whole of the j^Z <Ua> hawa-yi shahr sukht city (sing.) was burnt," but *+* hawa-y shah>' of the all the (Sutc&ta shud city say." **t)f&*.J1e" ml-guyand people could be said instead of sukht}.
4 c^jLyvs
<

Tamam ^W>
8

and jami' Q.*^ are always followed by the

izafat.

114

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

" shab " the whole of the night and jji) *+* " " the whole of the day but hama shab v** **A (or hama-yi hama-yi ruz shabhd l^x &**) and hama ruz jj) *+*> (or hama-yi ruzhd Ujjy *A ) mean
rare)

even in m.c.

v^ &+* hama-yi

"

every night

" " and "every day

o-*i

^Lajl <_#** ***


cc

^ ar hama<l shahr-i
' '

s qassdb ast

(modern vulgar and

incorrect)

in every city there are butchers

(collective noun).

In modern Persian, hama **A with a singular noun is equivalent to har j*> and should be followed by a singular verb, but vide end of (4).

Remark.

(3)
6

Before the affixed pronoun <jf there is no izdfat. Ex. <j! <**A " the <>Vf j Jf ^ ** I? /w%ra hama-ash bd safd u zabz u dbdd ast (m.c.)
:
l

valley, the

whole of

it, is

Before the affixed plural pronouns, the izdfat


after

pleasant, green, and fertile." is either omitted or inserted

hama

**A in speaking.
(or

Ex.
l^f

H*J oLw
6
)

&+& or

cjl

*A hama-yi shdn or

hama-shdn

hama-yi dnhd

**

bad-and "

all of

them

are bad."
this izdfat after

Remark.

Even

in m.c. it is considered better to

omit

hama

*+*

the omission

Hama-yi

in

mardum fty

^
***

is,

however, rarely made even by " " all these <u& is


(m.c.)

the educated.
:

mardum f*j* A^X>; (m.c.) is ambiguous, as it may people" or "so many people." In hama mardum jam' shuda budand ki
digar jd na-bud d^w

but in hama mean either " all these


people

^^&^
there
/i/o

**&j*

*<***

*^ fa/ **fV' (m.c.) "so


for

many

people

had

collected that

was no room

in hama-yi

mardum

^^l
&*a>

"

all

ambiguous; but in these people" there is no ambiguity.


is

more"

However,
(4)

it

would be better to say hama-yi


chiz

in.

Hama

hama-kas

Jj^

"everything," hama-jd U.
oJ?^
&+^\j\

AA
&+&
<<

'every where,

"

A**

classical as well as m.c.

"everybody," and^ama vaqt In hama makharij )&*>


is

"always "are

all this expense"


7

appears to be modern. &** Hama kas

followed either
;

by a singular or
kas

plural

verb

according to the idea in the writer's mind

hama

dmad

<x*f

u*^ *+* (m.c.)

Also *>i> *4Jk hama-ruza

every day."

*
3

No

izafat

or dar hama-yi shahrha ^jf*9 &+* Jd.

Sa'di, however, uses dar

hama

sang-i

^&

*^A jj,
hill.

4
5

Julga *X1^ a valley, or plain, as opposed to

nlst

Abad means " cultivated " and hence "populous" '^^^ c^dljf ^^jl injaabadi means "there is no cultivation here," or " there is no human habitation here."
;

For neuter things hama-yi anha bad

ast *^*~]&J Ijjf <UA.

Perhaps the only instance in the Gulistan where hama kas


is

nominative to a verb, kas mushtarl buwad.

in the verse

^ <jlS* ^< i+&

fj

^^

^ UA

occurs as a

durr-i yatlm-ra

hama

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

116
&+* (m.c.) "
all

"

everybody came
vide
(i) (2)

"
;

hama kas dmadand

3o**f

the people

came,"
(5)

Remark.

The Afghans in speaking also say hama kasdn ejUf &*&. (6) The m.c. expression p*> c^-y *+A hama tu-yi ham means "all together, indiscriminately" (= {*?>(**)* *** hama dar-ham bar-ham); *+* e^t ^ " with all bd in hama (classical and modern) this, nevertheless, in spite " this is not " ^*jxJ &** i^t in hama mst of all this all, something remains.'
'
;

Remark.

It

will

be noticed that in classical Persian,


it is

***

hama

is

considered an adjective, while in modern Persian


substantive.
(7)

generally treated as a

The

regular plural of *+A


is

hama

c^*

hamagan

is

old

and not used

in

m.c.

Hamgindn &&*&

generally used as the plural of hama &A, and

signifies the

whole collection regarded as individuals. As the diacritical bar of \^ is omitted in Persian there is nothing in " fellowworker, comwriting to distinguish the plural of ham-kun I^*A from &{)+*>. hamgindn panion (8) L5O> hamagl is a substantive, signifying "all, the whole, entirety,"
,

' '

derived from **A hama, as


Jt

l jumlagi is from &U^ jumla (vide 9). Ex. " " out of all the women az hamagl-yi zandn (m.c.) ; ^jj* jt <^*A az u kuchak namt-tavanand khudhamagl buzurg

C5^W

ddrt bi-kunand (m.c.)

"all, great or small, lose their self-control; L^** L^

" ^l^a. man hamagl-yi chizha-yi khud rd dvardam I brought all also, like hama &*.*, can follow the substantive my things." Hamagl
(*^f
t;

^a.

^^

in apposition.

Hamagl ^t**, followed by a plural verb,


refer to the

unlike hamgindn e>UJU*, does not

collection.

whole regarded as individuals, but to the whole regarded as a " all is generally followed by a plural verb, as oJu*; <^i*fc " but ^~>\ " all of it is *->j*> went, good." Hamagl is rarely used. " Jumla &U^ sum, whole, total, aggregate" is a substantive, and is (9)
It
:

^+6
;

y a>^ &+*. jumla-yi wujud-i u (Sa'di) usually followed by the izdfat. Ex " ^U*. ^ ty o-*f *^L the whole of his body tj ^GUl-* ^b^ cuif guft du'd-yi " he % u rd turd Musalmdndn ast it is a prayer of said, jumla-yi (Sa'di) khayr
: ' '

'

welfare for

you and the whole of the Muslim people j&) &.!**> jumla-yi of the whole "the oluK &L^ jumla-yi kd*indt " the lashkar army (Sa'di) " 3 that all creation the
;
' '

'

"

whole of

things

be,

^^^
az

e>**-^

^^
is of

^'^ ji &*^

y
1

*$

agar

man
Arabic.

Khuddy

ta'dla

chunm

Hama

**^> is

Persian but jumla *JU^>


,

is

Jumlagi
[

course a Persian

noun.
a

Kkayrj***
^.

is

here an adjective: du'a-yi khayrj**>

<*s

**,

opposed to du'a-yi bad


usually inserted.

There should be no

izafat after

Khuday though

colloquially

it is

116

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

tarsldaml ki tu az Sultan az jumla-yi siddlqan

budaml

(S'adi)

" had
1

I feared

my
"
;

God
cx*t

as

you do the King,


**

would have been one


j'.j

of the Faithful
firaq-i

Testifiers

^i J& $ <3yj*

^W

va az jumla-l ki dar

(Sa'dl)

" and the following

is

an extract from

all

that I

u gufiam in ast composed on our

llai. jumla khata kardand separation (his separation from me) "; &* *& <-aU <*!+<* "the shud (S'adi) "the whole missed the mark"; jumla talaf

^^

whole was destroyed.

' '

Jumla

*JU^> occasionally follows its

substantive in apposition.

Remark.

*JU^ ^fjf az an jumla signifies


*JU?Jk
bi-l- jumla
' '
;

"out

of the whole, as
l

an

example";

"in substance,

" jumla on the whole " out of the whole."


(10;

<*JUsJi

fi-' I-

jumla

in short"; aJU^Jf ^^JU alq,-*l" in short <*U^ &* min jumla x


' '
;

There

is

(also ^t-JU^ jumlahl, rare) "universality, totality." Jumlagi properly a shade of difference in meaning between jumla AJUa. and

^^^

jumlagl <^&+^

Ex.: jumla-yi zanan amadand

<3.ivof ^Ij) AJU*.

or nearly of the whole of the women came," but jumlagi-yi zanan " the totality of the women came, none was left." c>lij ^^U^
Ra'iyyat-i

"the whole amadand

an

taraf bi-jumlagl muti'-i

farman gashtand

j^^l^scu o^Js c;T

"the people (peasantry, etc.) of that district became " to him in a subject body (at once and without exceptiou) j&J ^^+* jumlagl-yi lashkar "the whole of the army"; I$A! ^j^Ua. jumlagi-yi aspha " the whole (m.c.) body of the horses."
(Sa'dl)
;

Remark.

hama,

or

" All came," can be expressed by hamagi (or jumlagi, tamaml jumla <*JU^) amadand. Hamagi, (etc.) yi-khurak sarf shud
all

the food was eaten.'

'

Some

are vulgar,

Persians maintain that these uses of hamagi ^2+& and jumlagi and that the two words should be considered adverbs,
<ijjcf ^^JL*.^ &\jj
**

as

zanan jumlagi amadand 8


(11)
fat.

Jaml
:

Ex. f.y zanha " all


of the

in a body." the followed is ^4-^ "all, whole, universal,' always by an iza" A+A, jami'-imardum " all men, or all the men 1^3 ^4^ jaml'-i

the

women came
'

army
is

women, " but


;

or all the

women"

^-iJ

j^

" the whole jaml'-i lashkar


an

in *j**f l*^*.^ />^y


Ux*.^
is

mardum

jaml'

amadand " the whole

of the people

came,"

an adverb in the Arabic Accusative.


:

Majmu,

occasionally used for ***., as ft^suo " all the sons of Adam, mankind."

majmu

-i

banl

Adam

ftf

Siddiq &.&"*

" a faithful witness," an epithet of Joseph,

Abu Bakr and Abraham.

SMiq
2
3

"sincere, true."

Note the

^ of ^

is

pronounced short fL
&*>f

Or zanan bi-jumlagl amactand

^5^*^ c)^

(m.c.).

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
(12) Safir

117

properly signifies "the remainder, the rest," but " it is the whole is frequently employed in Persian to express always l followed by an izafat. Ex. j &j& *> ^sj& j ^l** y ^ jf <^U> ^s\**- &U^J|

J^

' l

i ^aa. j aS" ^gjZ*** fi-l-jumla chiz-i na-mand az sa*ir-i ma'asi vamunkar-i ki na-kard va muskir-i ki na-khurd (Sa'df) " in short there was no sin nor forbidden thing

that he had not committed, nor intoxicant that he had not tasted."
jki

(13)
1*1*}

*&

kdffa

"all, universal";

and

<u.kU qatiba

"

altogether,

all."

&K

kaffa-yi

anam "the whole human


1

race

"
;

^ the sciences": kaffa-yi p\j*j c^l^j' f ' (Sa'di) everybody, high and low.' These two words are not in common use.
' *

^
gy

^ &K

kaffa-yi

'ulum "all

anam

az khawass

u 'awamm.

Remark.
totality."

#&

an

kaffata

and

^1>UI qatibat

an

are adverbs,

<c

all

of them, in

2 ^U5 "complete, entire, the whole, all" is both a substan tive and an adjective, and has the same i2a/a<-constructions as hama

(14)

Tamam

it is

Ex.: )^ fUS tamam-i ruz 3 (m.c.) hama, " " the whole " day," and IAJJ; (*l*3 tamam-i ruzha (m.c.) every day j^ (*U3 " " tamam-i shahr (m.c.) all the city <3^ j*U3 tamam-i makhluq (m.c.) " all the people"; &*> j*&*. IA^ ^U'J tamam-i chizha (or cAz) M^V 5^wc? (m.c.)
also used, like

in apposition.

" * every thing was ready J^A. ^1*3 tamam-i chiz tayyar shud (Afghan) )\ the same; f\+t j+5 qamar-i tamam (rare), (in m.c. mah-i tamam] "the full
"
;

moon."
U3 U

^1^

ujUyoi

'

tamam na-tamaman darand And clumsiest workmen own the finest tools."
Asbab-i
(0. ^T.

141 Whin.).
izafat

In

classical (and in Indian) Persian

tamam pU3 does not take an


c '

when

it

precedes
I.

its

substantive.

Remark
as possible."

The phrase
:

as possible," as

har-chi tamam-tar yxjUi &&. ^A means as much " as u i c bi zudi-yi har chi tamam-tar ^LoU'J kly Q </^-^

*^^

Remark

II.

Tamam
;

ended, finished"
(15)

shudan o** fU-3 "to be completed" or "to be tamam kardan e^/ fU3 " to complete, finish off."

Instead of

tamam

fU3, the adjective fti

^amm

(class.) is

sometimes

The demonstrative is*

' *J (^"Ij v^i-J; |j o^f; rasf ra zinat-i rastl tamam ast to the right (Sa'di) j* in itself." ornament and sufficient hand is the its fact the of (hand), complete right being

o^t

In India tamam ruz j)) fU3 (without

izafat).

118

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

used in writing.

Tdmm

u tamdm fU3 jf^

plete";
(16)

ftf (^Uliusf

istisndyi

tdmm

(emphatic) "perfect and com" a (emphatic) complete exception."


1
:

Tamdmi ^U^ (m.c.), substantive, is also sometimes used f3/ ^U3 " all the men." tamdmt-yi mardum (17) Tamdmat o*<Uj (class.) is a substantive, old, but is still used
by Afghans and Indians " all the
(Indian)
in writing.

Ex.:

cu^Lj

o^U-> tamdmat-i

pilau*

elephants."

Remark.
(18)

l*U>

tamdm* n

is

an adverb, " wholly," " in toto."


"all,
:

*j

Kull J^ substantive
in Arabic phrases.

common

Ex.

universal, the whole, each": it is +9 *9 " all the u <jU/f JS kull -'n-nds people," LW

ahad in Ar. "every one."


Kull J
the
is

also used in m.c.

and in writing,

as

kull-i

zandn
kull-i

women";
Kull c&,

^&
like

kull-i

shahr "all the city"; pH*

&

'dlam

<c

all

the world."

hama

*+*,

can be used in apposition.

Classically (and in

Indian Persian) kull JS precedes its substantive without the izdfat. Possibly the izdfat after kull in modern Persian is a corruption of the final vowel of
the Arabic nominative case kull u
(19)
.

From

the Arabic kull L&, the Persian abstract noun and the Arabic
are formed.

adjective
'

^$ kulli
;

Ex.
' ' ;

'

the whole of the


' '

men went

J&
l

f*/

mardum U-kulU
ihtimdl-i
kulli
' '

raftand, P.,

J *ia.i

every prob-

ability

Arabic adjective.
I.
*

Remark
and

^g&s bi-kullt,
'

adv.,

"altogether,

generally."

KulliyaV
:

1"

kull** &> are also


*

two adverbs with $


to"
5
jb)

different meanings, as

Mardum
;

kutt** (not kulliyat*"

&X) dmadand ^<^T

^e (m.c.)
" he
is

"all the

men came"

but u kulliyat an rdzi

nlst^^ ^\)

tyt j] (m.c.)
(Ar.)

quite dissatisfied."
of

Remark

II.

^1^ kulluhum
it is

"the whole

them"

is

used by

the Afghans in speaking;


(20) &*>\e

also occasionally used in m.c.


s

'dmma
tff

(class.), j*j^c

umum (m.c.), "the whole, etc."

From the

Arabic root
adjective
m.c.,

^
c

amma "to

dmm "special"); *^(


fU

be general, comprehensive" is derived the MO??> (m.c.) "common, universal" (as opposed to

o^

al-'dmma

(class,

and

rare)

"the common people,

Emphatic,

like the English saying

'*

most complete."

In m.c. tamaml-yi pltan

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
or the people in general"

119

^e

"
(m.c.)

universality

"universal";
in Persian

^^

H*j rf ^ f*** <-^* "his universal liberality." Hence &cU amma-yi mardum (m.c.) "the whole of the people";
^

";

^oj-**

am(m}1 'umumi,

(m.c.) adj.

"

"
vulgar
e ;

j*j+*

'umum
(class.)

adj. (m.c.)

and

p***

amim

^G

pj+e

'urnum-i mis
;

(class.),
'

and

^.L) <toU

'amma-yi nas

(class.)

"the whole
of the pea-

of the

people"

c*x^ <lcU
'

amma-yi

ra'iyyat (m.c.)

"the whole

of the women." amma-yi zanan (m.c.) " these and (21) i^U Jj^U^o ^t inmakhluq 'am(m)i (class, and m.c.) 2 people are ignorant, uneducated"; ot yo ^jf \n mard 'dm(m)i-st
*if
i

santry "; ^Uj &oU

" the whole

" this

^U

man

is

common, uneducated."
also means "noble and plebeian"; pU j u khawdss 'awamm. u[>^
c

(22)

Kkass u
is f f>* j

amm

u^

the plural

'umum-i mardum "the people generally, very nearly all (23) ^i/o the people" (but in (*j+* (&^* "a common matter," umumi ^fj+* is an " this is common adjective but in 'urnum-i darad ").

^c

Remark.
general,
i.e.

From

the

same root comes the adverb UJ+P 'umuman "in


:

as a rule

"
C>JUJ/XA>

Uj+c

'umuman mi-guyand

"it

is

commonly

said."
(24)

^^J

yak-sar (m.c.;

"all together, in one body; suddenly"; also

"without a break, and direct."


(j)

"Each," "every," "all,"

"

s whatever,"^ har ^>j* har yak


,

(or

har yak-i),
(1)

^j*

where" "
etc.
:

time"; t^ ^A har ja "everysal har har J *^, waqt oJ^ ^*, har shay ^j*, etc., ))jj*>, " " or continually," " every thing, time every day," every year," "every
j* har.
;

har kas, f\*j*> *har kuddm. Ex.: j*j* har bar "every
1

har ruz

(t)tj!>c5*ky

**>

^*>j&* jtf *"*\& *z~\)j>\

^> jL& ^^

sukhun-idigarbi-gu-

let me yam, agar rasl na-bashad bi-har 'uqubat ki farmafi sazavar-am. (Sa'dl) if it does not prove true, I am fit for any (or every) more and word one say

"

InmakMuq 'awamm-and
' '

liof

educated.
*

^l^c^^e^l
word

(m.c. only)

"these people are un-

Not

to be confused with the

^1 ummi (Ar.)

"illiterate" derived from

**T ummah "people, nation, sect, etc." 3 i^.| jA far ahad is not used in modern Persian, and
classical Persian.
*
6

is

rarely

if

ever used in

Note the absence

For hlch-kudam (*l^ with or without negative, vide (d) (5). g*A of the of unity (?), which could, of course, be <^
?**.

inserted.

<XoU} jUU* ^ O^and (Sa'di) "(slave

girls)

(jfej*& H har yak-i badi'-i jahan va mumtaz-i zamanwho are one and all such as are rarely found in this
' '

world and are unequalled at the present time.

120

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

& punishment you may command"; j-^Ltf J>j& 0-J+& bi-har zarf-i-ki sar-i-tan bi-gunjad kila-yi an zarf barabar-i sar-i shuma-st " (m.c.) any vessel that contains your head will be the measure of a quantity " az to har taraf o^fcyfc jt " from every side." equal your head
;

Harj*> is properly a distributive and precedes its noun. It is emphasized the of unity, as har mulk-i zaban-i ddrad *j\* (J&j ^Q* by "each _y* separate country has its own language."

is sometimes used instead of hama &*& "all," just as hama *** sometimes used for har j* "every." [This confusion has probably " " arisen from the fact that "every man says = all men say '].

"

all

Har " is

'

Remark.

Har an

*$ &tj*, and har an ki

c/fyk,

the more emphatic forms


(I).

of har, are used in relative sentences, vide (k)


<-j

and
' '

every one j& har kas? " " har kudam ^5^^;* liar yakl (or har yak) and f]& **> liar everybody kudam take the singular or plural verb according to the idea in the speaker's or ) -J^A mind, but the singular is the more correct. Ex. _$%*
(2)
j&> (or

^j j&}

liar

yak
;

(or

har yak-l)

' '

^^

ml-guyad or rni-yuyand (m.c.) " " &> every one says something different c>^ *&>^ j &)&> ^i j*> C^AJ^O ^) Axiftf J^LJ ^ ar yak-! 'bazla-'i wa latifa-1 chunanki rasm-l zarlfan bashad ham-i ^4.4,

*uj$*

or

*>j&o har yak (or har kas)

chiz-l

guftand (Sa'di) "every one told some good story or pleasant jest after the manner of witty people' (here the plural is used as the writer had in
'

his

mind, a number of people in the assembly concerning which he was writing) *}** ^. jijf^ <J^J ^>j*j va har yak-i bar vifq-i danish-i khud
;

ray mi-zad (Sa'd!)


his

opinion"

33ilj &Lf,i

ijo ^xf^^A vijU $}* agar gusfandha dah ta budand bay ad har kudam-l> yak gusfand dashta bashand (m.c.) "if the sheep were ten then everybody should have one sheep apiece ' (here the plural is also for the same used, reason).
'

^^

one, according to his knowledge, gave not be in the plural), tf Jb (*>**&* j>\ the verb could (here

"iand each

(3)

HarjA

also

means " whatever."

Ex.

*f uU^*
fchey

o^jbiiJi

&&% *Cysuyk

har nahv-% ki gufta and bayist 'amal kard (m.c.)

"we must

act in whatever

way we have been directed way it must be done)."

(lit.

in every

way

have directed, in that

It is

perhaps this

eS"

a d not the demonstrative ^3 that


is

is

found in the antecedent


42.

to a relative clause
2
3

when

the antecedent

preceded by

har, vide

Or ijf *+*, vide (i) (4). Or grammatically dashta bashad AJ^b


Bayist
***"*:! lj,

past, for future action.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
(k)
,

121
*'

Whoever, whosoever" har-ki, AX~T ,A far kas-i ki^

"

*$ &$

f\tf j* liar

kudamki,

of j*> ^haranki,

.^

A+*>

hama

kas-i ki.

(1)

Examples
A^.

(Jib Jl

^^ ** -f-

#ar

an-&* tukhm-i badi kisht

u chashm-i niki dasht


batil bast

Dimagh-i bihuda pukht u khayal-i

(Sa'di).

Whosoever sowed
vain and foolish thing.'
(2)
'

evil seed

and expected
8

(to

reap) good, itnagined a

gtrand (m.c.)

&*j*& ^l*if xi;lA ^cJ^I " whoever has a


In, "

&

^tA>yfc

harkuddm

ki asp-i

darand in'am-imi<

horse, will get a prize."

take whichever you please bi-girid *lj** *x*tjiiyo t$ \) WA^A (m.c.), the ra \) would be taken to be the subject.
(3)

Remark.

" har kuddm


is

ra ki

ml khwahid

necessary otherwise pt^^A

Har

in the

same way.

girad &j*f*

*&O^A, /^ar^' a^*, suidhamaka-s-i ki A> ^^^A are used #ar ^as-* A;i (or har kas-ki * o^^ 7A ) biyayad iriam-i mi^^^Ji A-J^J &** j& (m.c.) "whoever comes (or every one who
kas-i ki

comes) will get a reward


L5^J

"

^^ ^ j*
[

**

V*.

u&

cf^^ *?
?

Lr^

7* *r

>

C5;

170

Mar-i

tu ki har kira bi-bini bi-zani


ki har kuja nishlni

Ya bum
<;

bikanl?

(Sa'dl).
?

Art thou a snake that whomsoever thou seest thou strikest

Or an owl that wherever thou

sittest

thou destroyest
:

'

Remark

I.

In the following har j&

is

understood

Remark

II.

Har an
(I) (3).

ki -*&f y> is

in

classical

language applicable to

things, also vide

Remark
"
(1)

III.

<xlj A^^A har-ki

bashad

;<

whoever he
'

may
;

be."

har chiz,

Whatsoever, whichsoever, whatsoever thing A^yfc har-chi, jA*-j*> har kuddm, & e/f jA liar an ki, &* of y*> har an chi, f<& j*>

'

an
(1)

chi.

.^^A har chi (classical and m.c.). Ex.: A^y jt* J^ ^.b har ki dast az jdn bi-shuyad har-chi dar dil darad bi-guyad

Note i$
>ugh old
2
3

y j*

har u ki

is

not used;

it

does not exist in Persian.


har ki &*

Har an

ki

is

not obsolete.
is

Har Har

kas-l ki
kas-l ki

better

It is more emphatic than j&* and more common in modern Persian. in m.c.

would be preferred

122

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
''whoever abandons hope of
life,

(Sa'di)

says whatever

is

in his

mind (without

fear)."

can also be used for living beings (in classical and modern 1 ^^ <,* uA^I jt * ^l^&iy **/* j <* Persian), as \) isAlf *^A oJi? guft har-chi darvishan-and Man ra vdm-i bi-dih va har-chi tavangaran-and " he such of them as are chlz-i bi-lchwah
Har-chi

A^A

^i

&&**

az ishan

'

(Sa'dl)

said,

poor, give

" as ; complete as possible ji*U3 A^fc har-chi tamam-tar ^LoU5 A^-y* Isjf " let the utmost endeavours har-chi tamam-tar sa'i karda shavad (Sa'dl) *j

them a loan and such of them as are rich, ask a loan from them* (lend to such of them as are poor, and borrow from such as are rich)/' The following uses of har chi A^A should also be noticed &&> ^t Aa^A an ml-raqsad (m.c.) "as this one pipes, that *<A*J>Q 12/f har-chi in mi-zanad one dances (i.e. in whatever method or time he pipes)" or "the more he " " " plays the more he dances y & AA^A har-chi zud-tar as quick as possible ;
;
:

"

^^

be made " t^Ui^jl -JA. v* c ^j* har-chi gasht 'aqab-i jaw, gir na-yamad " however much he sought for barley, he couldn't find any (in spite (m.c.) find any)." to he of all his seeking failed
;

(2)

Har-chiz
jfjLUj

J*^^>
fj

(classical

and

m.c.)

^jj|j^

&&J

&+*>

^ ba'd az m har
^yb

&)%*

chiz-i

girifta bi-kinara

of (or every single thing that I


(3) Af

guzashtam (Afghan) "after this had need of) and put

$ *** <;** j* ki mar a zarurat bud hama ra I took whatever I had need
ty
it

&

on shore."

8 ^**>1 ^.u Af pj.*> )&* &1 j*> har an dlvar-i qadim ki pish amadi bi-quwwat-i bdzu bi-yafgandt (Sa dl) "whatever old ruined wall he came across, he cast down by the mere strength of

^fjA har an ki ; <,*&** jj{>

his

arm."

Har an
djy

ki A&fjA

&)

v^aJlyo

dushman

" because mukhalajat ziyad kunad (Sa'd!) whatever enemy you treat kindly, he increases his enmity towards you
ki ba-vay ihsan

^f

Ex. A&f ^Csu also applicable to living beings. * & U an-ki har an bi-hukm-i ^U^i ^^ (.j+A,* (*rt jA
is
:

kum

(whenever you treat an enemy


also (k) (1).
(4)

kindly he* increases

his

enmity
6

vide

Har kudam

\*Sj*>

"whatever, whichever."

Ex.:

c5>

1 Note the plural of the adjective : the plural here makes the adjective definite harchi darvish ast would mean all the poor of the world."

Instead of har chlz-l ki

AJ _)*^yfc
iS

the following
Or

har chi mara zarurat bud or


[/

har chi ki mi-khwastam ^JLotyRx*

A^A

^j**

*5j*

(m.c.)

(kinar ml-

gu&shtam ^t^A^j^). 8 In modern Persian, har dwar-i qadvm-l ki A^ ^s+t** j\ji j&. * Or har dushman ki or har dushman-l ki ACxi+Aj;, j& or As" ^.^^
used.
6

jib

might be

Or har kudam
(

kar-l ki AxJ;K f I*^A (m.c.), or bi-har kar-i ki ACjjKj^J, or har kar-l

ki

AXjj^^A

m .c.),

or bi-har chi

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
bi-har

123
dast

kuddm

kdr-i-ki

mi-zam khardb mi-

kuni (Afghan) " whatever you put your hand to you spoil": t^Jljt ff**yk o*f ^^L <jrjx& [#(& har kudam az in kitdbhd bi-girl khub ast (m.c.) " whichever one of these books you select, it will be a good business for you."
(5)

Har an
Aasuf j*>

chi Asuf^k (classical or


(class.)

used in writing only)

&)**) *~&*J.

+i.&j

*b

\t>(s

"we

have attacked the rinds

let

happen what
l

An-chi **uf (classical and m.c.). Ex.: ^& dn-chi (or har-chi) guftam qabul na-kard tl in spite of
will."

J&
all I

f&
*

iacof^A

har

said,
1

no matter

J v xi "and rd va dvurdam dnchi shud tamdm (Afghan) dastydb f^Jjt \) fU-> whatever I could lay hands on 1 brought (the whole of it)" AAI^** *$ a^uT
I said, he did not agree
(lit.

how much

whatever I said

)."

*^ *^

^^o

dnchi ki

nu-khwdhad mi-kunad
*ap.Jf

tl

(m.c.)

he does whatever he wishes"

dnchi ghuldm u asp ddshtam farukhtam (m.c.) ) f^U f*&ji;J "whatever slaves and horses I had, I sold " ***>> b **fj* *^^
;

^b

-^l

&

r^

^&

I got dnchi safar karda mulkhd* rd dida budam U-ffiida bud (m.c.) no benefit from all the travelling and visiting of countries I had done =
j5A5tfixj

"

in spite of the fact that I

had travelled and seen many countries

I got

no

advantage."
(m)

"
(1)

great number,

many, enough

"
;

bas ^r?.

Ex.

Bas ndmvar

bi-zir-i

Kaz
6 '

hasti-yash bi-ru-yi

zamin dafn karda and zamm yak nishdn na-mdnd

(Sa'dl).

Many a famed one have they buried beneath the ground, Of whose existence not a trace has remained on this earth."
Bas gursna 6 khuft va kas na-ddmst ki kist Bas jdn bi-lab dmad ki bar-u kas na-girist 6

(S& di).

"

Many Many
45)
:

a a

man man

has slept hungry and none

knew who he was,

Bas-i jy-j
(vide

"a
1

has been in death's agony over whom none wept." " alif of excess"; many," and basd U? with the

f**"

jyt

C5--J

^ va bas-i dilhd az

u shay da

(Sa'dl)

" and a number

of

hearts (were) fascinated


1

by him

' ' ;

bas-1

mardum mi-guyand

Or better harchi

^^

or har qadr guftam

2
3

In m.c. dast-glr j*&~&. ** after anchi &?->1 Note

also

the ** could be omitted

or harchi

substituted for anchi AacJf .


*
6
6

Note the plural


Poetical for
jl

is

necessary here.

**

U az.
:

Alsogrwrwna, gursna,etc., etc.

but nigarlst

^ "he

looked."

perhaps the only instance in the Gulistan where bas-i ^5^? occurs in the prose portion ; and it is folio wed by the plural as in modern Persian.
7

This

is

124

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

" bas-i zanan " many women," people say cA>j j~> (m.c.) ! (bas zan or bas zanan not used) v_^y u~*y az bas-i farsang (Sa'd! verse) ** from many a farsang ."
(m.c.)

"many

asp-i tiz-raw ki bi-mand

' '

Ki khar-i lang jan bi-manzil burd (Sa'di). Oh how many a swift courser has flagged and failed

When
(m.c.,

the wretched ass has reached the stage's end."

C5^3 c?~^ bas-i zanha-yi fdhisha dar Kirman hastand but uncommon) " there are many loose women in Kirman" &l~^\ 8 t-*> " **&yj* basa ihsan farmudand (Afghan colloquial, and rare m.c.) he (respectful
;

with great kindness &# jjTjj) (<jJ } or) <j*J j\ u bas zirak bud (Afghan and Indian, written and colloquial) " he was very intelligent." Ex. X <vol# j> <^ bas-i bar na-yamad (2) Bas-i <^~j is also an adverb. " a ki time did not before ^^/J ^~S bas-i bi-gardid (Sa'di) long elapse " " he wandered about backwards and forwards a great deal (or a great while)
pi.)

treated

me

"

' '

(3)

Basa

U*J is

old and rarely used even in writing

-^)_)J

basa buzurg

(classical old)
(n)
(1)

very big," vide 88 (1) (3). " Many of them, a large number."
the adjective and adverb

"

L$*J/ guruh-i c^k'-J bisyari.

From
of

the substantive
(with

^[^ bisyari
p^j
1

j^bisyar "much, many" comes " " (modern Persian), and bisyar-i^^^ a many
bisyar-i

unity).

Ex.: AwjAx> ^^U^J

mi-guyand

(m.c.)
;

"many

say," or
of the

^J>^

c5J^

bisycir-i az
*j*>
[;

bisyari-yi^

mardum

rah na-bud

mardum mi-guy and (m.c.) but az "from the excess j*d^ isjf*~* ) (m.c.)

crowd there was no room to pass." Ex.: f<yo (2) Guruh *jj "a troop, band, class." az-mardum or mardum, (m.c.) guruh-i guruh-i fsj* j) (3&} number of men"; *i>j* ^ &jj guruh-i mi-guyand 5 (class.)
certain

^^

(class.),

or

"a body, "a class,

number

(of

people) say."
fyj they are

Remark.

Guruh guruh

mi-ayand
1

^T

%j3

"

i^

signifies

"in troops"; guruh guruh

coming
bas-l

in crowds."

In the clause

(j~>

J va

shukr guftam

(Sa'di), it
it qualifies

is

not clear

whether

"bas-l qualifies

the substantive shukr j&*, or whether

the verb shukr

guftan (r*& j^**> and means


a

"a great

deal, a

good while."
**"

This

is

not the

alif of

the vocative: basa bashad ki

*lj

^
J

(m.c.)

<4

prob-

ably."
5

In m.c. bas-l ihsan (j^^t ^^-J.


Ki-az bisyari-yi du'a

wa

zari-yi

banda sharm harni-daram

t5j'3

^**

Cfo^H

3'

*^

^*)ti

^5-**

fy
\)

8<*V (Sa'di)

because from the excess of the beseeching and lamentation

of

my
6

servant, I feel ashamed."

Note accents.

**&

l^ty*

c5

7T

guruh-l

marduman

ra did

'

(Sa'di)

he saw a collection of
f

people

"
:

note absence of izafat after (^)j* on account of t5

unity.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
(o)

125
it

" Most of

them"

e>l^>

jfy

" o^ifl aksar-ash most of

"
;

,-JUf

etc.
(1
)

^UiyT! aksar-i-shdn

(01 aksar-i ishdn)

" most " of them


{

(j^fri aksar-

" ash (m.c.) "most of it." Aksar-imdl (or better amvdl), Jf^>o| O r) J^y^f most " aksar-i of the property zanhd "most of the women" ^j>frl &\~j&\
;
;

aksar-i kasdn (m.c.)

" " most (aksar persons


also

Teas

^ ^\
-

not used).

Eemark.j&\ aksar
(2) *-J^t

means "

for the

most part."

aghlab

used like aksar.

(3) _;j&jo bishtar or

(p)

"Something, a

^y^ bishtarin, "


little,

used as aksar.
-

nothing

^f

^-k

-.>>^

i>b

a thing "). Ex. 'ilm-i dar muhasdba chunan ki ma'lum ast chiz-% danam ^i(^ ^5-.^ (Sa'dl) I know a little of accounts as is known to you *lj.iu c>h^ tx jt az man
(1) Chiz-l
(lit.
:
1

^^

{{

'

' '

chlz-i bi-lchwah (Sa'di)

*'

ask

me

for

something

(for

a boon)

"

a little further "; oJjjU^wo chiz-1 sarbdz " has of in the soldiers started? raftl (m.c. only) anything way (i.e. has any armed force been sent there ?)."
chlzi dur-tar (Afghan)
*

^^

^ ^c^^

Remark.
^t

Chiz-i

&**

with the negative

signifies

j^f^-so t5'>i^J va chiz-i

na-khwanda

am
\&\
<x

am

unlettered
4 '

"

(Sa'di)
j\

(*^C>

(m.c.)

for this reason I did

" no work.

^c>x^

^^

az

m sabab chiz-i kar na-kardam


*

" not a Ex. thing." "I have read nothing,


:

" the wind abated somewhat." (Afghan)


(2)

^ c>^

!>*

hawa

chiz-\

kam shud

plural.

Parari I;U subs, "a piece, bit, patch" is usually followed In m.c. only, it signifies "a little." Ex.: (J&4g>& /*&*!<>

by the
5

^^

x;*J

para-i harfha dashtam bi-guyam-ash (Shah's Diary)

"I had

a few words to

say to him

";
;

*'&*)

Ujl^s

para-i sarbazhd

rajtand, or para-i sarbdz raft

oJij jb^wo !;b

pdra-i tafsil-i andarunl ^^\ d*-afti> |; b (Tr. H. B. Chap. XIV) " small arrangements of the harem some "concerning &j i^b /*i^ ^.f^ ^^ ^j^e (H. B. Chap. XXIII) "I used to see some women in the court of the Hakim, but."
;

(3)

Khurda-i

!!>;>^ (m.c.) (lit.

"a

crumb, a speck ")

also

^yX>

yak-

Aksar

j\

and

^^l

followed by a genitive. two words in m.c.


2
3

aghlab according to the regular rule of the superlative are Theizafatis, however, sometimes incorrectly omitted after these
3

In m.c., here qadr-l

(.s)^

Or

sarbaz-i chiz-lraft? o^J^a. ^j(jj~ (m.c.). In m.c. i^ bad would be used hava \j&> signifying "air."
,

use

hawa
5

for

*'

wind "

Indians and Afghans

as well as

"

air."

Or

better

W'^

^5*^

ba'zi harfha,

and

ba'zi az sarbaz-ha

^^**J

126
khivurda (m.c.)
(or
aft) fo'efo'^

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

"a
give

little"

(m.c.).

Ex.

**j (vJf

Lj

"

f^y*- khwurda-i

jaw

(4)

little."

Kam-l 1 Kam-i

^ ^

me
"a
*

little
' '

barley (or water).'*


(classical
,

and m.c.) from kam, adjective " few, could be substituted foi Tchwurda4 1^^ in the above
little

example. B (5) Andak-i


f

,/ail

(classical)

"a

little,"

or

"a

little

time."

Ex.:
' '
;

till he gained a little strength titaandak-i quvvat ydft (Sa'di) bih az bisyari-yi* mal (Sadl). JUa. ^<x>( andak-1 jamal

"

and andak-i ^/^i " a little." <-Jf is an adjective, pure and simple it is according to some Grammarians the diminutive of and oJ| but according to others and <^t is a

Andak Andak

c^wl ''little,

few"

contraction of andak ^*J\

vide also

Remark
in
(r).

I.

Andak

also

means
Ar.
,

(classically)
' 4

"Approximate Numerals." "a vide


few,"
little,

first

example
'

Remark II.QalU

JUtf,

few

"
;

and

qalili

are equivalents of the Persian andak

^^ and andak-t ^&>\.


Ex.
:

^M

a few

"

^ ^lM
i^j
jjti-x-o)

(6)

Taraf-i
ji

^j>
"

a portion (old

classical).

ma^'A;

m taraf-l az zama^im-i aTMaq-i u ma'lum shud (Sa'df) " a por


became known
of the

tion of his crimes


(Sa'dT)

to the

king"; (J*~j&
Ex.:

*l/oUx

something
5

matter had reached his ears."


rare modern).

(7)

Barkh-i

^j

(classical

and

&5
f

31

^j

31

****** j\ o/AJ va barkh-i az 6i^ az qabza-yi tasanuj-i u badar raft (Sa'di) xi<Wf t5 i r barkh-i amadand (mod.) "a few came" ^3 3 t^^ barkh-i az
;

"a few women"; **)(a Ijy J-.^>^ e^^> v.^j e;f ^(>! ^^^1 " if an barkh-i tahavun u takasul rava darand (Sa'di) ^ar they agrar add-yi show even a little slackness or neglect in performing (the duty) ; j &*\^\ az umar-i giran-maya bar-u kharch 31 va barkh-t j+s. )j ^j^4J ^A. namudlm (Sa'di) "we expended a portion of our precious life on it." Barkh-i ^5^ is lit. " a portion, a share." It is not followed by an izafat,
zanha (modern)
' '

^j

'

as

an

izafat

cannot follow the


it

of indefiniteness or the <^ of unity.


az.

This

is

perhaps the reason that

is

more often followed by

Compare

ba'z~t

of unity

also

kaml

subs. " deficiency."

adr-* could also be substituted.

Andak,
^JJf
*
AJ

adj.

Ex.: atash-i andak ra

\)

^^l

(_r->f

(Sa'di);

bi-andak

muddat

(Sa'di)

"

in a little time."

iJ*~** as might logically be expected. As jamal JU^ has two syllables and mal one, euphony requires bisyarl-yi mal J^ c5 -r&*"'^ to balance

Not

bisyar-i

>

This

first

az 3' omitted in

some

copies

the two prepositions az close together are

uneuphonious.

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
Juzv-i
l

127

(8)

c#.>
:

(Persian)

section of a

book"

and

juzv *> = Ar. &* juz*, "part, portion, c5A>^ is either juzv-% for J$j*> "a little," or else
\

Ar. adj., juzvi, Pers. adj. for

t_$l>^

"partial."

Ex.

^!d J^c5J->^
bi-qimat-i

juzv-i

pul dashtam (m.c.)


(m.c.)

"I had a

little

"at

trifling
little

cost"; *f*f/
;

"I

took a

rice"
' '
;

^JA> ^?>?V

at a partial

word

^Jj-J

^TV

"at the least word, " at the least nasim-i (m.c.) wind, at bi-ju-^i
bi-juz*i harf-i (m.c.)
u

money"; Li>^ ^*+&


c$l>*
?MZ-*

juzvi
(m.c.)

6nw/

giriftam

a partial wind."
**

Remark.
juz*i <^b**j

adjective
(9)

^s*>

Kull u juz* s^ j J^, or Mft' w juz*4 " $ i n whole and in part, entirely." "
juzvi

J^j <J&

or az kulli
is

[There
^*+**\.

also the

petty, trivial," qimat-i juzvi

^y**

Lakht-l 3
piece,

^^
&

" a short time

' '

(old classical,

and rare modern) from

lakht

"a

a portion,"

etc., etc.

Ex.:

vr*j>

j>y

bi-andisha faru raft (Sa'dl)

"he

considered a little";

andar in
(10)

lakht-i

andishid

(Sa'd!)

" he considered a

little

about this."
a pinch
(of

Shamma-i
:

(rarely used, Ar.)

"an atom,

particle,
c<

snuff), etc."

ty

&+>
' '

^
;

vazir

shamma-i rah burd (Bust.)


<^Lo

the vazir got

an inkling
' *

of the matter

o^x>

&+

C^A. ji j\ o^l j J3Ui j|

^ ^^

bar-i vazir az shamcfil

va alMaq-i u dar hazrat-i malik shamma-i mi-guft ki well (or so) the wazir was mentioning a few of the good qualities of (Sa'dl) the boy in the presence of the King, saying ."

Remark.
tion,

Nabza

a<^x>

Ar. "small portion," has

much

the same significa-

but
(11)

is

rarely used.

From tyi zarra " an atom, a mote in Ex. B-V *)* JL> "one atom, the least part." " (m.c.) give me just a drop of water."
:

a sunbeam," comes yak zarra tj& J^> yak zarra ab bi-dih

(12) Bi-qadr-i

yak par-i kah-i


1

^^K^^

^^
(

(m.c.)

"a very

little.

"

Ex.
' e

cxwt^ o^JI

tjs*

^^

^r!

j*&J bi-qadr-i yak par-i kah-i qimat na-dasht (m.c.)


.

it

was not worth a straw


(q)

' '

(lit.

Ex.:

Ar. (lit. "a portion"). } ^*j ba'z-i "some say"; ^J3't5^ ba'z-i az zanha ^^x* C5 mi-guyand "some of the women"; *)J^ C5^*j ba'z-i chizha (m.c.) "some things";

"Some";

^^

ba'zi, Per.

a chip of straw). and u**? ba z

^ ^l^ii-jjt ^5^ ba'z-i az rakhiha-yi khud


1

ra

dadam

*'

(m.c.)

gave some

Juzv-l C5JL)^ (m.c.)

of unity

in writing also
9

}^

juz'-i.

But f&jf

tj

*jj* tjt*

^i
(

yak juz

-i

birinj ra giriftam (m.c.)

"

took a portion of

the rice."
8

phorically

Lakht-i jigar j*- cussj a beloved child. ' '


' '

O r dil

J3)

"a
'

corner of one's liver (or heart) "; meta-

* Par-i gul <J$

jJiaa,

petal of a flower

' :

<^*^ has the

<

of unity.

128
of

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.

my clothes

"
;

&&&* ^jcliJil ^AJ


J

ba'z-i

ashkhds mi-guyand (m.c.)

"some

persons say"; c^i-ly^ c5^* ba'zi khavdnin some of the Khans. nin ^!>^ ji cs^J
' ' ' '

"some Khans ";

ba'zi az khavd-

by
is

Ar. substantive "portion is not used in m.c. it is followed the izafat , and by a plural noun or by a collective noun, vide barkh-i (^^j. Ba'zi u*&** is an adjective and therefore does not take the izafat, but ba'z
(ja*J
;

Ba'z

"

a substantive and
'sometimes.
5

is

correctly followed

by the
.

izafat, as

ba'z-i

awqdt u^*

otfjt

The

plural of

^^ ^^
is

Ba'zi murcfhhd didam


Ba'zi, az rakht-hd ra

j*^
\)

^^

dadam jofa
j
l

^*j "1 ^^jjt ^^ =


The
plural

saw some
is

birds (indefinite)."

ba'zi rakht rd

dadam

\j&>) <.^*J

^ot^

"I gave some


"
(r)

of the clothes."

better with ba'zi

Much, many,"
a

i^

bisyar adj.

and adv.

Ex.

(^4.^ U*

^-w. *>" ^ ^/f

v^<xif

^jjU*-vj dvarda and ki sipah-i dushman bisyar bud va inan andak "it is related that the soldiery of the enemy was much while the (Sa'dl) " *t yj latter (were) few uXjyuj j*Ux> U J -^ f;^ ^^i o j
olij|^
!

^^ oo^

shikayat-i ruzgar-i na-musa'id bi-nazdik-i man avard ki kafaf-i andak ddram va to me of his wretched state (saying) that 'iyal-i bisyar (Sa'dl) "complained
'

have small means and a

"
large family'
;

(Sa'dl)

"with much trouble";

^^

jU~j ^^ybi-mashaqqat-i bisyar


^*.j*

)\*~*

yak-i

tawbat-i bisyar

^lo( '; &j*jfe^j*& dar asnd-yi rah shutur bisyar* bud (or shuturha bisyar budand) " on the (m.c.) way there were many camels"; AV^** )b?~* c^^j zanhd-yi
;

Tcardi (Sa*dl)

"a

certain

man

used to repent

much and then

"

bisyar (or bisyar zanhd) mi-guyand (m.c.)

"many women say"

Ma-kun takya bar mulk-i dunyd va pusht Ki bisyar kas chun-tu parvard u kusht (Sa'dl).
" Place no reliance on
this world,

For many

like

you
jt

it

has nourished and slain."


sentences az shab " a great part of the night had
:

Note the meanings


bisyar guzasht

of bisyar ;lx-j in the following

o-<^ L~j ^.^


o^il ^L^j

(m.c.)

passed"

bisyar shab (or shabhd) guzasht

c^*f ^x
(

or)v-A^;l-A^j (m.c.)
;

nights passed," or

^&&

shabhd-yi bisyar guzasht (m.c.)

j&j

IAJ^J (m.c.) bisyar qism paranda-hd giriftam (m.c.) "= Uof (m.c.). kinds of birds r

^
)

" I caught various


(subs.)

many p~3 ^U^

"

^^.

Bisydr-i (az)

jt

dance" "
say
:

bisydr-i az

"a much," and mardum mi-guyand *vjS


t^'-i-^

^ ^^
of

bisydri

<^j^
j\
:

"abun-

bisydri-yi

mdl Jl* ^j{*~j "abundance

wrath

^;^ " vide

"

many men
(5)

also (p)

and

footnote. 4
1

In Urdu ba'ze

is

an adjective.

2
s

The plural budand


Or
shutur-i bisyar

^**

could have .been used.


or shuturha-yi bisyar

fa~*j/&,

In prose kasan

INDEFINITE PRONOUNS.
(s)

129

"Remaining, remainder"; <^b, Ar.


it

adj., is incorrectly followed

by

the izafat as though


(1)

" the remainder


' '

were a substantive
Ex.
:

bdqi (adj.).
of
;

the day passed", but

^tf p*)J} ^b bdqi-yi ruz ham guzasht ^b bdqi-yi ruzhd


lajjy

(m.c.)

"the

remaining days

Imshab-am dard-i
*'

dil

tamdm na-shud

Bdqi-yi ddstdn bi-fardd shab (Salim). To-night I could not relate all my suffering, The remainder of the story stands over till to-morrow night." Baqi pul rd chi kardi or baqi-yi pul rd chi kardl are both m.c.

The Indians and Afghans correctly omit the


occasions.
Uftj baqiyya, subs, (classical " " the remainder of thv^ soldiers sipdh

izafat after bdqi

^b, on

all

(2)

and
;

m.c.).

Ex.

U**

o>

baqiyya-yi

)jj

&&* baqiyya-yi ruz " the remainder

of the

day."

(3)

Lx

ma
Ex.
:

baqiy
is

a
,

Ar.,

in Persian ma-baqi <JaA*>,

lit.

"that which

remained."
substantive.

This

used in modern (and perhaps in classical) Persian as a " the remainder of the jjj md-baqt-yi ruz (m.c.)

^^

day."

Remark
for the

I.

&*Ii

tatimma, Ar. subs, "completion, appendix, etc."


:

is

used

The

Ar.

remainder or balance of an account, as ^L*^ <u> tatimma-yi word e>f>>-/ mizdn has the same signification.
II.

Tiisdb.

Remark
of food
;

Pas-mdnda *^l*

^i

is

generally applied only to remnants


;

bdql

what remains or is left behind 8^1* ^b 'aqab mdnda "to what remains over" (of an account, etc., or of people,
i>Jlx} i_*fl*

mdnda

lf

to

things, etc., after counting).

CHAPTER
40.
(a)

IV.

THE ARTICLE AND THE RELATIVE PRONOUN.


The
Definite Article.

If
*V

the noun
I;

There is no article properly so called. ). the accusative case, it requires ra. Ex. " but wf ab-ra bidih " give (me) the water &^ vT ab bidih " give me
Harf-ita'rif
l

<-*^ o,^
and
in

is definite

water"; du asp-ra didam "I saw the two horses"; but fxi *-~\ j* du asp didam " I saw two horses," and 2 j*^^ *_^t X*| ^ 3^*1 imruz dar " bazar asld* asp na-didam (m.c.) to-day I saw no horses in the bazar."

Remark.

In the nominative

case^^

3* du lashkar can

mean "two

armies" or "the two armies."


(6)

reflexive

Proper names, titles etc., the separate, the demonstrative, and the 3 pronouns, the interrogative **"&*, <*4U and ^^U, *+*, ^+*> 3 etc.,
9

Lrf a*A f *U^, <^U^, ^*A.,yU, ^J> and *-^^A, j&j*, etc., are considered 4 definite or ma'rifa ( so *yt* ), and require tj, especially in modern Persian
;

pronoun yak-l ^fy In modern Persian, the affixed possessive pronouns when affixed to a noun in the accusative case, are also usually followed by f>
.

also does the


(c)

In

classical Persian, this construction is rare.

In the Gulistan. the

\j

is

both omitted and inserted.

The
Syntax.

t>

of the dative, however, cannot be omitted.


\j

For further

rules

on

the insertion or omission of the

of the accusative

and dative,

vide

under

Remark.
(1) All

The following are


Powerful."

also definite

nouns that have the Arabic definite

article Jt

as )d&J\

"The

(2)

Nouns preceded
tive pronouns.

(or

demonstrated Hft^UU) by the demonstra-

Ta'rlf

-AJ *J ) also r

means "

definition."

*
3

For

aala*.

and fulanl c5-^> (subs.). In the Gulistan and in classical Persian the f> of the accusative is often omitted, contrary to the rules of syntax. As a rule the reason of the omission can be traced to
Fulan
(adj.)
4

&^

the exigencies of the rhythm. Imitators of the style of Sa'di, especially Indians, syntactical mistakes of this description, but no ordinary modern Persian does.

make

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


(3)

131

The

oU*
:

as
(4)

a proper name or of a pronoun (affixed or separate), lir etc. or of a ^'^ ty**>, as c fX*y v
of
;
:

Some nouns

in the vocative, as

U*^.
1

(5)

Proper names, noms de plume

o^A:ix3

),

personal pronouns, and

and
(d)

In sentences such

as, ^>Jjl>*>

j&

U*}^

or) crtj^r* sarbdzdn (or m.c.

sarbdzhd) du hazar budand "the soldiers were two thousand", the plural makes the noun definite; but du hazar sarbdz $)j* )]y* 3* signifies "two " or " the thousand men two thousand men " vide also example in Remark
:

to

(a).

Remark.
(e)

The cardinal numbers are not followed by a

plural noun.

In relative sentences, a demonstrative or relative ^, often confused with the of unity (sometimes accented for emphasis), in conjunction with the connective *t makes the noun definite vide 42 (6) and (g) to (r).

If

the noun

is

to remain indefinite, the

^ (or

*)

must not be accented

vide

42

(p).
(/)

In the sentences

heard of a

^M^ J^^Lj pddishdh-i rd shanidam (Sa'dl) " I have certain king," and u$ &J* ^s^ ,J^ix> jf ^j> yalc-i ra az mululk
ij

<c it is related 'ajam hikayat kunand (Sa'di) (they relate) of a certain one of the kings of 'Ajam," the objects are to be considered definite though accom-

of unity or so-called indefinite article panied by the affix t> in such cases, vide under Syntax.
(g)

for the rule of the

The demonstrative pronouns,


:

especially in m.c., frequently take the


(for mard-i-ki

place of the definite article, as

dmad

<*-*f

AXJ^XJ)

Anmardki amad <Wf ti .y uT the man who came" hence the reason
;

that Persians

learning English generally say,

"that man

who"

instead of "the

man

who."
41.
(a)

The

Indefinite Article.
(

Harf-i tankir or fd-yi wdhdat


<-j

oiX=^

The numeral
article.

" sometimes takes the " place yak one


*&**&
f^f

^b

or

j*& o^.

).

of the indefinite

Ex.

c^^

guzashta mi-kardam
here

(Sa'dl)

JUG *-**> t-io yak shab ta*mmul-i ayyam-i "one night I was pondering on olden times":

^x

shdb-i could

be substituted for yak shab

v*

-^?>

Vide also examples in (m). In m.c. this yak meaning. for the indefinite article than is the <^$ of unity.

<J*> is

without altering the more often used

Remark.
certain person

Yak "
:

-X>

can also be joined to the

of unity, as

"one, a

OA-.I

^f

C5xj u$^U>

^U^i v i,sf &+*>y jVva

az jumla-yi dddb-i

Poetical nom-de-plume.

132

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


ast (Sa'dl)

nudama-yi muluk yak-i In


of the

" and

this is

one of the (good) manners

companions
is

of the kings."

There

nothing to distinguish from each other the ya-yi vahdat

or the ya-yi tankir ^., and the yayi mawsul difference in signification. When the signifies unity

j&

J>^

o^j ^b

42), except the

in this case its place

can be taken by the numeral yak it is known by the first name. When the is used before a relative clause and is equivalent to the demonstrative pronoun,
it is

known by
Remark.-

the last name.

The

e? that follows

j*> is

probably not the demonstrative

ttft

but the (^ of unity.


(b)

The

ya-yi tankir

^^ (^t or ^

of indefiniteness acts as
is

an indefinite
emphatic,

article.

This cf, which has several uses, and

more or

less

either in magnifying or in minimising,


1

was

in classical Persian

pronounced

In modern Persian it is pronounced *, and with with the majhul sound. 40 (e) is unaccented, in order to distinguish it the exception mentioned in from the suffix <jr of abstract nouns. Thus in classical Persian mard-e <*j* but mardi "a man" or " a certain in modern

man",

<^yc "manliness":

"manliness." colloquial mard-i ^sj* "a man", etc.; but mardi This c5> is supposed to be derived from the numeral yak ^o (or yag
of

^^

<->

which the

last letter

has disappeared.

Yi, for yak

^, exists
&vj

still
' *

in

some

Yi-qadr songs in the dialect of Mazenderan. " is common in S. Persia. a little water

aw

bi-dih

jf ;jj

give

me
it

In modern Persian, however, collective noun: vide (k) (2).


(c)

it

can be added to a plural, making


then, instead of the affixed
is still

If the

noun terminates
is

in silent

<.$,

the

symbol hamza
[vide

superscribed, but in modern Persian

26

(/)],

as

&j
a

bachcha-e (classical)
If

" a certain child."


the

the noun

is

pronounced *, and bachcha-i (m.c.) "a child " or concrete and terminates in <^, the ^ of
* before the
<^$

noun

is

generally represented
(or
I

by

of unity, as

^U mahl

"fish", but uSAU


(d)

^U)
:

mahi-i

tc

a fish."

(1)

If silent

precedes

^^t

ast

"is", the

may be

omitted and the

e*l written

vs^wt.

Ex.

Var shakar-khanda-ist
Astm-ash
' '

shirin-lab

bi-glr

u sham'

bi-kush

(Sa'dl).

But if she be attractive and sweet-lipped Take her by the sleeve 8 and put out the light."
4,

Vide foot-note

page 141.

With
Astin

thefeafat, bachcha-yi kuchak

*-&^X

*^

(mod.): difference in transliteration

and pronunciation.
3

ert^f

is

probably the old hanging sleeve, in Persia

still

worn by some

darvishes.

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


Banda-Vsl

133

may

be written o*ot

<xv

or ow*t s^v,

and

mdhi-lst

may

be

written ^~l c^^*, etc., or

c
this

Remark.

to the sense in which it

Grammarians, however, give is used. Thus in


:

^ different names according

' '

One and all need each other, Even a small spider can hide a great prophet

' '

the

first

is

called yd-yi tasc/j&r

j**^

<^l>

"the diminutive yd" or

yd-yi

tahqlr j***^

<^L>

"the yd

of

contempt", while the second

the yd of respect." contrary meaning is called ya-yi ta'zim ?*&*> the For the names of the relative definite article in relative (expressing

having the

' '

sentences)
(2)

vide

42.

is preceded by a *, to disAfter final alif -&(, yd b, or vdv j\j, this ' but J^ of the izdfat o**Le| as tinguish it from the ^5^ bu-i a scent

" the scent of the flower " bu-yi gul ^HJap oJji ^ia. chunm dawlat-i 'uzmd-i *'such a should be inserted as bearer for (m.c.) very great empire." A this hamza. Some Arabic words end in a hamza, which may or may not be
;

( '

'

^^

written in Persian, but before a suffixed ^c, the Arabic *must " desert, or jungle as opposed to cultivation ", ^5^^^ ' " a great desert.'
.

fall
<

a desert

away, thus: " and

(3) If

the Arabic word ends in alif4 maqsura


final letter is

(& or <_$) with


,

or without the
:

tanwm, the
for
v

changed to
l

alif

before the ^'of unity, as

^+e\ a'amq

j^l ) "blind"; ^U^f a ama-i "a blind man." The word <y^ is in Persian pronounced ma'm ^*, or ma'nq ^j^uo; its final letter may therefore
in Persian

be considered to be either yd (> or alif-i maqsura j^ft* or ^U^x ma'm-? (m.c.) "a meaning."
^

^A)|,

thus:

Remark

I.

The

^
'a

is

andak-i jamdl (Sa'df)

little

sometimes added to adjectives, as beauty": chand-l "a few." For


:

^ JU,

vjefe (/) 9.

In old Persian, the is added to the noun when it is qualified by an adjective, and not to the adjective, as: mard-l khub <->j^ <**j* "a " dar andak zamdn-i (class, and mod.) good man ^JU) ^<*l j* (class, and " for a little is generally added to while." In modern Persian, the mod.)
II.
;

Remark

the adjective, vide(k).

(e)

The

of unity

combines with
written

vi~*l

in pronunciation, but
ast.

may

be

written separately in

full,

or combined with the


is

Ex.

khub mardl-st
*->j*>.

" he (m.c.)

is

a good

man "

o*t ^ty

v^,

or c^*j^x>

134

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


(/)

Examples
5f^
*

of the various significations of this


1

<_$

are

(1)

^dl*

cgr"^

<^* t
[ ' '

pddishdh-l

pisar-i

bi-adtb-i

dad (Sa'di)

king handed over a son of his to a tutor "; pds-l az shab " one watch of the *-*-" J' cr* ^ night passed." guzasht " U^> I have no special business (2) fjl^ (^ft kdr-i na-ddram ^ A|J** " I want x>< khidmat-i kunam mi-khwdham bi-shumd (m.c.) ruju' ptf 9}*-j t5^
certain

"a

^'*$

to entrust
(3)

you with a

(special, or

*j*>

ctf^

tft*

hwh

tadbir-i

a certain) commission." no-bud there was not a single plan


' '

' ' ;

*t e^**=

f^ ^-

c^L?^.? ejIfaij^JLi

jt

u hawdshi khidmat-i mu'ayyan ast (Sa'di) "for every single one and attendants a special (or a separate) duty is appointed." (4) ^Z ytf IsJjf jt is)j*> Jt^Jt *$ o^t ^\ (jtyv bihtar-ash in
bi-tawr-l az

^jjit ji bar har yak-i az sd*ir-i bandagdn of his slaves

ast ki al-hal

mjd

kindr kashi

(m.c.)

"the best thing

is

that somehow or other

you

at once get
(5)

away from here."


c5;^3jj ruzgdr-i*

<wf ji

^j

elapsed after

this";

i*L. sd'at-i t5
' '

bar-in bar-dmad (Sa'df) "a short time " a short time " or "one hour";

^t)
va
arose

dar andak zamdn-t (Sa'dl)


shakk-i
lest

in

little

time

"
;

U^
1

^*

!x

ham

pay da shud
(but

ki

mabddd

(m.c.)

"also
<x

a bit of a doubt

"
lest

va

ham shakk paidd shud


CXM
I

f^j ^2^ +* j

"there

was doubt
AT 6AxT

");

ci <XlC j

JM^A ^^Jela.

vyUiJi

o ^^;^ ^*^ ** l -if jl ^*f j ^>T t>*^ <^j) AUUx) dngdh ruy bo-man kard va guft az dnjd ki
1

himmat-i darvishdn ast va sidq-i mu'dmala-yi Ishdn khdtir-i hamrah-i man kunid ki-^- (Sadi) "he then turned to me and said, 'on account of the gracious

magnanimity
attention to
to his

of dervishes
for
'

and
*g
C>

me

"
:

their uprightness in dealings

pay a

little

^jj^? burut-i-ldbid (m.c.)

he gave a

slight twirl

moustache."

(6)

& ^ pv <y^
Ki

j^kf *Z
td

<J*

J*\j>

13

(>*;

Bi-ham bar ma-kun


dh-i jahdn-i

tavdm

dil-i

bi-ham bar kunad.

(Sa'di).

" Distress not, if thou canst avoid it, a single soul, For one sigh to God (from a broken heart) can destroy
even a whole world."
1
5

there is yet no confusion as to sense. \j in this sentence, has the adjectival sense of "a certain" and is followed by an explanatory clause, its noun may be considered definite, and if in the accusative case 40 (/). requires the affix ra, vide

Note that though there is no


this

When

More common

in m.c. Idriara, kunl <^tf

*j^.

In m.c. ruzagar )^}j) 6 It is this sentiment, the fear of the distressed sigh, that so often prevents the punishment of a convinced malefactor in Persia. Some irresponsible person intercedes,

and the Governor, to hide his superstitious fears, professes to be overcome by The idiomi s biham kardan (and not Icandan),

pity.

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


(7)
'

135

o^

x^UJt

e^.t

^Ua.

**-jJ>)j

Vazir chi khiyal-i-st uftdda ast? (m.c.)

'

into

fallen I
(8)

what a way wonder ?


'
'

of thinking (into

what kind

of a fancy) has the

Wazir

^f <5-*
0*1
<Xx&*
' '

isfo? afat-i-st

" love

is

a great calamity."
'

&x

->>

eAjlj
is

^""l A**! C5*^ C5 **


4

ti

ji

In despair

many a hope
dark night

The
For
(9)

close of a

is fair.

bas-i

<e

many

" a

vide

39

(ra).

Wf ^

^y j^ ^L, sa/" this


;

dw 6ar in 6ar araad

(Sa'di)
' '

"a couple of years

or so passed after

a couple of chapters." j* fasl-l du (Sa'dl) For (^ with the plural in modern Persian, vide (k) (2). " " a Phararoh (10) t^-yy Fir'aun-i ^l^ (i.e. cruel and overbearing ) Hatim-i* "a Hatim", a man generous as Hatim (but Jiatimt "genero1
;

^^

^^

sity").
(11) ^\j>

AfesJy>j
-?

^fyk 1*^

Af

^.suuo

^7^

LJ^i

3j>)

^^
amddl

O^o^J

c^^^ *!/
1

**

<3o-~jL

<^jU-

x^^

^ AJ}

?ia giriftdr

bi-dast-i

javan-imu'-

jab, ki har

dam

hava-% pazad

wa har

va har ruz yar-l gtrad (Sa'd!)

"you

lahza ray-i zanad va har shab ja~i khuspad fell not into the bondage (of marriage)

with a youth vain * * *, who at every breath starts a fresh fancy, and each moment states a new opinion, and every night sleeps in a different place, and every day takes a new love."
(12)

^y
x

ujj^t^k

li

o*t ^^ji^ ;<*U* qalandar darwsh-l-st na-]charash%da


is

na-tarashida (m.c.)

"a Calendar

a kind of darvish, rough and uncivilized."

U Jtcy oJm) fct'Tiaf 6ar misZ-i shumd Musalmdn-i " curses on (13) ^Ui oi*^ ?a'7ia< bar musalmdn-% misl-i Muslim like you" or U Ji* UJU*x3^j
;

(14)

<^iCMJ ;Kj>>.

eH er*
f

^ ot^
^

javan misl-i
' '

man in
' '

jur Tear

namt-kunad
t^!^- ex-

(m.c.)

is

a simple statement; but javdn-l misl-i man-i ^j^

(&

presses a considerable

javan

a)\j*>

and man

same

idea, but in

and brag and lays a stress on man-i hamchu javan ^XAJ^SV** vy^- expresses the there on the word javan o^. would be stress no speaking

amount
;

of conceit

(g)

The noun with

its

of unity is often in m.c.

preceded by the

later ones.

Fir'aun dJj*j* a title common to the ancient kings of Egypt, as Ptolemy to the The Pharaoh of Moses' time is known to Muslims as Valid. Fir'aun has

come

to

mean a

cruel tyrant, insolent

In Persian sometimes

Hatam

lived before the Prophet, but his son, who died at the age of 120 in the 68th year of the Flight, is said to have been a companion of the Prophet.
8

^^

and unbelieving.' an illustrious Arab


:

of the tribe of

Tayy who

Dust *"*jt>, in Persia,

is

only used for men, but yar

)\$ is

a man-friend, or a

mistress. ;

136
indefinite

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


yak

^,

for additional emphasis, as:

oj <.>**.

->

Ui

dghd yak

chiz-i

bi-dih (beggar's cry)

"

gentleman, give
l

me

trifle

"
;

0^1^
from

H 2/a& muddat-i btmdri


qadah~
*$

ddsht "

^U*
it
:

^jT-c cjj *r

so that he

was

ill

quite

an age"
JL>J

(more emphatic than muddat~i alone). of unity does not admit of the izdfat after it, thus (h) The i

vt

^AJ

barf-db (Sa'di) "a cup of iced water (i.e. water and ice mixed); s " he saw a certain A t5 ^/ guruh-i mardumdn rd did ki f; cjko.y (Sa'di)

knot of

men

who"

vide also

(/) (1)

*#\)tf

safid dvarda guzardmd (Jehangir's Memoirs) Cheeta and presented it to me. '
'

^yf <*>* ^c^> <M; Raja yuz-t "the Raja brought a white
in

For a
(b) (5).

classical

example vide quotation from 'Umar-i Khhayyam

95

tive or before another

In classical and in modern Persian, a noun before its qualifying adjecnoun in construction, even if indefinite in meaning, "a sometimes discards the ^AU> dustan of
(i)

party of friends
4

"
;

unity, as

&&j*
bd

ta'ifa-yi

(Sa'di)

but <ylX^i Jt
(

^Lb b

td'ifa-i az dustan

!x>;^ *UA* jf ^Cj

" a (Certain learned owAf,>jl^j yak-i az ulamd khuranda-yi bisydr ddsht (Sa'di) " 6 man had a large family vi,s' *x-^to <>y C5 ;^ u?-*-^ (*^ ^ ^5*^^^ pddishdh-i bd ghuldm-i 'Ajami dar kishti nishasta bud (Sa'di) "a certain king was
;

seated with a Persian slave in a boat

"
;

"a b j^AUab pddishdh-i bd vazirjjj

king with his vazir ", but pddishdh-i bd-vazir-i a vazir (perhaps the vazir of another king).

^'^
jt

t?

^^^
it

"a

king with

Remark.

Note that

' '

one of

' '

requires
(1).

after

in all cases

it

cannot be followed by the


(j)

izdfat.

Vide also
(<^) 1

unity but the first in writing is usually represented by a *, as Sufi-i bi-man guft *zJ (.j+j ^*y* in such In m.c., however, the indefinite *J^> usually takes the place of the

Concrete nouns ending in

may take the ^ of


:

cases.

Remark. Singular abstract nouns in the indefinite <-> is substituted.


(k)

^ do not

admit

of the

^ of

unity

In modern Persian the ^5 of unity is generally added to the qualifying adjective [unless the adjective end in ^c, vide (m)] following the noun and not to the noun. Ex. ^,^3 qushun-i khub-i budand
(1)
:

^^ ^^

(Shah's Diary) "they were a pretty soldiery *>*j$ L$^J <3^ nutq-i kardand (Shah's Diary) "they delivered long speeches."
;

"

ziydd-i

t^UjJ
2
3

(note accent) would

mean he kept a
'

sick

man

in his house.'

In m.c. qadah

is

a basin.
is

Here ra

\J is

necessary though the object

indefinite,

because of the

A> following.

*
6

In modern Persian <^l*~*? )j&*

O^ nan

Tchwur-i bisyar-l (or bisyar


\jg*><*&

In modern Persian this would be ghulam-1

and

kishti-

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


(2)

137
to

The
"

Diary)

sense. (Shah's ^<*ij* ^M*^* chakushhd-yi ghanb-% " zanha-l ddrad Kirman they are (were) a strange lot of hammers 5l ki zarda-yi tukhm rd az miyana-yi saflda mi-duzdand ^iu b;3 *t c$ tO &Ux> jt \) (m.c.) "Kerman has a class of women so tricky jjjjojuc x<xjjL
collective
'st
l
;

can also Ex.: o-f

refer

to a

plural

and seems

give

it

^f

that they can steal the yolk of an egg from the midst of the white." In English, the indefinite article is still common before a general

noun

denoting a

sum

of

money

or a space of time.

The answer

to a question,

#*& (me.) your pay?" * * * * to his deathbirth "From his "nothing; a paltry two tumans" of stroke on the field Jena, what a seventy-one years" (Carlyle),
is

"what

might be: Inch, du tumdn-i

<^*y

j*

o~jJL

j ^UiA AA. IXAA. y)fe )& (jj* f& 13 *Jy Jt az tavallud td dam-i In du farsakh-l btshtar wist dar kdr-zdr-i Jena chi haftdd u pan) sal-ist. marg-ash t-.Aiy&.>j ^au*jf J& (m.c.) "it is not more than a couple of farsakhs,"
,

the

has a diminutive force."

(3) If,

however, the adjective

is

of the simple

noun,

the

is is

mard-t-st

'-'he

naturally affixed to the " a good man (m.c.); ^sty j*

kind that can precede the noun. Ex. o->^ v>^ Mwb
pir-i

mard-l (m.c.)

"an

old

(1)

mdn didam "I saw a body


fjt> v^lxj^c
jt
j

In modern Persian the constructions f*>& of men" or jam'-i az


;

^^*
,

c^*4"^

jam* -I murdu-

marduman dldam L^^-

didam
(h)

f^
(i).

and jam'-i zanhd didam ^33'^**^ "^ saw a body

or jam' -I az zanha p*$* ^) c?**^ of women ", are used. Vide also

and

is generally added (m) In modern Persian, as stated in (k), the to the qualifying adjective if, however, the adjective itself end in <_$, the
;

numeral
C5

is

preferably substituted, as:


or

" an Abyssinian
milk"

slave girl

"

>j^ uj
tX>

^x^ yak kaniz-i habashi (m.c.) Note the following m.c.:

^^^ ^sJ^
1

kamz-l habashi
(a)

"a

spoonful of

(m.c.).
(J-^UI

yak

qdshuqshir, or (b) j*#> ^^UJ qashuq-t shir, or (c) " "a glass of water gilas-i db-i, or -/f ^f
"

^5^

(3^ ' qdshuq-i shir-t:


1

^^4 s

^^

qilas-i db, or

<j^

cXi

t-f

yak
(n)

gilds-i

Note the absence

db or in apposition yak gilds db. of in the following:

^
a

o^b

^b
"
;

zakhm-i
p3*.j

8 palang ddsht (Sa'dl)

"he had

(the)

wound from

zakhm-i shamshir khwurda (m.c.)

" " he got a sword wound


Note the present

a leopard

1 i.e. the women of Kerman generally are of such a class. tense with the idea of " can (and consequently do) steal."

For gashiq <3^*t T. Here zakhm is used as the description of wound and it therefore becomes p^-j az definite. It would be also right to say za]chm-i palang-l <^^j ^J, or better zakhm-l
3

palang

^Jj jt

138

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


AjJy/c

xa

va u-rd dar churiin martaba

did

(Sa'di)

"and saw him

possessed of

such great rank." In these examples the noun


not take the
the
It does not

is

considered generic, and, therefore, does

^. wound of ten. Similarly (o) The construction ^AX kitdb-l " it seems to mean "a book, a good one dddam (m.c.) " I paid a thumping sum."

mean the wound of one leopard; it might be o~t Jfcb J^A hanuz tifl ast " he is still a boy."*
khub-i
j*afd

^^

is

occasionally

met with

<^Ifii.A

^^
digar

pul-i hanguft-i

(p)

As

dlgar-i ^cj^*

means "another person", digar meaning "antake the

other" does
yak

fiot classically

i*> chiz-i digdr j^.*^***-

" another thing, one thing more"; and in m.c.

^ of unity

8
:

chiz-i

j*$

_j**>

or

4 (vulgarly) chiz-i digdr-l ^sj>* J**-.

As in m.c. the distinction is not observed, asp-i digdr-l <^&d -**t " may mean " another horse or "another person's horse": but as already
stated the former
is

a vulgarism.
*\&

vide

For an example of ddgh-i digar-l ^sj*.s 94 (i) example from 'Umar-i Khayyam. The following are m.c. cu**i ^Uaj^ 8^-J ^j|
:

"another misfortune",
" this pisara shaytan ast
' '
;

m
;

boy

is

a devil

' '
,

but <-^t

v\k*Z> Lsj~i

l '

he

is

a devilish boy

^*-

pisar-i shaytan-i-st

"he

is

the son of a devil"

adam-l khar-l-st
;

or tn
*if

adam khar

ast

o*t

ptf

^] "he

is

an ass "
*i\

marduman-i khar-i and


(.#\.

tej*

^^, or in mardum
It
is,

Tchayll

khar and

^ <J*. ^^

Remark.
<_c,

kitab-i digar-i ki
(q)

however, correct in modern Persian to add the *^ ^ e other book which (or that) c5^>

relative

v^

' '

"
.

The

AjlAx:

\\

following construction dar mashra'-i az mashari

is
1

borrowed from the Arabic:

(class.)

"in a road

(lit.

in a

road of

the roads)

"
;

tj+*

jt

^sj*' )*

dar mamarr-i az mamarrat


;

(class.)

"in a place
**

of passage, in

one of the places of passage"


c5 U;^3f

JlM

jt

tff^

^*> ^1*^

^^

numayad va dar-i az darha-yi ruzl bar ma bi-kushdyad (mod.) "it may be that God on High out of his gracious good.
nagdh az
ness
j*j;

2 ^oUX Lo^ ^j)


altiaf-i

LS)*J

** +>
l

^*^

cA^

bashad ki Khuda-(yi} ta'dlq

Wiwish

lutf-i

may
jf

suddenly open a

way

of livelihood (out of his

ot^fct

ij*?^ bi-taraf-t* az atrdf ravam (m.c.)

many ways) for us "I may go in some direction

"

or other, somewhere or other."


1 In modern Persian This is the incorrect reading by incorrectly martdba-i **lr*. modern Persians, even when th e * is omitted in the copies of the Gulistan. 2 The LS could not be added to tifl.

In m.c,
Also yak
Shaytjan

2 LSJ^* U^

shakhs-i d&gar-l " another person

"

is

common vulgarism.

*
6

chizl-l digar j&.<5

L&fS- ^lt

(D^^

is

really

Erroneously

t.arf

o>fc.

an adjective here. In Arabic tarf <Jj.fc

is

the

"eye", but v3^t

taraf

is

"a

side, extremity,

margin, etc."

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


(r)

139
:

The

is

occasionally added to Arabic phrases, thus


tartib
' '

jj^y .-*xy

ma
of

hazar-t az ta'dm

kardand (Sa'dl) "they set out a


;

something

what was ready in the way of food here ma is the relative hazar and Arabic "that is the 3rd person singular, which", j**^ pronoun Pret. of "to be ready." masc.,
(s)

When

only

^^
at

substantives are coupled together, the

*Jfj

of^
va
3

is added to the last 1 *f da* j J^*l f&j& &\j<)i>j> fj tot} J*>s* ^*b*jp4*j J>>~^

Sarhang-zada rd bar dar-i sard-yi

UgMamish

11

didam

ki

aql

u8

kiydsat-%
(?)

fahm u

firdsat-l zcfid^l-wasf ddsht (Sa'dl)

"I saw

the son of a certain

officer

the door of the palace of Ugbjamish, that was possessed of an


all

understanding and sagacity, and an intelligence and ingenuity beyond

description";

i&f ^Csu ^f/U ^ IsJU ^ <>i.^j j^yf ^a^&Jjt xx/o Ai^Ls bi-hukm-i an ki maldz-l mani az qulla-yi kuh-i bi-dast dvardd budand wa maljd u mafvd-i sakhta (Sa'dl) "because they have taken possession of
c

o-*

^iU

an impregnable asylum on the summit


safe refuge.
' '

of a

mountain and made

it

a place of

In m.c. the first substantive may, however, be preceded by yak t-j, as: kdrd u changdl-l bi-dih * ^Ki^. j &jtf***, or kdrd u changal-i bi-dih * *>k yak a. " give me a knife and fork."

Remark I. Similarly, in modern Persian, the ^c is added to the second only of two adjectives qualifying one noun, as: safar-i dur u dar5z-f ) ))&j*~>
^jlj^ (m.c.)

"a long long journey."

of

.Remark //.For an example in classical Persian of the added to both two adjectives qualifying one noun, vide last example of (c), 125.

(t)

When

its

noun does not as a

the ^c of unity supplies the place of a simple indefinite article, rule take the t; of the accusative. Ex. ^s~$ o>^ u**i^
:

some one to his father." aULy In the sentence Axif^^j ^JtLo jjjj^ \^ ^^^ zamin-i ra kanda sang barddshta " (Afghan) the sense requires the definite sign I; having dug up a (certain) special plot of ground and removed the stones." Note the distinction in meaning between the two following <^j>3 LT^ " but khdna-l atash zadand (m.c.) "they set fire to a house *>*) J2of \>
pish-i pidar-ash kas-i firistdd (Sa'di)

"he

sent

khana-i ra atash zadand " they set fire to one of the houses." In the following *&\*j ^)3>. b i^***~^ f <H^ shumdam gusfand-i rd buzurg-l rihdmd (Sa'd!) "I have heard that a certain elder released a
:

sheep

,"

the rd

is

necessary to distinguish the object and

make

the sense

Probably a copyist's omission; sarhang-zada-l ra \) l<itj *&dy If sarhang-zada ttf) be the correct reading, it means " the son of *S*&j referring to a local celebrity.
l

" an

officer."

the Colonel

"

^
&

The son

of Chinglz

Khan

he reigned in Turkistan about 656 Hijra.


of j.

Note these two pronunciations

140
clear
:

THE INDEFINITE ARTICLE.


omit
it

and buzurg-t ^jj> at

first

sight appears to be an adjective


.

qualifying the nominative, gusfand-i ^txiJL*/

Remark.
unity.
1

It will be noticed that the

I;

immediately follows the ^c of

(u)
&i\je

The

^^ ^AJJ^J ^Lo
me
(m.c.)

like

Ex. &;* f^f " a man adam-i chun man-i bar zamin nami-khwdbad (m.c.) adam-i misl-i tu-l *vot ^jy Ji*> does not sleep on the ground
:

^ can be added to some of the personal pronouns.


' '
;

dmad
act

"a man
*tf

like

you came"

**i&

eH^ ^^
"
a

cf-^-*

<-&

(**'

adam-i

misl-i shuma-i na-bayad

chunm bi-kunad

thus"

^ ^ ^|
e^f ^^

(m.c.)

man
u-i

Jt* fif adam-i misl-i

you ought not to kdr namt-kunad (m.c.)


like

"a
to

man
,

like

j*j>f

but in this case

him won't work." In these examples the ^3 could be added it must be omitted after the pronoun.
not added to

The
(;)

is

U ma "we"
?/a&-

nor to

u>&>t

wAaw. "they."
{i

J*' it* 1

fk

one of these here who


single."
(w) In

"

c^
but

man-am
yak-l

dar in miydn ki
ff

man

am

(Sa'dl)

am

&*> (m.c.)

"I am

alone,

a negative proposition the must be translated " not a none." Ex. d^xi (^^-^ laJf anjo kas-i no bud (or anja hich kas no-bud " there was no one there " c -) ) ( *& cT^ fi& d^*i c^L^^ " there was not an animal there." hayvan-i na~bud (m.c.)

^^

^f

(a?)

The
' '

indefinite

chunm

such an one as this

can be added to the substantive qualified by " or by e;l^ chunan such an one as that
k

'

' '

or to of***, chandan

much ", as: ^U* &i^ <j^ ^ ^^^ dar just u ju-yi chunm ja-i budam ki (m.c.) " I was in search *>o^j ." of just such a place as this ^\ AjUi ^/Aiui ^lia. chunan \*jf )j shakhs-i na-bayad in tawr karha bi-kunad (m.c.) "such a person like that
"much,
so

& pty

^^

man

ought not to act in this way" fJ&J ^^l* o^j *J c$^J c>U^*- chandan rabt-i bi" I do not know a zaban-i Farsi na-daram (m.c.) great amount of Persian."
:

This

^ can
c/f

also be

added to the substantive

chunin, c^^ to these words themselves.

an chunan,

^\^^

ham-chunin,

e>^ ^

qualified by A ham-chunan,

e^^

e*?'

but not

For the
chandan, vide
(y)

definite or demonstrative

(relative with

&

with chunan and

42

(s).

The personal pronoun 1st pers. sing, man "I" makes its accusative o*-o_Hi*t I) u^j?** hamchu man-i regularly when the ^ is affixed, as ra asir-i dast-i tu kard "he made a person like me a prisoner in your
:

^y

Similarly in the dative case


gah-l in nawbat naml-rasad
(class.) (in

magar marduman-l ra

ki halat-i mutawassit darand *


\)

H-;

14+*

c*

'^

modern Persian

hlch vaqt instead of gahl)

" but to men possessed

of a

modest

competence only, such a thing never happens."

RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE OR RELATIVE

141

hand
will

"

l :

^ ^v
^

lijif

c^**i

l>

<j*

&*"*

**>

\*^Haji Baba "God

by
as
:

not select a fool like


\j

me

as a

^xj JjL* ^a+a.1

|^.
gr-iufc
' '

Prophet." This could also be expressed In neither case could mard \j* be substituted.
' '
' *

(z)

The

^vift? jt;

can sometimes be added to the infinitive used as a noun, but rdz-i guftani a telling of a secret a secret rdz-guftan-i
,

to be" told."

Yak-didan-i

(i

one

visit

"

t:
;

yak-kushtan-i

one

"

killing

(of

one

person or of many).
(aa)

For the demonstrative


42.

as a definite article with the connective

*$ in relative clauses, vide

42.

The Relative Pronouns and the Demonstrative or


Relative
<?.
(

HARF-I
(a)

MAWSUL OR HARF-I
3
( ) .

SILA*

*!*>

o,*. or Jj*V>

).

There are no relative pronouns.

Jjj^y <-J^ '' The man that came yesterday, came to-day ", would the English sentence, From this it will be be " The man that (ki) he came yesterday came to-day.'
'
,

ki is

used as a connective

Instead the indeclinable particle *f Thus the Persian construction of


.

seen that in every relative clause there is a pronoun expressed or understood. If this pronoun is the subject of the verb in the relative clause, it is usual

except for the sake of special emphasis or for clearness. In oblique cases it is often inserted. In m.c., however, it is oftener omitted than in the classical language, as <jr>* j'>-* oly **$*' asp-i ki bar an savdr " " the horse that ride on it horse which
to omit
it,
:

^
it

mi-sham

(class.)

you

(the

you

ride)

in m.c. the c/G? would be omitted. a Persian relative clause (6) The noun that precedes

may

often be
article

regarded as definite, even if in English J^xs t^ *). 4 In Persian this noun


1
(

be preceded by the indefinite

is
:

made
this

specially definite
it

by

affixing

a demonstrative

^
P.,

even to the plural

^ connects

with the particle

Marii

(^/0

is

also

sufficiency that is peculiar to God 65 man-l thou art with me.


' '

a subs, "presumption; egoism; also the quality of the seminal fluid also man-*, as in, mani, Ar.
' '

* *

' '

' '

Persian

poets frequently

play on these

various

meanings.
2

Sila

*A0
:

conjunction

note that this


130

&

is

not a pronoun
s

for fuller explanation vide

" Relative Clauses."


as

considered a particle

*-J^*

and

&&. chi is

also

considered by
it is

some grammarians
of

a connective in

relative

sentences.

As, however,

only in this use

*-H
omit

and does not moreover admit and


to treat the

" the

found joined to j* or cJl, as *^j* and relative ", the author has preferred to

it

words **-j* harchi and


etc., are applicable

*^T

anchi as single words, indefinite

pronouns.
if

only to inanimate objects in the singular: the antecedent is a plural noun, rational or irrational, *& is the only connective. have * Thus "a fool who lights, or the fool who lights, a wax candle by day"
Anchi, harchi,
the

much

same meaning.

If the

sentence must be arranged differently

noun before the relative vide (p) and Remark


:

is

to be kept indefinite the


(r).

to

142
ki.

BELATIVE PEONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE OR RELATIVE (S

As however this ^, unlike the of unity, 1 admits of the accent in modern Persian for the sake of emphasis, it is perhaps an extension of the Ex. ***&* shakhsi-ki (nom.) izafat that connects an adjective to its noun. " a man who " or " the man who, the man that, etc." &f \> (^ii-i shakhs-i " a whom." It will be noticed that the demonrd ki
:

(ace.)

(or the)

person

strative

^
;

followed by *$ corresponds to the restrictive relative pronoun in


(r).

English
(c)

compare with

This

is

called the ya-yi sifat or


' '

^ of
' :

qualification

and implies the

force of the demonstrative

pronoun

that.'

This 4.5, however, in such sentences as o^f ^J^A kitdb-i ki ^jjiuA> A^ltf ml-khwdham ham-in ast " this is the book that I require ", is distinguished by some grammarians as ya-yi mawsul J^* ^b ) or ya-yi muzmar ^a* ^b " the yd of the pronoun (the noun that is kept in mind)," or ^Jf <^L ya-yi dm " while in such sentences the yd equal to the demonstrative pronoun an
(
' '
:

as

oJl-jo e*} e g*A

they consider the

ya-yi tawsijl <^***j* relative sentences vide

* <J;* 3' ^*yi J j such a and call it to be the equivalent of chundn " the further lj of For remarks on yd description."

&

*$ )t>

fj

o*

*lw

' '

' '

130.

In writing, this
thus
Axjj-Asui

can either be joined to the *$ or written separately

or

Remark.

The
'

after
'

j& and e/I^

is

^,
in

but the

of unity

as in *$ ^JjJ

f&*

probably not the demonstrative * vide under har _^> (^**!

Pronouns.

(d) The pronoun in the relative clause may be either expressed (but is seldom expressed) or understood. It is better to omit it unless necessary to

the sense [vide

(/)].

In the following examples, words in parenthesis do not belong to the examples, but may be inserted to show the complete construction
:

Nominative
sham'-i kdfuri
8

day"

^A^/O

<y nihad
:

^M
(Sa'di)
)

***

cA)

JA>

t5^'
lights

&&*-*

r&z-i rushan

" the
^l^f

fool

who

wax

candle in broad

{ j\
;

if

^jg
(

gdv-i-ki (u) shir mi-dihad (m.c.)


)

"the cow
mashq
k^

that gives

milk"

AUA/O

mi-kunand (m.c.) " the soldiers who


Genitive
1
:

^^

a^jJLikjlj^ sarbdzhd-l ki (zshdn)

drill."
*
^?

e/

t5*#

^^ jj) **
:

<^

** e;T

an na man bdsham
of

However
i.e.

in classical Persian both this

45-

and the
41
(6).

^5-

unity had the same

sound,
ft

the J^^F-*3 majhul sound of e


u.

vide

For ki

camphor." The adjective is frequently applied to anything white. Falconers even apply the term to a variety of hawk that happens to be unusually light
3

From

kafur

"

coloured.
4
<t/

*^

and not na-man

RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE OR RELATIVE ^.


ruz-i

143

jang bmi pusht-i

man
of

* '

(Sadi)
;

am

not that kind of


s$

man
"

whose back
ki habb-ash

you'll see in the

day

bimdr-am hard (m.c.)


e**!

^jj

^j a$u5U)(w " the stars whose &\& sitdraha-i ki partav-i shdn rawshan ast (m.c.)
ill
;
:

cc

fj+V <J^ the doctor whose pills made

" battle

^^
me

tatiib-\

rays are bright/'

Dative

&f+>j*a-

oJ^

<>I=EU
(:

(Sa'dl) (shakhs-i
*,iia

man

turn)

^\ ay ki shakhs-i man-at haqlr namud " oh thou to whom my form appeared mean
9
;

Jjj (JW;AJ

LSf~i

pisar-l> ki bi-pidar-ash put


'

dddam
I;

(m.c.)

"the boy

to whose father I gave

'
:

money

^t

*&/ v^

*A

^AJJ

UiJ(>.j

axJU^
" the

shahrhd-l ki bi-danjd (for bi-dnha) raftam hama-ra ab cities to which I went, have all been washed away."

girifta ast (m.c.)

Accusative

/<^

fj^f

^-aiuA shakhs-i ki (u ra) didam (m.c.)

ce

the

person whom I saw" (lit. that I saw him) ;-^>*^ anki chun pista didam-ash hama maghz (Sa'di) "he
like the pistachio-nut

U*

<J***i* &i~.> &j*. aCif

whom

I beheld all kernel

"

]
;

kushta

budam
\j

oAj^'
had,

" ^t^> a&oUw " the snakes which we killed yesterday " he sold all the things he *** asbab-i ki ddsht hama ra farukht (m.c.)
(m.c.)
:

jOjj

*&$ jjj&

aCxJbkjlc

marhd-i ki diruz (dnhd ra)

all his

property."
:

Ablative
khatar ast

o^j^-feu^ ^xk* <jj

"the

proceeding in
)

aw Mr A;i <Zar vay* mazinna-yi* ^>^ *^y^ e>T which there is a suspicion of danger " *&
;

&

^s^

cUti (c;Tj^

khdna-i

ki (dar
(

an

or <fer M) dakhil shudi (m.c.)

"the

house which you entered


(m.c.)
<xju* gjjj*o

"
;

^ix-SJu/o

^f^^ )*r

y^ ^2/-* ki(dar an) mi-nishim


^l^f
^Liofji
^3L>JLj|

"the place where you always sit"; p# *_^


Hiyat-i ki az ishan aspha-yi khub

biham mi-rasand (m.c.) " the black."


*>"

tent tribes from

whom

good horses are obtained


4

Locative

o^t*i| aja

;<^ ifjji a^i AA&^ c^f ^J


' '

^-^

gillm-i ki bar

an

khufta bud, dar rah-i guzar-i duzd anddkht (Sa'dl)

he cast the rug on which

he was

(or

had been) sleeping on the way the

thief

would pass
5

' '

eA*>J

e*f jl

**> *^ t>to s azan bustan ki tu (dar an] budi ^+*>\jf ^nji ((*fi jt) jj* md-ra chi tuhfa karamat avardi (Sa'di) "what rare present hast thou in " generosity brought us back from that garden in which thou wert ?

(S^

turned out to be skin on skin like an onion," had sterling qualities proved a fraud.'
1

'*

'

i.e.

the

man whom

thought

2
3

Also mazanna *Xtt*

or az vay.
pile.

A pd&

gilim

is

a cheap carpet without any

*
5

But )&&\j Rah-guzar "


Another reading
is

traveller, passer-by."

^5*^ *^ cjULy? of ;i dar an bustan

ki budi.

144

RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE OR RELATIVE


*f
]

<.$

v^
(

c5

r~^
ast (Sa'di).

Tar aam na-rasl bi-Ka ba ay A'rabi


K-in rah ki tu mi-ravi* bi-Turkistan
I fear

thou wilt never reach the K'aba, oh Arab, For this road thou goest leads to Turkistan."

ghulam bdshad. [This common construcnow but construction has led to the following erroneous tion *^j W.JA. jjycf &$ \j*s* mard-i ra ki imruz chub zadand duzd bud,
i.e.

kas-l ra ki iqbal ghulam-i

u bashad, or

iqbal ura

^^
t^^

where

mard-l ra
is

is

the object of the verb in the relative clause

vide(e)].

another means of declining the relative (if in the dative or (e) accusative case) commoner perhaps in modern than in classical Persian. It consists in putting the noun first in an oblique case and then the connective

There

&f
its

in this sentence the

pronoun cannot be inserted in the


[

relative clause, as

place

is
:

Examples
'st

taken by the substantive in the oblique case at the beginning. ** I; kishti-i ra ki Nuh nRkhudattA^-b jt ^v *^ -=~l \*^ *

chi bak az tufan

"what

^^

fear

from the flood to the boat whose Captain

is

Noah

"
?

case at the

in the dative In this example, instead of placing kishti-i and the it in the could be nominative; commencement, put

^M

pronoun in the

relative clause, expressed or understood, in the dative, as: **. c*w| lai. lj *$ iJ&^S kishti-l ki an-ra Nuh nakhuda ast ul^-ijt tSb ^.^J tjif tf \> chi bak az tufan ; ty*> jjj*\ 00^3 mard-i-ra ki diruz chub j.a.

zadand imruz murd (m.c.) 6 " vide end of (d). to-day


:

V ^j*> "the man who was beaten yesterday, died


t;jt

^^

(/)

An
I

expression like
better omitted.
relative cannot

^x^

*r

^aT

adam-i-ki u-ra didam "the


!^|
is

man

whom
sense,
(q]

saw", though
The

correct, is

heavy: as u-ra

not necessary to the

it is

be joined to the singular demonstrative pronouns

1 Ka'ba, lit. "a cube." The cube-like building in the centre of the Masjid at Mecca it contains the black stone (hajarVl-aawad), white as milk when it first descended from Paradise, but now black from the defiling touch of sinful man.
:

2
3

The broken

pi.

is

v^'

the

pi. of

<^j

is

^j*.

Poetical for *;

^|

&? ki in rah.

*^ ki tu (dar an) ml-ravi. ( df J* ) -*"* This sentence, though grammatically incorrect, the noun at the beginning being the object of the verb in the relative clause, is not uncommon in modern Persian. The
4
6

L?r**

construction in H>!3^
bi
it
(

(**

*~^# **

^^

H/T -&^j'
t

cS^r**?

t5^*J A dust-l ra ki

'* to a friend whom chang arand na shayad ki bi-yak dam, bi-yazarand (Sa'di) has taken a lifetime to make, offence should not be given in a moment " is different,

umr-l

farci

as the accusative at the beginning

is

the object of the verb ^>'jl# biyazarand.

RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE OR RELATIVE

^c.

145

an

and In ^t, nor to har j* " every." It is best to consider an-ki an-chi *^T, m-ki <*&*!, har-ki *$ _>*, har->chi A^^A as single words. However the plurals of the demonstrative pronouns andn uW anha
c/f
,

fJf

take or omit the L c, thus a^^f ariha-i-ki, or l^ijf, may *** Ifif anha-ki, etc. As the demonstrative pronouns are already definite, the definite ^c is a pleonism and may be omitted.

and

maw

e>^'> inha
1

The personal pronouns too are


of the

definite in themselves

and do not admit

relative
(m.c.)

^;

vide

41

(u).

raftand

"they who went*


'

sentence like &&*) &f " is incorrect; the

^(^

tshdn-i-ki

should

be

avoided.

As the relative " ^ before &t is used to make nouns definite, it can be omitted when the noun is already made definite by the demonstrative pronouns [vide (g)] or by^ har. Ex. cu-Jf ^jj tXJJuj +ty &l^ p #> ^i*^ e/Tj va an
(h)
:

" and those skins pusthd ki dar khana-yi gazh-dum bmand asr-i an-ast (Sa'di) " ^Ji? that are found in scorpion-holes are the sign (remains) of that p*&9 8 4 * k-^Ju iiA va *-^In man &^* I^UA fulan-am )* ^( j gf^/< <>*) a?* J** j- f^-)^
;

'

sang
*

haman sang

ast ki dar fulan tarikh

bar sar-i

man

zadi (Sa'd!)

"he

said,

am So-and-So, and this stone is that very same stone with which you struck me on the head on such and such a date " j( ^& cfi^^jy y ^^A*- ^t o*if fj^ii ^ fj^i^ ar l^jf guft ay Sa'di tu mz sukhan-i bi-guy az anha ki dida-t va
I
'

shunida-i (Sa'di)

"he

said,

*** i^ A*Af^ c^^ ^j 31 cuiuyf *-&j* bidan band-i gharib ki az vay nihan dashta bud ba vay dar avikht (Sa*di) " he closed with him by means of that tricky artifice (or throw) which he had kept
:

you have seen and heard

"

'oh Sa'dl, do you too relate some of the things

^ ^b

&

&^

to

himself"

5
;

5JuUJ

j*t<^f

^i^^io

^ af ^
t^

liar ja ki

ravad bi-khidmat-ash
;

" " wherever he >& it laof j iqdam numayand (Sa'dl) goes, he is well served lj>**' vo ki ast vs*^.( jt^i. durr-i shahvar nihang-i mardumanja ^L^* j*^^

^V

khwar

ast

(Sa'd!)

"and where

the costly pearl

lies,

there too

is

the man-

devouring shark."

i Sa'dl generally omits the <_$ ; az anan-ki ghadr kardand ba man-ash dusti bud (Sa'di) " one of those

who had mutinied


2

had a friendship with me.


a

' '

In

tar ast

<X>lj *ixj^3 j ASict^j v^^.fy j^)/^ A^U^j' ^^? 2/^-* va mardana va zurmand bayad ki (Sa'di) "any one of you

*$

*/mma
is

dilavat-

who

braver than
the connec-

the rest, and

manly and strong

of

arm

"
,

ydk-i though

it

has a

before

tive *S is in itself indefinite.

If it

be required to
ki az

make
*'

the pronoun definite, some such

phrase as

U&3t *^ LST^J^

^ r nafar-l

shuma

the

one of you

who

is

",

would

be used.
s

If the

(^ were inserted cu~ACk


tarlkh-i fulan

ojU* haman sangl-at (m.


)& could have been said.

c.).

*
6

Or dar
**

c^

i-jjlj

But compare
10

oJb o^,^

ya/t (Sa'di)

to-day by

^&vJ<> ^lV3-?y*' Mnrffis bidan daqlqa-l bar that one single artifice he overcame me."

^j

mandast

146

RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE OR RELATIVE

could be inserted. In the above examples the the following examples the ^ is inserted: (i) In oj ^ ^Lui JLj ham-chu an nd-bind-i ki shab-i dar vahal uftdd va guft (Sa'di) "like that blind-man who one night fell in the mire and exclaimed ";
1

o*i

^Jli. *+&)j&-

o2**t

u*x

^5*

** ^sj*^*

in dukhtar-i-ki mi-bint ism-ash

Khanum ast Khurshid Khanum "


Khurshid
:

(Mod. Pers.)
<x5^ja jf

of this girl that you see is ** xj\*>b <X^AJ o^i^x* *$ y> har kas-i-ki mi-

"the name

khwdhad bi-pushad bi-anddza-yi qadd-i u bi-burand (m.c.) "let according to the size and figure of whoever is going to wear it
har
Teas ki,

it
:

be cut

s '

or

*>

y> har

ki,

or

^rO* nar ^as cou ld be used

instead of

har kas-i-ki.

In the above examples the could be omitted. are As names definite, they do not require the ^c unless some (j) proper oj **f Jj^a *> tj+*n.> Mahmud ki diruz amad special distinction be required

guft (m.c.)

Mahmud, who came yesterday, said "; but ^^jis ** ^zj**^ Mahmud-i ki diruz amad " the Mahmud who came yesterday" (it being
is

"

understood that there


sentence *>x>
vus'at-i

more than one

of this

name).
.iUi^lj

Similarly in the

o&<^j v^L^
ki

^ c^;_# o^'
'avayib-i
'

^**j

U|

amma

bi-i'timad-i

akhlaq-i buzurgdn

zir-dastan bi-pushand

(Sa'dl)

trusting to the breadth of nature and magnanimity of the great, ' the defects of their inferiors cJ^)_V buzurgan does not require
,

"but who hide


the

*&^x>
(k)

buzurgan-i-ki
If the

would mean "those who noun with this-^ is qualified by a simple adjective that can pre(that section of the) great

."

cede
as:

its

noun

(vide

under Adjective)

it is

better for the adjective to precede,

*y*

v'^

^-^tf cJ^t^r*

ishdn tdkht khwab bud (Sa'dl) " the " the J^' avva l kas-i-ki (m.c.)

** tj+*>*

^x-^

nakhustin dushman-i ki bar sar-i


to attack
'
:

first first

enemy

them was

"
asleep
;

**> ** person who' &J* )^^> **<#-* j*i " dildvar-tarin zan-i ki dida am (m.c.) "the bravest woman I have seen " ar the greatest ^f Jij^y J>^ buzurgtarhasrat-ianbashadki* (Sa'dl) ' &*. will &f *$ be that J^ *AiU na-bini-ki regret f&y ^j^jf
:

^b

'

^^ ^^

^uw

bi-andak ranj-i-ki burdam chi maya-i ganj dvardam (Sa'dl) " dost thou not see what an amount of gain I have brought in return for the small stock of
trouble I underwent

"

by the former friendship that we had ." cannot precede the noun (vide under Adjective) it (I) If the adjective follows it taking the relative ^, as: <Wf j, *&$ u*^ j*^& dukhtar-i
khush-gil-i-ki diruz

"

^**b

**

<^j** &jUj

bi-sdbiqa-yi ma'rifat-i ki ddshtim

amad
:

(m.c.)

" the pretty

girl

who came yesterday."

(m) Sa'di says


1

Similarly
' '
,

dashtam (m.c.)

had
2

: do not require the anchi asp u mal-l ki anchi asp u mat ki dashtam) " whatever horses and property I appears to be a confusion of two constructions.

the nouns after *apj

(for

In modern Persian
ki.

this

would be

*>>

o~| ^t

e^.*ak \&.j&)j* buzurg-tarln hasrat

in a^t

RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE OR RELATIVE

147

hukamd* gufta and baradar ki dar band-i khwish ast na barddar ast no, khwish ast " the wise have said that a brother who is wrapped up in himself
is

neither brother

nor kin."

In modern Persian this would be

*&i)*\j>

Possibly Sa'di considered )&\j* baradar in the above sentence as a generic noun, or the copyist has omitted the ^. The reading in many Gulistans is a&^fjj barddar-i-ki.
barddar-i-ki.
it

si

can accompany a substantive preceded by a numeral when *&$ is required to make it definite as j<xi.< ^fjb j* j| fi-C \j of " I broke sanduq-i lei az sarbdzdn bud dn-rd shikastam (Afghan colloquial)
(n)

The

the three boxes belonging to the soldiers," but "I broke three boxes belonging to."
(o)

**"

cb ^* a ~ *
4

sanduq ki

The phrase
is

" as

^^
:

&*** *tyj* $ az

qardr-i ki

ma'lum rm-shavad means

appears." (p) If a noun

it

indefinite before

a relative clause, the verb occurs before

^Uo ^f ($(&'>\ ittifdq dtj&* l&*> ** <*xoy dar an miyan javdn-i bud ki miva-yi 'unfavdn-i shabdb-ash naw-rastda (Sa'di) " there was in that assembly, by chance, a youth, the flower of whose youth
the connective ki, as
1

i>^
<vof

^ ^^

had but newly bloomed"; tunity came which ."

A*'

^V

mawqa'-i dmadki (m.c.)

"an

oppor-

Sahmgin
'*

db-i ki muryjiabi

dar u iman no-bud

Kamtdrm mawj dsyd


Such a
terrible
it.

sang az kindr-ash dar rabud (Sa'di).


(a)

expanse of water that even the

water-fowl was not

safe in

Its smallest

wave would have swept away a mill-stone


is

off its

banks
Vide

"
;

in this

example Remark.
(r)

understood after

db-i,

hence db-i

is indefinite.

(r)

Note the absence

of

^ in the following non-restrictive relative clauses


'avdmm uftdda
ast

jamil-i Sa'di
baslt-i

ki

dar

afvdh-i

va

sit-i

sukhan-ash ki dar
it) is

zamm

rafta (Sa'di) ''the good repute of Sa'di, which (and

in the

mouths

of all,

and the fame

of his

words, which (and


^fe*i j*>*

wide world

."

^1^

^+*)j

^T j*j*> ^ A>
har du

it) has gone out into the o^a^. ojUc^i dar 'imdrat-i

hazrat-i sadr-i
of

a'zam ki

md

dmad u

raft

ddrim

(m.c.)
:

"in the palace

H. H. the Grand Wazir where we both have free access" ^jlb ^ AJU. ijj ^ur j* IJ&&9 jur u ajJU c^3 <*&&*j ^J-X
(

AikU o^t jlk ^^> ojwc ar Uy faA; to)b qasrhd-yi khub va kushkhd-yi buzurg u kuchik az ru-yi saliqa bd kamdl-i qashangt dar kindr-i rud-khdna va
^l

1
*

Should be

tj

^f

anha
'

ra.
;

2 i.e.

"a

certain youth

'

the

noun

is

hardly indefinite.

148

RELATIVE PRONOUNS AND DEMONSTRATIVE OR RELATIVE ^.

kuhhd ki mushrif bi-rudkhdna ast sdkhta and (Shah's Diary) "here and there on the banks of the river and on the sides of the hills, which
bdld-yi

(and they) overlook the river, are erected fine palaces and summer residences both large and small, all in good taste and of exquisite beauty." In the is not added to kuh-hd, as the hills are not last example the restrictive

particularized;

^
The

would signify "those


indefinite article

hills

that."

Remark.
as
:

o*t

Diary)

^ eP+w *J^j "

yak will also make the noun indefinite, *;> tX yak naw' zird at-i ki ism-ash rap ast (Shah's
l

a kind of crop, which

is

called rape

."
indefinite article, as:

However, a <^ before &f may represent an English

^ULut ji~jb ,>^ ^O-J^SA. ja *&r~^ (J*jt )j**** ja dar huzur-i u misl-i pisar-i ki " he stood in his dar huzur-i pidar-i khud bi-istad istdd (m.c.) presence as a

son stands in the presence of his father


<yiA*Alj
1

"
:

Jb^'f

e^ ^/

*f %tf

<Ji*>

y^J

^Uj

t^U tamdm-i lashkar misl-i galla-i ki gurg dar an uftdda bdshad ^Ajt az ham pdshidand "the whole army scattered like a (that) flock of sheep
attacked by a wolf
(s)

."

Chundn ^^- "like that, resembling that, to such a degree, in that " and chanddn cM**- " as many as, how much soever, etc.", may, manner, so in India and Afghanistan but not in Persia, take the demonstrative ^c with Ex. y( 5^/f J>ji^ eJ^<va p** J^li , o-i v lsou^o ^U^Ifexj ^Ip^ **\ or omit it.
;

jj^siyo

^f

&>

\*fa$-

xi^U du a-yi
l

is accepted and the cry of the distressed heard, even though they be infidels, as was the case of that prisoner (previously mentioned)" here instead of &Ua. chundn ki, A&^a- or <*apJU. could
;

dldagdn maqbul agarchi kdfi,r "the prayer of the oppressed

mazlumdn mustajdb ast va ndla-yi sitambdshand chundn-ki dar haqq-i an mahbus (m.c.)

be used
nazd-i

<xUyo

o^ijj) Jx>

^AJ

***

vi^cfjj

t^

^ ^ A^oUa.

chundn-l ki dar

shumd zird'at ast plsh-i md niz zird'at mi-bdshad 1 (Afghan) " we have " <i"cT just the same amount and quality of cultivation that you have ^U^Jk ^J^A. \jl* Ji A^iUa. tufdn-l dmad chundn-i-ki dil-i md-rd khushk kard s " a storm came such as struck terror to our hearts " (Afghan) (Afghan)
:

" howevermuch guftam qabul na-kard (m.c.) I said, he did not agree; in spite of all I said, no matter what I said, he ."
t>j& J^**

p& A^JfAXA.

chanddn

ki

An Afghan might
For
with the
cAi-a<_

here say chanddn-t ki


is,

Hamchundn-i-ki

however, correct Persian.


indefinite substantive

chundn and cJ^J^ chanddn qualifying an


41
(x).

of unity, vide

1 Note that a plural verb after a collective scattered individuals.

noun

is

necessary here

to indicate

2
3

Chunan-i-ki A

class.

rarely used in

modern
9

Persian.

In modern and

classical Persian *'

<^f

^e>

el^ chunan tufan-l amad ki

would

be better.

THE ADJECTIVE.
(t)

149
40.

For remarks on the

definite article, vide

(u)

For the use

of the demonstrative

pronouns of an, as a definite

article before a relative clause, vide


(v)

40

(g).

As with the

of unity [vide

41

(j)

Remark], abstract nouns


:

in

the singular do not admit of the relative ^. Ex. Javdn bi-gfrurur-i dildvari ki dar sar ddrad ^*s")t*f ^s)#3)jj** c>'>^ (Gul. Chap. Ill, St. 27).

The

relative

45-

may, however, be used with plural abstract nouns,


az

as: cu*f ifojjM Ujf A&jSlfjjUy li ndfarmdriihd-i ki xJ tojf U^ Ax5lfAJyk khublhd-i ki shumd karda id.

ma

sar zada ast (m.c.);

Concrete nouns however in


** 5>;t> jr )*
(w)
last only, as

may

take the relative <^

as:

^^:

ji

**

^n

^"t

^x^U

*' (Gul.).

When

substantives are coupled together, the

is

added to the

magar ikhtiydr u 'izzat-i-ki Khan Mid bi-u ddda ast kifdyat-ash nami-kunad? ->i&4J ^^ijljif o*| a^a^U ijl^ ^UL *<AJ> j ^^\ j^ (m.c.) " but the authority and importance that the Khan has already given him are they
not sufficient for him
' '

CHAPTER
43.
(a)

V.

The Adjective.
is

Ism-isifat
)

The
(

adjective
).

called sifat

oJLe

and the substantive

qualified

mawsuf

o^jA5

Persian adjectives qualifying nouns are as a rule indeclinable.


struction, they usually follow
as
:

In conizdfat,

asp-i qizil-i
(b)

izdfat.

u/ J>* my grey In old Persian prose, the adjective preceded its substantive without the In modern Persian, some few adjectives may precede their nouns, and
1

man

^f

and are coupled to their nouns by the " horse."

in this case the izdfat is discarded.


'

This construction
).*

is

called the

inverted

epithet

izdfat-i

maqlubt

^.^ ^Ui
<

The substantive has usually

the

"^

of unity."
tj\*

Examples:

man";

l^ijf

cP(j*

^^

khub mard-t (m.c.) "a good 'ajab havd-l Injd ddrad (m.c.) "this place
/0

v^
^

has a fine

a good climate." The adjectives ^&o mk " good


air,

" and

bad

"bad"
"

frequently precede

their substantives in this

manner.

With the exception


'

of the simple adjectives

good

" and " bad ", the

inverted epithet

'

is

used only in poetry or in rhetorical language, or in

modern

colloquial for the sake of

emphasis

in the last

by position emphatic and


(m.c.)
1

signifies

"a

really fine air."

ig example above, zan-l Darakhshanda

^^

"a

bright,

cheerful,

woman";

sharir

mard-i

(m.c.)

Can this be a translation of the Arabic rummanl "scarlet like Qizil, T., "red." the flower of the pomegranate," the epithet for a nutmeg grey, or is it applied to a grey horse because in Persia the tail and legs of a grey are usually dyed with henna ?
2

Vide

117.

m.c. for durukhshanda.

150

THE ADJECTIVE.

Ls&j*jtj

"a wicked man,"

etc., are

used in modern Persian and are more

emphatic than the ordinary collocation. (c) Arabic adjectives and compound adjectives should follow the nouns they qualify, but vide 117 II (e).
Turkish adjectives precede their Turkish substantives, as: <J^ Jj* (m.c.) "red-head," a name for Persian and also for certain other settlers in " the 1 golden eagle" (lit. the black bird of Afghanistan: tyi qara-qush prey);^ty qard-kahar adj., "dark bay (horse)." In JjL? ty qaraqaval,
lit.

uV

m.c. for qarqaval


(d)

"a

pheasant," the

first

word

is

perhaps not an adjective.


(class,

The
of
;

adjectives Ichayli

(mod.) and bisyar


:

and mod.) "much,

many,"

take either a singular or plural, as

"a lot cJ; women "

women"

Ichayli (or

also zanha-yi bisyar )\*~>

zan ( ;U~j or) ^$1^ " zanha niany bisyar) 1^3 ( ;^~-? or) csVj, but not zan-i bisyar zan-iziyadis,
Ichayli (or bisyar)

J^

however, used. Note that ^Aia* unlike ;U~j cannot follow

its

noun.
it

Note too that J; >j "

;lj~*J

"
jahazha-yibisyar-ibuzurg

^^> jl^

^s

ambiguous, for

may stand

either for

many

large ships," or for jahazha-yi bisyar-buzurg

ships very large, very large ships." 89 (I) (2). vide


(e)

For examples

of bisyar as

an adverb,

Ghand ^i^ is followed by a noun in the singular, vide 39 (g) (1) to (7). has many meanings; "many, as much, how long, (/) Chandan e>f^" " etc." When it signifies much, many it is followed by a singular noun and in Modern Persian always by a negative verb, as chandan sarbaz anja no-bud " Uof jbj*. cjt^va. (m.c.) there was not a great amount of soldiery there ":
:

chandan sar-rishta-i dar zaban-i Farsi na-daram o\* oVj >t> &)j* &\**" I don't know very much Persian." (m.c.) Remark. Chandan sarbaz anja budand &ty l->f jb j* ^**> " there were many soldiers there", is old. (g) In modern colloquial, one or two adjectives sometimes precede their
substantives with the izafat, as pir-i
:

^^

mard Zj^j** * "the old man ";

ffir-i

mard-i

The young
Pir
is

of the

Golden Eagle

is

black.
:

any religious sect cu&J jb AJ plr-i t&riqat " a Sabza-Maydan, a square in Tihran, is vulgar for Sabz Maydan. spiritual guide." Sdbza >Xvo is also used as an adjective, "dark-complexioned," of people; rang-ash
sabza ast o**l
L>J(

also a founder or a chief of

" he looks green, ill." <J*^) (m.c.) but surat-ash sdbz ast: 4-U \) ^*A t i3XA kJU3 ^A* cJ^J Ij^f j-UJ ;i i^JJ >J^f ** There was not a dark face, bad-looking, in the whole of Ind.
*)***
;

^'

'Twas as though Ind were created of salt." " [The word green," sabza,' adj., is applied by the Persians to a dark complexion, while a pleasant or good-looking face is said to be " saltish" or " "ull of salt" ^JU or
_
:

the play on the words

is lost

in English.]

The Arabs, however, do not


G

consider the

word ..JU "good-looking about the ^

mouth"

to be connected with .JU "salt."

THE ADJECTIVE.
iJ

151

" the grey-headed old woman" " but " *j a and class.) pir-i fartut-i (m.c. decrepit, worn-out old man " the old *J pir bdghbdn, or ^u cjUcU bdgkbdn-i pir (Afghan and m.c.) gardener" fo^lJ^u pir nd'khudd, or^u ^I^IJ nd-khudd-yi pir (Afghan and

"an

old

man"

pir-i

zdlj\)^

" the old m.c.) Captain."


Pir-sdl

JLs^u "aged"

is

an Afghan expression
L

for <JL AXJ^,} dirina-sdl,

er j))

**4ji* dirina-ruz,

or *<i;>^ JL- sdl-khurda.


f j^v

For the modern colloquialism


>>

marhum-i shah
J^

' *

the late Shah


& ***

' *

and bachcha Turk


Turk), vide

^y

**u or ^wA? bachcha


,

*aeu

Jy

(for

^3
is

<Xapj

bachcha-yi

117, III

(6).

In classical Persian, the


pir-mard-l
(h)

t'za/al

in

the above cases

omitted,

thus

i&j* j**
:

etc.

Adjectives, without an izdfat, may precede or follow nouns to form " compounds, as <_&; <j^ khush-rang "of pleasing colour ; toj ^d dum-zada ' " " docked " (of horses) j^ long-tailed, i.e. donkey jl;^ ft dum-dardz
' ; ;

gush-dardz (m.c.), more


gardan-kuluft, adj.

vs*^K ^,^5 commonly u*^ 3 ^ dardz-gush donkey "of strong-back (in a vulgar sense)"; also "a man of
1

"

"

^^

power, no weakling."
(*)

When

several

adjectives are

attributed to the same

noun they
:

may

(1)

Be connected
is

to their
tansiq
'

construction

called

u'

noun and to each other by the izdfat this s-sifdt ( eULJf <JHr^ ) "the stringing, or
:

arranging, of the epithets.'


;t<>

Examples

kuh-i buland-i sangi-yi barf-ddr (m.c.)


ydr-i
gul-

Ojj

(.5&U*

vUj Bjf

"the high rocky snow-covered mountain":


*'

badan-i shirin-zabdn (class.) c>^3 (^is**

C>AJ

J^^lj

the mistress with delicate

body and honied speech."


(2)

tion not

The adjectives may be coupled by the conjunction vdv j common. Examples Ja *> fj ^ o*-f^ f&= ij[y 5
:
tt

a construc^-JU t

^t

" B., Chap. XXXII) though he was of a fine r^ ^ ^ Tr> soldierly appearance, he was in reality the most timid and pusillanimous r^r

e^3

*r*3

of

men."

(Gul, Chap. V.,St. 20.)


' *

gallant youth there

Pledged to a

was and fair maid beyond compare."


(East. Trans.)

ti^ &*-jk

itoj-i^

\)

-fj*xo

JU

A^ Auxxx) A^. (Afghan)'

" what

From

!Xi.jU
*
.

In modern Persian

-ft*

*^^

';

152

THE ADJECTIVE.

does he see but that Ayaz has opened a wooden chest and taken out some old

and dirty clothes." (3) The adjectives may follow the noun
junction
j,

in apposition without the con-

vide

139
did

(b)

(2) or with the conjunction j, vide

90
*>p

(a)

(5).

Example:
l*l**t

shakhs-i

siyah-fam

za'if

andam

(Sa'dl)

j-liaU*

^^iuS,

iJU0 "he saw a person dark-complexioned and


^1;

feeble-looking":
fall

^b ux~ j jj3j~
Remark
I.

fc^ j v?^^ c^L^

o***j

LS^ )^ifi

*^

" thou didst not


fickle

into bondage to a youth, vain and foolish,

hot-tempered and

"
(Sa'di).

In modern Persian
it

\)

would be necessary after

^iui

shakhs-i, otherwise
(j)

might be mistaken for the subject.


also qualified

affixed to

by an affixed pronoun, the pronoun is to the noun, as the adjective awqat-i 'aziz-at eUjy " e>)4j* [or awqat-i azlz-i tu] thy precious time." The I; of the dative or of the accusative is added to the last adjective
If
is

the noun
l

and not

only, as
(***})*
L>

^j* w*-l robbers L$)^* **&*' *& *&) (Jv=*~


tj
*)&
t;

' '

carried off the


I sold

' '

^>jj ^L the large finely-coloured moth;

Arab horse "

eaten Afshar 2 carpet."


(k)

If

izdfat

is

a predicate after the verb " to be " (in English), the of course omitted, as barf sard ast va atash garm

an adjective

is

For a predicate plural in English (substantive or adjective) and qualified by an epithet, vide 119 (o). the predicate is a noun qualified by an adjective of the class (I) If
in (6), the adjective may, according to ordinary rule, either or follow its noun, as: pidar-i tu mard-i Tchub-lst o^j^. precede ^3 ;<>j, or pidar-i tu khub mard-ist ^*~ j&s ^ n sucn cases the noun of the >*

mentioned

v^

}*v

predicate has usually the


(ra)

^ of unity.
in the plural, as
ast in
:

An adjective used substantively may be

*\^v
is

c>^^?
of the

"the sages say": o*t ^t^^l<| jj az alcabir-i Bagjiddd influential people of Baghdad." In such cases the plural
this plural is not rigidly
gilJia-yi majlis
is is

"he
is

an

usual; but
Jchush-

adhered to

in

speaking:

^^^
;

c^M^AA

m.c. and incorrect: W^JJ buzurgha properly "big things" sometimes in m.c. applied to persons for size (soldiers) as opposed to

t^y kuchak-ha;
(3)

buzurgan "the great in rank forefathers." In English, adjectives may occasionally take the place of nouns; vide

but

c>(f;JJ

(p)

and Remark.

1
'

The

singular duzd aja gives


'

an

indefinite

sense

equal to the passive

either

a thief or thieves stole


2

or

'

the horse

was

stolen.'

Many

are

carriers

Turkoman tribe whose head-quarters are said to be in Azerbaijan. nomadic and live on the produce of their camels and flocks. The men act as and the women weave carpets. Nadir Shah was an Afshar.
scattered

THE ADJECTIVE.
(n)
(1)

153

modern

In a few instances in classical Persian, sometimes imitated by writers, a plural substantive, Arabic or Persian, animate or
is

inanimate,
(2)

qualified

by a plural adjective, Arabic or Persian.

The use

of a plural Persian adjective to agree with a plural


is

noun

denoting rational beings


copied.
(3)

in imitation of
4.

the Arabic and should not be

For an exception vide p. 122, line It must also be recollected that,

in Arabic, all

broken plurals are

collective nouns,

and may, therefore, be grammatically feminine singular, and that the commonest Arabic feminine termination is * sing., and oi>f pi. 1 (4) and (5) Examples: &u~^ j^j ^^jt ^^z &]tyo (Sa'dl) "the brave

men sprang out of their ambush": *i;U? j t; ,MA iyLfexL* (Sa'dl) "they appoint coarse ruffians ." Bishtar-i ishan dilavaran va bahaduran-i kar-azmuda*1 j o^jita e>lil ^i&jj *^xjT fi cJ^altf (Trans. H. B. Chap.) here eJ^ Jb dilavaran and u^ltf bahaduran are treated as substantives and predicates to olijf ishan, and are qualified by
,
:

the adjective kar-azmuda

lty$ j.
uliiA| (mod.) "persons, grandees,"
vide
(7):

Ashkhds-1 akabir j&\

[akabir-i ashkkas "the great ones of the people," would be an ordinary

construction],

Qasamha-yi ghilaz
l*jj^

^(f)^

^fxi

"solemn oaths"; (mod.) "I swore strong and mighty oaths."


s

^ ^l^

(m.c.)

&* ^IAJJ!^ In the Quran

strong and harsh," and this probably accounts for the plural Arabic adjectives being (incorrectly) used

occurs the phrase

*u> ^o> &&c &$&* "angels

after \&&&j+*

and

l^*-*^.

Common
nesses "; (jj*

in far mans are, fUke ^Uiy-^/o


(rare) *iiy=

and
(or

flk*

^tjijj.

Shuhud-i muvassaqa
Jl^.;

,^w

et^r ^*) "trustworthy


rijal-i
1

wit-

or AJy JL=-; (but not in Pers.

aqwiya* tk j$\ J ^;)*


is

"

strong
(6)

men." The regular Arabic masculine


:

plural of adjectives
:

sometimes used

for

b men, but always in the oblique case, as Ghuzdt-i mujahidin ^<^A\.=SUO %e " "true warriors of the Faith Icubaraf-i 'arifin ^>jU *\ji "great mystics."

regular Arabic masculine plural substantive

may be

qualified either

a regular Arabic masculine plural or else, less frequently a masculine broken plural.
(7)

in

Persian,

by by

broken plural signifying rational beings may, as in Arabic, be

In some copies of the Gulistan dilavar occurs and not dilavaran.

Or K>rjf J6

)*(tf

jj$*

(I}

\J)JM

or

S^jf

^ )^> j )* c^^iy^

bishtar-i

ishan dilavar va bahadur-i kar-azmvda or blshtar-i lahan dilavar-i bahadur-i kar azmuda.
&

Shidad ildA plural of ShadU *?.**, and ghilaz &%* plural of ghattz But (*fj^ J^; is used in Persian.

Not eyAAlaRx n om.

pi.

154
qualified

THE ADJECTIVE.
by an adjective in the masculine broken plural, " the Imams." &*5(
tahirin)
!

as:

A*imma-yi athar

(or reg. pi.


(8)

;l(J

As stated

in (3), Arabic
:

pure broken plurals are collective nouns and

grammatically feminine
tybUe Li\
;

it is

therefore also correct to say cfimma-yi tdhira

but *>y JU;, however, does not appear to be used in Persian, though correct Arabic. If, however, the broken a singular plural is not applicable to rational beings it is usually followed by " the 99 = *U*l husna asma*-i as a broken &*>*=* feminine,
hukkam-i 'azima **AC
etc.
;
,

^,

rarely

attributes of

lp cjUjf, vide (4). exception a!> is usually qualified by (9) An Arabic regular inanimate feminine plural a feminine singular, less often of a masculine singular, and very rarely by
-***""
;

by God; *&**

plural,

a feminine plural: darajdt-i 'aliya &Jl*

"
s>\+)*
still.

high ranks"

is

commoner than
as
' '
:

^U eA*), while
olaJL*
the
ei>UJ'b

regular Arabic feminine plural


first

However, by a regular feminine plural, " eUM* c^UlA/o high places pious works that are permanent
cs*la>p is

oUH*

rarer

in a few instances a

is

qualified

' '

t <

occurs in the Quran.

dual denoting rational beings may be qualified by a dual, as " noble ^aJfj wdlidayn-i mdjidayn parents."
(10)

^^U

dual

denoting

irrational

beings

or neuters is

rarely qualified

by a

masculine singular, as tarafayn-i muqdbil Jjlo/o ^i^fc. but generally by a dual. (11) An Arabic feminine singular denoting a lifeless object is usually
followed by an Arabic adjective agreeing with
it,

as yad-i bayza
'

^ " the *^# *

white hand

ulya Ule &>; It does not, however, always agree, as yad-i vdhid <3^ *x
(of
;

Moses), a miracle"

rutba-yi

of highest rank."

"monopoly."
is

If

the

noun ends in

e*, for

the servile Arabic


(3).

is,

the adjective

usually

masculine; thus

^U

CXA, vide

(t)

When, however, an Arabic feminine rational noun is followed by an the relative adjective ending with (ya-yi nisbati), the adjective w feminine: if irrational it is masculine or feminine, as: isyj*" 1 ^ ut

v^

*jjXJ^

^J^

^l+e O^^CA.

but

*JjiUl

oJ^,i

(12) If a singular

Arabic substantive denotes a rational being, the Arabic

adjective should always agree with it. It will be seen that the concord of Arabic substantives

and adjectives in Persian usually follows the rules of Arabic grammar. (0) Summary of rules of concord of substantives and adjectives other than the ordinary Persian concord.
regular Arabic masculine plural denoting rational beings can be qualified either by a regular plural or rarely by a broken plural.
(1)

(2) A broken plural denoting male rational beings may be qualified by a broken plural, a regular masculine plural, or rarely a feminine singular.

But

*0!/e

THE ADJECTIVE.

155

(3) A broken plural not of rational beings is usually qualified by a feminine singular, rarely by a broken plural. (4) A dual of rational beings is qualified by a dual agreeing with it. A dual of irrational (or neuter) things is rarely qualified by a mascu-

line singular, generally

by a dual.

(5) singular Arabic feminine of lifeless things usually has the adjective with it, but not always. agreeing If the noun ends in o for the servile 'i, the adjective is usually masculine.

An
(6)

Arabic noun
If

adjective ending in the yd-yi nisbati and qualifying a feminine rational is feminine in form; irrational, masc. or fern.

a singular Arabic substantive denotes a rational being, the adjec-

always agree with it. Persian nouns should not be qualified by a plural adjective, neither Persian nor Arabic.
tive should
(7) Plural

Persian adjectives are also treated as substantives, as: " *>** jfjjt) 5 (thou wast ibyojf fUf *j*j f,/J **** &\& j *J^ (Sa'dl) most fortunate that thou fellest to the lot of an old man) experienced and
(p)
(1)

A few ^j cJUi

travelled, one

who had seen

the ups and


)

downs
jy

of life,
,

bad."
so used.
(2)

The

adjectives &ij

& and
,

*z**\)

and tried its good and and ^xb j o~J are often
,

Adjectives, Persian and Arabic,


of

may

stand for substantives, as:


,

ot>|

(pi.

oo)
:

" the dead "

also

(3)

An
' '
:

adjective standing for a substantive

J&&&S and cX^x> may be

vide

(r)

and

115

(r).

qualified

adjective, as
sick son

^ u^j
*b*

<*$r*i

t>

^i^: <*sj&'& (Sa'cK)


Uii^il *f

" a certain rich

by another miser had a

ot^

cd';

^#2>

&1

(Sa'di).

Remark.
" the past."

In English, -adjectives occur as nouns, generally in poetry, as: " and the "irreclaim" George Eliot talks of the painful right

able dead," but only a master of English prose can so introduce an adjective
qualified
(4)

by another adjective. Sometimes an adjective

is

better, or as well,
is

known
"

as the substanJ>j
'
;

tive it usually qualifies,

and hence

used alone, as

<J.u BNJJ

^ j ^^&^
for
'

Hindi here stands for


blade."
(q)

tlgh-i

Hindi.

Compare

"my

Toledo

my

Toledo

few substantives are in modern Persian treated as adjectives

also,

as: *|f (*tjf ;**-** kishti bisyar aram bud (Shah's Diary) "the boat was (^*A' 4< this chair is very calm, did not roll ": o-i o^.!; ;U-j ^^i^ (m.c.)

comfortable."

That dram and rahat are

considered

as

adjectives

and

not as substantives forming a component part of a compound verb, is shown by their having in modern Persian a comparative form dram-tar and
rdhat-tar.

TamizJ+>

(for

JA^J judgment, discrimination) in m.c.

signifies

"clean."

156

THE ADJECTIVE.
(r)

(1)

The noun

of agency,

and

as in English

participles, are used as adjectives.

With

the present and past these must be classed the verbal

adjectives in a.
(2)

The noun

of

agency

is

not

much used.
*ii^;a
JJ-xL^

In modern Persian
^iJ*i.j

it is

nearly
liberal

always an adjective: shakhs-i bakhshanda

(m.c.)

oaiw

"a

man";

ru-yi darakhshanda (m.c.)


'

^; "a

face"; mard-i 115 (r).

ata-kunanda (m.c.)

Ikp

bright-looking,

cheerful

"a generous man."

Vide

Even

classically, the

noun

of agency

was used as an adjective:

"In synagogue and


Hell's terrors

cloister, mosque and school, and Heaven's lures men's bosoms

rule.

0.

K. Rub, 49 Whin.
is

Remark.
obsolete verb

The adjective JJM*^ sharmanda "ashamed" &^*>j.


is

from an
t

The
Pers.,

adjective farkhunda l****j

connected with

"

beauty, lustre ",

and

rukh, Pers.,

"

Pers.,

fromy

far,

cheek, face."
4

In charand u parand ^jj j <H>* "grazing beasts, and birds," the a is " dropped. In m.c., charand AJ^ alone, is an adjective, meaning' bosh, rot

Manand,
"

prep.,

" like "

(in

India vulg. manind),

is

from the verb

to be like, to resemble."

A few

agent form, as
(3)

other adjectives, possibly derived from obsolete verbs, have this " slow to act. " diranda (m.c.) a-*^
: :

Present Participle
"
I

o|>^ er'
you are
I^A**

o]>ft^ J <d**j (Sa'di)

said

like the fox

who was

seen fleeing

away

and stumbling blindly


(4)

in its haste."
:

Past Participle

fj^l

ibU**'

lt>(M j

(Sa'di) *'in short


:

none had ever seen

table

spread"

(Shah's Diary)

them":

^j^J^ ***} f* {&*& " the cherries too were ripe and (the trees) well laden with kar-i na-pasandida kard (m.c.) "he committed ^/ j^j^UjlJ

&U?Jf ^AJ** ^-' \)$ his house with open door or gilds-ha ham rasida va pur bar bud

&^

^^

a displeasing

(or reprobated) act."

(5) According to Platts, mast, dust, and a few nouns and adjectives were once past participles. (s) (1) The Persian adjective j* appears to have a feminine s^u
:

e>3
' '

*j%

w* j

LSfy'

j^

**

(^

j>

jj)

e^;^ c5^/i

(Sa'di)

Thou wouldst not have

treated

me

roughly in these

days

When
It

thou art a strapping youth and / a poor old

woman."

Pira-zan &j j^xj is also used in m.c. must be recollected that Persians sometimes express or emphasize an

THE ADJECTIVE.
izafat

157
*

by writing

it

as

*.

Possibly, therefore, this

may

stand for an izafat,

vide

(g).

"

" or In modern Persian, AJ^ is used by women for the pronoun " I me when writing to a superior, vide pages 51 (/) and 69 (e). In classical Persian, <*W" kamina is generally used as positive masculine,
(2)

"

"mean,

vile."
,*xx
J

o^tioj

*-ft

j&

li

^ij,

f*-i
(Sadl).

&

$"

^(OJo

(t)

(1)

"Permit me for I am just a humble person To rank and sit amongst the slaves." As stated in (ri) (3), all broken plurals are grammatically feminine
.

singular,

and the Arabic feminine termination singular is is frequently added to Arabic participles and (2) the noun even if is Persian. Examples masha*ikh-i adjectives qualified
This feminine
:

mazkura *)*> ^5Ux>

(class.)

" the Shay khs mentioned above";

4*^09/0

^Uj

"the women described"; fyjf** e*UUK3 "the duties mentioned"; w&o {>s>aj& &oj5j* mulcataba-yi marquma bi-dusii (class.) "correspondence written
in friendship."
(3) If

the

fern,

rational beings, or
<~U*J,

if

nounis Persian or Arabic, singular or plural, and denotes the qualifying Arabic adjective is of the form cUl or
is

the adjective

usually put in the feminine singular: aJUK


o^;<JJ'

^+**
of

or

(perhaps incorrectly)

LUK o*a. "perfect wisdom," but et(

man's

power and
(4)
it

&*&
or

If,

ej*> of divine power; vide (n) (11). however, the Arabic adjective is separated from the Persian noun
if

qualifies,

it

is

a predicative adjective,
<-Ul*

it

masculine form, as: o*(

^l^
-

&) y\
>

"she

is

is preferably left in the a very intelligent woman." it

In

)^^' j<f }t> &j e^il "this woman would be better to substitute ;>^ /0
tXw
(5)

became famous in the town,"

It

appears that

it is

optional in modern Persian to add a


* is
1

to Arabic

adjectives and

participles: in speaking the

writing
writing)

it is

>!J* x^Ua> (m.c.), or ?>!j* IJ^A (in writing). There seems no sufficient reason for adding the to faJchir in the previous

" rich

generally inserted.

Examples

^l

generally omitted, but in <j-UJ (m.c.), or ^^'(j-UJ (in

apparel'

';

example, as libas
in

is

masc. in Arabic
is

in

*j*>

^^ the
cu*JbL

is

^U

o^LL
is

the

correct,

as

Ichil'at

has

itself

never added; but the feminine

termination.

used as a substantive signifying " a woman (in m.c. especially a married woman)," the feminine termination is only added to -**** when

As aA**^

the qualified
1

noun

is

a rational being: Ju*-

c^U
is

madiyan-i

za'if

"the

adjectives

The author is of opinion that it is better to add the 8 when they qualify a noun, Persian or Arabic, that

to all Arabic participles and feminine either logically or

grammatically.

158

THE ADJECTIVE.

weak mare," but madiyan-i za'lfa " the mare of the woman" " the feeble lady" is commoner than *AX*-C ^iU>. (m.c.)
In
AjJ*i^

word

is

generally translated "a court of justice." the second noun formed according to rule, from the relative abstract an Arabic
jjJL^vxs,

adjective.
(6)

The advantage
:

of

adding

to Arabic participles will be seen

from the
of

following

&Gy*j#

())
S
:

"the deceased woman," but fj^j* oj "the wife S

the

" the river Jjl^ deceased intervened," but *# o;jj y &^ *?; here <J^ could be (mod.) "the intervening river prevented an assault" substituted, but Atfl^ clearly indicates that it is a qualifying adjective and

"

^^

is not feminine. not predicative, though or Arabic participles that are adjectives (7)

commonly used
is,

as adjectives

seldom inflected for gender. Persians that pride themselves on their Arabic,
in m.c., are

There

will

however, no rule; for use Arabic constructions,

even when contrary to Persian grammar and idiom. The Arabic past partic. in m.c. means "pretty," and hence is rarely inflected: however
is

" used in m.c. for pretty

'

girl,'

as well as J^a/o^i<^.

(8)

In d&L* <^/ ) *^j$

(m.c.), there

for the feminine termination.

appears to be no grammatical reason Possibly the explanation lies in the fact that
'

most

of the

common words
x
' '

in Arabic for

conversation

'

are feminine.
*

(9)

Musamma

&+"**>

named

' '

(in

Persian written and pronounced

and

<^+~*>

musamrm} has
' ' ;

for its feminine

musammdt
U-c
is

+ oi>U-~x>
cc

called Haji Blbl

but

^ ^
l

b Isof (m.c.)
*ili

there he married a lady


U

j-aw
>>>

^iui

^ ^ ^l^.
almost every
l

In India, in written documents

oi,U~/o

prefixed to

woman's name and =


(

Mrs., or

Madame,
is

or Miss.
ulya-jah

(10)
9

Ali-jah

l-suJU is
l

used as a form of address for men, and


the feminine of
4
i.e.

*U. UA* for

women.

Vlya UJU

^\

the elative of
to

The construction appears


1

to be Arabic,
'

laU Uie "high as


'
,

rank."
it

Nikah

in its literal sense signifies

conjunction

but in the language of the law


part. fern,

implies the marriage contract


4

and

its celebration.

'joined in legitimate wedlock

is

applied to

mankuhah Aa^ix) a woman married by the ceremony of 9*&

The past

as opposed to that of **^ (lit. usufruct, engagement), which is a marriage contracted for a fixed period and for a fixed sum a kind of legal prostitution. In Persia the word
**^>

used only by the learned, the term ***** sigha being substituted both for the ceremony and for the temporary wife. The children of a sigha wife are legitimate, but
is

do not rank equal with those of a


law.

*A^X) mankuhah
'

wife,
'

Though the Prophet sanctioned


still is

temporary wives
its

as

except in the eye of the a preventive to vice and

the Shi'as
in Persia,

practise such marriages, the Sunnis consider

them unlawful.

Kirman,

noted both for the number of

**"

sigha

women and

of its prostitutes.

THE ADJECTIVE.

159

In India, and probably in Afghanistan, U ^l(e is still an address for nafib valdls, etc. persons of position, but in Persia it is used for J*?j is often used to qualify a feminine noun, (11) An Arabic feminine elative " " the most Persian or Arabic, as dawlat-i 'uzma ^k* oJ>^ great empire smallest sister" <M*c j fc*&* O*AJA> ^i j& o!*xu* ^ d^f

^^

'

J<^

*?

a^

ofy (3*y

~^

** **

^^ Iq- Ndma-yi
an

J.,

Ed. Bib. 2nd., As. Soc. Beng.

Remark.

If

an Arabic adjective

of the

measure J*f has


;

elative

signification, its feminine is

on the measure ^i*>


s<js^

but
t

if it

denotes colour or
fern.

deformity

its

feminine
fern.

is

on the measure *3U,

as^i

"

yellow,"

,"
(u)

Arabic participles used as substantives


as
3
:

make
(male)

their feminines

in
* '

according to rule,
friend (female)"
jj^iAxj
:

(^ v^

:stx3

' '

niy friend

"
;

er^

and

ASJ^JUO

"deceased (male)," fj " a divorcee." afllk/o

A*>^

"deceased (female) "

&&^

my
;

In
of

classical Persian

and Arabic,
it is

while Jjy^*^ or
necessity,

v^ ^
5

" the beloved"

^U
is

generally used for the male lover, generally considered to be feminine


is

and hence

not necessary to add an


' '

to distinguish it

as feminine.

In classical Arabic, it is a rule that " nouns which by their nature can do take the females not feminine termination. to Sa'di, neglecting apply only
this rule,

writes
(

AL/oU.

"pregnant," but observes

it

in the
:

word

"mistress."

Umar-i Khayyam, however, uses ma'shuqa


)

vb
j.
ft.

vi^

^'

" In Paradise, they

tell us,

Houris dwell
:

And

fountains run with wine and oxymel these be lawful in the world to come,
'tis

klf
(v)

Surely

right to love

them here

as well."
0.

K. 185 Whin.

(1)

Mushkil J^kxs

(pi.

mushkilat)

is

in classical Persian both a sub-

stantive

and an adjective. In modern Persian it is generally used as an adjective only, Jfc^ ishkal being usually used in writing and in m.c. for the substantive.
, (

both a substantive and an adjective: t***J-*5- **an excellent thing"; ^y p&jLL* |<X*P jfjt (mod.) "he was one of my best
(2)
is

Umda

***

Great offence was once given to a Persian Governor by the Afghan interpreter of
official

a British

ignorantly writing to

him

as 'ali-jah *^>

^^.

160

THE ADJECTIVE.
*\)j)

customers";

t**^

3'

"

" of the best of the ministers"; f&j*&*

fo.**

my

real object."

(w) (1)

Two

substantives are often substituted for an English substan-

tive with its adjective, as:

^ O^^OA+A ^.xxJUjfor ^
,

o^/c
' '
: ;

jjjb

oj#

was endowed with high aspirations a noble ambition U (Sa'di) " by the previous acquaintance we had " ajj

e;U/o

tf <^y*>

"he <&U

O**AJ

'J^-^

(Sa'di)

"by

former beneficences, by previous favours"

fl?' Jfclj-*

(m.c.)

"former

days";
the felicity of the companionship* of dervishes and the purity of " their nature, his evil qualities became changed to good ones Lc$ (m.c.)
(Sa'di)

"by
is

necessary for a journey "; ,/#<x> LCJ$ (m.c.) "what planning is " O.AXU* " what is the ; (Sa'di} proper to right course to take necessary, <{ ^**>i ( a is wonderful this ^Jlax^ y or) good companionship";

"what

^K

^^

exploit"

^-^

health"; JUT
"

oy> j

AJJ^

Jl*^;^ (Shah's Diary)

"

they are in perfect bodily

"the highest perfection";

^*>\j

complete error."
j*9

(2)

^T^W J^ Ar., and

jx

jj-^

Per., are substantives; while

^K,

fern.

an Ar. adjective.

In sentences such as,

sf

*<,j**

^
+>
' '

JUia.1 (m.c.)

" there

is

every probability that

",

kulli is

sometimes mistaken for a substantive.


' '

Kulliyyat **& is also an Arabic abstract noun also use kulli in the same sense.
o

totality

the Persians

*
its

(3)

The Arabic substantive &*** and

antonym

*j~ are in classical


:

and in modern Persian frequently used instead


j-

of adjectives

*A5Us

^i

JJ

f
(

o>^ti
this

^jJb

^Je

.?~A.

(Sa'di)

"he

entertained the very


9
1

highest opinion of

sect"; vJ^JU
'

^^-.^

"upright conduct"; v^

LT*^ *'good manners";


/
.

jjUjf ^ir-

3^

"

by great good fortune, or very luckily"

fLkLt ^y-A.
is

"good
is

ad-

ministration, a/so good discipline, etc." " " the good thing about him is this

m.c. phrase

*&*!

vulgarly also <J^~i*

er*^

used.

bi-kar-l sabiq

of **^ the fern, of <3?'** ) "precedents " based on a precedent." 2 In m.c. o*A:x\*e means " mention " conversation, also " he terms about him." in strong (m.c.) spoke (P 1
-

"

Jj^*

CS^i"*^

masbuq

*^-*t^

o-ksu

^uiu-^t

j\

Zama 9im
)

(pi.

of

A+J^)

"misdeeds, reprehensible qualities:

" hama 9id


'*

(pi.

of

" laudable

actions or qualities."
in ^** distinguishes it

the Turki su " water."

Note that the hamza

from the Pers. sw

direction

" or

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES.
Similarly with 5r " bad ^
:

161

e^

*r* "evil thought, suspicion";

<JU*^
*y* or
t '

"evil
*y
'

doing"
(x)

*y~

plight"

"
;

" rudeness

pa*
' ' ;

*y*

indigestion";
' '

^f

^t

' '
;

&$&>

f?~>

"evil end

<J^ ty
^

bad temper or nature.

The
in

classical

^U

^s^

<<

common
>

or well-known matter
or

"

is

not so

common

Persian, as ^*?+* e>-, fb ^iua (m.c.). 'Umumi is an Arabic adjective. A few Arabic adjectives and some Persian and Arabic participles are (?/) before a substantive, followed by an izdfat instead of by a preposition

modern

ow J
'

JUt/o (Sa'di)

"it

is

contrary to reason"; oodi ^fy


vs~;-

oHi

(m.o.)

contrary to sound opinion

"
;

^'

A-^^J (m.c.)

" this

is

not like your

usual good sense."

Muhal-i

mumkin ^+*

Jlax/c (m.c.) is X

a vulgarism, apparently for muhal

na-mumkin
(z)

^*.x)6 ^ Jlsxx;.

but JU means " "smooth, level"; c>^ *J -, however, is to strain %mcZ through cloth," and <J^*o j ^b is " clean." " Indians and Afghans use u*b in the sense of "pure only, and oUe in
l

In m.c. u^b means " clean, and religiously pure,"

the sense of

' '

clean

' '
;

also

( '

completely wholesale

(of

a thing)
121

' '
.

Remark
(aa)

I.

For the negative use of


of

^ andy ^ vide

(6).

The addition

ana

*i.'

to substantives forms adjectives,


y
tifJTjJU
Ailflj'^ -

and to

" adjectives forms adverbs, as: **t<^o manly, virile ": " " " muluk, pi. of king") Ai[^Jd bravely, boldly 108 (a). also

wa^

"royal (from
ailawuf
-

ai&U

After a 'vowel,'
etc.

the usual euphonic change

is

made,

as:

dandyana

ai|alLf

adverb

is

"in a more masterly way" seems to be an exception, as the here formed from a noun.
44.

Compound

Adjectives.
**>
.

Any noun with a particle prefixed may become an adjective, or a " the man whole phrase may be an adjective Jl/o b ^x> possessed of
(a)
:

property: ow^Ajj^li (Sa'di) "poor-spirited": dar manda: [>A;^^- sar dar hava (m.c.)
ear bi-ginban ^xjjJo^o "full of

Jtf^U pa
:

dar

gil (m.c.)

=
:

"awkward, thoughtless" anxious" ^'^^ *r^> "ignoramus" thought,


;

kun-ma-kun

&* (.f
<

' '

"fearing none":

hesitating x) -rrt \j^ kas


j

a?so

command
" out

' '
:

o;i*>

kas ma-tars
outlandish

ma-purs

of

the

way,

Jlsuo^)Aa. "impossibility."

11

162

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES.

^."
"on

In

sar-i

dast e~;>

^
is

"ready

at

hand,"

sar-i

zabdn

the tip of one's tongue," sar

practically a preposition.
:

of a whole clause, as " " slave with a bi-gush (Sa'di) ring in his ear

An epithet may consist


"

u>&
:

AfcU>

<u*/

1^ banda-yi halqa -&^^ -^ mulk-i dar


/0

Aw&i tj*&f ^j+X) country taken in isrfjdilAj (j*jjj " **-*& (Sa'di) a merchant whose ship has been wrecked and an heir who has " associated with Kalendars
jang girifta (m.c.)
: :

war "

Jl

*J

JJ

-J^ji

lgA**

0*9,} UftT

Itol

jj

Uj

XA

^t

(Sa'dt).

"

Oh thou

that displayest thy virtues, but concealest thy defects."


bi-lchalvat-i cjwp &~) <^y & Ls^jf O^URJ yo dar-ash bi-su-yi haram gushuda bi-lchwast Tr. H. B.

owwl^xu
kuchak-i

jj.vUy fj*. <^y~>

mam

si su-yi basta-yi

Chap. XVIII, "he called me into a private place, closed on three with its door opening into the harem."

sides,

Note the position of \j in: p\ **& jfe h ^2** ^l <J$\j*t>Jtj* " I have never encountered such a difficult law-case as this." (b) Compound adjectives are formed
:

(m.c.)

(1)

Of an adjective or participle prefixed to a noun


j of ugly face
it-

i t, A broken-hearted
4.

>

both elements, Persian.


both elements, Arabic.

of gentle disposition
.

-)

in

wretched circumstances

>

j
^

of pleasant voice

- : ill-tempered

with moustache just coming

|^

mixed elements.

pure-hearted simple-minded, rather stupid J

Remark I. Compounds with cJ^i and ** are rare in modern colloThe compound j*t* -^ is common. quial. Remark II. The adjectival member can qualify two substantives, as: JU^ JL. ^y jt^ fj;4- (^- -B- C'Aop. FT) "a muleteer stout and fG^Ui " here strong, 'All Qatir by name Jlj j JLj ^y stands for Jb ^y j JL In modern Persian the former construction is preferred.

(2)

Of a Persian noun prefixed to a Persian adjective


sad, bored.
oppressive.

In modern Persian, both in writing and in speaking,

kf

and

or

UUW C*J=

and
(pi.

^UJ

Jl^.

of toAn)

" notes"; *7A5n

infin.

{<

chanting."

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES.
*/
jl)i
(>]***
'

163

round-toothed) e^li vulg., a thief.


(lit.

one that drives hard bargains.'

Fide also adjectives of resemblance, No. (25).

Remark.
j or
(3)

The members
*jJk

of the

^j

"grey-beard, old
vide also (16)
:

compound are frequently man, etc."

inverted, thus

Two

nouns

lion-hearted on-earte
,.

.) >

both elements, Persian.

fairy-cheeked with the appearance of

an ~V
[both
Arabic.

an S eL

JUL

,j)lkx
<-*J

diabolical in thought

J*J

ruby-lipped
scattering pearls
.
!

...

billowy as the ocean (of a


large army).

...

J-

Persian and Arabic.

munificent

)
[

^J oyt|
Remark.
as
2

Arabic and Persian.

ruby-lipped

v'^T
(4)

ertfl.3R.A3

Rarely the compound consists of two Arabic broken plurals, " vide also " ^jcUfci^f people of exquisite manners (16).
:

Of a substantive, Persian or Arabic, prefixed to a Persian verbal


if

root

scattering

fire.

~\

^ heart- afflicting.

Isubstantive Persian.

^ world-conquering.
Ik*,

fault-forgivmg.

\subBtantive Arabic.

assembly adorning.

"Pardon

these hands that ever grasp the cup,

These feet that to the tavern ever stray."


(0.

K. 884 Whin.)
(<*.

This

compound has
:

khuda bakhsh "given of

often a passive, not an active, sense, as: <_. God": i/&"*J!> ru shinas "known by face,
:

i.e.

J ' " tamed acquaintance jj./of ^*& dast-amuz (of wild birds, etc.)" " pay-mal trampled under foot."

JU ^b

1 *'

In modern

as

well as

classical

Persian,

shir

' '

lion

' '

is

often an adjective

brave."
*

Mahaain t^la^/o p i. o f ^^^A., beauty, any good quality; the moustache and beard": adab v'^T, pi. of adab ^if manners.

164
(5)

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES.
Adjective (P. or A.) or adverb prefixed to a Persian verbal root
.

sweetly-singing.
well-wishing.
f

-*J

quick apprehension.
thinks after the deed
is

^prefix Persian.

who

done; imprudent. mild looking, but not so in ^


reality.
.
,

...

Ut

(>** apparently oppressed, but


reality a tyrant.

in

Arabic. ^-prefix r
i

Some

of these

compounds have a passive


:

signification, as

j^f jJ

experienced, a beginner" wlj f> ''difficult to be obtained, scarce." (6) Of substantive (P. or A.) and past participle
:

^
a.

experienced.
tried in battle, proved.
,

I
j

substantive Persian.

one that has seen trouble.


shame-stricken.

^
Y substantive
i

Arabic.

whose owner an animal).


In a few words the
final

is

dead (abuse to
dropped, as

is

^f

*-&j

"foremost, perfect; also subs, froth, scum; a chief":

ato l<^-

"rusty" "given by

God."

Compounds
(7)

of Arabic

nouns and past participles are rare : ^-^


^
-

*'of ill-omened fate,

unlucky." Of substantives with prepositions,


?

*J

(^

-^ -^3

ji)t

tc.

irreligious.

unjust.

cowardly. unwise.

imperious, tyrannical.
subordinate, oppressed.
jfe useful.
^felj
JtV

useless; vide (10)].

t (m.c.) of robust frame.


lj

jj

wealthy.

t b

with

salt

pleasant-featured

pleasant of conversation.

possessed of sense.
a Persian verb from the Arabic root
khajlat.

From

c^-fc+f*

Properly

olsu^

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES.
(8)

165

Of a substantive, or a Persian verbal with the prefix p&


ri~j
*\)

** bed-fellow.

>

Persian substantive
.

p*

fellow-traveller.

*+c +*>

of the

same

age.

}
}

Arabic substantive.
^ Persian verbal,
_,

f
5j

school-fellow.

J
"I

/* travelling together.
/*A

JV
(9)

playing together.

J
]

A substantive
OA==U

with the prefix

^ as a privative
"|

^
^
,*?

unfortunate (contemptuous).

> Persian substantive.

weak.
inexperienced.
_

J
. ,., ,,
.,
,

,
^.>

possessed of little capital.

^Arabic substantive. J

U* prefixed to adjectives, substantives, Persian verbals and past participles (compare with 12)
(10) 2V
:

U displeased
(mod.).
LJ

(class.);

unwell 1
!

impure;
(of

in m.c. saucy, roguish [-adjective, Persian.


j

a woman, in a good sense),

k jJb
l
.

not liked.

under age, immature.


u

v ^U
>

S,

>
3

A adjective, Arabic.

,.

,.

,.

rough.

k of

U inconstant
IJ

impure intent. not durable.


;

"1

useless.

)
I

various compounds.

U out of place.
li

of

mean

resolution or ambition. J

ignorant.

not understanding.
G rude
L>
;

rough.

unpraised.

unabridged.
j^j
viA-J^

^L^a. j^

lxf

S^

l>

Was
Li

e'er

man born

that never went astray ? O. ^. 391 Whin.

>!

unmanly, coward.
worthless.
hopeless.

l^

IS

121 (6). For the negative use of and vide f f*, In compounds usually na and not na. Before an infinitive either U or

*>.

166

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES.
In modern Persian

&

is

frequently used instead of

li

as

*ioi

o~^

in

modern Persian

is

preferred to

*io

IJ

o*~^

*<xx>

j*a

J>j "rice not steamed

(after cooking)."

In negative compounds, when part of the compound is a verbal root, the r< Godless v!^ a^U negative should immediately precede it, as (j^Sli \**> "not having slept." Sa'dT, however, has <^l* jf^O for (jji^lj J^.
' '
:

Remark
(11)

/.

In speaking, na-ghafl
l

is

often used for *Jl* ahaflatan

The privative^*

yhayr-i
:

prefixed to Arabic nouns, participles,

and

phrases, and Persian adjectives

oUeJf j? ghayr-i insaf contrary to justice (not unjust). x

o^p

ghayr-i tahqiq

" not verified."

absent.
A* unconditional.

&
J.P

ou ^

or ^er or proper arrangement.

not in use, obsolete.


(fern.)

i/o^jjp
jjp

unmarried

(wife).

uncultivated, etc.

.AP

involuntary.

not allotted.

uneducated,

ill-bred.

** (m.c.) unofficial.
^-J^
*

incapable of being cultivated.


irrecoverable.
t;

sp

' '

^i ojj ^o (Shah's Diary) men and women without number were everywhere drawn up in lines on
' '

o> ji j^ L^ 4UA cujl^JJi^jjp

'

both sides of the way.

Remark.

In 4-o^xaxj^Ac "not taken possession of, unappropriated" and ji "immovable (property)," the participle is feminine to agree with
viz.
:

a broken plural understood,


feminine
is

^JU.

In *yiLc

^
X

it is

not clear

why

the

used.

In Persia, but not in India, the izafat always


Persian.

f ollows

r**

the use

in

modern

# In Arabic j*p
t

oi^f
is

is

rare

is

a substantive, and when privative

followed

by
is

the genitive, as: tjaJLk j**

"impure."

Possibly the izafat of the_>-i* in Persian

corruption of the JL of the Ar. nom. case.


2

In Persian often incorrectly written and pronounced V

ala.

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES.
Sometimes the participle has the
inherited."
(12)

167
it,

added to

as:

^))y

j*?

"not

Arabic

})

"no, not"
;tj
<_jib

Of a Persian or Arabic substantive or adjective prefixed by the [compare with (10)]:


;

$ belonging to
'

no one.

3J

unique.
>
->

A*

helpless, without

remedy
'
;

ijLa*

Remark.
et

Ld-ubali

^U
"-.'*

il,

adj.,

careless,"
),

is

really

an Arabic verb

do not care," from


(13)

J#U/o (root

*(,*

wfe

(15).
*'

Arabic substantives prefixed by the privatives, *>*, adj.,


" non-existent past part.

void of

"

and

"

(*><***,

^A^JI fjAc non-existing. y^i fj<*t* (m.c.) lost to ken, disappeared (of a thief).
A~:sJ| ^cxxj ^oVi
(as the

*>^y

" known by name but non-existent,

i.e.

fabulous

"

Simurgh)-

Remark.
UjJ>
,

<4xc,

Ar.,

The substantive f <xc is used for forming substantives, and ^ .*xc Per., " want of fidelity."
5

as

(14)

Compound Arabic
-

adjectives,

compounded
]
:

of

an adjective or a

participle and a substantive in the genitive case

JUU
tjAj*
(15)

(m.c.) of noble dignity.

known by name
2

only.
*jJf
v

Arabic

phrases,

as

AJ^I

^U^ "mentioned above";


"
' '
:

t^>c8

"

mentioned, hinted at "; f


'

K
9

31

U
' '

"

beyond expression
' '

c^

^1

"immortal "
:

'

(lit.

he will not die


(lit.

"
)
:

Jj^

uncultivated

(lit. it

was * not sown)

i^M/t^
(lit.

"boasting" what he

"

you
:

will

not see

me"):

<-&

x
,

'

possessions," subs.
cj-'U*'

possesses)
Ja*->
J(

^Jbftij

$ "unceasingly, adv.

Jjj^l
[lit.

adv.,

"as

for-

merly";

o^^

mast-i la ya'qil

" dead drunk

drunk (and) he knows

nothing "].

Remark.
ta'alq
Uii *JJt

When
"

the phrase contains an Arabic verb, such as in Allah God, may He be exalted," the Persians, if the first word is
vowel of the genitive
is

The

final short

omitted.
1

Many

of these are substantives as well ae adjectives, vide

10 (n).

In m.c.
ilayh *

muml

ilayh'

*\
*

^*J'-

Mushar un

ilayh

**l,*

can be used alone, but

&

}'

must qualify a noun.

Lam

in Arabic gives to the Aorist a preterite sense.

168

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES.
:

Persian, frequently but incorrectly insert an izafat, as


^)Ui> x>j|<*L
;

Khudawand-i

ta.'alq

mast-i Id ya'qil.

(16)

Adjectives of resemblance are formed by affixing to nouns certain


(3)
:

words, chiefly substantives, vide


J

like

li*>

L^ ^j
L

an angel, angelic. acting like a fairy.


like

shaped
like

a boat.

(old) like the sky.

a h ouri'
like the
is

with a face

moon

beautiful.
&xiHxj;

Manand

*siJl,

adj.,

"like",

derived from

and, affixed to a
t;j>

substantive, forms an adjective, as: darya-manand xiJU (gen. to signify quantity).


' ' ' '

"like the sea"

Rarely, a broken plural is used, as: haza*ir-i falak-naza^ir jtt& t-Jj^5lfe^ enclosures high and inaccessible as the heavens ty&i JU.J falaJc nazira (or nazir) would also be correct.
:

(17)

In a few compounds, a numeral

is

prefixed to a

noun

very
&.

alert.
;

four-cornered

square, oblong.

U.

four-year-old; vide

98

(b) (4).

Remark. Adverbs and substantives are also so formed, as: &&} (JS " to to sit tailor- fashion ": go at full gallop": ^i^o y|j ;U. "a market-place."
(c)

y^

;^

The following words, chiefly Arabic, are frequently attached to substantives and adjectives to form compound adjectives
:

(1)

" can be mended " (prop,


(2)

*j?.*t

"receiving,"

as:

jj*j J^A*.

"possible";
jjlw
;

ji*$ j*+*>

(m.c.)

of buildings).

slu

pandh "asylum,
ma-ab
lit.

refuge,

shelter", as:

ci^ft*x:

"asylum
(^ or

of

pardon"
(3)

(an epithet for kings, governors or mujtahids)


5

VU
*r

"

c; t-^

kin^gs).

place of

return": J(*

yfij (mod.) "Europeanthat

ized."
(4) ){*& shi'ar,
lit.

"outer

garment; anything

envelops

the

body"; ; UA

o,J^x) "clothed with justice."

from kardan

}&j? ,

when one would expect kardar


*'

In mod. Pers. ishtibah JiU^/ means


S

doubt, error."
of

Hurl LS)^
is

Pers.

Hur }j^,
:

Ar.,

is pi.

^, ^^

fem. of

)^is

In Persian

huriyya
*

used as a singular
pazlru/tan
*

though Ar.

pi. in

form, this word

not used in Arabic.

From
From

^^0

or pizruftan

"to

receive."

*-Vl

VI "to return

INTENSIVE ADJECTIVES.
(5)
yiif

169

" trace, sign" yi asar


asar, pi. of yi
^jUto
:

yi ojl^ "inspiring awe, majestic.


"
friendly
:

;L>T

o^/o

"
(of people).
e^j.c

(6) (7)
'

nishan "sign,
W<SM&

mark"

^^

= o> ,_^U.
:

31

vi^t

"arrangement,
(of things).

manner"
"
:

v_^.U>f

ytf

0-^

(8) ;ty>

"well-shaped" "
^aroV
j

dwelling, fixed abode

(9) ^acui^c

mashjiun

" "filled

j^ "dwelling _y> " wicked." o^UL ^s^/o


"place
' '

in Hell."

(10) ^ri***

oj&i

"

wwwir (rare in mod. Pers.) unfortunate."


3

of returning,

going":

(11) ^f^/o

^5 madar "centre, pivot " j|^^ o>c


;

centre of respect."
(of

(12)

&&C makan "

"
place
:

&&*

^*** "dwelling in Paradise

Muslims

only).
(13)

v*^

naslb

"portion, fate":

v*^ o^a.

"having received the

award

of Paradise."

(14)

*^oj pishd

(15)

^^3

qarin adj.

"trade "

"
:

*AJ

la^

(k*.

"

"

tyrannous."
c)jj7^

joined, contiguous

and

maqrun

past. part.

&**
Note

oJj.i

also

"fortunate, wealthy"; CJLJ^= o^l*** = oal*** U. the following qarln-i maslahat ^y*L6.& ^jS "advisable":

j*<o

"healthful, etc., etc."


is

The verbal adjective in alif " jddu-kund (obs.) practising- magic ":
(16)

very rare in compounds: Ui'^U^ l^J 0^? (old) "wandering in the

desert."
i5-

Intensive Adjectives.
is

(a)

(1)

An

intensive adjective

jective a

final alif* c&lledalif-i kasrat *j&

formed by adding to the simple ad^f, or alif-i mubdlagha A^U>c c^J, or


,

alif-i ta'ajjub

v ? ^N ^
;

<Jt-*

Kbushd
is

bi-hdl-i

sulh-kunandagdn

c^*u*

ct

Blessed are the peace- makers."


alif,

This intensive

which

probably the vocative


'

alif
;

and

is

of

rare

occurrence, except after the adjectives o-A - ^ and ^. usually precedes the noun it qualifies ; but ' vide basd Adverbs of Quantity (I) 3.

In old Persian, the substantive so qualified has often a as well, as khushd Shwdza " oh delightful is Shiraz! " <&> j& ty tjy
(2)
:

final

alif
J<*

^.^

(6)

(1)

The adjective may be

intensified

by adding an adverb or adjec_

There are several final alifa, as:

AJX> oifj uUf,

K ^^sJ

tJJ
,

^ e p.

12

170
tive, as

INTENSIVE ADJECTIVES.
:

cU*^
:

'

^Axk

(m.c.)

"

very pretty"

V;^
;

"

very bad
:

"

"a

great eater,

glutton": JJb ^^j


"

"a

perfect fool

"
jt^li

oi^

"very

^2 oicwo y u sakht shad unpalatable" Jt^*> cJoJ (class.) quite easy" <x " he became sliud (m.c.) ^*> very delighted": ojl^iji p"*^. Jrlf-*' Jj* c^VK)^ " the c**a in j>j+xxx j vs*&xj my eyes extremely terrifyprecipices appeared 45: y>xh$ ing "; vide (m.c.) "an accentuated ass, an ass and an ass

^^
*

again."

C5~^
For

L5 J J
!

O*

t$~*#

<J?L>

C5

CT"^

<JT

*^!

*^

f**
(3).

^k*

U*^
"
this

bas, az baz, etc., vide Adverbs of Quantity

(I)

(2) It
is

may

be intensified by the

fine colour this flower


(c)

a very beautiful flower has."


(1)
fc^U

" =

of unity, as

*J

^; u*A ^ ^
' '

In gul chi rang-i khub-i darad

what a very

Repetition

may

^tAfL j

" pa^ w pakiza very clean"

give a continuative or intensive signification, as: j)t>j)jt> dur u daraz "very far
;

away
(a)

"
:

*i^

" tidied and cleaned rufta shusta

(lit.

swept and washed)."

Sometimes the meaningless appositive gives and Remark.


(2)

this

meaning, vide

140

(3)

^li^xj

fuqara*

The repeated adjective may be in the plural, as mast-i mastdn OM~XI "dead drunk": faqir^l^Aft^jjaJ faqir-i faqirdn, or tX3&kji "a
:

In the

title

pauper of paupers, very very poor." ^UlioLL modern Persians and Indians insert the

izdfat.

Mons.

" Raymond, the translator of the Seir Mutaqherin," Indian holder of the title, used the izafat. 3

who knew

at least one

In Turkish, Mir Mir an ^)[^^ ^.^

is

title

equivalent to

Amir

'

I-

(d)
(e)

For sar mast, sar


(1)
(

sabz, etc., vide


Li

117

(j)

(4)

Remark.
form
an
ism-i

The
j&*>

prefixes
p**\
),

*js

-ji& to a

substantive

mukabbar
*tj

giving the idea of size or fineness, etc., as: shah-rah


'

(of
etc.

"main-road": *^ l "a big cup or pot " ^ " " a large variety of mulberry oy l wing) y^ *&,

"flight-feather
j;ti
'^,
^*-jJ

Ui,

Khar-magas ,j*Xo^L
' '
' f

"horse-fly":
' '
:

pavilion

._i*yk

a large stone

^^"

"crab":

lf^

"

large tent,
' '
:

*-^Jj=^

a species of large mosquito

The comparative and

**

much
2
8

"

superlative can also be so intensified, as:


140.
'

prettier.

Vide Repetition of words

He however
Khar ^^
in

'

Ray-Rayan (an Indian Pahlavi means "big, ugly."


writes

title).

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


Div-savar jtj*}j

171

" bold horse -man "


ck j>&

&&j*& "a

large kind of

wheat":

"
hearted."
(2)

large clod":

"whirlwind, frenzy":

u^.^

"

brave, hard-

In the following compounds,

khar-as

^^

j*
j&*

"
signifies
' '

ass
,

' '

ass-mill

' '
:

a&a

hog-backed
u

" and not " " a tomb


:

"
large
il*>*
:

JA.

"asinine": c~~cji
very large penis."
(3)

"

stupidly drunk ": upftj**

vulg. "having an

ass-like or

Whether jJ^/^L means "big-eared"

or " ass-eared

"

is

a disputed

point.
46.

Degrees of Comparison and Comparative Clauses.

(a)

(1)

The Persian comparative


9

is

formed by adding

y
:

to the positive,

" " more pur jam'iyyat-tar j OUA+A. (Sa'di), in (m.c.) y populous Mod. Pers. y e;>c U, "more honoured ": in Pers. Mod. o*!? (Sa'di), " more delicious." eA> t, _y
as
:

^^

(2)
(

The

superlative, which

is

not

much used

in

Modern Persian

[vide

r ) (3)], is

formed by adding farm <^.y to the positive, sometimes contracted

to

in, vide (b) (6).


:

(3) The comparative can be used in the plural, as " those greater than us." (4) The superlative has no plural.

U^Uy <-^>> (m.c.)


y

Remark. Note that the comparatives of the past participles u^f " more comfortable " " " more humble " " more wlwf y &M+f> intelligent
;

are in
use.

common

use

but not

y awl?

^jL*3,y js^jjJl^jy

^i^, which are not

in

(b)

(1)

Arabic adjectives, in Arabic,


<J**f for

form both the comparative and

suparlative on the measure


lative
1

the masculine, and <^** for the supersuperlative

feminine,

as: kabir
f

j#f "great," comparative and


-

^> masc., and kubra $sj$

em

When
lative

comparative, the elative

is

followed by &*> " than,"

when

super-

by the genitive, (2) The Arabic elative (so called because ft includes both comparative and superlative) when it is a comparative makes no change in Arabic for gender
,

or number.
(3)

The Arabic

elative

is

used in Persian. 2
vaqt-i

Note the superlatives in: dar

ahsan tj-^

oJ>j

"in the most

'

The Arabic comparative has no feminine nor Both as a comparative and a superlative.

plural.

172

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.

propitious time": ^^J &**' )* dar as'ad zaman-i "in a very fortunate " as ad~i zamdn " the most fortunate of the time ej^3 ^*~ age."
(
f

(4)

Sometimes a cognate Arabic noun follows an Arabic superlative


*t

J^Uj^Cjsl
pjftyt&ytfc!
(5)

*M y>
is
fit

oljblfo ai^jji

no, such an honour


(Tr.

for

H.

B.,

Chap.

^ ^ (Tr. H. B., Chap. XXI) "no, me who am the most skilled of physicians VII) "I am the most poetical of poets."
' '
:

Generally speaking, Arabic adjectives in Persian form their degrees of comparison in the Persian manner: cL*l* J* diet* ^.y cUU.

tarin is sometimes contracted (6) The affix t^y or "the least": or e^t "the best": &* greatest": <^ .-or &ij*ji "the highest": these words
j

to

%n

as:
3

t^tf.

^J^

^^ or^A*

" the
or

are classical

poetical only.

double comparative is sometimes formed by adding the Persian Arabic elative ci~*!y J^'f p}& ^Ucjf AX^ (Sa'di) "he asked what is the best kind of worship " <^y J-a (m.c.) " the most excellent" cu~y Vj! d)tjf !=&A: cA^*t ;l*> } J~i was? w tabar-i IsTian munqati' kardan
(c)

affixes to the

aula-tar^ ast

(Sa'di) "it is better to destroy their stock, and root it out." Than with the comparative is expressed by (d) &A& jyL^c ^ ^iuwoy cu*j ^t 31 (Sa'di) " you (1) The preposition jf, as have never in your life spoken a truer word J&cm this " jfy A- ^'3' <^2 m cJ^i 6^ar (m.c.)=y ^t *^ ^j}' az w chiaula-tar 3 m.c. " what better than this? "
:

Remark.

Note the
3;

signification of

3'

" one
B.,

of

"

in the following

cW
me

JU.; *^J&Uf

k$

*& ALJf.i

[Tr.

H.

Chap. VII)i
' '
:

"

that he was a

man

of the greatest

shn'ara* sakht (Tr. H. B., Chap. VII)

consequence " he made me one of the chiefest of

became known to mard az guzidagan-i


it

poets": vide
(2)

(e) (4).

Nisbat

o->"~J,

or bi-nisbat

o^J &

"in comparison with,"


:

as:

nisbat

bi-digardn (or nisbat-i dlgardn)

^**

>V
(3)

)\

ast (class.)

u bihtar-ast (m.c.) ( ^j&is o*>.-> or) ujjjA?*? CUA-S> " in comparison with the rest he is good" bi-nisbat-i u bihtar " she is better than he " vide
;

(w) (6).

In classical Persian, **" " he AJ (Sa'dl) said,

is
'

sometimes substituted

for

j\

^jj**t

^+&

dismissal

from

office is better

than employ-

The

plural

could be substituted for the Pers.

pi.

i^^-t, here.

" Mihtar, the comparative, also means, prince, lord," and is the title of the ruler a of Chitral. In India a sweeper is by euphemism styled Mih-tar, just as a tailor, In Afghanistan and Persia mihtar etc., is called Khalifa, and a water-carrier Jama dar.
2
1

means
3

*'

a groom.

' '

" ^)\ aula more


9

or

most deserving "

is

an
*'

elative without a positive,

and must not


gii,

norkumm
*

be confused with &^)\ ula the feminine of Jji "first." " it's best for us to hold our (m.c.) tongue."
Plural of
-ksf, elative of

Aula an

Tel

dlgar gu/t u

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


ment
death "
'

173

"
is

" x *? ^ty* murdan-at bih ki mardum-azari (Sa'di) thy <^yjt (*^ ' ' better than thy afflicting of mankind
:
:

thou desirest the truth, then it were better that a thousand eyes should be blind (like the bat ) than that the sun should be darkened."
If
l

For the use


(4)

of the positive for the comparative, vide

(i).
:

Occasionally the comparative is followed by an izafat, as bihtar-i u jihtarin guzin-i hama &** <^,_$ '&*jW-j^ (Nam-i Haqq of Shah Sharaf 'dDm, Bukhari the Prophet) "better than the best and chosen of all "; =
az bihtarm bihtar, vide
(e)
(ri)

(4).

and

"I

superlative, Persian or Arabic, is followed by the genitive, * tj o*U* &%**> i^/*& generally by the plural ^iai (Sa'd!} the rule over this country except to the meanest of the will not
(1)

The

grant

slaves

' '
:

*Uxi:

o^t

" the most illustrious of the prophets

' '
:

^ti*^ j^j (Sa'cR)

"the most noble

of created

things": sl>>^x>

Jif

(Sa'di)

"the meanest

of existing things."

" the best of In J^5/l <.r~^f shapes, the best shape" and like construcArabic the in noun is second the genitive plural. tions,

In
correct.

oJiLi. t-r^i ahsan-i khilqat'

"the best

of creation," the singular is

For the superlative followed by *+* hama and for


comparative, vide
(2)
(1).

its

substitution for a

the superlative qualifies a noun absolutely, it is treated as " the an ordinary adjective, as pkc- &f) greatest support": ^IjcX-c "the

When

Prime Minister"
or o~-t

u bihtarm mard
is

ast,

ormard-i bihtannast cu

^
tc

**

*'he

the best

man."
"

(Sa'di]

Such a

terrible

water that the water-bird was not safe in


mill-stone from its shore."
:

it,

Its least

wave would sweep a


it is

In old poetry and prose

sometimes merely intensive

not say I have given a most noble pearl (lady) to a most 8 husband." renowned (3) Such sentences as "go to the nearest village" may be rendered, oUa of jt ^A^ (^jy -^!>>V (class.) but more usual *Al y 2j>
I
will
;

"

^^

(m.c.).

Mush-i kur )j

(j

is

"

the bat " and not the

" mole "

4
'~>

But

khilqat-i

This construction

the best creation." ahsan er*^"' is not used in this sense in Modern Persian.

^*^

"

174

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


" This
(i)

is

the largest house in


(

Buzurg-tar imarat-i

Kirman " may be rendered in ki dar Kirman ast in ast cjU/ ^

five

ways

&

(ii)

Buzurgtarin-i makanat-i ki dar

Kirman

ast In ast

(in)

Buzurgtarin makan-i ki

aii/o

(4)

1$ (iv) Makan-i buzurgtarin-i ki ^.j^^. In makan-i buzurgtarin-i Kirman ast (v) " One of the most is expressed by jt
' '

^
"

Rustam

yak-i az dilavar-

Iraniydn bud &# c^-Jyl ^ir* )$*$ C5^ (***"> vide (d) (1) Remark. can be strengthened by prefixing the adverbs (/) The comparative vide Intensive 45 (6) (1) j^JUt j>*~> <^U A Adjectives, ^JUa. and jLjrr etc.
tarin-i
1

' '

(Shah's Diary)

peaches of a very excellent kind


(m.c.)
:

much more fitting" is much better."


(g)

y^j ^^ ^
alone, as

this is " this in khayli bihtar ast (m.c.)


:

o*! ^^\ jU~j

' '

The comparative can stand

o**
:

*-**>

(m.c.)

"

this is better, this is the better course

*>

<&&*, oro^i ,\Jy &$+*> o~-if f^ji aula an ast ki


I

." is o^ty^j J/( of and Persian The "perfect" (a supersuperlative comparative (h) lative in itself) are vulgar or poetical, and correspond to the incorrect English more perfect, most complete, more unique, etc." The Persians expressions also say y *>j farid-tar, but noty U> yakta-tar.
(m.c.)

**

c^

-^

hamdn

bihtar ast ki

" the better course

'

'

(1)

(1)

The

positives
ju

AJ - *

&*>

and

parative:
(

f
*^

are sometimes used for the com1

j^.^
[the

e^l

Jt

e^Up cup(y

^jj

t5*

C5l^
for

3*

jr* ^^
in the

(Sa

di)

"we

king]

will

make ready accommodation

you
'

by you worship better than this may " this is better than that in bih az an ast (m.c.) o*} ^j] &> ^1 JU^ ^jJ; " * JU^jU-^3 V andak-i jamal bih az bisyari-yi mat (Sa'di) a little beauty oi*.*. t$ & oiu is better than much wealth bazu-yi bakht bih ki
leisure for city, so that
' '
: ' ' :

be obtained

"

^jb

^jb

bazu-yi sakht (Sa'dl).


(2)

Vide also

(d) (3).
:

Bih

AJ is

also

a comparative or optative in poetry

"

traitorous army, let

it

be disbanded,
' '

One that seeks the


(3)

ruin of his country, let his head be cut

off.

The

positive can also be used in such sentences as,

" come nearer,

&Jty

or) *Jj>i, nazdik (or nazdik-tar) biya.

(4) Ziiyad

&j
M

is

a positive, and ziyada tdtj


"

is

a comparative for

y
;

for

facilitated." properly means Muyassar J 2 Here t^s'fer**. might be either an adjective with the (^ the sake of euphony (number of syllables) Persians make
1

of
it

unity, or a

noun

but

a noun and say

bisyarl-yi.

mat.
3

In Modern Persian ear afganda l*i&! j* meana

4i

ashamed. "

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


ziy ad-tar
:

175

x&

"

^)

or

a*y

"
abj

give

me more,"

rottft?-

ziydd-i

^abj

(m.c.)
' '

a long
l

people.

" an excessive concourse of speech"; but -^*+^ <**> Jf tobj i^ m odern is a hadd for az jl >kj vulgarism Ziyad ziydda (or ziyad- tar]

J^

az hadd <^ y

(yo>b J or) tob j. and 6*5^ (5) Afzun c^>'f


tj*o->
-

<_#

" more " are practically


also a

comparatives.

Pish

"before

(of

time),"

has

comparative sense.

However

y
Jf

e>t>*i

^3 iJte

and ^ Ji* are

also used.

(6)

The comparative "more" can


mutajdviz az, jl^A^

also

be expressed by the words


;

Jjlau/o
<*'

digar az, y. *fa 'aldva bar

f;|sj ^1>,>

l^Xi

maw

?/&& harf-i digar

na-daram

lei

bi-guyam (m.c.)

"

o^x

cJO <^>c

have not a single

word more to say."


(;')

An

English

adjective
:

qualified

positive (as in

Urdu)

" This tea is too weak " o*t


:

by "too"
(

is

expressed
or
)

by the

*&j
1

cjCx*,

in chay subak (or kam-rang) ast (m.c.)

e^>!

e^i* ^5^ e^

(m.c.)

"

^(^ ^\

this tea is

too strong." (k) In m.c., the adverb bdz jb


C5^
ci*f'

is

used in the sense of "better," as:

jb

0^! v

t5^-i^

"these carpets are bad


good)."
(/)

W^* <^' in qdli-hd khayl^bad ast,baz in yak-l (m.c.) but this one is somewhat better (but still not
is

When
"
:

a comparison

drawn between a person

or thing and the rest

of the class, either the

follows
o~vo|

They say the


lAjy U guyand

ass is the

comparative may be used, as " A+A & meanest of animals y ^xj^

or the superlative

^
1

y o~o
Iftj^jl^.

ki khar az

hama-yi
2

jdnvarhd past-tar

This could also be rendered by:


&+&>

o^.^;^U.
:

ast (m.c.).

r o~*j
>

t$ *ujZ

or tf

*v^
A*.

^jy ov-o
is

.i..

(m)

The following

a vulgarism

-- <-6^

^)j*

^
az

oJit^

y ^,
kuchah-tar.

^^

dukhtar dasht, yak-l buzurg, yak-i kuchak, yak-i kuchak-i Prof. S. T. "he had three daughters, one big, one little, one
si

smaller than the


$

4UA

jt

or

The third term should be kuchak-tann-i hama &+*> e^y^^j-^.


little

one."

hama

kuchak- tar

(n)
(1)

The Har
.

superlative can also be expressed as follows chi tamdm-tar &*.j& "as complete as possible": o^ofjj b
:

yxU
"
I

fU3 A^tb (m.c.)

came out with

feelings of the greatest regret

in

my mind."
(2)

kiazdn

jj^i l<xu m c .) "a diamond ^;>^f3t fJU ; aa> o ( ^-Ul &b has been found here, the largest in the world (lit. as large as any in the cJOx: ;<> ar world)" *>*y*y cxjlic ^b v lk^ V U^ 31 y^fb
t

^y

buzurg-tar

(or

kamtar, etc., etc.) nist (or nami-shavad)

^f

khitdb-i
l

Rdmrdj,

ki

dar mulk-i

Dakan

bald-tar

^f; fy az in khitab namibdshad

indyat farmudand.(Iq. Nama-yi Jah., p. 244, Bib. Ind. Ed. of As. Soc.
1

Adjectives ending in

are sometimes incorrectly written as

y^r>

(&j*~j,

etc.

Batar

y? is classically and a No izafat.

colloquially used

176

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


*

Beng.)
(Tr.

H.B., Chap. XXXIII) "the water-carriers had so sprinkled and swept the roads that their work couldn't have been better done."
(3)

By an

intensive
*

word signifying ''extremely,


"
b (m.c.)

perfectly,

unique,"

etc., as:

^j o**3
li

bi-(jkayat zisht-ruy
:

" " of extreme beauty

"*

JU'

extremely ugly " " in a perfect rage


' '

of utmost prettiness khush-gil "he excelled all the ^i^U 31 J.x* ;> khushgil: jU*o nihayat "he was most the sovereigns of the age in justice": d#) *z#* ^jf f&\ j* 'Urn yagana (or bi-nazir or bi-qarina) ast dar Muslims": the of pious OA*| ( e^r t5 or j-h&H^ or) *J^ )*" he is unique, or alone, in knowledge":

^a yhayr n 'nihayat

"

^c

yakta-yi 'asr ast

o^f^e s^^"
= ^t*?j|
2 6as

<;

he

is

unique in his age


JM

"

<JS^

&

&*.j#

(vulg., m.c., abuse)

c^?,

Azhadd

<^ji,

^y
(^)

bi-shiddat OA^J dar kamal-i martaba


,

AAJ^/O

JU^;j>,

or dar nihayat-i martaba t^j* ool^a are similarly used. bihtarin bihtar J^> ^(/^j* "better than the (4) ^l
bihtarin,
(5)

best"

(or bihtar-i

i^t?^) v ^ e
By the positive,
*'

4 ) etc (
:

as

^-r j-^-i ^l*b

' '

he

is the

clever

man

of the city

"
:

e^^t

= |*y ;^^
(6)

he

is the

bravest of his tribe."

In

classical Persian frar^j is


:

it a superlative idea, as
(0)

(1)

The To participles,

sometimes prefixed to an adjective to give bar buland *&> ^ (class, and rare) very high." comparative or superlative suffix is also added
'
:

jf^jAi^jU (Sa'di)

*UU3f^ "sin, by whomsoever


it is

as:

0*0! aa^wjli ,^>


it

may

^(^ &fj&j\ be committed,


"
:

oa/*2Jt*>

is

objection-

able, but from the learned

especially objectionable

^jy

Jj***> (m.c.)

"the prettiest": crty <3^ sabiq-tarm musta'mal-tarin "the most used."


Remark.

"the most ancient": (^^ JUAW^O

^jy is seldom added to Persian participles. The comparative takes its place, as in rang az hama girifta-tar ast &+& )\ ^-&> ^Jt o^t ^3 i&tjZ (m.c.) "this shade is the darkest." Asuda-tarm ^.^ J>rT,
superlative suffix
:

The

mahbub-tann ^j*
(2)

V_.^AXL/O

are m.c. only.

To a few
tr-i^
,

prepositions

or j- (
^lb

"
)

and adverbs: bar y


y.}

"upon,"^
1

"higher":
or t^jj
:

highest":

"below",

^0 and

c^-ir

^3

J(b, etc.

(3)

To

in modern Persian

and

vulg.)
l

"more comfortable

a few substantives: asudagi-tary " l Ojlwf ;i foryu^f asudatar:

^^-f (m.c.
^j
(

Uff

Dam-i dar

+& (m.c.)

" threshold

of the door."

*'

Radd mi-shavad does not mean


JK

that

he went through the door."


retort, repartee."
jj

Radd, Ar. "driving


ty

back, repulsion":

v'^

i)

"a

In m.c.
' '

&&>

means "

to pass, pass by, miss the

mark," and

radd-i

pa ^

&) is

' '

foot-print.

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


j

177

(Vazir-i

Lankuran, stage
door

on

the further side of the

J^J?

e>T

"a L>**

little

"Taymur Aglja crosses at back " " a little more this ojJs ^\ <^*$ way " " " more that way more comfortable OA.IJ
"
direction).
:

than a lion": dush" man-tarin-i dashmanan (m.c.) cA*<* <^y (?*& the most inimical of one's enemies": dust-tarm-i dustan &&*jz e^L;^*?^ (m.c.) "the most friendlike of
(m.c.)
is
all

e^(y^x^jf

"he

more

of a lion (braver)

one's friends."
(p)

may

an adjective and substantive, the comparative suffix sometimes optionally be added, either to the end of the whole compound

To compounds
first

of

or to its
(Sa'di)

member,

as:

x<V^

cAf^

;* <^^>

y ^)j>. >^

Jf

*&&

\)

^U?

*jU>

they asked Hatim-i To,** if he had ever seen anyone with a more nature than himself." In this example buzurg himmat-tar cuwb J^>> generous could be substituted for buzurg-car himmat CU*A ^ ^;^, and this latter

"

reading,

more pleasing more usual


to

to the

modern Persian
suffix at the

ear, occurs in

some

editions

of the Gulistan.
It is

add the

end

of the

compound.

Remark.

The superlative

is

O**A w?.j&) v buzurg-tarm


:

himmat (and not

^y

eu*

^;jj buzurg himmat-tarin)

but

'

ali-himmat-tann

^y

O**A

^Lc

is

correct.

A>

*b ^f

of
*

The comparative sometimes gives the meaning of the superlative (Sa'di) "the greatest regret on the Day j.; ^ J*j~s*j> ^)JJ. " than that a Resurrection will be
(q)

(1)

OV^LJJ'

this,

(lit.

regret greater

others:^
:

O~AXC y J^j o^'^ ^&su (Sa'di) "in the sight of enmity excellence is the " 8 ^>yy>. greatest blemish" ouy^ ^'*> l^ijt j " which of these is the best ? o^l AL[^J:;3 A^^l *y i/j* j j* (m.c.) " the biggest and strongest horse in the
:

stable

A' O~~A> c^^jrt^^ t*/*j**l)? buzurg-tar mard-l dar skahr kas-% hast ki " the ." (m.c.) greatest man in the city is that man who In all these examples there is an ellipsis of az hama &**> j\ or az dlgaran
:

"

^j}& 31.
(2)

Note the

^ of unity.
^.y <J^
y.

Buzurg-tar az buzurgtann
"
:

<s

^;jj

higher than the

highest
(3)

vide (d) (4).


in (a) (2) the superlative is rarely used in

As already stated
:

modern

Persian.

usually

In compound adjectives, the comparative with az hama &*Ajiis " this substituted as JUJb ^UJi cl JUb &**

o~*iy

^jA^l.^

^i

(m.c.)

nightingale has the best note of all."

Hatim
To,'
I

is

in Persian usually

Hatam.

In India the iza^at

is

omitted after Hatim, as

Hatim
2 3

^U ^^.
*8t.
9

Or

o*~o-vxc 'ayb-i

Or kudam yak Or
12

bih-tar (not bihtarln) ast

178

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


(r)

The phrase " and what was stranger still, etc." is rendered: y &fj a.- ^jf *&f y (mod.). (class.), and double The (s) progressive positive in English is rendered as follows " " He worse and worse oy<5J j^ )^ (m.c.), or more correctly got

v^

two or more comparatives or superlatives occur together, the suffixes can be added to each, or to the last only in the latter case the clause may sometimes be ambiguous: ^T JtJ-j^ j <^^*' j* &\* p* v^V -' -&*f 3M y ^X&~AD j jj^jjlj (m.c.) he (the king of the gods) is more ancient even than the sun and the moon, and is more lasting and enduring than they." In hhana
(t)

(I)

If

'

'

buzurg va vast' -tar ast


is

large

and more spacious


&*&>

o}y"
j

x*j ^

u%
this

*Jl^ ^;i

may mean
larger

either

"

this

house
' '
:

or

'

house

is

o*;

IfJLk

(jjy

x^

<J^
is

aili.

^i

(m.c.)

and more spacious "this is the largest and most


criticism.
j ^)j>. jt*

spacious of all the houses," Note that in j->.t>

open

to the

same

o?

^^^

** e*Lr>

<5^

(m.c.), digar

should be omitted.
(2)

In the case of superlatives, the

first

may take

the comparative instead \\

of the superlative suffix, as:

LJi/vi*****

c^^^t^ (m.c.) and most populated cities


could be substituted,
as a superlative.

^ o'yl

^ ^y ^*Ux

^ ^Uy
j^*.*
-,

&fc*U

^Ut ^^

"formerly Kirman was one


of Persia :" in this
all

of

the most important


or i^jij***,
is

example

but in

three cases the

adjective

regarded

" Locutions like " the quicker the better are rendered as follows " tlie " farther you go, the deeper the water becomes o**oty ^^3 <-^f LS^J*)^ ^J*
(u)
:

(m.c.)

"the nearer we approached the shore the rougher the sea became"
l

iXi-jj/o^i^jo
lei*

Uja )

^ixiJ

/*J^T t^* J? ^&t*y


ast

*;^
o~

*^ )**

j* (m.c.):
o,**?

ztrd

har
'^3

nazdik-tar

ast

parishan-tar
11

(m.c.)
is

yJL^.^J

y^J^V *v*
the

" because the nearer one


(v)

is

the more

one* distracted."
are
illustrated

Comparisons
:

between

clauses

in

following

examples
(1)

"

kings are

^lAl&ab *->y& ^IcXi/oijA &' JOjJ r-liaa.'O ijfcMxs^^ OSXA-OXJ ^UUs^lj (Sa'dl] more in need of the advice of wise men, than wise men of associa-

tion with
' '

kings": )y***
&\&jz>

)& *$ cu-t^iJ^f
is

o*x^ j* ^**L. ^jia. ^t^t (Sa'di)

the performance of such a service

better in their absence than in their

presence":
friends'.

*6

^yS'U-kjdJi

L^i

^^

^t

y,

^/o

^^b ^f

(Sa'di)

"0
"
:

I'm more
t

afraid of this escort 4 of yours than I

am

of the robbers

Aj^liJf .-AD

j^k^.^j,

^j,j

is

a construction to be avoided though occasionally


of the indefinite

heard in m.c.
*
3

" takes the Note that &'^& " whoever place ^+J ? " *^***f absence, but
Ghaybat
ghibat
<

pronoun

" one."

back-biting."

In Mod. Pers.,c)>^ &*)<^ means speeding a friend on a journey by accompanying


or so on his journey

him a mile

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


c~~a.

179
&a> bisyar

;^;

y>>>>l ^ dar

aft

chust

u chalak bud (ki) man bi-an miqdar na-budam (Afghan) " he was much than I was." quicker and cleverer at the business " o~f than die rather "I would beg ^\<^ j( o^/o ^* J^* (m.c.), (2)

or more rhetorically bi-mlrad insan va gada*i na-kunad <*& " " To be like, equal to (3)
:

(J>\*&

\^*~J\

^&j

c;tJ>yc

^0 ^l

xu

&

to

<*f

o**!

c) 1

^-

&*J

c>t*

t^y&

(Sa'di).

"To do
(4)

kindness to the
as

evil, is like (equal to) ill-treating

the good."

"She was

much renowned
and
"
:

for chastity as for

jiiU (m.c.

incorrect):

now "

I '^y ** c^^j (m.c.) hich vaqt an qadar na-khurda budam ila in vaqi *^;>J >Afiif oJj " he was as brave as Rustam * and as wise as Luqman" ^j (m.c.)
l
:

much right as you " have never eaten as much as I have

beauty

" o**^ ; ^y

"h|

has as

i j^

_,

^ ^Lo,

O^UL^ ;^y
6

"he was

as beautiful as
f

Joseph*

and

Majnun" &j*?-*> ^5^5-5 ^^'^ '^**^ ur**^ ^ ''he was as patient as Job and as afflicted as Jacob" u dar tahammul Ayyub va dar huzn Ya'qub bud 6 ^yuj c^;^j v>-!' JUad'^'j*: "the carriages and horses of this carriage city are neither as numerous nor as good as those of
as faithful as
:

Russia

' '

c5^~f "
So
7

<-^

vi

l^f (Shah's
as:

Diary).

(5)

^
1

^J>f

^uol^

by

*}

" Never would a father act so kindly to a son," " As Thou hast acted to the race of Adam."
Or
fehurda

am

+\ *J>;>^.

Instead of

oJu ^jf

it

would be better

to say ^/L^
:

^.
the

Sigzi (^$_j*~ /*i-j Jlj /*i-; Hercules of Persia: his exploits are celebrated in Firdausi's great epic, the

Called also Rttstam-i Zal

and Rustam-i

he

is

Shah-Nama.
of

In Mod. Per ^si+a>


5

is

pronounced hamchi.
of the East, said to

Luqman, the sage


Fables.

have been a black slave and the author

has been identified with ^Esop. Others state that he was a son of Job's sistv a son of Job's aunt, a disciple of David, a judge in Israel. " a second 4 Yusuf-i sarii .IUOU#^ Joseph is the ideal of youthful beauty Joseph,"

Luqman' s

He

and Yusuf-jamal JUa. -S-^ :,


(

adj.,

mean "extremely
:

beautiful."
it is

Majnun

of

Layla
6

signifies

"possessed by a jinn 1^7^"

the

name of the

celebrated lover

Tahammul

(J-

*3aj

"
:

enduring a burden patiently."

The

grief

of
'

Jacob
'

is

pro-

When amongst Muslims from mourning for Joseph his eyes became white. and his sons he its a shirt three was odour, perceived days' journey distant, Joseph's yet said he doted. The shirt was the same that Abraham wore when cast into the fire, and it contained an odour of Paradise: it was on Joseph's neck as an amulet when he was in the well. Joseph, by command of Gabriel, sent the shirt to Jacob for it shall not be cast on any one afflicted with disease, but he shall be whole.'
verbial
'

Khanadan

for

khandan.

180

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


it

" such as In this example t$ may be translated ", or ' a of relative connective the sentence. as merely
'

may be

considered

o ^^ &U~ j
1

cJ&J~

j'y
as

*$ t5*A*v5

had
*'

I but feared
]

God

v*hyou do the king

i!^

*5

^*Z* jt

wj\

(Sa'riR)

would have been one

of the

Faithful Witnesses/'
(6)

oo~J ^*w.< ^IkLo otei* vide also (d) (2): ^iaf "I OA-O H. J5l>b B., ojUsuuj VII) said, Chap. (Tr. compared ;k> to the generosity of our king the generosity of Sultan Mahmud is as a drop

Compared to"

^~*' lj)*

'

to the ocean.'
(w)
(1)

'

" How much


"
If

" the more," and

Arabs die of eating dates,


or]

how much the less " how much the more must Englishmen,"
:

l^y

y^i-?

Afy

*~

*>*?\

H>W

^j=^

e^;>^ y

^y

$\

(m.c.)].
If

"
(2)

you

fear your Mulla like this,


70

how much

tear

God"
"
(3)

mi-tarsi

!^ Jt xjbjV9 A&. t^-^H ^jt y az tariq-i awlq azKhuda bi-tarsi. bayad


^5-*^

the more ought you to or iw fct" 2 Mulla i^fljpjfl


;

then

how much
()>~^

chief seat of
(4)

"

^^

^^ &
^y

the more with regard to


3

me who am

seated in

\j*

<*&>&.

"If

coffee

intoxicates

so"

^
4 *

you how much

the more
o

must opium do
^

(5)

" If Persians can't pronounce the letter 'ayn,


''

Lp*j*t j***# J** *$ or)


6

^ ^AI^

A^AAJ

*s^3 ^J

(^oj^

|H* J*'
less

^t> j ^^j^ ^ly Englishmen ^t (J^li;J^j/ti much the less will coffee how If then will not intoxicate (6) opium you

^iyi^

<x&

how much

can
' '

oJta

iWkt^ski^l

^ojk

^ 8^jl

yi'

C5 *j ow^x>

y ^"by

^ff (m.c.),

or agar tiryak turn

mast na-kunad (or nami-kunad) qahwa bi-tariq-i aula mast nami-kunad. " It has been said that there is no reliance on the friendship of (1)
friends,

how much

the less then on the flattery of enemies


(Sa'di).

"

^^^> j

&>l

ns&j

j^

In m.c. this would be

* '

(8)
kill

If

Rustam could not


*'
***J

kill
<x

the father

how much
>!^w

the less could he


(m.c.).

the
1

son" *&& b j~4

*$

^-? bj*$
the

&jjS)
;

There are four grades


;

in Paradise
;

first for

the *Uxit

the

second for

the

the third for the


txxa. &>

!i^*!o

and the fourth

for the

^AsJl^.

Or bi-chand
Fa-Tcay1
a
is

only exceptionally used in Persian.


*'

(also called pad-zahr j&j isb, from pad a stone found in the stomach of certain rumi^Aj "poison "), " between health nants. Tiryaq-i faruq is the best kind of antidote, or "discriminator " " is and disease. In Mod. Pers.

Tiryaq-i Farsi

the bezoar stone"

"

protection" and

zoftr

opium

generally -^Ljy

and antidote o^y.

Awly ^jf
ft

"

worthier, better" Ar. elative of

J)

not to be confused with

^j

tily

the

fern, of

JjL

DEGREES OF COMPARISON AND COMPARATIVE CLAUSES.


(9)

181
it

"I was unable


sea"

to

move
**AJU)

it

even

how much
c/f

the less could


AA.
1

be trans')

ported to the
(Afghan).

*xia^o

(^

&'

^L^

^L^iya

^(X^Li*.

e)f

In Mod. Pers.
(

this sentence could be,


Ijj*^

af

<^U.

**>>+*>*>

o,^

^r" gjjjlw) or)

fJI-~^J

an ra na-tavanistam harakat bi-diham

f*~*[j& tyf chi ja-yi

an

ki bi-darya bi-rasanam (or rasanlda shavad) ?


(10)

(^^J (~? L^V


J
.

AiAJjil^jji.

*xiL)

J^AXM

^IxilA

A^

^f

O-^

Id j^>^

jj>;
,

oj'Jb

ci>j^

*a.

js^A.

^ij/ojti^

Aa.

>^iiuG cu^Xi (Iq. Nama-yi Jan., Bid. Ind.


<ioU

As. Soc. Beng., p. rpr).


(11)

In Indian

and Afghan
less

writings,

Uso

is

sometimes used for

'how much the


"
This

less."

He doesn't smoke, much

drink."

<->\j

lo
v

xi.^

c) 1

(Indian).

is

perhaps a translation of the

Urdu &# t^J

In m.c. jumbanidan ^<iaJUi^

is

a word to be avoided

it signifies

a kind of

posturing in dancing and also gadan

CHAPTER
THE NUMERALS
(a)

VI.
'

Ism-i

adad

numbers (^^ and ordinal numbers ( ^liu) *> p] ^\ The thing numbered is called j^*** "numbered." " The cardinals consist of ahad ^^.f "units 'asharat o|^ " tens" mi*dt oil* hundreds" wZ-S/ o^Jf "thousands." ) (
or <yfi or (Jlk* &**
)
.
(

The numerals,

ism-i 'adad, are divided into cardinal

47.

Cardinal Numbers
l

a dad}.
1

j&*

sifr

CARDINAL NUMBERS.
hafdah (or
v

183
ll
or hivdah\

haft-

{havdah

<3

or

'
'

hashdah

(or

18 (hajdah or hijdah

[d
I

hasht dah)
or)
.

nuzdah

(or nu-

19 Mod.

Pers.

nuzdah,

vulg. nunzdah. 20 sometimes incorrectiy

O-AJ

6s w

?/a&

or)

184

CARDINAL NUMBERS.

KJA

x*

sad hazar

..!

100,000, in India the word <J^


to* (for ft?** l ) is also

used.
.

kurur

. .

500 ,000 in India a


Za&/i

tow = 100

ten millions.

milyun (or milyun)

,000,000 modern only, from the

French.

Remark
otiy,

I.

The masculine Arabic numbers from


f

to 10 are,

^f

or *^tj,

&>,

Ajy

llii., AJU.,

**}*.,

<*>iUj,

**~3
}

SSU'>

From

3 to 9 inclusive

Arabic numerals (masculine) are used in Persian as adjectives to " the four elements qualify a plural noun, as: 'anasir-iarba'ah **j;i ^clxc
these
;

awqat-i khamsa *~+^ olf?:

"the

five times

of

prayer"; havass-i khamsa


A*A~ v^t^S" "the seven " " the eight Paradises

4U^L ^js* "the


stationary planets
aflak-i tis'ah **-3

five

senses"; kawakib-i sab'ah


jannat-i samaniya, *^Uj oli^
;

"
;

^$j

" the ten angels (of kingdoms (animal, vegetable


Gospels"
world."
;

"the nine heavens" 'uqul-i 'ashara *j2*c J^ " mavalid-i salasa *&* " the three philosophers) *\j* " and arba'h " the four
;

mineral)

anajtl-i

ayyam-i

sitta *!*

li

fU

the six days in which

God

created the

The Arabic
writers,

ordinals

but the use of these ordinals beyond 10

up to 20 have been employed by some Persian is by some considered

inadmissible.

The word for 100 is written o^> instead of <x- to avoid any confusion between it and the common Arabic word sadd " boundary." 60 is written for o * which means " thumb fish-hook." Similarly, o*a
II.
;

Remark

In grammar, this
or obscurity."

is

called

^^

**

daf-i iltibas

"removing the confusion,

Remark III.
" one "
;

The vulgar say


shisht for

yeg,
;

shish

and

" six "

and more commonly ye or yey for " seven and eight haf, hash for yazza,
* ' ;

duvazza, sizza,
(b)

punza, shunza and nunza.


of counting ceases at five
6

The Persian system


'

at half a million or one kurur

thousand
1

they say

si

express /kurur )jjZ &~, and so on.

To

'

one million,

hundred thousand, i.e. five hundred

Also

^Lsp tuman
la\ch (in

(obsolete)

and c_J

lak, vide (b)

and

(c).

Persian lak} and karor (in Persian kurur) are of Sanskrit origin, and have been borrowed by the Persians from the Indian system of calculation. They
2

The words

are terms to be avoided in Persian, as the ideas as to their values differ


(pi.

In Persian lak

lakuk)
8

is

correctly a

hundred thousand.
numerals assume the feminine form
for the

i.e.,

in Persia, a kurur is only half a million.


3 to 10 the

From
i.e.

masculine,

and

vice versa.
6

half million according to the Persian calculation.

CARDINAL NUMBERS.
While
in India.

185

in Persia, a kurur j/" equals only half a million, in India it equals

ten millions.

This must be remembered

when reading Persian works

written

The word Idk J^ is rarely used by Persians. In India it signifies a hundred thousand, but according to Dr. Rosen it signifies only ten thousand in Persia. The Zardushtis and merchants trading with Bombay give the
word
its

Indian value.

a myriad (10,000), or a sum of money equal to (c) Tuman &vcy, T., signifies 10,000 Arabic silver dirham hence, also a district supposed to furnish 10,000
;

fightingmen.

The

chief of a

Baluch tribe is

still

called a

Tuman-ddr, corruption

of

jf<x>U> y. In Persia, the word tuman e>Uy is only used for a gold coin, or its " commander of equivalent of ten qiran, or = the word ^Uy } **\ Amir tuman

tumdn-ddr

(a

nominal) ten thousand."


(d)

From twenty upwards


number expressed
:

greatest

first,

the numbers are arranged by having the and the lesser added by the conjunction
.

Example u nuh }
&'>

[Though deviations from this rule " eleven hundred and

may occur, they should not be copied]. " is hazar u sad* u navad ninety-nine (1199)
Such expressions as
is
' '

^3

**> j yy*>

8
(
i

).

eleven hundred

' '

are

never used.

The use

of the conjunction^

obligatory.

In the Tilzuk-i Jahangiri (Jahangir's Memoirs) the following **1^ &jj* xU.xx Jlalc ^jo ^ O*A ^A *J^ s$ *)J y,ib ^ x*e^a. chahar sad u panzdah tola ki yak hazar si u haft u misgal mi-bashad
occurs:

Remark.

mm

ba-wazn bar
tola ki

dmad
si

in

Modern Persian

this
(.?"

would be chahar sad u panzdah

hazar u

u haflmisqal u

mm* j

noun (without the izafat) and the noun is in the singular, as: &j* jj& hazar mard ** one thousand men", but " ^UwSt^ii to dah nafar ashkhas ten individuals." An hazar mard "the
(e)

cardinal

number precedes

its

thousand men."

Very rarely the ma'dud &}&*> precedes the


:

adad

5<xc

in this case the

former has usually the indefinite ya, as <>*T j* * ^U* sal-i du bar " dmad (Sa'dl; about two years, a two years or so, elapsed."

&^

m bar

Vide note

2, p. 184.

2
?

Amlr-tuman ^^j^^^-\ (without

iza/at) is

a Persian

title.

Yak hazar u yak sad


is

<3*A&

j'^fCj is

also used for emphasis,

but ordinarily the

numeral yak
*

omitted except in Indian Persian.

Notice the position of nlm in the second instance and the insertion of j between
si.

hazar and

186

CARDINAL NUMBERS.
In poetry the cardinal sometimes follows for poetical license, as
:

and

The ma' dud

is

occasionally understood, also by poetical license:

In Modern Persian at any rate, an Arabic plural, or Persian imitation " ten workmen" broken plural is sometimes em ployed, as: <*A** te dahfa'ala
l
, ;

v^UJUx
si

*J

nuh 'amalajat
" three forts
;

"nine workmen"

or

"artificers";

ol^al*
all

&*

qal'ajat

for chahdr taraf

bi-sad mushkilat

"; ot^} ;l^ chahdr atrdf (m.c.) "on ^^Ci^ &,& (Afghan) for bi-sad

sides," mushkil, or

bi-sad ishkdl (m.c.).

definite

In the rare instances where the numeral stands as a predicate to a " the men were two thousand noun, the noun is in the plural, as
'
:

^&}* mardan du hazar budand. The noun may be in the plural after sadhd Ua^ "hundreds"
orhazarha

hazaran

thousands," as f;^ (c5 l t-^ f* or better) ^'^ p* (&)]\& hazarha ham-jins-i'1 (or better ham-jins-ha-yi 3 ) Jchud ra khwahand " sadha award (m.c.) "they will bring thousands of their own people fll*
: :

"

U^

cUi U^^> (or incorrectly


after sadha, etc.,
is

fiL-lia]

hazaran

(or hazarha)

fil

(or fil-ha).

The

plural

probably incorrect, for, as already stated, sadha is rarely used in m.c., hazarha or hazaran being substituted: hazaran kurur. (m.c.). "thousands of Tcrores" hazaran hazar (m.c.}, or hazar hazar (m.c.) 'many " " thousands of a thousand " and "a thousand thousand ") thousands
(lit.

chandin hazar " several thousand."


(/)
tj

substantive preceded by a cardinal

of the accusative unless specially definite, as

of partridges

kardam, both of us

)^> *-** *ita to-day" ra 6 firistad (m.c.) man du but har

^/

^j^
I;

number does not admit of the "I shot two and a half brace imruz panj dana kabk b shikar
:

^^
$j*>

t^iU

& j*

" he sent

(def.). *.y> "I sent all three [The dative, however, can be expressed either by (j or by the preposition

(def.)

har

si

ra firistddam

{t&j

"

*^

as

j>^

t^,

j>;"

^^

^f aw

c?w

mard ra

bigu, or ^^J

^ &k ba an du mard bigu

There
;

is

as singular
2
3

wU^t

a tendency in m.c. to treat some of the commoner Arabic broken plurals 29 (c) asbab, for instance, is sometimes treated as a singular vide also
:

Remark and

footnote

(1).

But u hazar ham jins darad (not ham-jinsha). Here the plural ham jinsha sounds better also
;

it

conveys the idea of hazarha az

ham-jinsha-yi Jchud.
*
8

The word hazaran or hazarha is used in m.c. and sadha rarely. Or Tcabg m.c. Or har du-yi man ra, or har du ta man ra, or ma har du ta ra.

CARDINAL NUMBERS.

189

Remark
rendered

I.

A
si
j-oj

"ura
II.

is phrase like, "I struck him three blows with a sword *or si zakhm-i (or zarb-i) shamshir zadam faj-'**"^ ; r
!

"

shamshir zadam

^-^*"*

v^

or )

f^j

*"

(m.c.).
is

Remark
tf

In ordinary conversation, ^si> nafar

used for persons and

ta or

*ji,i

tftma for things.


:

"a
dah

I7^ is also used in forming nouns of number, as " score ^\\^ <_. yak davdzda td*i (m.c.)
;

^Uu^j

>

c<

^jO

" a dozen

yak bistd^ (m.c.)


:

^13 *:>^j yak

td*i. etc.

In classical Persian, the


of

^ of

number, as: davdzdah-1 (in " two and two " yak-i is a pronoun
;

unity was sometimes added to form nouns " a dozen" dwvspeaking duvaza-i ) (class.)
:

lt

one,

some one."
as in the case of the

Remark

III.

It will be noticed that,

cardinal

numbers, these determining numbers are usually followed'by a singular noun.


a pair; s&d linga is the odd one of a pair, or the load of one side of a transport animal &j)t> c t/a& darzhan (or dajan)
(h)

Juft

oJiA. or

j>J

zauj

is

things generally sold by the dozen); " a suit of vJL; ?/& ^as^ ^6a*' cu^i ^">* clothes" J^^j ^U) yak dost kdrd u changal 'one set consisting of 2 knives, 2 forks and 2 spoons' (or
(m.c.)
is

"a dozen"

(applied

to

'

one place at table

')

yak dost zarf

J^i= ^~*<i

u>

'

one set consisting of six

yak dast finjan rialnaki ^^l*j ^l^oj o*^^ uj "a set of six cups and six saucers"; muqamir ra si shash mi-bayad va likin si yak mi-ayad (Sa'di) "the gambler wants three sixes, but three one's keep
plates

and

six

' '

cups

coming up." (i) The emphatic phrase '^ j A^ &*> man yaka va tanha " I single and alone quite by myself; unaided."
;

signifies

(j)

The phrase
Ex.
:

c>x

;l^.

edly."

^vx;U.j>
;

j^ du char shudan signifies to encounter unexpect" we met each other"; ^Ab ba ham du char shudlm
' '

du

u shudam, or urd du char shudam (m.c. only) "I met him." 3 l*^^ hundreds of hazdrdn &\)}j*, hazdrhd U^KA signify (k) Sadhd thousands of." Ex. cu^: <x>U IAJ) o^t JU U^x^ 4 sadhd sdlast mja mdnda ast
chdr-i
; :

(m.c.)

"it has lain here for hundreds of years" 5 (Afghan) "hundreds of kos."

%jj>

U<x*>

sadhd kuroh

'

In India si shctmshir zadam,


Juft

si

chub zadam, etc.


'

naml-khwaham

linga

mi-khwaham pA\}.** iXU ^At^iu^J oJu.

want

.single
s

(odd) carpet, not a pair." The plural -an of this word not used.
:

na dah nah Hazaran would be more usually substituted in colloquial idiom sad hazarha (Qa*ani). 5 A kos is an Indian measure of distance supposed to be about two miles it
*
:

however, varies in

districts

and

may

be anything from

H to 4 miles.

188

CARDINAL NUMBERS.
.
.

Sheep, goats

shaJch;

dana;
ra*s.
,

shakh
' ;

' '

horn
c ;

"
;

u-r

'adad;

a grain"
;

adad

dana = "a
1 '

number"
Fowls
.

ra*s

"a head.

dana
qilada
. .

Dogs

"a
dast

collar."

Hawks

dast; bahla

..

= "hand"; bahla* (classical) "a falconer's


bazu

glove."

Falconer

bazu
'arrada

..

(classical);

="arm."

Guns (cannon)
Sails
,

..

"a

kind of small balista:

farvand>

a cart (modern)." " a sail " vulg. farund.


:

Money

dana

^j-^j*

&
8

&* sad dana

tu-

mani
rn an

(m.c.)

100 gold tu-

pieces.

Jewels, fruit

dana
saub
sardari (also less correctly

Clothes

Guns,

etc.

.mil, lula, qabza.

mil " a bodkin for apply-

ing
lisk
:

colly rium

an

obe-

a milestone; probe, a etc."; lula "a pipe


;

barrel."

S words
daggers.

and

' '

qabza

hilt, qabza a handle."


*'

of

a sword

Books
Shawls or piecegoods.

jild
tiiqa

volume."
stani

wit

corresponds to the Hindu-

word
;

than.
' '

Carpets Felt

or

fard
takhta

" a unit

one person.
to, etc.,"

..

"aboard."
vide

For mablagh 139 (h).


i

sum

(of

money)" and muwdzi "equal

Also used colloquially.


i

In m.c. dast-kash jj*^ cu^^ s used for a falconer s or any other glove. In India " an assistant " the hawk. this word signifies falconer." i.e., " one who strokes " a 5 Panj hazar )[$& gold five "fiveqirans, but panj hazari ^L**
qiran, bit

nine qirana). 4 Carpets in Persia are woven and sold by the pair, each pair being identical in pattern. Persian taste requires everything in a room to be in pairs the same pictures
(value
:

"

now

even (coloured prints of European women of ample charms only partially concealed), " an account repeat themselves on both sides of a doorway or arch. Fard also means
r '

or

"a

' '

list.

CARDINAL NUMBERS.

189

Remark
rendered

/.A phrase like,


si
(

"I
or)

struck him three blows with a sword


si

"

is

"ura
II.

shamshir zadam f*)^*"-** ** l>r, or

zakhm-i (or

zarb-i)

shamshir zadam pt>jj-^~

^y*

^3

A ~ (m-c-)' 1
is

Remark
l

In ordinary conversation,^ nafar


for things.
:

used for persons and

ta or

AJt.v

dan

"a
dah

score

^a is also used in forming nouns of number, as " " <-j ^& davazda tafi (m.c.) " a dozen ^5G j$y,fjj>
;

^>

**>J*>.

yak

ta*i, etc.

In classical Persian, the


of

^ of

number,

"two and two "


Remark

as: davazdah-1 (in speaking duvaza-i


;

unity was sometimes added to form nouns " a dozen" duv-i (class.) )
:

yak-i

is

a pronoun

"

one,

some one."

III.

It will

be noticed that, as in the case of the cardinal

numbers, these determining numbers are usually followed by a singular noun.


(h)

Juft* oJia. or

>j

zauj

is

a pair; &&) linga


;

is

or the load of one side of a transport animal


(m.e.)
is

&j)&

^ yak darzhan
sold

the odd one of a pair,


(or dajan) the dozen); by

"a dozen"
,JL;

(applied

to

things generally
' '
;

^U)
'

d**o

yak dast

libas

" a suit of clothes

J&a- j

^~*t>

^ yak

dost

" (< a set of plates and six cups yak dast finjan n'alnaki ^>UJ ^\.^9 o^ci u^> six cups and six saucers"; muqamir rd si shash mi-bdyad va likin si yak mi-ayad (Sa'di) "the gambler wants three sixes, but three one's keep
;

kdrd u changal 'one set consisting of 2 knives, 2 forks and 2 spoons' (or one place at table ') yak dast zarf <J^ o*a Jr! " one set consisting of six
;

coming up."

man yaka va tanha signifies unaided." quite by myself; shudan signifies to encounter unexpect(j) The phrase cA^ ;^ jo du char 4( we met each other"; Ex. ba ham du char shudim edly." j,)jA;U. ja ^U du char-i u shudam, or ura du char shudam (m.c. only) "I met him."
(i)

The emphatic phrase


and alone
;

'^x>

*& e^

"

I single

(k)

Sadha s U A:

hazdran

e)f;!>,

hazarha

UjKA

' '

signify

hundreds of

thousands of." Ex.


(m.c.)

0^' s^U

Isdji

o^t

JU

U^*o 4 sadha salast Inja


;

manda

ast

"it has lain here for hundreds of years" 5 (Afghan) "hundreds of kos."
_____________

;>/

U>^

sadha kuroh

____

______
^^
:

gle
s

In India si shamshir zadam, si chub zadam, etc. Jw/ nami-khwaham; linga mi-khwaham f* [>** ^^^4^^ (odd) carpet, not a pair." The plural -an of this word not used. Hazaran would be more usually substituted in colloquial idiom

" I want a

na dah nah
it

9ad hazarha (Qa*ani).


5

kos

is

however, varies in

an Indian measure of distance supposed to be about two miles districts and may be anything from 1 to 4 miles.

190

CARDINAL NUMBERS.

chunm
hazarhd daf'ah bihtar mi-shud (m.c.)

Carnal

mi-kardam

"had

done

so,

it

would have been

thousands of

times

better for

me"

oJL? j* )j> lab-i gur y ;Uj 4*0 sad sand-fold"): " a hundred sick have a sick returned from the bar gasht has) (many person " hundreds of but Umar sadha when death of brink given up)," (recovered

(better

hazar

chandan, bimdr az

"a

thou-

sick."
instead of sadha

The Afghans sometimes (incorrectly) say sadha- yi mar dumdn^^^^^a mard a/ (&**>. " we the For two, both," etc., vide 39 (/) (3), ma du nafar expression (1}
har du & j* ^> or har du-yi man ^U <^o j*>. 48 (m) The cardinals are used to express the year, vide,
or

j&>

^ U,

ma

(i).

This

life is
(

often, especially in poetry, referred to as In panf ruz )j)


jj)
> CJ--'<-Z+&A>

-ij <^f,or

In du ruz-i

umr j+*
haft

the next
*

"
:

qalam

p&

Dar du dunya ^J2 ^i;^ means "in " " is the seven of
styles

this

world and in

writing

haft iqllm /^i|


' '
;

cuAA

the seven climes of the world


,
*

"
;

haft darya

b)& cufiA

'

'

the seven seas


(each
of

haft

jahannam

lA

^Xt.^ oJte

the seven divisions of the Muslim Hell

which has a separate

name)"
eight.

haft bihisht ^-^*V

^A

" the seven Paradises


or Falak^l-Aflak)."

of Islam (exclusive of the

Kuriy
are

or Falakv'l-Buruj,

and the 'Arsh


jjUftA for

Ac cor ding to the vulgar there

Haftad u du j& j
seventy- two

haftad
:

u du

millat

oJx>^>^

^UJlA occurs in poetry for the

religions of the

world

Jang-i haftad u du millat hama ra 'uzr bi-nih Chun na-dldand haqlqat rah-i afsana zadand.
(Hafiz.)

Haftad u
is

si firqa

&*f &^ j

(sA*

is

the seventy- three sects of Islam.

Muhammad
but

reported to

have said that there were 71

sects of the Jews, 72 of the Christians,


five

that there would be 73 of Muslims.

There are

more.

There are ninety-nine attributes of God called al as na^ l-lmsna or " the excellent names," but commonly Persians talk of the thousand and one names of God. Allah is called the Ism^z'zat or essential name of God and, with the ninety-nine attributes,
'
'

completes the one hundred names recited by means of the rosary in the exercise of The Ism^'l-A'zam, or " Great name of God," is supposed to be known only to zikr.
'Ali is supposed to have one less, i.e. 1,000 names. There are supposed to be 1,24,000 Prophets. The world it is supposed is 8,000 years old, and will reach the age of 50,000 years

saintly persons.

Farda

M az

^^

In dayr-i

kuhn darguzarlm

Ba

haft hazar-salagan

ham

safar-lm.

To-morrow we shall quit this inn, and march With comrades who have marched seven thousand

'

'

years.

(0.

K. 312 Whin.)

THE ORDINALS.
48.

191

The Ordinals.

(a)

The Persian
This

ordinals are formed


is
:

cardinals.
(

termination

turned

^(k*> fx*) or mim-i ta'ym-i ta ddd ( adjectives and as such can precede or follow their substantives
1st
.

by adding the termination urn to the by Grammarians mim-i sifdti alJ*3 e^*-* They are treated as p** )
:

Jji
|*j>
*>

2nd
3rd
4th

fX> or
2

-or

o*-io

^^ M
+**>

awed (Ar.) yakum, duvvum or duyum.


;

or nukhust.

*y> or

..(*; l^
. .

sivvum or siyyum. chaharum.

5th

p-suj
.

panjum.
shishum, classically shashum.

6th
7th

f
fxfi*

haf turn
hashtum.

8th

^.i^A

9th
10th
.

^
.

nuhum.
dahum.
si-um.

AJ>
2

30th
(b)

(*l.'t5"*'

When

there
:

the last only, as

more than one number, the formative affix is added to " ^;^ ^ J^a. ^ ^^ sad u chihal u chaharum the hundred and
is

forty-fourth (144th)."
(c)

The Persian
^,

ordinals can in addition take the affix

w, sometimes
J^;

contracted to

e^i

as: Ex. nukhustin, c^*<?^ duyyumm, etc. 6 " former avvalin' raunaq-i (Sa'di) brightness (or splendour)."

^-u

Remark.
an ordinal,
(d)

In poetry a cardinal number sometimes

takes the place of

as:

The

ordinals
^fr^rsuj/o
\)

may

be

followed by the rd of the accusative,

as:

Question:

^^

f\&$

kudam

yakl-ra

mi-Tchipahi

"which one
who have
pre-

Inn, as we stay only a short time. Haft-hazar salagan " all the dead ceded us " May khur lei 'z dil kasrat u qillat bi-barad
,

F' andlsha-yi haftad u


*'

Drinlc wine to root

du millat bi-barad. up with a metaphysic's weeds


(O.

And

tangle of the two-and-seventy creeds."

K. 194 Whin.)

Yakum /?
is

yakum

is much less used in Persia than avval Jj'- In India and Afghanistan Nukhiist o~acu generally used instead of avval for the 1st of the month.

and nukhustin ^-J^ 3^ are classical, and only used in writing nukhust zad " 2 Note the distinction in 3rd and 30th in Persian. writing between
' ' ' '

first

born."

cri/^i J c^-^f

Here avval Jt could be substituted for avvalln cj-irj'. In avvalln u akhirm " ancients and moderns " the terminations are the oblique case of the

regular (classical) Arabic masculine plural.

192
' '

THE ORDINALS.
:

do you want ? Answer I; ra 6^'& chahdruml **? t; ^o;^


'

^
'

^ OU..AJ bist

(m.c.)

u yakum ra " the twenty- first "give me the fourth."


also adjectives, are to
'
'

'

'
:

(e)

The Arabic
^

ordinals, which are

a certain

extent used up to
.

"the tenth."
"

These are formed on the


the first

measure of

the agent

J^U

(masc.),

and

<*JUb*

(fern.),

excepted.

MASCULINE.

THE ORDINALS. The Arabic ordinal Jy avval " the first" is generally used "the first of Ramazan." &l"4.*) *^ Jj avval-i mdh-i Ramazdn
(g)
1

193

in dates,

as

The feminine ^>f


,jj

is

rarely used in Persian even in the


g^

names

of

the

Arabic months; thus ^j}\

^U^it

is

less

used than Jjl i^U*-,

4waZ Jy
substantive.

is

an adjective and

When however
Kirmdn

coupled by the izdfat when it follows its precedes a substantive it is generally to be


is

considered a substantive, and

dar avval-i khdk-i

followed by a genitive, as: &\*>j> (_!, Jy j& (me.) "at the commencement of the district of
is

Kirman."
plural of J> avval is J5.y avasil signifying "the beginning; the first first ten days of every month," as opposed to y^iy avdlchir the part; " the plural of j^T akhira ( and dkhir ends, latter parts; the last ten

The

j^

days of each month."


beginning of his reign
his life," avval shah
of the night."

Ex.

oikU

"
;

Jjty

^ dar

avd*il-i saltanat-i

^tjjj^ty
first

;^ dar avdkhir-i

zindagl
*i

u "in the " at the close of

" the

night," but avval-i shah

v* Jy

"the beginning

L$)J*^ (r* &.$ y (**^;W Janvari ii-yhdyat-i chahdrdahum-i April (m.c.) "from the 3rd of January to the end of the 14bh of April." * Remark. Via ^(jf, the Ar. fern, of avval Jy, must not be confused with
j/jf

J^

&*)

az tdrikh-i sivvum-i

awla " more or most excellent" which


ulq.

is

the elative form from

waU

<Jj

and has no connection with avval,


(h)

which properly " blaze on a horse's a a or be covered by "star too to forehead," signifies large the thumb-top, the new moon, 2 etc., etc." The last of the months is also
first

The

of the

month

is also

+9 called tj* ghwrra, Ar.

salkh,

Ar.,

which has for

its

original

meanings "to skin,

flay;

to shed

the skin (snake); to shed foliage and grow green again."

Not an uncommdh-i 'umr-i u az

mon
tin time

phrase

in

writings

is

<Xx-o;

JLo

31

y j+&
lit.

U>

ghurra bi-salkh rasid


travelled

"
its

his

days drew to a close,"


its

" the

month
al^o

of his

life-

from
the

ghurra to
is

salkh."

The

first of

-d the
(i)

month

also called ti*

Jy

avval-i md-h, or

sar-i

mdh,

last |Lo^Lf dkhir-i

mdh.

ordinals are used in computing the year of the reign of a but the cardinals are used in expressing the date of an era. sovereign, (j) The ordinals are sometimes vulgarly formed by adding digar to a
cardinal, without

The

tawdnd
J

(Tr.

an izdfat, as: lily ^ *** j &> j&* ** si-digar tanumand u H. B., Chap. VI) "the third was a man robust and strong."

Ramazan, the ninth month of the Muslim year and the month of fasting. The new moon is hilal J^>, and badr )** the full moon in speaking mah-i '* chahardah te )^ff> -^ is generally used for the full moon." 13
*

shab-i

194

FRACTIONS.

OTHER CLASSES OF NUMERALS.


49.
(a)

Fractions kusur (>}~$)

pi of kasr\

(,

Persian fractions are usually formed by placing the denominator

after the

numerator, as:

^
. .

^&*> haft du "two-sevenths"

).

In mixed
:

numbers, the whole number precedes the fraction as in English.


'

Examples

/jjj

mm
chahdr yak chahdr
si

in

m.c.

only

used in com-

pounds.
J.
.

Jo

y^a.

vulg.

^;L$-

chdrak

(used

in

| i

A-c^a.
^_j A<*
^jo
fc-Ai

si

weights and measures). not used in Modern Persian,

yak
.

seldom used in me.


used in m.c. used in m.c.

i
i

^ij
0*"**
.

panj yak
shash yak
haft

...

^, oiA
AJ
>
<x<5

yak
, ,

hasht yak

da^ nuh
sac?
/*

not used in m.c.

-J-.1-0

c_j
AJ

/a&

_?_9_

j>y **o

^
d

..

sad navad u
nuh.

used in m.c. " in a hundred,


nine."
m.c.

ninety and

YoVo"

..

^.^.j*

hazdr yak
.

..
,

^
f
f

da& d%

m.c.

*&*>..)
\JL> uu*.jj
.

dah nlm.
bist

not m.c.
m.c.

yak

Remark I. must be used


;

For
si

f,

etc.,

the Arabic fraction du suls, f sih sumn, etc.,

hasht yak or hasht si would be wrong.


:

The fractions are followed by the izdfat, as w ^-^t & khhums-i In rd bi-man bi-dih " give me a fifth of this" dah yak-i in haqq-i man ast (m.c.) "a tenth belongs by right to me." The Persian fraction J si yak is not used, and |- chahdr yak is only used for
Remark II.
:

" the Arabic fraction weights and measures f or give me a fourth of this ***** nisf-i and not the Persian would be used: similarly half of this' " mdhut. u \f in, but ^ yak gaz 1J yards broad cloth" ci>>tU
' '
;
'

^
:

mm

Kusur-i

'amm "
is

vulgar fractions

"
:

kusur-i a'shariyyah "decimal fractions."


1

is preferred. compounds in speaking nisi ^-ANlma A+JJ is also used as nlma-yirah (m.c.) ) &+& "halfway" nlma-yi mah >^ A*-Jt*" the fifteenth of the month " nlma alone is used in m.c. for " half a brick": (m.c.)

2J

Nlm

/H^

generally used in

*2-*

H>

vide

117
ejiij,}

(/).

&+# vSAjliT kitabat nlma-yi dldar = olJ'^Jl ^flai wi*jU^ kitabat nisf-ul-mulaqat does "writing (a letter) is equal to half a visit,** i.e. correspondence with friends away with half the pain of separation.
Ar.,

FRACTIONS.
(6)

195

The Arabic

fractional terms are sometimes used even in speaking.


(e.g. *i*Jb

In the singular, they are generally of the measure Jta

"a third")

and

in the plural JU?f.

Examples
l
.
.

cA*ai

nisf

Used

in speaking

instead

of

riim.
9

*Q
| J
..

rub' or ruba
si
1

PL PL

l)t

arba

(rare).

Q
JJj,3
-

<!uo

rub (orruba')
. .

suls

asJas (rare)

also

the

three-thirds).

^iiS

sulsayn

Dual; (the dependent case in


the
classical

language);

du
T
J

suls in Persian.

u/*^
uo>-o
.
.

khums
suds
st*6
s

5*^

PL uU^t akhmas (not used). PL ^jp|Ai asdas (not used). PL ^U^t asba' (not used).
PL c>^f asman (not used). PL *UJ( a^a' (rare).

4
^

ej*"*

sumn
/ws'

~>

y*^

'ushr

PL

ji^^

'ushur

'

and

;lAc

The duals and


Remark.
'

6 plurals are very rarely used except by Mullas in writing.

*'

A quarter to' is sometimes expressed, thus: chahar ilia rub' four minus a quarter," etc., but the expression is perhaps incorrect.
(c)

In m.c. <jy^jj

-ft*ai

nisf-i ziyad-tar-ash, or better

u^y^j

^^

ji

az

nis/ ziyad-tar-ash signifies

" more than half."

(d) In Modern Persian, nisf *Jt^J is generally used for the substantive "half" while mm is preferred for compounds, asijlwui^J msj-i qutr

"radius
asleep."

of a circle

(lit.

half the diameter)," but

v>^

/*^

riim-khwab *'half

as

However, in m.c., riim-shab nisf-i shab and riima~yi shah


:

is

occasionally used for


*

"

midnight," as well

riim-ruz (class.)

midday.'

Bil-munasafa <WUUJL.

<*

n halves, equally between


/c
'

two":

dar nisf-i fariq

"

halfway."
ff*
2

In Arabic the forms


.

>)

and

(J^Jj

but in Persian (and similar measures) are found,

the measure <J*> only


3

is

used.
si

In speaking du suls, du khums,

khums,

etc.,

|,

|.

used for the singular T^th. " so 5 In Arabic, the fractions above a tenth are expressed by a paraphrase of out so parts many parts ( )."
pi.

In Persian, the

)j&*

is

many

*^

196
(e)

ADVERBIAL NUMERALS.
Such expressions
as

"

5%"
&>

are

^
(/)

ft

sad panj.

Yak

bar dah

uXj

rendered by " ten to one

^i(in

*o sad panj, or
betting)."
-75"

u
g>\

Decimal fractions are rendered by a paraphrase, thus ^.+~* x*>jf o**~J' sad* haftad u <panj-i inch, or
^Jf

=
^i&* haftad

^AJ^

u panj qismat
(g)

az sad qismat-i inch.

Fractions
of

may
or

also be expressed

as

follows

a jl

^Cj

?/a&-

daA

"one out

ten,

one-tenth"; a^j

d% az

si

"two

out of three,

or two-thirds."

50.

Adverbial Numerals

(a)

The

ordinals can be used as adverbial numerals.

Ex.

^^ a&f ^&

^ e^ ^ ;U cJo

A[^J

^;tj j u^iAJ <*&f ^Jj^

-plif ?/a^-*

anki garmi-yi aftab bud;

duyyum anki tufang u barudugulula yak bar bar man bud, "firstly, there was the heat of the sun; and, secondly, the rifle with powder and bullets was
quite a load for
(b)

me "

in this sentence avval

could be substituted for yak-l.

The Arabic
:

ordinals in the accusative case are also used in Persian

as adverbs

y
IjJb

amal- a *, "
saniy~
an
,

firstly, in

the

first

place."

"

secondly, in the second place."

UflS salis- (jn , etc., etc.

(c)

The Persian
.J**^

ordinals,

with the exception of yakum

added

to

*fyo martaba, second time,"

daf'ah, or jL bar
:

"time,"
^A^-/O

etc., etc., signify "first time,

etc., as

Axi/^
fjt>

Jy, or Jjt
*',>

avval martaba or marlaba-yi avval


e

"the

first

time,"

etc.,

daf'a-yi

duvvum

(or daf a-yi sani), *y

%**&

daf'ah-yi siyyum.

etc.

Remark. Bar-ha U|b (pi. of &o>) means " oft-times." " twice as much," vide Multiplicative Numerals.
(d)

For du-chandan,

The
etc.

cardinals prefixed to the

same substantives
;

signify
(classical

"once,
only)
4

twice,"

Ex. Ex.
:

;b a^ si bar
j>>

"thrice"

;b

"seldom."

^)j*>

*-

^^ ruz-t

" he used to si\bar khwurdl (Sa'dl)

kam-bar

eat three times a day."

are not used in

The expressions found in old Persian modern Persian.

fl

dah

bis'

200

and

fi

dah yak, or yak dah

2 /Sad <**,
8

i.e. per 100. [As -75" is singular, it is wrong to say -75 inches.] The Arabic ordinal avval supplies the place of yakum. In modern Persian ju *> kam-bar is an adjective signifying "of light weight

or

load."

MULTIPLICATIVE NUMERALS.
.

197

(e)

" " Once again is^jj>

'

,>Jj yak daf a-yi dlgar, or ;|/& bi-takrdr*

("

bam. by repetition "), or )j* mukarrar, or *>V^>> (/) Such expressions as "twice two makes four,"
:

etc. are

rendered as

follows

2 x 2
ast o**ot

du martaba du chahar ast<+*\ ;l^ 3* AJ^J*, or dy bar du chahar

)l&'.j&j*j&, or

5 + 5 joaw?

d% rf% to chahar td % paw/ dah mi shavad


Jj.

^j^

^ j> 3*
-.u

te

.u,

or panj td

upanj

td

dah

**

ti

J^

13

5 pew;

ezz

panj hlch
,

&*
J^>

^ ^
j
Jij ^AJ ;i

5-^-5

paw;

c?ar

panj, yak

51.
(a)

Multiplicative Numerals.
:

The

multiplicative or reduplicative numerals are as follows

"
Single

"

^iuc mufrad,
tJicUax)

liC>

yaktd,
3

&&

yagdna.

"Double"
A>'fj^

muzd'af, *** j*
cfot

du chand,

a)

<^

^ du

chanddn,

dugana,

^^
jta>

rfw to, S/j,i

/a.

'Treble" ^Jli^ musallas; U *chanddn; AJ!f A^ 6* gdna ; $ &^ si ld. s

5*

^a;

o^.

A->

s^

chand; ^*x*. &>

si

"Quadruple"
chand, etc.

^^
o* w

murabba

1 ,

oU^

Aiu;t

arba'a az'df, **
& o^^jj

chahar

"Twenty-fold" ejf*^
6z-5i

o-# &^
muqdbala.
<>^

chanddn,

&?$

ia,

Jjlaxs

OA-JJ

muqdbil,

ALliixj

6^5^

"

A^hundred-fold" c>l^^
:

sad chanddn, &tliU


'*

A-O S U x*, etc.

Examples

cu! ^f ^5^^ v^ ^'


" this

this is twice as

much water

as that

' '
:

is

twenty times the amount

of

wheat

' '
:

parishdm-yi
(m.c.)
^s*j*^
1

ma

chahar chanddn izd/a shud


si

"our alarm was


a^
i
.

increased four-fold": In
is

bardbar-i

an

ast

c^Tyy
p
jl

^ "this
*t>yjt>

(m.c.)

three times as

much

as that

"

si

*j*-j

or)

hakim) ddda am (me.) " as the Hakim gave

maw 6i-fe 5* bardbar-i hakim (or "I have given him three times (or twelve times) as much
;

p*> jty &^^ ^x> duwdzda bardbar-i


muqdbil ziydd-tar

jy <u*o!^ ^&t y

dddam az an " he asked


:

ki khivdsta
f to's

bud

"
(rn.c.)

^t^y

cLlax)

A^

si

gave him more than three times what

^ ^ Aivotyk Asuf
(m.c.)

Jblax:

^ ^x:

man

si

muqdbil-i dnchi khwdsta

bud

bi-u
(6)

ddda

am

"I have

given him

three times what he asked."

above, the Arabic multiplicatives are seldom used. In ordinary use are the compounds of U td, V Id, ***. chand, ^***- chanddn and

Of

the

muqdbila.

2
3

Or bar j O r martaba In India the word takrar


Colloquially dulla, silla.

is

also used for

" altercation, dispute."

198
52.

RECURRING NUMERALS.
Distributive Numerals.
:

yakdyak, or <-j <*> yak yak, or " " one or o& c>& ijj ^j yak-i yak-l (m.c.), yagdnyagdn (obsolete) by one also j& }& huva bi-huva (m.c.) 8 ^<v jj> du badu, or *^ du du, or Uj,> Uja du td
distributive numerals are
l

The

-j&

du

td,

or dugan

"

" by twos
' '

*-

<*^

51 si
;

chahdrdn chahdrdn](old)

four at a time

"
*:>

" " three by three, by threes


to

daA daft
:

' '

by tens

'

'

yagan u dugan
^jcxiujx:

"
(old)

by ones and twos."


iaeulLa.

Examples

^^

;&*>

&jfj;^j^

t^j) ^ ^j^-^f ^xs j^

^jl^jj.o

^f

bi-nawbat jihat-i shikar

du du ddam me-raftem chundnchi du me-dmadem wa du-yi dlgar me-raftem " we* used to go out shooting by turns, two of us at a time, viz.. (Afghan)

when two of us returned two others from amongst us started in their place." The Afghan idiom (&j ({& ^ &j)\* j**> j** k^j^/t-V /^(^ x mannimnimsir,
" I (oaded the bdrud, dar tufangha kardam (Afghan) guns with " half a seer or a seer each would in m.c. be expressed sir yd yak sir yak

yd

sir

sir

mm

sir

bdrud dar tufang-hd kardam


(2)

(m.c.).
etc.

Adverbs and Adjectives such as xx*u takhmin an " about,"


express approximation,
as
:

are also used to


t$
*y

takhmln an
:

blst sal

shuda ki
*^

JU

^*/*ojj

Uu^!i " about 20 years have elapsed since


teji^

"

^j ly

o^y

&&U

panj tumdn ki muwdzl-yi pdnzdah ruplya ml-bdshad " five tuman which is equal to fifteen rupees (m.c.) qarlb-i sad (or bi-sad) "there were nafar shutur dnjd bud (m.c.) Isof^xi jk> x^ (*^* or ) vir*
A*J^;
;

^"
(3)

about 100 camels there."

English

And *i; (connected with ^J"^ andak and ^ia. chand), corresponds to "odd," as: x>fj ^Ixy ^^ s tumdn va and (class.) "thirty odd
!

tumans."
53.

Recurring Numerals.
:

" " The recurring numerals are L^J yak dar miydn; alternately "once every ten days" <**VC -l 3j; *^ j* har dah ruz yak martaba, etc. Ijj come every ^U^^ Examples yak ruz dar miydn biyd 5 other day "; "cut down every third tree" du biguzdr siyumln rd bi-bur
:

^^

^ ^

' '

Also means " suddenly.'

Some Afghans

still

say yagan yagan vj&

&&.

The termination an appears


sevens

to be

adverbial rather than a plural:

C;&A
:

haftagan
the

"by

"

(obs.)

eM^ ^^
1

bam-

dadan "
s

"in the morning"


Means "
in detail

(Sa'di)

Afghans say cA^lj rastan for


1

the

adverb

straight."
or exactly.

In modern Persian
'i

f&*j&j^i*j&J* J
nafar)
6
'

(+'.**

In Indian pronounced j&j* huba-hu. ^*J f&*j*' (^ j&* j&> jt> or) jAJ j* *^=? fi*J.i *j bi-du dw bi-nawbat du shikar na/ar 6* O!M jihat-i (or t^*^^^

"

mi
%t
f

raftim ya'rii

du nafar ml amadim va du nafar-i digar mi-raftlm

(m.c.).

k*

ghibb

an
,
'

"at
;

alternate days

visits of

a friend.

intervals, occasionally," is also sometimes used in writing for from a saying of the Prophet who was somewhat bored by the daily The Prophet suggested to his friend that he should visit him ghhibb- an
.

NUMERAL ADJECTIVES.
*
&

199

or du dar

miydn

yak-i rd bi-bur

j^> <-*Ur^ *-^ o^L

-*>

y>

" take one dose every three hours."


54.
(a)

Approximate Numbers.
:

*jt du si, Approximate numbers are expressed as follows " " U or or U ju ^ rfw s* /a (m.c.) two or three ft- chahdr panj, ^i " " '* A o^ cA-^ shash haft, six or seven. chahdr panj td (m.c.) four or five Ex: o^Jo etc., etc. ij^l^ chahar panj angusht, "four or five fingers'
;

^^

breadth"; du si musht-l bar kalla-yi u zadam ftj " I boxed his ears once or twice for him."
Remark.
{

y fa y ^^^

*~>j* (m.c.)

In du

si bar-l

^t &*>j*

= "a

two or three times or so." the

is

the indefinite

<^$.
13

(b) In the m.c. phrase haft hasht dah td ten," the number nuh is invariably omitted.

^ o^U
a*-Jrf

O^A

' f

some seven or

a few," (c) For *i^ c^a^cZ, " about 20 or taqrib persons,"


' ' *

w'de

39

(^)

^ii

-^^ gar?6- to wa/r,

or tdkhmin

bist nafar.

55.
(a)

Numeral Adjectives.
:

Many numeral adjectives are formed by means of the silent h *JU t_r " Jl" of six shash-sdla, p* r- * ? a ^ M panjdh sola, years old l?^ ^ tx*e " " " an old man of 150 seven coloured (the rain*&> O.AA Aa/^ ranga, years " 2 " a ^w bow) sang-i chahdr-ruya, square stone." In *^ji -W3 Aj^^t^
:

tufang-i du-lula,

" double-barrelled is already a portion of the gun," the word lula, " a spout, etc." AAU^A har mdha, " of every month." The adjectives Jjtj^ du-bara ;b *- si-bdra can also be used as adverbs,
;

vide

50
(6)

(d).
jw

Professional
' '

story-tellers

yf *j**
"

ma'rika-gir,

or Jl&i

naqqdl)

often express
AlL, ^liiA U

A*^ e verybod37 old and young by the phrases oJw jt '> *J^ aJu ^ama ^as az haft-sdla td haftdd-sdla, or AJU ^^ jf az panj-sdla td panjdh-sdla, or *JU ov*a G aJL ji^ jf az shash sdla td shast

^-

sdla.

The following idioms


Memoirs
"
of the

(obsolete)
:

occur in the Tuzuk-i Jahangin (the


<\i.~&y o>^

Emperor Jahangir)

^&^l
<

**
;

^^^ &U*jt? ^
jL>
(i.e.

they are somewhat larger than the


lj

common

wild pigeon
j$^

"

i=o

&**> jt

y ^K

Bjsjlj

they

pair

of

!Tagr*&- *, adv.,

means

**

at an estimate."

The Arabic

adjective

^*
is

murabba'

"square"

is

also

used, particularly in

mathematics.
8

The term

qisaa-fehwan

seldom used in Persia.

200

ARABIAN MONTHS.

newly-hatched sarus cranes) are somewhat larger than the young of a goose, or about the same size as pea-chicks a month old": possibly
these idioms arose from the everyday Urdu idiom ikkis bis Tea farq hai, " the difference between them is very slight (lit. the difference of 20 and
21).
(c)
>

Arabic numeral adjectives are


ruba'i,

"
triliteral,

triangular, treble"

"a

four-lettered

word; a quatrain; "quadruple" and so

on.

CHAPTER
56.
(a)

VII.

Arabian Months.
!

are arranged to consist of 30 and 29 days (usually alternately), so the whole year consists of 354 days (and 9 hours). In a period of thirty years an intercalary day is added eleven times, i.e. the last month is eleven times in thirty years made to consist of 30

The Muslim lunar months

days instead of 29. (Hence the Naw Ruz would fall every year about 1 1 days earlier than the previous year and not, as it does, on 21st March.) As with the Jews, the civil day commences at sunset, and the month

commences on that evening when the new moon * is visible. [Hence the early Arab writers reckon not by the day but by the night.] The ordinal numbers are used to express the day of the month. (b) The following are the names of the months, which do not in any way
correspond with the English months
:

ARABIAN MONTHS.
or

r*^

Muharram
Safar Rabi lu

2 3

_r&fcJ|

L* or

^>

JjVf

$0

'l-avval or

Rabl luni

'l-Awwal.
i'

'l-Akhir or Rabi' uni

now, but about

is supposed to have consisted of 12 lunar months as system of intercalation was introduced, one month being intercalated into every three years. It is, however, related that the Prophet on a certain occasion said, "A year is twelve months only as at the time of the creation," and by There also existed amongst the this saying reintroduced the old lunar year. Arabs a system of commutation by which Muharram, the last of the three continuous
1

The ancient Arabian year


A.D. 412 a

sacred months, became secular and war lawful in it, and Safar sacred. " " " 2 Hilal J3U is the new moon and badr j&t the full moon."
in 8 These second forms with the adjectives are used in writing and occasionally speaking by the Persians.
4

Or ayn-iryak ^j ^xc
(

'ayn-i

du

ARABIAN MONTHS.
5
1

201

^i(;

^U.
or *-/A;

..

Jumadq'l-Ulq
Jumadq'l-Akhir
Eajab

y^5f c5iUo*

..

..
.

Sha'ban

Ramazan
Shavvdl.
.

Zu'l-qa'da
or

Z
Zw

qa'dah
'

l-hijjah

or
Zi-hajjah

Remark.

The fourth month is also


a

called ^M^j

and the

fifth
S

and sixth

ungrammatically

JjVl

c^^^*^ jamadi 'l-avval,

and

^wj

^,>U^

jamdd

u 's-

san% or^iit ^il*^ jamddi^l-akhir.


(c)

The Arabic word


O'

for

" month" is^^ shahr* and the plural

o ^

is

o^ ;^

shuhur
(d)

or^^f
Four

aslihur.

of the

above months are held sacred, Muharram, Rajab,

Zu

Qa'da, and Zu'l-Hijja.


(e)
is

(1)

Muharram
it

v-

/c

is

the

first
*

month

of

the Muslim calendar and


'

so called because both in the

days

of ignorance

and

in the time of

Muhammad
The
first

was unlawful
Husayn,
6

ten days of this


of

month

(*|^ haram) to go to war during this month. are observed in commemoration of the
is

martyrdom
strict

and the tenth day

called f;jAl* 'dshura

some

Sunnis fast on this day. very a "to be empty," either (2) Safarj&>* is said to be derived from safar because the Arabs left their homes empty by going to war, or because they
,

left

those

whom

they attacked empty.

Another derivation
leaves

is

from
first

sufdr,
its

"yellowness," or the tint of the

autumn

when the month

got

name.
Or jlmriryak
,JL>

^. and jim-irdujt

***..

The Arabs say ^i,

$j ;

j Jjjlf

& j and

2 These second forms with the adjectives are used in writing and occasionally in speaking by the Persians. 3 In Persian the forms with ^^ are usually used. Jamadi incorrect for Jamada.

* Not month is

to be confused with the Persian


jU>
?

word

shahr,

"a

city."

The Persian word

for

mah, which
is

also signifies

"moon."

Mah-irqamari,

" a lunar month"

also shahr-i hilali;


6

mah-i shamsl, " a solar month."

Husayn

than FStima

called Sayyid* 'sh-Shi^hada. 'Alavi.

The descendants

of Ali

by wives

other

202
It

ARABIAN MONTHS.
was in
this

month that Adam was turned out of Eden, and it was during this month that the Prophet was taken ill it is the most inauspicious month in the calendar. Hence the month is superstitiously called j*Jf J'SL*
:

or the lucky
(3

month.
Eabi (uni
'l-avval
JjJIi

uni 'Lakhir j^J' *> the first and &>) a,ndRabt second spring months were so named when the calendar was first formed.

&

4)

The Prophet died on the 12th day


(5

of

Rab1 lu

'l-avval.

&

6)

Jamddq

'l-ulq

^^\ c5^U^ and Jamddq


"a jdmad, dry year
or

'lakhira

^3lt

cg-^U^

are

probably derived from aUa. which no rain has fallen."


(7)

" season

or

"dry and on
*

Rajab v^;, the honoured month, the root- meaning signify ing veneration with fear.' Good Muslims spend the first Friday night (the English

Thursday night) in prayer.


Sha'ban c;U*, the month of disbanding or separation, is so called because the ancient Arabs dispersed at this time in search of water. The Arabs call the middle or fifteenth of this month, " the night of the middle of Shab-i Bardt " the Night of RegistraSha'ban," but the Persians cu^
(8)

tion," for Allah on this night records the actions of men to be performed during the coming year, and those who are to be born and to die. Strict

Muslims pray
(9)

all

night.
ii/Ua*),

Eamazan

the

month

of the

annual

fast, is said to

be derived

from a root-meaning "to be very hot." During this month the gates of Heaven are opened and the gates of Hell shut. In Persia, night is more or less turned into day and a great portion
of the

day

is

spent in sleep

the bazars are barely stirring before noon.


fast will not

most

irreligious

become devout and read holy books aloud.

The Even those who

make a pretence only of keeping the

touch wine, 1 perhaps through

the fear of being detected by the smell. Some Persians who secretly break the fast, cover their lips with dust when they go abroad, to give them the dried-up appearance of hunger and thirst.
(10)

of this

Shawwal Jtj* month.

lit.

" a tail."
/

The Id" 'IFirt* J&\

***

is

on the

first

(11)

Zu

'l-Qa'da

*<xa*Jf

ji the

month

of

"session" was a time

of truce

and peaceful occupations.


(12)

Zu'l-Hijjah
is
(

a^sJtja

is

the

month

of

the Hajj or Pilgrimage


sacrifice," called

to

Makkah, which The ^s^f


1

made in

the 8th to 10th of this month.

id tt 'l-qzhq (vulgarly zuha)

" the feast of

The Persians maintain that the custom


Called also the

of drinking

wine has come down from

Gdbr times.
2

"minor

festival

"
;

fitr signifies

"

cleaving; breaking a fast."

THE TURKI YEAR-CYCLE.


also

203
1

"the great 'id,"


it

is

celebrated on the 10th of this month.

Muslims

are of opinion that


to offer
(/)

was instituted to commemorate Abraham's willingness

'flight

ing to
earlier

up Isma'll. The Muslim era dates from the morning after the fc^* hijrah or of the Prophet from Makkah to Madinah, which occurred accordmost on the 16th July'2 A.D. 622. Each succeeding year begins
5 '

than the preceding, and an anniversary, occurring one year in the


Thirty-two English

hot weather, will, sixteen years later, fall in the cold. years are nearly equal to thirty- three Muslim years.
(g)

The

1st

May

A.D. 1900 corresponds to A.H. 1318.

(h) (1) The number of Muslim date = (current year

der

answer.

have elapsed since any given the given year) 3% of the remainFor example, to find the number of years that have elapsed
solar years that
of Hijra
is

since A.H. 800.

The current Hijra year

1330

formula (1330 of (1330 800) i.e. 515 have since 800 years elapsed
A.H.
(2)

- 3%

= 1912 A.D.]. Thus according to the - 15 = answer, 800) = answer or 530 A.H. or 1912 - 515, i,e. 1397 A.D. = 800
[

To
+ 3

find

the

equivalent

A.H.

year

of

an

A.D.

621-54)

of A.H.
is

A.H. or (A.D.

621'54) H- -970225

(A.D. year For answer.


:

example, 1330

the current Hijra year.

equal to (the current A.D.


evident.
(3)

621'54)

According to the formula - 621 -54, -970225, i.e. 1912 970225


13.

it will

be
is

which

To

find the equivalent A.D. of

an A.H. date, vide

57

The Turki Year-Cycle.


Sanawdt-i TurTci.

This consists of twelve solar years each named after some animal in a fixed order. The following old Turkish terms are the names of these
(a)

years

JL>i

^lasixwo

..

sichqan-il
ud-il

..
..
..

" The mouse year."

2 3

JLjt

ay

.. ..

"The cow

year."

Jjt <j*;^

bars -11

4
1

Jjf

eAay

..

tavishqdn-U

..

" The leopard year." " The hare


year."

This feast

is

**f *j& Baqara' Id


'Id-i

known by various other names. In India it is generally called "the cow 'id," and in Persia c^' *** 'id-iqurban. In 1902 the
l

qurban and the )})?> **f


^d-i
or

ld-i

naw

ruz

fell

on the same Friday, which day

is

called

Vuhammad:

this concurrence of three 'ids is considered very fortunate,

j^*^' ^f "The Day


of unity is slsuat
is

of

Victims":
sacrificial

cr*^

being a

collective

noun
*

of

which the noun

"a

animal."

Another date

20th June, vide Hughe's Dictionary of Islam.

204
5
Jjf
JLjt JLjf

THE ZODIAC.

^y
&&\
oJjj
<jpjl

..
.

lui-il

..
. .

6
7

ilan-ll

" The crocodile year." " The snake year."

..
.
.

i.until

..
. .

"The

horse year.*

'

J/
'

gw-?/
blchi-il

9 10
11

<-t

t$?4J

..

dji

^y>

liu

takkdqui'il

JLt o*l

..
..

M
1

" The sheep year." " The monkey year." " The fowl year."

..
.
.

"The dog

year."
1

12
(6)

Jbtjj&o

In Shaw's

"Grammar
:

"JThe hog year. of the Language of Eastern Turkish tan"


tanguz-ll

the names are as follows


(1)

Sachqan,
(6)

(2)

Ui,

(3)

Bars,

(4)

Tausqan,
(8)

(5)

Balik [The Fish or


(9)

Dragon],

Ilan, (7) At

["The
called a

Horse"],

Qoi,

Maimun ["The

Ape"],
(c)

(10)

ToSi [" The Cock"],


entire cycle
is

(11) /*, (12)

Each
sal-i

muchal

in

Tunghuz. tTigh,ur, but by the Persians

davazda
(d)

Turki.
in the Spring,

The year begins and ends

when the sun


it

first

enters

Aries.

When
(e)

A.D. 1851

the cycle of twelve years is completed, = A.H. 1267-8 " the

commences

again.

Hog year."
j^;

The

Bars-ll J* ^r;lj
.

commenced with the Persian

y naw ruz

of

March

21st, 1902.

58.

The Zodiac.

(a) g jjjJi (J^i* mintaq^ l-buruj (or ^j^t ^'fik^c ). " The Celestial Girdle," the Zodiac, is a belt of twelve constellations about 8 on each side of the ecliptic. extending " tower or bastion." A is called Ar.

single sign

^
.
.

burj

pi.

buruj)

(b)
1

The names of the cU^ Hamal 8


. . . .

signs or constellations are:

"
.
.

Ram "

2 3
4

>J

Sawr
Jauza*
Saratan

" Bull "

Aries (Nawruz) Taurus.

*j^
ejli^

..
..

..
..

"Twins" "Crab"
"Lion"
'

..

Gemini.

..

Cancer

(1st

of

^/
5
<-wt
..
. .

or ii>U~jG Summer).

6
7

<xJUx^

&\yt*>

..

Asad Sumbula Mizan


'Agrab

..
,

..
.

Leo.
Virgo.

Ear of Corn "

..

"Scales"

Libra (1st of J^lJ Autumn).


Scorpio.

^7^ cr^

..

"Scorpion"

.. ..

Qaws
..

..

"Bow"
"He-goat"

Saggitarius (1st of

Winter).

10

^c^
l

Jady

..

..

Capricornis.

This dialect of Turkish

is

called also Uighur.

*
3

Bars

is

properly the white leopard.


J^5
!

J*^ Jy uLH-

are used in speaking, but

all

are used in writing.

THE SEASONS.
11

205
..
..

>b

..
.'.

Dalv

12

e^
(c)

Hut
to

..

"Bucket" "Fish"
Arabic

Aquarius.
Pisces.

In addition

the
:

names, the Persians

make

use

of

the following Persian names ^ 1 barra *?>


. .

2 3

j$

..

gdv
du-paykar

The lamb. The ox or bull.

j^j*
,_&. jL.
.

..
.

"The
' '

two-faced
crab.
' '

"

or "two-figured."

4
5 6
7

khar-chang
5^?r

The

j^
^iyL
j)ty
f$'$

..
. .

..
'

"The
'

lion."
or barley."

fcte/ia

tardzu
..
.
,

..

gazh-dum*

..
.. ..

c;UT
?
*

fomaw
buz-ikuhl
dul-i'dsiyab

The ear of wheat " The scales." " The scorpion." ''The bow."
" The wild goat."

10
11

^yjj
v lwf
J^.s

..

The feeder

of the

hopper

of a water-

mill; bucket."

12

^U

..

mahi
is

..

"The

fish."

divided into twelve equal parts called s^ras and (d) named after the constellations, and the first point of Aries begins at the vernal equinox, which is the Persian Naw-Ruz or New Year's Day, about 21st

The Zodiac

March.
(e)

The Sun spends a month


It
is

in each of the

above

'

mansions.'

supposed that the Zodiac was formed about 2000 B.C.


59

The Seasons.
(
>

The seasons are "Spring" ;l t bahar) commencing with the j^J " " Summer " Naw-Ruz or New Year's Day (^U-^G tabistan or garma ^) commencing when the sun enters 'Cancer'; "Autumn" (s*fy)p5fo or " * sarma 5 and " Winter zamistan or
(a)
* ' ;

khazan or khizan)
jf

(^U-*-o}

l/o^.-

).

(b)

Chilld

AJU.

or &*

is

a vague period properly of 'forty days.'


is

The

lL

chilld-yi

kuchak or "small chilla"


after the ^;_);

a period of twenty days


is

of slight cold just

u. chilld-yi buzurg, which latter


chilld-yi kuchak.

the

forty days of

" greatest cold preceding the

"

The

chilla-yi

Ktj>usha also

= " a bunch
f*^.

of grapes

'

'

Or kaj-dum

occasionally dated from the appearance of Suhayl or" Canopus,' in Persia occurs about the beginning of Mi? an.
S

A season is

'

which

In writing

also

shita

and

-ft-^ seyf for

Winter and Summer

^^*and c5*^
and

Adj.

are applied to the Winter


;

and Summer

crops.

The words *-*^

are not

used in speaking
6

Garma and

they are often used in poetry. sarma mean " heat " and " cold."

206
tdbistdn
is

ANCIENT PERSIAN YEAR.

the forty days of greatest heat in summer, and the sun enters Saratan.
(

commences when

or <j^H.j ), and qishldq, T. Jj^fij (or <jj&iup ), are (c) Yildq, T. <j^Uj " " summer and "winter quarters, quarters" especially of the wanderand Turkish others. ing tribes, 2 (d) The times of obligatory prayer are 1 Subh 4?^ Dawn. 3 2 Zuhr j% Noon [less common riim-ruz or n ima-yi
1
:
.

ruz
3

or nimdz-i pesJiin Afghan]

'Asr

..

..

j<&*

Between noon and sunset; [namdz-i digar*


Afghan].

4
5

Maghrib*
'Ishd*
..

^j^ "Sunset": namdz-i sham."

..

&

" About one- and- a-half hours


(namdz-i khuftan).

after sunset

":

The three periods


1

of voluntary prayer are


..

Namdz-i ishrdq

Jf^i ^Ui

When

the sun has well risen,

i.e.

about

9 A.M. (Sunni prayer).


2

Namdz-i chdsht
Namdz-i tahajjud

..

oJ5>U*jlJ

About

11 A.M. (Sunni).
(Shi' a or Sunni).

..

<xxyjUJ
say
the

"After midnight "

The

Shi'as,

however,

Zuhr

and

j*&e

'Asr

prayer

together at either of the two times, and with the *-^*^ maghrib Similarly,
^yj^i/o jUJ
five.

name them namdz-i Zuhrayn


and J&c
'ishdz,

(^s^fejUJ.

namdz-i maghhribayn.

they name They thus pray three times a day and not

which

60,
(a)

Ancient Persian Year.

The

ancient Persian year was Solar

each of thirty days.

Five days
means "

and consisted of twelve months, were added to complete the year, and, as

to migrate" (of birds).

vaqti is

or namaz-i panjArabic ^L^> salat, Persian jU* namaz. Namaz-i panjgana a sort of liturgical service repeated in Arabic. Prayer according to the

l* is best rendered by the word In addition to the daily du'a. are special services for special occasions. Shi'as usually pray only three times a day but perform the same amount of prayer they can combine the noon and evening prayer which is then performed any time between noon and sunset, and in the

Christian

idea

prayers there

maghrib they

include the

isha

prayer which

is

then peformed any

time between

maghrib and midnight. 3 The Afghans often say


*

riim-i roz.

This

is,

perhaps, thePanjabi word dlgar meaning evening, and not the Persian

word dlgar "another."


6 6
T

Maghrib is hour after yhariib. " Solar Year " Sal-i shamsl t^*^> JL=
Panja-yi duzdida
8ti>Jj>'o

it

was

bi-sextile

and

fasli.

<^-V now a

so called khamsa-yi mustariqa

&LWX:

ANCIENT PERSIAN YEAR.


1

207

The new year commenced with us, a leap year occurred every four years. about 21st i.e. March. Thej^y <^ 'id-inawwhen the Sun entered Aries;
ruz, or

above

festival," is still the great day in Persia, though the been superseded the Persians changed their calendar and their written character, with their religion.
solar year has
:

" New Year's

supposed to have commenced with the mission of Zoroaster. Some A vesta Scholars maintain that Zoroaster flourished 12,000 years before Christ :
It
is

others 8000 years

and others

later

still.

None, however, places him


that

less

than

4000 years ago.

Some modern Zardushtis maintain


was
originally

^ Day and
:

not

cM^y

Farvardm

the

first

month, but

all

agree that the year began at jj;4

Nawruz.
(6)

The following

are the Persian solar months, each

month being the


April.

name

of

an angel, who presides over the month

Farvardm

March and
this
is

The
*id-i

1st of

month

(21st

March)
naw-ruz.

the Persian

Ardt-bihisht or Urdi
,

April and May.

-bihisht

4
5
6
7 8

$ ^)^ j>
^t^c
)jJjf*

Khur-ddd
Tir

May and

June.

Murdad*
Shahrlvar

June and July. July and August.


August and September. September and October. October and November.
five
8

j^o

cM

Mihr Abdn

The
in.

in leap-year six

tercalarydays were inserted at the end of this month.


9 10
11
12
)itf
.

Azar

^
(&+-tf

Day Bahman
Isfandarmuz or

November and December. December and January.


January and February. February and March.
of the

ix>;txvi-.t

..

(colloquially) Isfand.
(c) The following are the names nounced by the Zardushfeis of Persia
-

of the
:

days

month

as

now

pro-

Urmizd or Hurmuz

..

Bahman
Irdibihisht

.. .. ..

also llth also the

o^yj^t

..

month. 2nd month.

STiahnvar
1

also the 6th

month.

Kablsa

*****>>

"

* 3

Amardad
Vide note

^>\^o\

Leap Year." former more common. 9 or murdad ^^^:

6, p< 206.

208
5

ANCIENT PERSIAN YEAR.


Isfandarmuz
also 12th

month,
month,

6
7

Khurdad Amurdad

also the 3rd


also the 5th

month,

8 9
or
j

Day
Adar Aban
Khlr or Khurshtd

also 10th

month,

also 9th also 8th

month, month.

10
11

12
13 14
15

Mah
Tir or Tishtar
also the 4th

month.

Gush

Day
-**
ufetr

also 10th

month,
month.

16
17

Mihr
iSurush

also the 7th

18 19
.

Rashn
.

Farvardin

also the 1st

month.

20
21

r y>

or

fjf.

Bahrdm

or

Virahrdm

Ram
Bad

22
23

&

..
.
.

Day

also 10th

month.

24
25 26
27 28
or
jyt

Dm
Ird or Arashvdng

Ashtdd
.

Asmdn
Zdmydd
Mdntarasfind

29 30

month, is the principle Good, as opposed to Ahrlman the principle of Evil all the remaining names are the names of Angels who preside over the days named after them.
or

Urmuz

Hurmuz,

etc.,

Andrdm the name

of the 1st of the

of

It will

be noticed that three days in the month are called Day, distinguished

as Day-ba-ddar, Day-ba-mihr

and Day-ba-dm.
Christians of the Eastern church use the
call their

SYRIAN MONTHS.
ecclesiastical

European calendar, but they


their

modern months by SjTian names. Their year still begins, as formerly, on the 1st October. The names of
: .

months are

Kdnun u-s-,Sam
Shubdt

^^i
-tU

ij>l

January.
February. March.
April.

Azdr

..

jkM
n* 1

..

Naysdn
Ayyar
Hazirdn

or Nisdn

..

;l^
t

May.
June.

.jtj

YAZD-GARDI YEAR.

209
.

Tamuz Ab
Aylul
Tishrin u -l-Awwal

&*
wf
JW>!
.

July.

August.

..

September.
October.

J^l
.

Ti shrinks- Sam

Kdnun u -l-Awwal
(d)

^ oy
JWfc

L^* L*^
K

. .

November. December.

J^)> also called Malaki and Malak Shahi, is reckoned from Jalal-ud-dln Malik Shah, son of Alp Arslan-i Saljuql, and The year begins with the Vernal Equinox, i.e. with the A.D. 1079.

The

Jalall year

(^^

begins Persian Naw-ruz, and consists of 365 days, 5 hours, 49 min., 15 seconds, and a fraction. The names of the months are the same as in the ancient

Persian solar year, but the intercalary days are added after the end of the 12th month. The Jalali year is entered in Indian, Persian, and Turkish

almanacs.
61.

Yazd-Gardi year.
and the Parsis
of India

(a)

The Zardushtis

of Persia

have gone astray in


(

calendar: they reckon by the z or Yazdagird ( oj*> *% b & Yazdajird Persia of the Sassanian race, but the
their
of

Yazd-Gardi

year

&*

&

JL

).

was the name


is

of several kings of

name

specially

applied to the

Nawshlrwan (the Just) the last of the Kayani kings of Persia, grandson The era commences from his death at the hands of a K^urasani miller (he was treacherously killed while asleep) about A.D. 631 but, the leap-year
;

being omitted, their calendar has fallen into confusion. (6) The names of their months are practically the same as the ancient

Persian year, 3 but their year commences five months later than the Naw-ruz. 4 The year consists of 365 days only. The last five days of the year are not
included in any
distinguished stolen days
4 '

month but
special

are

added on to the end

of the twelfth

"

by a

name.

The following are

month and the names of these


5

(^i>wx5 JU*5^)

khamsa-yi mustanqa, or

AJ^

^u

panja-yi

duzdida
(1)

(P.)
a^iaf
,

ahnawad,
(4)

(2)

safdntaman)

j&^bj

tj&'f ushtawad, (3) <XfriJJU safantamad (or wuhukh-shatr (5) jJ^yli^j wahashtu'ush (or
,

wahista-wisht) (Bir, p. 34).

One Khayyam.
1

of

the astronomers

who

assisted in reforming this calendar

was 'Umar-i

3 They, however, call the second month Iridibihiaht the fifth Amurdad; the ninth Azar or Adar the twelfth Is/and. Azar means fire and is supposed to have been the name of the father of Abraham. The Parsis consider it to be the name of an angel. * The Persians, both Muslim and Zardushtis, however, keep the festival of Naw-ruz
;
;

at the

Vernal Equinox,

but not so the Indian Parsis: their

festival lasts

20 days,

commencing 5 days before the khamsa-yi mustariqa. 5 i.e., after Isfand (Is Bandar muz).
14

210

DAYS OF THE WEEK.


62.
(a)

Days of the Week.


are
:

The days of the week Shamba Yak-Shamba Du-Shamba


. . .

Saturday

. .

1st

day

of the

Week.

Sunday

Monday
Tuesday

Si-Shamba

Chahar-Shamba

Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
. .

.-

Panj-Shamba

Jum'a
or

The Muslim Sabbath,

or
(

A^f
(b)

Adina
the night precedes the stated, the day begins at sunset an Englishman wishes to say " Sunday night " in Persian, he
:

As already
if

day.

Thus,

must say " Monday night " instead. * 8 (c) A week is *&* hafta, from haft "seven": in usbu' Arabic^-*? " from A.o and *****, sab' and sab'ah seven." Ruz in Persian and nahar (pi. j^ nuhur) in Arabic mean (d) j " " as shah* P. and JJ layl " night time. day opposed to night
:

^
is

9 '

(e)

Yawm ty

Ar., a day, has for

its

plural ptf

ayyam "days,

time,

season."
(/)

Shabana-ruz

jjj

*iU

eight hours' journey (by rail)


(c)

"

the civil day consisting of 24 hours; "fortywould be " du shabana ruz rah ast."
1*1}

The longest night is

called

shab-i yalda,

and the longest day


ishkamba-shuy,

^\)^

)j) ruz-i jawza*.

In Kirman, the shortest day


i.e.,

is

called
is

<^*

<ui^*f )j) ruz-i

the day
is

is

so short that while one

washing a sheep's tripe (shikamba),

the day
(d)

gone.
last six or ten

days of cold before the jjjt* Naw-ruz are called u in the almanacs jys^Jt^ bard 'l-'ajuz, Ar., and by the pepple 6 sarma-yi pir-zal, from a popular legend.

The

1 The Zardushtis generally use *^?J>i Adina (old Pers.) in preference to A**^- Jum'a, the Muslim name. 2 Though the Muslims of India reckon in the same manner, many of them have also

vide Phillott's Hind. Man., adopted the English idiom for speaking to English people The was dark before it was causes Muslim world This sometimes confusion. 225. p. The Zardushtis, however, say the world light; therefore the night precedes the day. "with God was from all time and has no beginninor." With them the day precedes
:

the night.
3

Used
It
is

in writing.
:

*
6

Plural shab-ha and shaban

*ijJ Ar.

'

a night

'

has for

its pi.

remark that there are no railways nor even roads hardly The toy railway at Tehran, about 4 miles in length, can scarcely be counted. Persia. 6 The Persian Almanac of 1902 gives the period of the bard* 'l-'ajuz from llth
necessary to

in

to

17th March.

DAYS OF THE WEEK.


(e)

211
the phrases *A^>

In m.c., for Tuesday, Friday, and Saturday

shab-i yak jam' a, and *AX shamba are used. Superstitious people do not commence a journey on these three days. Should a guest sleep at the house of a friend on the night of any one of the above days (English computation), he ought for luck's sake

shab-i chahar-shamba, ***-^

shab-i

^^

;^ ^^

to sleep the night following as well.

This superstition has nearly died out.

CHAPTER
63.
(a)

VIII.

Money.

The following are the moneys now current in Persia. Dinar fy* an imaginary and infinitesimal coin, used in accounts: there are 1000 in a,qirdni
or qiran.
I

^Ifc

Shahi
,,

20
10

tuman &(*y. ^ly Qirdni coin The qiran, and half giran is The tuman a gold (rarely met with). " two girara bit," are (jfcU ^ dah-shahi), and the c5-;!> j^ dw hazdri or
1
.

= = =

50 dinar.
1

qiran rfjS (or <y]^

),

or ;|>

^ yak

hazar.

silver.

(&)
jjLx^o

PSJ-i

5a/te2

<x*^ JjJ "white

Jjj "black money


its place.

"

is

" money copper money

is silver

money, and pul-i siyah the nickel coins that have or


**>, is

taken

Sannar, a corruption of

;lij,i

a two-s&a&e nickel coin


are not

(formerly copper).

The following terms are occasionally used, though the values now represented by actual coins 4 = 5 dinar. jU Ghaz
(c)
:

^cx+xus

Muhammadi
'^66a^
^c^Uft.^)

^-Uc The ^UAUj (or tuman (10 qiran).


^^Lxc jl^.

= =

100 dinar

2 shahi.

200

,,
5

= =
a

panahbad

rather less than half a

ginm

23

chahar

abbasi

depreciated

qiran

16

instead

of

20 shahi.
the Spanish dollar. qurush or ghurush, the Turkish piaster, value about 2d. of owj^i or u*^ English money or 17 J shahis: the term is used in certain places though the
Jl>;

n'2/?

1J g^raw
6

originally the

name of

coin

may
A

not be current. 7

European gold ducats,

called j^*>

majar and

Also called

isrfj*

-*a>U3 sahib qiran.

The gold du hazari is now worth 4 qirans. 3 This term was also applied to the nickel coins (introduced by Mmaffar-ud-dm Shah). * Yak ghaz bi-shuma nami-diham "I will give you not a farthing," the speaker probably not knowing the real signification of the word ghaz.
2
6

Properly panah-bad but pronounced and sometimes


8.

is

incorrectly written with or

without

In
is

Kerman and Tehran panah bad


,

is five

shahis,

but in Yezd the term

panahbadi
7

used for ten shahis.

Probably an Ar. pi. of o^y the German groshen. The term is used in Kerman' but the coin is not seen.

Piasters are said to be

current in Beluchistan.

MEASURES OF LENGTH.
bdjugktt, are worth a tuman: they are rarely met with. C5~jj&l \jjj Ura-yi Ingtisi, and
little

213
a
little

more

or

less

than

the

^U^c

%jJ lira-yi-' Usmdnli, are the English

and Turkish pound: the former (in 1901) = 51 to 53 qirdn. " the a rupee/' fluctuates from 3J to 3J qirdn. Qjj) rupiya,
(d)
ci>fjj

^UCif Askinds, a Russian bank note;


Bardt, a cheque or
bill

also

any cheque.

of exchange.

Jl^Axij

Impiriydl,

"a

Russian imperial (gold), present value 28 to 33 qirdn.


district.

Mandt, "a rouble" = five qirdn, The above terms are not all current in every
oli
(e)

There

is

no postal money-order system


for

in Persia.

Money can be sent

3 by post, insured, in a sealed bag

are called
territory.

^jj.^

sifdrishl.
is

Registered articles by post Insured articles are sent only within Persian

10%.

A
:

parcel

called

oJU|

amdnat or basta
is

" to insure"
1*,^
t

<xx^> jjowf qabz-i

rasid
^f
(

"a receipt."
r ) *"*'

^^ U# bimd

kardan

l**j|

g*.

umdm
(/)

bimd kardam, " I sent 100 tumdns by insured post." For the system of keeping accounts by (Jl-ir vide Woll. Eng.-Per.
5

c^^y

\r*

*.=yak

Jdsa-yi (or surra-yi) sad

Diet,

and

also

14.

64.

Measures of Length,
distance a shout can be heard."
6

() (5-^

<-j

yak

jiq,

"the
(rare)

y& s?
>=- jaw,

mu-yi shutur

"the breadth

of a camel's hair."

"a

barley-corn's length."
<c

ou|

angusht,

^
joint."

bahar, length of
zar'.

a finger's breadth. one joint of the thumb (about


ia/M^ angusht (about 1J inch)

1-J-

inch), or the thirty-

second part of a

^~t>

<xij

^J 6

yaA;

"the Zew^A

of a finger

^ girah
y3
^ar'
,

2 bahar (or about 2J inches).


(of

orjf gaz, the Persian yard a span.


' (

about 40 inches)

16 girah =

zar 1

' '

Khiyal ml-kunl ki yak bajughll bi-man dadl (m.c.) " do " you think you have given me a vast sum for this ? The revenue of Beluchistan is paid to Kirman in rupees at the rate of
in 1902.

qirans a

rupee, the merchant exchange being 3


3

The insurance
This term
is

AJU^Ji Jj^. haqqw 'z-zamana. used in Persia for insuring within Persian limits to a foreign only
fee is called
**
|j

country /^A^Xxx juU)Ji


this."
6

AL->

^f

In basta ra haqqu z-zamana mi-diham.

"I'll insure

is much used by the black-tent folk yak jlq-l rah ast. " nail," Also colloquially yak band nakhun: by the vulgar the word nakhun,

This term

is

used for

' '

' '

finger.

214
araj
7
.

WEIGHTS.
or <j; arash )^

la cubit, from point of the elbow to the f of the middle finger.

tip

or a short pace. <* pte qadam ' J*j bagjial> the space between the tips of the fingers of both hands

when

the arms are extended to form a cross with the body.'

JM

yak

sar, or *>

yak qad (or ai^ kalldh), the ordinary

stature

of a man.

J*~j* farsang or &*j* farsakh


miles.
y-w|
<^)|tXxx>

6,000 gaz

12,000 qadam

3J English

maydan-i asp
is

In addition, there
Persian yard.

a vague distance, about half a mile. the Turkish ell, ertT) arshin much the same as the
1

Remark.
of sandals

made
:

In Baluchistan, distance is estimated by the numbers of pairs of the dwarf palm (phis) that will wear out in traversing
etc.
*

the distance
(b)

they say yak phis rah-ast, du phis rah-ast


is

the Afghans for a measure equal of to about the joint of a finger. According to the dictionary it is a weight 2 or of 4 barleycorns; or the twenty-fourth part of any weight or measure,

Tasuj~t

a word

much used by

dirham and hav65 (d). [Ar. J of a danaq, the latter being J of a the of a ing weight habbah.] 'Arz (j^jf and tul J^t are the two words commonly used for (c)
vide

^^>

" " breadth" and " 1*^ length " (adv.) by length." (d) Shash gaz dar shash gaz
:

'

arzan

adv -) " b y breadth" and

i>

tul**

Ji,

>* J> <J>

way

(square),

six

yards

square"
six

(not

six

''measuring six gaz each square yards); but shash

gaz, murabba'

&j*jf (J^

"

square yards."
65.

Weights,

(a)
is

In Persia, as in India and Afghanistan, everything, liquids included,


' '
;

sold

f*
1

by weight and not by measure. " gandum, a grain of wheat

about 3 go to

nukhud 8 weight.

two:

in

Care must be taken to distinguish the difference in pronunciation between these is not sounded, and the i is *)<?, the pointed by fatha. This measure is

roughly taken to be the distance from the tip of the fingers of the left hand when the arm is extended to the tip of the nose when the head is turned to the right. * In the Anjuman-ara-yi Nasiri, a dictionary of old Persian (Furs-i qadim), tasu is
given as the equivalent of
8

sa'at.

In India, grains of rice are sometimes used for weighing minute quantities of drugs. The lowest standard weight, however, in India is the rail, the seed of abrus precatorius, which in appearance resembles a small scarlet bean with a black spot on the end it is used by goldsmiths, and weighs about 2 grains. In Persian works written in India the
:

rati is called rj**

surkh

WEIGHTS.

215

yi^ of

io nukhud, a small chick pea or grain of gram, said to weigh about an ounce = 3 gandum.

24 nukhud. Jlavc misqal _A^ sir 16 misqal. ^ * -* /


jjj'f

J-

.
-

uqiyya (abbrev. *>? wuqiyyah or

AvSj or

waqiyyah)

90 misqal (about

14 oz. avoirdupois).

oOtrf' u"

man-i

Tabrlzi

" a Tabriz

maund

"*= S"vaqqa" =
maunds

720

misqal (about 7J to 7| lb. av.).

^U ^/o man-i shahi or " Royal maund"


to 15" lb.).

nearly 2 Tabriz
4 Tabriz

(14J

<_U ^
is

4.5;

cr

wflwi-i .Ra?/

or "

maund

of

Rai

" =

maunds (about 30
lb.)
;

lb.).

maw-*'

Hashimi

16 Tabriz maunds (about 116

this

weight

only used in the South. " jl^ kharvdr or "donkey load


>J)(*.

charak

is

100 Tabriz maunds (725 lb.). the quarter either of a Tabriz or of a Royal maund.
k>)\j>

The

carat, i^jJf qirat (br. pi.

qararit) originally J\j3 qirrat, is

an
for

of a misqal : it is used Arab weight and equals about 4 grains or the word qlrat to the weighing jewels. The Arabs sometimes apply anything and colloquially they apply it to a measure of about an inch.
;

^ of

In

Kerman
NisJ-i haft dirham
.
.

p*)t>
..
. .

oJw>Ji^j
oJi*
^>>lj

10 J misqal in weight.
,,
, ,

Haft dirham Panzdah sang


Si-sang

f*;^

J^~

..
. .

^-* t^u^

=21 =42 =84

Charak

Nim-man
Si-charak

^ p#
J[;U.

^;U

<^
)

Yak-man

(Tabrizi)

x^ dir^aw = In Yezd, ^;^ charak. In Yezd, the word ^fe charak

(<jpjlj$

u-^

^=
is

=2 -2 =3
4

,,

Si- sang

Charak

Charak
Charak

t^^
J&,
.-&*-*>*

i^

nim-man

(Tabrlzi)

little

used, ^A;^

*lx panjah

dir-

ham

(etc.)
(6)

being used instead.


is

Water

measured by the sang


of

i.e.

turn a mill.

One sang

water

*Jf

by a quantity

sufficient to
is

(with or without izafat)

supposed to be

sufficient for

one hundred

and a

cAaraA; is a fourth part

of this quantity.
(c)

Water

for irrigation purposes is also


'

tascha
l

or u~oLb

(asa/fc

('

little

cup

"

) ;

i.e.

borrowed or bought by the fc^Us a metal cup with a small hole in the
man, but the standard man of India
:

Persian for
Ibs.

mann

Ar.
the Anglo-Indian term for

^
is

The word maund


In

is

80
3

Kerman

&zafoa, forty of

which go to 12 hours

also in

Kerman

30 jurra go to

12 hours

216

WEIGHTS.
is

bottom
measure.

floated

on water and the time


if

it

takes to sink
six

is

the unit of
certain

For instance,

cultivator borrows
is

tasak of a

channel, the whole of the water in the channel

the time

turned into his ground for that the tasak takes to sink six times. The tasak is not a

standard measure, but varies locally, according to the requirements of a


village.
(d)

Another vague term


is

part of anything.

each of which

is >-&!<> dang, which may be said to be the sixth Property of all kinds is divided into six imaginary parts, An owner of J share of land, a room, called a dang.
l

or a horse would be described possessing

' '

two dang "


C

an owner

of

the

whole would say, ''all six dang are mine": dang khana mdl-i man ast.
1

But generally only houses and

lands.

CHAPTER
66.

IX.
(

The Verb
68)
:

FM

J^

).

The verb "to be"


(a)
l

(vide also
is

The simplest form

the affixed substantive verb


.

ft
<jri

am

(I)
I

am
$

^.\
. .

1m (We)

are.*

(*or)

(Thou) art
is

*!

U (You) are.*

^1 emd (They) are. (He) be (b) (1) These affixes may joined to a pronoun, adjective, participle, or substantive, and sometimes to an adverb and the same rules that apply
0-.I [-ad]
. . ;

to the written forms of the affixed pronouns

31

(6), (c),

(d)]

apply in the

main

here.

a Sultan
c^*f i<Mu
''

"
;

Examples: o^ilbL* OWM| ajju y u banda


or (old)

j\

sultanast

(for

cu*f ^IkL*

y) "he

is

ast,

or (with the
1st

o~o

&vj

w banda

" he

^
is

of unity) o*~jf **ij

a slave

"

y [or ^^ddnd-yam

am learned";
tu banda-i

W e are
dand-yand

'

' ;

but fi'^b dana*im "we are learned"; c^ " art thou a slave 8 ? " man-am or ft ^*ix> " " dana'st u ddna-i thou art learned
:

^^

^y
;

or
' '
;

am

^Uf^
is

cu^Gf^ji

^JoLJf^ e>Lij^

il

khub ru'st ^^>^

V>S^

^1,

or khub-ru ast cu*t

(not khubru-yast
***

which

poetical only),

but

Ishdn khub-ru-yand

**&.

Ma^im nihdda sar bi-farmdn-i sharab Jan karda fidd-yi lab-i khanddn-i sharab. " 'Tis we who to wine's yoke our necks incline,

And
(2)

risk our Jives to gain the smiles of


(0.

wine."

K. 21 Whin.}
rd'st

The

alif

JUi of the third person singular ast *a**i is frequently elided


U>,> )
;

in contractions, as: 0*4?; a (for 0^='


(for

dushmandn-am

OM|^ ^iU*>
nikust;

o^:

ij

^ili^^

).

After u and
kdr-Vst
(3)
^.~~jj

this alif nearly


y^

K; mudda'i'st o^Jsc<>/o In the other persons, the


as
:

always disappears, as: " he is a claimant."


alif

c^&

can be retained or changed into (^


;

for

euphony,

f!

f<>^

x>v, or

jf*^ x*^

^t

>l*Jst,

or *^\*>\

*J

*^->i

or

This

affix is called

mim-i

isbat i

fi'l

<-U'

oUif

^.
Jjt^
majhul

ft

In classical
ed.
full

Persian (and in India and Afghanistan) these are


generally used after final alif, as:

sounds em,
3

The
*>\

form

is

Muluk

az baray-i pas-i ra'aya?

and

might

(Sa'dl) ) kings are for the care of their subjects also be used in modern Persian.

^j

"

"
;

**&**} r&aya-yand

218

THE VERB.

before ast o~w| (4) Alif-i maqsura sometimes becomes u MusVst, but better o*t fe*yo y u Musa ast "he is Moses."

as:

of the second person is preceded by a * over a " where art thou ? " In other words, two syllables ending and \s^* with a vowel are a hamza acting as a hyphen. beginning coupled by
(5)

After a vowel, the

as

(6)

The

final * of

Arabic words

is,

in Persian, sometimes written

and

sometimes not. If, however, an Arabic word ending in * precedes the first person am <*', the * must be struck out to preserve the distinction between the singular and plural of the verb. Thus the plural of ^c& shd'ir a poet is *U* shu'ara*, but man ash'ar-i sh'uara-yam " I am the most j*Af
frff/C

poetical

of

poets'': were the hamza retained,

the

word might be read

shu'ara-im p\j*>. (7) The contraction

is

generally observed in speaking and reading, even

though

it

may

be neglected in writing. Ast o*l


' '

Remark
or

is

" and mst o-xi


.

' *

is

not

' '

are termed

*k)t;

"copula."
is

the copula sentence.

In the proposition "Religion is indispensable to happiness," of the joins the subject religion to its predicate, the remainder "

Any verb can be analyzed into into "is" (the copula), "living"
(c)

the copula and a predicate


(the predicate).

thus

lives,"

In the third person singular and plural, the euphonic


:

inserted

c:

>

v^

need not be
is

khub-ruyast
2

(poet.)

or

o^; _^
:

khub-rust " (she)

fair-faced";

o*~jUfa
;

dana-nd

o^U
ki-e

dana-st ^Ita dana-yast or o^ttta o-oUi shuma-st (for md-st (for o**t U )
;

danayand

or

Remark.
"
it is
' '

Vulgarly, instead of ast o*l.-a (pronounced


;

e) is

used as khub-e

good

" who
is

is it ?

"

t
(d)

Tu

ast

OA^I^J
if

contracted into

o-^
Kist

fust

(or

pronounced even

written tu ast o~*t^3.

^
(g) ]

o^^y ) and is so and cliist ^~~*- are


chi ast <o
I

regular contractions for kl ast o~>:

^ chiyim
1

' '

what are we

"
;

^*

[vide
6
' '

37

and
?

***.

chiyam

what

am
^i

"

Kujcfl

(t^x^

is
?

an adjective "of what place":

<^j?^y

'*

of

what
J

place are

you a native
not used.

"

or colloquially

^^l?^

kuffii-i ?

This form is for ^$[

^?^',

which
2
s

is

Dana-yast o~~JUta no t m.c.


In modern colloquial, to the
is

question (^k-F^
is

Icujcf-i

" where

are

you?

"
is

the
Inja

answer

ff

^M'
\*f*&\

inja
or

am: (inja-yam
ml-basham

considered vulgar).

The
"

correct reply

hastam (&~&
*

f^i*.
as well as *$
)

c5^

"who"=

*^.

Kl

(.5^,

H,

signifies

who ?":
*^-.

similarly, ^<*-

chi
all

(perhaps contracted form

of chiz _j*%-

is

another form of

In modern Persian

forms are used.


5

Better

THE SEPARATE SUBSTANTIVE VERB.

219

As a
;

rule, either

the contracted or the full form can be used in writ-

ing but in either case the contraction exists in pronunciation. Similarly, the final silent * of other words sometimes disappears before o^>t, as c^*x^jjt u barahnast "he is naked."

Note the following forms or contractions, etc., tix^j cu^J zisht-ruyand "thou art": f'y x<xiu banda-yi tu am "I am thy "they are ugly ":
slave
"

^^

u *im " we are his slaves "

^f i^

banda-yi u

yam "I am
:

banda-yi tu mard-l-i (vulgar for tu mard-l hast-l ^$^x^3


:

his slave

"

^Jy

|xu

U ma

"Who
jy
:

are they ? ishan kiyand &>>* <^ **" ishdn kiyan-and &^.\ ? (m.c.).
1

"

&^
*,

or ki

and

**

*f, or kistand

(e)

The

"

of the
' '
:

second person
final

is

called the yd-yi khitabi

^kL.

the

y of address

with a

and

silent

or a final

^,
"
?
:

it is
(

written as a
kirmarii-i

or &j-'2 " who art thou superscribed hamza, as: "art thou a Kirmani (an inhabitant of Kirman) ? "

(^

&

J^^^

(/) The above suffixes form the six persons of every tense of the verb with the exception of the third person singular, when ast becomes ad. (g] The negative form of the simple affixed verb is nearly obsolete, or else

occurs only in poetry.

*> nayam
3

"I am not"
thou art not
is

..
. .

/*& nayim
*&> nayid

"we
"you
(or

are not."
are not."

*&>

or ^xi nayl
riist

' '

"
. *

" he

not

"

<^i nayand

<*it

w na and) "they

are not."

Angar ki dar Tchak na^i bar khak-i. " " But now you are above earth, not below
!

(0.

#.457

sometimes says: are you there (here) or not ? person mst o^ujjj is in regular use.
villager
' '

' '

Ua;!

^Iwijl

tu inja-i

Whin.) ya inja na-l

Villagers also use

nayam ^.
found for

The
ast

third

(h)

In old Persian (imitated by c'fa),


67.

aste ^Ju-t is

The Separate Substantive Verb.


hastan and
e>cxjJu,A

(a)

From an

obsolete infinitive ^^X-A

hastidan

"to

exist," are formed

hastam "
/wis^

am, or I exist "thou art, etc."


I
'

"
. .
.

" {*-* hastim we " <^.w> haslid you

are, etc."
'

are, etc:'

hast " he

is, etc.'

*&~*> hastand " they are, etc."

Or bandagan c;^-V.
:

Vide p. 92, note 6 thou art a king.


2
'

&

is

as probably the more correct form,

(^

should

mean

'

Vulgarly pronounced nahi (^^-

220

THE SEPARATE SUBSTANTIVE VERB.

Hastam
it,

^*,

etc., is

substituted for

am ^ whenever euphony

requires

or whenever the verb has to stand alone.

Gar man

"Am
hastam p*~* could not be repeated.

may-i mughjina mast-am I a wine- bibber? what if I


zi

hastam

am?"
(0.

K. 334
:

Here

used as the verb has to stand alone


:

the

ft

am

Also

danam u

u, chunanki hastam hastam.


,

"He
Hast cu~*
is

knows, as well as

I,

my

sorry case."
(0.

K. 315 Whin.}
:

used for ast ^~-l when euphony requires the former, as in khana chunan ki hast ta sad sal davam mi-kunad <x* $ *^
*

x>

(*!>>

J^>

if

the &' ki of A&U&. be omitted, chunan ast ki

must be

written.

Hast O~~A also means "exists," as: Khuda hast o~ God": Izad hast O-*A ^t "there & a God." #as o*~* is also more there is emphatic than ast c^f as kishtl ra khalal-Vst ow-jjU^ \^ ^^LlT
' '

something wrong with the ship (a simple statement) reply would be, kishfi ra khalal-l hast O~A i;

' '

but
' '

to

a denial the
'

^i^

^J&T

there

is I tell

you.'

The above
(b)

is

the only tense

now

in existence.
:

The negative form


Jji

of this tense is (by contraction) as follows


.

nistam
nisti

' '

am not "

**>~y nistim

' '

we

are not.

' '

fci

^~~jj nlst

" thou art not " " he is not "

^*i-^ nistld "you are not." AU-JJ nistand " they are not."

Probably, there was an ancient infinitve idan &&\ or &**] istan signi" to be " from which one or more of the above tenses are derived. fying
(c)

Sa'dl says

man
were

^plj ;fjjj>^ an-asii ki ba zagh-i bar diwdr-i bagk-i


fitting

:^^ ^ ^U|yk
my
^5^^^ cs^
"

^) L i$ ^LJf ^^
'

$$ ld*iq-i qadr-i

dignity to be (I

khiraman hami-raftam/i (Sa'dl) to be) strutting on the wall ought


O^ASL^S

"

it

of a

garden in company with a fellow magpie."


J^- (J^.j&*
tashvish-i

iJb*-

suhbat-i gul khush budi gar msti

no fear
hastam

of the thorn."

khar (Sa'd!) "companionship with the rose were sweet, were there Similarly, Sa'dl uses *&*&>& shunidastam for shuriida
jj^ii
I

^A

have heard."

Other instances occur in the old

poets of this contracted form of hastam ^~fc (instead of Perfect tense.


1

am

pf)

with the

Zagh

is

the English magpie,

common

in the gardens of Persia.

The chough

is

called

*^*!.

Here

asti

and

nistl are Past Conditional.

THE VERB TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE.

221

In

kdr-i

jahan agar

bi-taqlid-asti

Har Har
' '

ruz bi-ja-yi Ichwlslitan 'Id-asti;


Teas

bi-murad-i Ichwish dast-i bi-zadi


tahdid-asti.

Gar 'zanki na in bi-huda


If this life

were indeed an empty play, Each day would be an 'Id or festal day,

And men might conquer

all

their hearts' desire

Fearless of after penalties to pay!


(0.

"
K. Rub. 434 Whin.)

Gar

man

'Afv-i tu

gunah-i ru-yi zamln kardastam umid ast ki girad dast-am.

Though I had sinned the sins of all mankind, I know thou would'st to mercy be inclined."
(0.

K. 333 Whin.)

Man

nist
I

shudam dar Tu, az


Thine, since
I

an- am

hama Tu
Thee."

" And
Hastl
i-^
is

am

am

lost in
(0.

(d)

K. Rub. 400 Whin.) a substantive signifying "existence," and ^-H^ nistl


:

Hast CU-A and nist o-^J are used as adjectives

Chandan

ki zi-khud nis-tar

am

has-tar-am.

" The more I die to

self, I live the

more."

(0.

K. Rub. 351 Whin.)

68.

The Verb Transitive


(lazim
'

(muta'addi (j?****

and Intransitive
).

cjjl,

or ghayr-i muta'addi
simple.

^^bojic

(a)

The Persian verb is

called irregular verbs


(

present no

but one conjugation and the soEvery Infinitive or masdar difficulty


is
'

There

ends in &s -dan or in ^y -tan, and the shortened Infinitive or third person singular Preterite is formed by cutting off the termination -an
;^/AXJ
)

'

are formed quite regularly from the root or ( ^Uj ) shortened Infinitive, 8 and from the second person singular Imperative the
All

tenses

zaman

In India, lazimi

^'^

intransitive.

2
3

Zaman eJ^j " Tense


The shortened

or time

infinitive is

" masdar " Infinitive or source." always identical with the third person singular of the
;

Preterite.

222

THE VERB TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE.

persons are formed by the affixed substantive verb. Every verb has thus two stems. As in most languages, the Imperative is the shortest form of the
verb.
It

few verbs are both transitive and intransitive.


in

must be borne
'
'

mind that native grammarians do not consider the


can
it

Infinitive a verb.

"How

be a verb/' they say,

"when

it

has no

tense or time
(b)

?
1

(1)

There are two verbal prefixes


first is

Aj

(or

and

^ mi
^

(or

^a

hami

2
).

The

the same

prefixed to the Aorist or Present Subjunctive (one and tense), to the Imperative, to the Preterite, and to the old Past
is

Potential or Habitual tense that


Preterite.

formed by adding an indefinite


to

to the

The second
it

is

prefixed

the Present

(or

distinguish
Preterite.

from the Aorist, and to the Imperfect to distinguish

Present-Future) to it from the

In the following
Infinitive
:

example

(poetical),

AJ

is

added

to

the

shortened

,3

.v.

&J-3 j

fj

Bi-bazuvan-i tavdna va quvvat-i sar-i dast


Khata-st panja-yi misldn-i natavan bi-shikast
(Sa'di).

"

By

strength of

arm and power

It is a sin to crush the

hand, poor and helpless."


i.e.,

of

\Sar-i dast

o*o_y-

is

the end of the dast or fore-arm,

the hand.]

Dar

An

magar bi-t(a)vdn yaft 'umr ki dar sawma'aha gum kardim?


(0.

Tcu-yi Icharabat

K. Rub. 339 Whin.)

In the following, to the definite future


.it^iJ^

o^J

>.A|^iu AixJLkjf

^^j

^w

AJU.^

A^ Avc

Jjb

^/^i x9 *f^T

J*.

Ear anchi ml guzarad dil ma-nih ki Dajla bas-i Pas az Khalifa bi-khwahad guzasht dar Baghdad.
11

Set not thy heart on that which passeth away; for the Tigris Will flow on by Baghdad long after the Khalifas."

(Oul Book

S,

Maxim.

105.)

Called ba-yi zayid.

The same term


j^ LJJ^
in

is

applied to the

&

in

such words as bi-juz

"
*

except

"
;

also in

There

is

no

difference

signification

between ml

^
;

and hami

(.5+^

both

are probably contracted forms of, or connected with, hamiaha these can be joined to In poetry this prefix is sometimes, by poetical their verbs or written separately. license, written after the verb.

THE VERB TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE.


In the following, to the past participle
:

223

^4?/ cfo7

hama

asbdb-i jahdn khwdsta gir

Bdgh-i

tarab-at bi-sabza drdsta gir

Binshasta

" Oh soul

Vdngdh bar an sabza shab-l chun shabnam 1 u bdmddd bar-khdsta gir (0. K.)
!

lay

up

all

earthly goods in store,


;

Thy mead with pleasure's flowerets spangle o'er And know 'tis all as dew that decks the flowers
For one short night, and then
(2) It will
is

seen no more

"
!

(Whin. Trans. Rub. 243.) thus be seen that the prefix ml (in old Persian also haml a It in continuative sense. ) is, gives poetry, even added to the Imperative with this continuative sense, as *Ax*A *fc Ol:>y^ \) *jr* vfeUj* ) O^t; ^o ^\***> Gar rdhat-i jdviddn tarn mi-dan Mi-ranj hamisha va ma-ranjdn kas rd.

(0.

K. Rub. 15 Whin.)

In yak

nafas-i 'aziz rd khush rm-ddr.


(0.

K. Rub. Whin.)

indeclinable (3) The prefix & is omitted in verbs compounded of an " from " khiz and a bar as bar-khdstan particle verb, get up >>Ay (^^^j " if I return," from bar-gashtan j&$j.*. Before f^j*.j%\ agar bar gardam verbs beginning with a 6 v_ ) the prefix is in modern Persian often written
:

separately and not joined to the verb. The verb &ty budan does not take the prefix shudan. c;<x
(4)
(c)

AJ,

nor does the Imperative of


as
<xUj ^/o mi-bi-bdyad.

Very rarely do both prefixes occur together, The auxiliary verb* ^^ budan " to be " is
is <j*^

slightly irregular, in that


infinitive is bud.

the Imperative

bash

8 '*

be thou."

The shortened

TENSES FROM THE IMPERATIVE


THE IMPERATIVE (yt
I.
3
It

(j*\)

).

"be ye." Bash tj2b bethou"ba8hid With the exception of the second person singular,

^^

all

persons of th

Imperative are identical with the Aorist q.v.


1

Bi-nishasta AL-Aij agrees with khudra \)&j*- understood.


Fi'l-i

mu'avin^

Bu > was
still

said to exist
in

auxiliary verb." It is another form of the second person singular of the Imperative. " is found ki bu or perhaps," **J bu in out-of-the-way districts: J.
(

iDjLxx) (J** )

<

mod.

Persian,. in poetry.

224

THE VERB TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE.

Remark
hami.
It

I.

is

The continuous Imperative is formed by prefixing ml or usually affirmative, but Qa'am uses it negatively also.
coll.),

Mi-bash u^-H- (vulg. remain.


' '

or hami-bash <j^

(obs.) ''continue to

be or

" Remark II. The Present Participle (cMlJ bashan being") and the " <xll> be-er ") are not in use. noun of agency bashanda 1
(

II (A).

The Aorist

or Present Subjunctive

2.

^b

basham " I may be [or let me be " thou bashi rnayest be,"
bashad s "he, she or
be, etc.)."
it

"
].

may

be (or

let

him,

2.

<i*t

"we may be (or let us be)." be ye ')." bash/id "ye may be (or Imperative, bdshand " they may be (or let them be)."
bashim*
'

In modern Persian this tense does not take the prefix


it

*j.

In old Persian

does.

//

(B).

The following
f
1.
5

is

an

old

form

of this tense

|*jj

buwam
buwi
' '

" I

may

be."
be.
' '

Singular

2.
-j

<JTJJ
6

thou mayest
it

ijj

buwad "he, she or

may be

"
(or
\

it

bada or

buwad or
(*^ buvem
Plural
. .

^b bad). 8

2.

AJ,J

^
(plural
is

"we may be." 6wi;e^ ye may be." buwand "they may be."
"

Bashanda

35^Xab

bashandagan (j^&i&lj
in

is

"an

inhabitant"; d&t

commoner
,

modern

colloquial,
<>xLrt>

a substantive signifying as: Ishan ahl-i Kirman

hastand 3AL-A &(sOjf JlAi


ic^xXcUj
j

e^Luljl
is

or

whan Kirmanl hastand

(^Ue^ i^^t.

Bashanda

n India bashinda,
is

used for "inhabitant" in Persia in writing, only when

avoiding Arabic words. as a sign of the first person of the verb is called mlm-i mutakallim. 5 Bad or bada or buvad or fewwadand 6?tva the Precativeor Optative are still in use ; Bashad is not used as an Optative, &c. (in m.c. bad and buvad). 4 Classically (and in Afghanistan and India still) these terminations of the first and
the author
4

This

mlm

second plural are em, ed


6

majhul sounds.
is

The Afghans use this tense in speaking. Note that ) and a v. In m.c. it bad and ity buvad are both used.
6

pronunced both

like

To be

distinguished from the third person singular of the Preterite <i^ bud.

THE VERB TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE.


III.

225

The Present Tense


r
1.

JU

^Ixjj )

(in

Modern Persian

also a Future}.

Singular

4 2.

mi-basham " I am (or will be}." mi-bdshi " thou art."


mi-bashad "he, etc., is." mi-bashim " we are."

Plural
;

mi-bashid "

you are."

mi-bashand "they are."

The prefixes mi or torn, written separately or joined to the are used with this tense in writing in modern as well as in old Persian.
Remark.

verb,
-

Me-buwam

fj*}* is

an old form of this tense.

TENSES FROM THE SHORTENED INFINITIVE:


IV.

The

Preterite

jAfe*

budam " I was."


Singular

ft

6w^ "thou wast."


bud "he,
etc.,

ii
/"

was."

1.

budim "we were."

Plural

-)

2.

you were.
budand "they
Imperfect,
C5
-*

(3.

were.'

V.The
Singular

etc.

(
11

U5 C

mi-budam

" I was or used to be.

thou wast or used to be. mi-bud " he, etc., was or used to be."

we
Plural

were.
'

mi-budid " you were.' mi-budand "they were."


is

This tense

also used as a Past Conditional agar

mi-budam " if

had
in

m, etc., etc.," and sometimes as a "Future Conditional." The Preterite, budam, however, is generally used,
speaking, instead of the Imperfect.
1

especially

In poetry often contracted into

******
tXJ

bud

Dar khwab budam mara khirad-mand-l

guft

May

khur ki

bi-zlr-l

khak mi-bayad khuft*


(0.

obsolete or poetical with the Imperfect of budan. to Except in the Continuous Imperative, vide 68 (6), foot-note, ml is not prefixed

Ml

<j* or

haml

K. Rub. 51 Whin.)

',

haml

is

this tense in

modern Persian.

15

226
VI.

THE VERB TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE.


The Past Conditional or Habitual
(

budame "I would have been


Singular
..-{2.

or used to be."
-,,

^^

budi thou

,,

,,

bude he,

etc.

,,
, ,

,,
.

,,

budeme we
Plural
.

, ,

..{

2.

*-.*>tybudede ye

budande they Remark.


This tense
is

,,

,,

,,

obsolete in

modern

colloquial, but

is

still^used

even in speaking by the Afghans and Indians. In old Persian, the prefix me or home is also added. It will be noticed that the majhul sounds of the tense have been retained in transliteration. A modern Persian, however,

would give the vowels the ojt;**) ma'ruf sounds. The second person singular and first person plural are very rarely used, and the second person plural
is,

perhaps, not in existence.

VII.

The

Definite Future
1

cUi~*>

).

9t^L

"to wish, desire," has for its Imperative consequence ptij*> Tchwaham. The Definite Future of all verbs is formed by conjugating the Aorist of khwastan with the shortened infinitive.
khwah.
Its Aorist is in (
1.

The verb ^yu*!^ khwdstan

ty

p*^

khwdham bud

" I shall or will be."


,,

Singular

} 2.

j# c**!*^ M*>wahi bud thou *y AA^A. khwahad bud he, etc. ty p&\jA> khwdhim bud we *j> *&^ Jchwdhid bud you

,,

^3. fl.
Plural
. .
-j

,,

,,

,,

,,

2.

,,

V3.

&
is

iJiA!^L

khwdhand bud they

,,

,,

seldom used in modern colloquial, the Present tense taking its place on all occasions it appears to be dying out. It is, however, still used by the Afghans and Indians, who seldom use the Present
This tense
:

Remark.

tense for the Future.


of

By

Persians
it freely

it is

used in correct writing.

The people

Kashan
VIII.

are said to use

in speech.
(

The Past Participle


shortened Infinitive:
tojj

Jj*s*>

buda " been"

p*>\ )

is

formed by adding
or " having been.'
1

to

the

IX.

The following tenses


The
1.

are derived from the Past Participle


(

Perfect Tense
/' itey

^j5 ^U>

).

buda-am " I have been."


buda-i " thou hast been."

Singular

2.

x^

3. o~of

*^j buda-ast "he, etc., has been."


Note that the j
is silent.

THE VERB TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE.


/

227

1.
2.

fjf

*^

buda-im " we have been."


buda-td " you have been."

Plural

<

**t &>jj
oif *j>y

3.

buda-and " they have been."

Remark I. In poetry the final S of this tense is sometimes omitted, and the verb contracted into one word, thus; o**^j budast.

az

man u

tu layl

u nahar-i

bud-ast.

"Days changed to nights, ere you were born, or I." (0. K. Rub. 33 Whin.}
Remark
II.

Note that the


*,

full

forms of the affixed substantive verb are

written after the silent

vide

66

(a)

and

(6).

Note the form

of the second

person singular

66

(e).

X.

The Pluperfect Tense ( <v.*j (Buda budam f^


>

<j^*>

not in use.

JK>J, etc.)

XI.

The Future Perfect


('\.

"
)
:

(with

agar

"
Perfect Subjunctive-).

*^l) *^3 buda basham " I shall or will have been "; " I must have been."

Singular
I

2.

M
3^U

buda bashi thou

,,

,,

1.3.
/

^
j^

buda bashad he, buda bashim we

etc.

1.

^ilj
A>Ab
Ai<ilj

Plural

..2.
3.

j^ buda bashid you jj^y buda bashand they


Infinitive a

By adding

to

the

^,

called

by grammarians the
;

a-yi Uyaqat or

"^

of possibility is formed, thus

" " what was to be, or to happen <y^j budani

of fitness," a future participle or substantive

plural

l^ay budam-ha

Bar lawh nishan-i budani-ha buda ast. " 'Twas writ at first, whatever was to be."
l

(0.
(d)

K. Rub. 35 Whin.}

Bad

j>U,

as

ab

jt;,>

o^*

and in poetry lib bada is an Optative or a Benedict! ve form, 'umrat dardzbad " may thy life be long." Buvad (old) is

another form of

*(>

bad.
chi bada
'

signifies

The phrase (modern colloquial and classical) har " happen what will, let happen what may.'

bad

f,^ **;*>

tions of

Lawh Q) the tablet upon which, according to Mohammadan mankind have been written by God, from all eternity.

belief, the

transac-

228

THE VERB TKANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE.


(e)

mabdd) "let it not be; by no means; away; be treated as a conjunction. (Note that, contrary to custom, the prohibitive &*> ma is retained with the third person Precative). In modern colloquial, the phrase I^Ux? )^ bardy-i ruz-i mabdda
)&{**>

Mabdda

(or

God

forbid;

lest"

may

^j

signifies
(/)

"for a rainy day, for a day God forbid that it should come." Nist u nd-bud kardan o^y tyfi j o~.J (lit. to make is not and
'

'

was

not

'

' '

signifies

to destroy utterly.

' '

(g)

It will be

remarked that there are three forms


In modern Persian there
is

of the Present tense

of the verb

"to be."
thus,

no difference

in

their in

signification;

modern Persian
f<

"I am always here" could be rendered equally hamisha mjd mi-bdsham, or hastam, or am, 3uLx*A man by
Mp-S?!
1

^
;

or

,Ju(fc

or

/-^: /c

means " Oh that! would that.! " o~t l^*" & ki man an dirakht JuJ|*j t; o.;j> i^f ip* &f * <itf <*a. chi bude ra biddnistame ki kujd ast (Sa'd!) " Oh that I knew where that tree was to be
(h)

Chi bude
l

(budt)

(class)

^^

**.

found."
(i)

In modern Persian, the Preterite of budan

is

generally used for the


jo^j/c

Imperfect and the Past Conditional; thus cu^U.


<i*jjj*i

agar dardn waqt dnjd mi-budam mard hdjat-i qabr name-bud (Afghan) "had I been present then, I would have had no need of a grave (for I would have been buried in the ruins) " in modern Persian, budam and bud (without
;

t^/o

l^f

oiij e/f

the prefix mi ) would ordinarily be used here. In modern colloquial, the Imperative (j)

^b

bash
is

is

used for "halt,

stand
here,,"

still,"

or

"wait." Mi-bash

o*^*
S5~->

(m.c.)

also used for

"stay

Compare:

t5~H &\j~*K ^j~


J

x)|

ScX

Als^/c

j|

J^

1)

^jj

tjd

Yak-i imruz kdmrdn bini, Dlgar-i rd dil az mujdhada

rlsh.

Ruzgah^ chand bash

td

bi-khwurad.
(Sa'dl).

Khdk magjtz-i sar-i khaydl-andisli. " One to-day you maj^ see successful,

Another broken-spirited from striving Wait a short time till the grave

Swallows up their fancy-weaving brains."

Majhul sounds.
s

In m.c.

J>>

^5"

&<* chi

ml-shavad

*>&*
chi

I;

chi-ml-shavad kiln kar ra bi-kunam,

"I wish

I could,*'

khub bud agar in ra mlAnother, and

danistam
%

**

&

-X
;

gh

for

8^*

note that the


is

final * in the
(

former

is

aspirated.

probably the correct, reading

uf)j) ruzak-l

dimin.).

ACTIVE VOICE.

229

fa dast-ash bi-bandad Ruzgar, Pas bi-kam-i khipishtan maghz-ash bar-ar.

(Sa'di).

The Afghans
live."

still

use the present tense of budan in the sense of "to dwell,


1

Some verbs are both Transitive and Intransitive, as amikhtan'1 ^iu^f "to mix, be mixed"; rikhtan &**uj "to pour away, be poured away, etc."; dukhtan* <^i^:> "to sew"; angikhtan* ^iu&t "to stir up, rouse"; amukhtan ^i^^f "to learn, teach" sukhtan ^ia^, "to burn" avikhtan'1 (^*awyf "to hang"; gushadan* &Z3 "to open"; gusistan, &*~$ " " to break" " to 1 pushidan' &*&jJ "to hide" payvastan e^>^ join 2 3 afrukhtan ^J^-^V "to kindle, inflame"; afsurdan &*j>~i\ "to freeze,
(/)
:

congeal"; afzudan
tired, etc."
;

e>jy?>f,

" to increase"; Ichastan*


(in

^.^Ui.

" to wound, be
also transitive

mandan e*^* "to remain"


vide
81).

Afghan Persian

"to place,"

69.

Active Voice

<*-}*<o &***
the regular

The following is a conjugation 6 kandan " to dig, root out, etc."


:

of

transitive

verb

(a)

Infinitive( j<^*>

^t

7 )

&^kandan

a (the Infinitive can also be used as

noun)

(b)
(

negative Infinitive, cJ<^^ na-kandan or (^oJ> na-kandan. " 3 lean Imperative dig thou, etc." (or bi-kan}. Past Participle

J^A&XJ

^t

(active

and passive
\

Present Participle (i^U

^tiT

86^ kanda* "dug" " kanan "


digging

or

"having dug."

(indeclinable).

Noun

2
3

*
6

Muehtarik, i.e. "shared, common." In modern colloquial, Transitive only. In modern colloquial, afsurda (with shudan) only used. In modern colloquial, Intransitive only.
i.e.,

of

which the agent

is

" known.'*
tasrlf

Sarf

o^o

"conjugation,"

conjugate." In India, gardan \*)\>j> is 7 For the Infinitive as a verbal noun, vide
8

kardan &*j? i*>j**> or gardandan used for a " conjugation."


<?

e^t^ " to

115

(h),
*i

and

(r)

Remark.
amr-i muiarrad to dis-

Siyha-yi
it

amr "Imperative mood,"

also called

&j^* j*>(

tinguish

from ^xj'i^^x:' amr-i mudarnl **the Continuous Imperative."

The second

persons are called

j*0^ j*\

amr-i

tiazir,

while the third persons of the Aorist or Present

Subjunctive bi-kanad "let him dig"


wnr-i-ghhaib.
9

**&
,

bi-kanand "let them dig," are *e*$*j*t


Parti-

In such sentences as
is

^*) l&j^
(

which equals ^*j

%3j>
*

)^

u>.^,

this

ciple

called

mazi-yi

ma'tufi
(

^jJ

**
)

(.r*'

70

),

the final

being considered the

equivalent of the conjunction

-flbs

<Jj^

va )

230
of

ACTIVE VOICE.
Jcl*
l

agency

p*\

iwitf

kananda

"a

' :

digger

(declinable).

Noun

of

Possibility or

be dug up plural fit to be dug up."


;

"

Future Participle ^*X kandani "that is to be dug up, fit to (&& kandaniha " things that are to be dug up, or are

I.

Aorist or Present Subjunctive

muzan

gjLa*
(or

*tf or

up "),

+&
or

kanam or<bi-kanam "I may dig up" ^J kani or bi-kani " mayst thou dig," etc.

"let

me

dig

termination ^ of the 1st person of the tenses of tranmim-i mutakallim ( sitive or intransitive verbs is styled by grammarians

Remark

/.The

r KJU).

The
(

suffix
*j>x> ),

am
as in

['vide'

66 (a)]
c

is

termed

mim-i

isbat-i

fi'l

U*J

cL-bjif

shddmdn-am

^.H/o^li

am

rejoiced."

Remark
end

II.

In old poetry a pleonastic

alif is

sometimes found at the

of the third person singular of this tense.

//. Present (zamdn-i hal JU.

^Uj

).

"I dig up, or

am

digging up, etc. (also I will dig up)."

Remark.

Present tenses can also be formed by prefixing participles or

a verbal adjective to the verb " to be."

/// A.

Imperative

sigha-yi
' '

amr j
' '

^
The
Remark.
If

or

(^ a

lean or

bikan

dig thou.

tutf or <xxx>

kanid or bi-kanid "dig ye."

other persons are identical with the Aorist.

the initial letter of the Imperative has zamma for its vowel, the vowel of the prefix * may also be changed to zamma, as bu-guzar or
:

bi-guzar.

Such contractions as bugzdr occur in poetry and in modern


72
(a).

col-

loquial, vide

///. B.

The Continuous Imperative (amr-i muddml

^/ot<

^A/O mi-kan (class.), or e^**^ hami-kan (class.), or <j^ ^-^ hami bi-kan " continue to dig up keep on digging." In modern colloquial (class.)
;

^^

Iwy bi-kan

is

used.

or

<g*

<-

|**f

guished from Adjectives and


Participle.
2

Compound

the realor regular Active Participle as distinAdjectives that have the sense of a Past

In modern Persian the prefix

&
j

is

nearly always used with the Imperative.

It is,

however, generally omitted before

O^k the Imperative

of

shaw the Imperative of c^<^ , .and always before (D^, and often before kun "do."

ACTIVE VOICE.

231 that

Remark.
classical,

The Precative kanad

"Oh
tj>U/o is

he

may dig"

is

and

confined to the third person singular.

In old poetry, howclassical

ever, other persons are found.


colloquial.]

[Mabada

both

and modern

III. G.

Prohibitive Imperative ('vide' slgha-yi amr-i nahl

j>>

&^>).

ma-kan "dig not up (thou)."


i

ma-kanid " dig not up (ye.)"


the

(The remaining persons are identical with

Negative Aorist.}

Remark. For an example, in classical Persian, of the Past Subjunctive used as a Continuative Imperative, vide 125 (j) (6).
IV.

The
' '

Preterite (mdzi-yi mutlaq (j


2

C^f kandam
This tense, in
for

dug up. writing, when

"

affirmative, frequently takes the prefix &,

euphony only.
V. Imperfect
3

(mdzt-yi istimrdri

^^*^t

t5-*k

" I was digging up, f^if ^*A hami-kandam. or (**.**> mi- kandam to dig up." (This tense is also used in past and future conditions.)
VI.

used

The Past Conditional or Habitual, or


^**\f kandame
(class.),

the Optative

41

^^^ ^^

or rarely

me-kandame and hame-kandame, vide

68 VI.

Remark.
is

This tense can take the prefix


,

<Jy.

The second person

singular
first

The rarely used, and the second person plural perhaps, does not exist. is rare vide exist and, perhaps, should not Remark, person plural
;

68

VI, Remark.

<&
tense.

fAtja.

The
vide also

dig up." sometimes khwaham in this added to the auxiliary prefix In poetry, the full and not the shortened form of the Infinitive occurs
AJ is

VII. Future Definite (mustaqbil c^awx). khwaham kand " I will

^^

80.

In modern colloquial *J

classical

form

of

is preferred, being less peremptory. the third person singular is formed by adding

t^- 3*' -^

attf-i
S

tahsin as rafta (for raft).

When When

Sa'dl frequently uses Ufif gufta, which is also m.c. preceded by agar this tense is called <J*j& mazi-yi sharfi.

preceded by

oiK

kash

^K

^^

kashki, etc., this tense


to

is

called

mazi-yi tammaria'i.

same term appears Pluperfect when preceded by kash, etc.

The

be applied to

the Imperfect and

^W ^U

232
VIII.
ft

ACTIVE VOICE.

The Perfect (mazi-yi qarib


''I

*iJLn

kanda

am

have dug."

In the third person singular the

ast is often

omitted, thus to^" for

Remark.
(for !<xtf

An

old form of the second person singular

is

^JU^
occur,

kandasti
cu**xif

kanda-1] and a contracted form of the third person singular is


[vide

kandast

so they are rare.


of the Perfect.

the perhaps In a rarer form still, a


(d)];

66

other

persons

but

if

^ is found affixed

to the auxiliary

This form seems to be always Conditional.

IX.

Pluperfect (mdzi-yl ba'id

kanda budam
This tense
is also

"I had dug up."


form
uatf

used in past conditions, in modern Persian only.


of the Pluperfect, used in Conditional

Remark.
a verb,
the
is

little-used

and

Optative clauses, is:


added.

kanda budami, i.e., to the Past Participle of Past Conditional or Habitual of budan, instead of its

^^y.

&&
!

Preterite,

Example:

awal Khuda ra
X.

paristida

^^ budami.

*i*^J

l>

Jjljf

oK ^

ay kash az

Future Perfect or Past Subjunctive

(maziyi shakkl

^^

^^

).

ik*tf kanda basham "I will have dug up; must have dug up; j*b have dug up." This tense is also used as a Past Subjunctive.
(c)

may

The

following tenses are rarely used

(1)

Continuative Perfect cu*lj

ji*V mi-kanda

digging up

"
;

ast (m.c.)

"he has been


125
(t)

the Imperfect

is

ordinarily used for this tense, vide

(2) f^-Hf

WJ^ (/t)
is

(agar)
is

kanda me-budam

(old) "(if) I

the Imperfect or Pluperfect

generally used instead of this

had dug" tense, which is of

doubtful accuracy and

not used by Persians.

The second person


This tense
is

is

written

X, and
^^

also (but rarely)

<

also called ^yl+isM

mazi-yi ihtimali, and

c^J-k-"

^^-^

mazi-yj

maznun, and
1

iJTjX^xj^^lx) mazi-yi

mashkulc (or tashkik) from \haml "imputing," zann


in old

thinking, suspecting" and shalck "doubting."


S

Or
:

(^ty

<t&*f

Persian)

me-kanda budam

kanda budame (not used in modern Persian, and rare is another form
:

L^

*?*

^ li-^

cc^*

i^jj/o

^fc^l

^AJ

Qazi-l tanha shab-i mi-rafla bud.

Su-yi bustan did duzd-l hamchu dud. One night a Qazi was going alone towards a garden. When he saw a thief (pass him) like smoke."

ACTIVE VOICE.

233

In the following example t*^J ai^L* && &i~. j>\ (m.c.) kar sakhta nami-shud "if you had remained sitting still, agar nishista budid the Past Participle of the intransitive verb nothing would have been found

Remark.

&

' '

considered an adjective and not part of the verb; both verbs are, therefore, correctly in the ordinary Imperfect to express a supposition.
is

(3) txiluxj

am

According to Forbes, "Let him continue digging." unable to find any examples of such a tense. Such an expression
a^ir.

in

modern Persian would be taken


jjyju

just as <xU>>o
(4)

dug."

It is of doubtful accuracy.

used by the Afghans and sometimes by the Persians. For example, vide 125 (;') (3). " I must have 3J^ kanda buda am dug." This tense, (5) fl ^> which is also of doubtful accuracy, is used in modern Persian. For example,
is

ty **\j This tense

to mean "it is kanda" a^tf (engraving), " it is silver." mi-bashad signifies nuqra jwtf, a Future Perfect, "he will have dug, he must have

vide

125
(/)

(?) (5).

The

third person singular of the Aorist

may

Benedict] ve, by lengthening the fatha of the final

be made Optative or J syllable; thus &# buvad

becomes

vy.
1

buvad or

bad:

*tf

kanad becomes
'

kanad,

"

Oh

that he

may
"

ki Izad-at tauba dihad aUa ay oa>>i \j* *ty " K. Allah to aid thee 172, Whin.) (0. repent They say may be made by prefixing Parti(g) Paraphrases of some of the tenses can

"

dig

Guyand mara

&

'

ciples, Persian or Arabic,

and Verbal Adjectives, to the verb "to be," khwahan-i an bud kit* &# of c^*l^ (m.c.) "he was desirous of
raftani hastam
ast (m.c.)

-- "5
murda

as:

(m.c.)

" I

am
ow.t

about to

go";

^=~t

^
is

"it

is

dead "

(also

"he has died"); ^~t

ast

known." knowledge"; (^l*x> sadad-i Dar follows as To be about to do can be a (h) expressed thing, (or khayal-i) raftan budam f^ ^Ai> (JU^ or) *&*)*, or dar sharaf-i raftanbudam " also in modern " P&U ^j o^>;^ I was on the point, eve of, departure "he is on the point of going colloquial by, mi-khiyahad bi-ravad ki u dar kar-i murdan ast (m.c.) "he is dying"; *$ (*i^ c>T )^ )* when

"he

v-^lbjt
ast

tdlib-i 'Urn

seeks after

ma'lum

"it
:

t$

j*j3Jo )\jt,

yj

("*;f^J

\*tey *J.*^
"

"I was on
:

the point of approaching


;

her and jumping over the wall when (Trans, of Haji Baba, Chap. XXIII) lj kar also to be 3 means (dar actually engaged in) ft>>* )\j& y u^~^ tf "I was about to (Tr*H. B. Chap. XXIII). leap over the wall."

^^

(i)

The Imperative can

also be expressed as follows

e^y
it

*** )*&

s(j zinhar dast-i tu takan na-khwurad "don't let your hand shake" *r ; fiJU ma-guzar ki bi-yuftad "don't let it fall" *:^ )\^>. bu-guzar
;

biydyad

(:

permit (him) to

come "

^lj;l*& bu-guzar bashad "let


du'a or

alone."

This

alif is called alif-i

alif-i

tamanna.

234

VERBAL ADJECTIVES.
(

" " Gu say, suppose, let much the same signification as


Gu-ki *&

Imperative of guftan) occurs in writing with

bi-guzdr.

f
I.

(conjunction)

"

although."
O
-

Remark
mazi-yi

The

Preterite Potential

vU ^JLJy
(

imkdm
II.

or mdzi

ma

'l-qudrat
( j**>*>

t5
)

(vide 77) is called the ^^ X)> L**^ or &j*&^ g c^k )


,

Remark

Sarf-i saghir

^j*

is

an Indian term applied to run-

ning through the

moods and

tenses of a verb, giving the Infinitive, the third

person singular of the Preterite, Imperfect, Pluperfect, Future, Aorist, and Present, the second person singular of the Imperative and the Negative Imperative, and the Present and the Past Participles.
Sarf-i kdblr
( j**f *-^> in both voices.

and Tenses,

is conjugating a verb in all This term, too, is Indian.

its

Persons,

Moods

70.
(a)

Verbal Adjectives.

From

the Imperative stem of some verbs a Verbal Adjective (or

Substantive) with the termination a is formed, which differs little in signification from a Present Participle, thus: cA^ didan "to see," Imperative
^jj bin

"see thou,"
binayan

verbal adjective
(classical)
)
;

(plural ijljUu
Ux'

bind "seeing, clear-sighted" " blind " or "a blind man"; li#U na-bmd
U-jj

bind shudan " to get sight, recover sight."

;!> j

Dar kargah-i kuza-gar-l raftam dush, Dldam du hazdr Tcuza guya u khdmush.
" Once in a potter's shop, a company Of cups in converse, did I chance to
(0.

see.

K. 283 Whin.)

Vide also examples in

43

(r).
;

" holding fast Similarly, from ^x&k ddshtan and^ta ddr, comes \j\tdara " a possessor, a lord, rich or and ju juy, comes (m.c.) from c^J^ justan
:

ij^.

]> "

guftan and etc." For an speaking, example of * 77 (c) and Remark.

juya "seeking"; sazd : and from

from

&&y*

sazidan [saz]

e^

gu or
L>|y

tavana and

^ c;^
^^

"to be worthy " comes,


l

guy, comes L?/ guya vide' ria-tavan,

Pazira

I^JAJ

has a Passive as well as an Active sense.

Some

of these

Verbal Adjectives are not declinable, and are equivalent to Participles. from ^^ pahn (6) A few nouns have a similar termination; thus rawshan from "clear, pahnd "breadth";

Poetical for tA. x

khamush.

NEGATIVE VERBS.
bright" rawshana Ujj)
1

235

also "Roxana" the Greek "brightness," form of the name of the wife of Alexander the Great, who was a daughter of the
(old)

king of Persia:

Lp

tarsd a

"

Christian.

"

71.
(a)

Negative Verbs.
Fi'l-i

Fi'l-i nafi

cUj negative verb and

nahi

^ J*

prohibitive

verb.
(3)

fHJ

The Negative prefixes are: (1) /o or f ma*; (2) *i or 8 c> na; and & na.* The prefix *? is always omitted when the verb is negative, as: & bi-bmam " let me see " na-binam "let
;

^Ju*i

me

not see."

with the second person singular and plural only of the with and the Negative Precative, as: <uj** ma-purs "don't Imperative, <*x\Co ma-kunid "don't do" and (with the Precative Aorist) ^xa* ask"; " ma-bmad may he not see." It is always joined to its verb in writing,
(b)
;

Ma is used

and

compound verbs immediately precedes the verb itself, as: eJ> ^~=i fl don't touch"; vide also Remark to (e). The &y> ^*t benedictive forms ma-mdndd ,xUU* ma-kundd ali&o etc., are sometimes used
dast ma-zan
, ,

in

in m.c.

Remark. The ma occurs in the conjunction mabad or mabadd (the Optative of CK>J); as also in the adverb magar "but, perhaps," which is

compounded
(c)

of

ma and

agar.

na A

is

In modern colloquial, however, ma &* is falling into disuse; and gen