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Chapter 18 - Tanks

Charts give vapor loss from internal floating-roof tanks Estimating the contents of horizontal cylindrical tanks How to gauge a horizontal cylidrical tank Use nomographs to find tank capacity Correct the volume of light fuels from actual temperature to a base of 60 ! "olume of li#uids in vertical cylindrical tanks Chart gives tank$s vapor formation rate Hand-held calculator program simplifies dike computations

Charts Give Vapor Loss Form Internal Floating-roof Tanks


S. Sivaraman% E&&on 'esearch ( Engineering Co)% !lorham *ark% +),)

+omographs% based on the guidelines presented in -merican *etroleum .nstitute /-*.0 *ublication +o) 1234% have been constructed to estimate the average evaporation loss from internal floatingroof tanks)3 5oss determined from the charts can be used to evaluate the economics of seal conversion and to reconcile refinery% petrochemical plant% and storage terminal losses) 6he losses represent average standing losses only) 6hey do not cover losses associated with the movement of product into or out of the tank) 6he average standing evaporation loss from an internal floating-roof tank depends on7

"apor pressure of the product 6ype and condition of roof seal 6ank diameter 6ype of fi&ed roof support

6he nomographs /!igure 3 -80 can estimate evaporation loss for product true vapor pressures /6"*0 ranging form 3)2 to 38 psia% the most commonly used seals for average and tight fit conditions% tank diameters ranging form 20 to 120 ft% welded and bolted designs% and both selfsupporting and column-supported fi&ed roof designs) 6he charts are purposely limited to tank diameters 120 ft and less because internal floating-roof tanks are generally below this diameter)

Figure 1. 5oss from welded deck% self-supporting fi&ed roofs)

Figure 2. 9elded deck% column-supported fi&ed roofs)

Figure 3. :olted deck% self-supporting fi&ed roofs)

Figure 4. :olted deck% column-supported fi&ed roofs) 6ypical values of the deck fitting loss factors presented as a function of tank diameters in the -*. *ublication 1234% have been used in the preparation of these nomographs) .n addition% for the calculations of the evaporation loss for the bolted deck design% a typical deck seam loss factor value of 0)1 has been assumed) 6able 3 gives the proper a&is to use for various seal designs and fits)

Use of these nomographs is illustrated by the following e&ample) Example. ;etermine the evaporation loss for an internal floating roof tank given the following7

6ank diameter 100 ft) 5i#uid mounted primary seal only and an average seal ft *roduct true vapor pressure of 30 psia 9elded deck with self supporting fi&ed roof

Solution 3) Use !igure 3 for the welded deck and self-supporting fi&ed roof) 1) !rom 6able 3 select the seal a&is) 6he seal a&is for the e&ample problem is !) <) 5ocate the point of intersection !3 between the seal a&is ! and the tank diameter contour for the 100-ft diameter tank) 8) !rom the point !3 traverse horizontally to intersect the reference a&is ' at '3) 2) 5ocate the true vapor pressure point *3 corresponding to 30 psia on the pressure a&is *) 6) Connect the point '3 on the reference a&is ' and the point *3 on the pressure a&is * and e&tend it to intersect the evaporation loss a&is 5 at 53) 'ead the evaporation loss in bbl=year at 53) 6he average evaporation loss if 3>> bbl=year for this e&ample) 6he same e&ample is shown in !igures 1% <% and 8 for other deck designs and roof supports) Source Oil & Gas Journal% ?arch 4% 34>@)

e!erence AEvaporation 5oss from .nternal !loating-'oof 6anksA -merican *etroleum .nstitute *ublication +o) 1234)
1.

Estimating the Contents of Horizontal Cylindrical Tanks


Horizontal cylindrical tanks are fre#uently used for water and fuel storage and in many cases it is important to be able to gage these vessels to determine the volume of li#uid continued in them) However% it is normally much more difficult to establish a volume per inch scale for a horizontal tank than for one which is in a vertical position) 6he accompanying nomograph simplifies this problem) 6o use the nomograph% it is necessary to gauge the tank and determine the ratio of the depth of li#uid in the tank to tank diameter) -fter this is found% draw a straight line from the point on the AratioA scale through the known point on the Adiameter of tankA scale and read the intercept on the

Agallons per ft of lengthA scale) !rom this point% draw a second line through the known point on the Alength of tankA scale and read the intercept on the Agallons /or barrels0 in total lengthA scale) E&ample) !ind the volume of li#uid contained in a horizontal cylindrical tank @ ft in diameter and 10 ft long when the depth of the li#uid is 8 ft% 30)> in) 6he ratio of depth of li#uid to tank diameter is7 2>)> = >8 B 0)@0 Connect 0)@0 on the ratio scale with @ ft on the diameter scale and continue the straight line to obtain the intercept 132 on the gallons per ft of length scale) ;raw a second line from the point 132 through the 10 on the length of tank scale and continue the line to obtain the intercept 8%<00 on the gallons in total length scale) 6otal li#uid content of the tank is 8%<00 gallons)

Ho

to Ga!ge a Horizontal Cylindrical Tank

E&press the depth in C of the diameterD then the result will be given in C of total capacity of the tank) ule 1. !or depth up to <0D multiply the s#uare root of the depth by the depth% and then by 0)322) Example. 5i#uid depth is 36C of tank diameter 36 & 36 & 0)322 B 8 & 36 & 0)332 B 4)4C 6he correct answer is 30)<CD error is about )8C ule 2. !or depth between <0 and 20D subtract 30 from the depth% multiply by 3)12) Example. 5i#uid depth is 88C of tank diameter /88 - 300 & 3)12 B <8 & 3)12 B 81)2C 6he correct answer is 81)1C) 6he ma&imum error% for depths less than 2C may be as great as 30CD gauging in this range is always difficult% and a very small slope can introduce a much larger error than this) 9hen the depth is greater than 20C% apply the same rule to get the volume of the empty space above the fluid% and subtract)

"se #omograph to Find Tank Capacity


6his simple nomograph can be used to find the capacity of your vertical cylindrical tanks) Here$s how it works7 ;raw a straight line from the AheightA scale through the AdiameterA scale and to the first Acapacity% barrelsA scale) 'ead directly the capacity of the tank in barrels) /+ote7 6he AheightA scale may be used to indicate the over-all height of the tank or the depth of li#uid in the tank)0 ;raw a second straight line connecting the two Acapacity% barrelsA scales straight line connecting the two Acapacity% barrelsA scales at the same reading on each scale) 'ead the capacity of the tank in gallons and cubic ft on the proper scales)

6he nomograph was constructed as follows7 3) 6he AheightA scale is based on two log cycles per 30 in) with a range of 3 to 60 ft) 1) 6he Acapacity% barrelsA scale is based on four log cycles per 30 in) with a range of 10 to 320%000 barrels) <) 6he AdiameterA scale is based on three log cycles per 30 in) with a range of 8 to 320 ft)

8) 6he distance between the height and diameter scales is e&actly two-thirds the distance between the height and Acapacity% barrelsA scale) 2) ;etermine point to locate the diameter scale from the following e#uation7 Capacity% barrels B 0)3<44 /diameter01 /height0% units in ft 6) 6he Acapacity% gallonsA scale is based on four log cycles per 30 in) 6he initial point on the scale is determined as follows7 10 barrels & 81 gallons per barrel - >80 gallons 6he range of the scale is 400 to 6 million gal) @) 6he Acapacity% cubic ftA scale is based on four log cycles per 30 in) 6he initial point on the scale is determined as follows7 10 barrels & 2)6386 cubic ft per barrel B 311)141 cubic ft 6he range of the scale is 310 to >00%000 cubic ft)

Correct the Vol!me of Light F!els From $ct!al Temperat!re to a %ase of &'(F

6o appro&imate #uickly the volume of gasoline or other light li#uid fuel at 60 ! from a known volume at any temperature in the atmospheric range use the formula7 "a - "60 B 0)0006 /6a - 600 "60 where "a B volume at actual temperature "60 B volume corrected to 60 ! 6a B actual temperature of fuel Example. - tank contains 2%200 gallons of gasoline at 86 !) Correct the volume to a base of 60 !) /2%200 - "600 B 0)0006 /86 - 600 "60 /2%200 - "600 B 0)0006 /-380 "60 2%200 B "60 - 0)0>8 "60 2%200 B 0)4436 "60 "olume at 60 ! B 2%286)6 gallons 6o appro&imate the shrinkage or e&pansion obtain the difference between the actual volume measured and the corrected volume) .n this case7 Ehrinkage B 2%286)6 - 2%200 B 86)6 gallons

Vol!me of Li)!id in Vertical Cylindrical Tanks


?easure the depth of the li#uid and either the diameter or circumference of the tankD then the volume in7 Fallons B 0)00<8 d1h or 0)000<8 c1h :arrels B 0)0000>3 d1h or 0)000>1 c1h Fallons B 2)>> ;1H or 0)242 C1H :arrels B 0)380 ;1H or 0)0381 C1H where d B diameter% in) c B circumference% in) h B depth% in)

; B diameter% ft C B circumference% ft H B depth% ft .f the circumference is measured on the outside% then three times the thickness of the tank wall should be subtracted before using the formula) +aturally% these rules cannot supplant the results of accurate tank strapping% which take many other factors into account) Example. How many gallons will a tank 31 ft in diameter and 36 ft high hold when fullG Fallons B 2)>> ;1H B /2)>>0/3880/360 B 3<%28> gallons Example. How many barrels will a tank > ft in diameter and 36 ft high holder when fullG :arrels B 0)380 ;1H B /0)3800/680/360 B 38< barrels

Chart Gives Tank*s Vapor Formation +ate


9hen sizing the vapor piping for a manifolded e&pansion-roof tank system% the rate of vapor formation must be known) 9hile the rate of vapor formation can be computed by long-hand methods% the calculation is tedious and takes much valuable time) Example. ;etermine the rate of formation of vapor in a 380%000 barrel capacity tank when it is filled at the rate of >%000 barrels per hour) Solution. Enter the chart on the left at a capacity of 380%000 barrels and draw a straight line through the filling rate of >%000 barrels per hour on the right) -t the intersection with the central scale read the vapor formation rate as 22%000 cubic ft per hour) 6he vapor piping for this tank would have to be designed for this formation rate if the ma&imum filling rate anticipated were >%000 barrels per hour) :ut if a great filling rate was e&pected% the vapor formed would have to be computed for the higher rate) 6he chart could% of course% also be used for this computation) 6his chart is based on the following e#uation7 " B /tank capacity% bbl = 38)<0 H /filling rate% bbl per hr = 0)3@>0 where " B vapor formed% cubic ft per hr

Hand-held Calc!lator ,rogram -implifies .ike Comp!tations


Calculating height of earthen dikes around above-ground storage can be done easily with a program for a portable calculator Frank E. "angs% Eovereign Engineering Co)% Houston Earthen dikes are widely used all over the world to contain flammable volumes of above-ground storage) 6hey perform two vital functions7 to prevent loss of fluid into the environment and to reduce the likelihood of fire spreading from one tank to another)

Eizing dikes by conventional methods is a time-consuming% trial and error process) - complete assessment of the problem involves7 applicable codes and regulationsD land area availableD topography of the areaD soil characteristics and the stipulated volume contained by dike and other dimensions of the dike section)

Figure 1. Cross section of a typical dike 6he following program for the H*-83C" hand-held calculator enables one to enter re#uired data at a prompt and to calculate the height of the dike to retain the re#uired volume of fluid% I-section of dike% width of the be and the cubic yards of earth re#uired% #uickly) 9hen a printer is available% a record of the input and output /results0 is made) 9ithout a printer% the input and output items /all identified0 can be displayed one at a time and advanced at will)

Figure 2. E&amples of the dike computation program for the H*-83C" hand-held calculator)

?any Awhat ifA #uestions can be answered readily and different configurations compared as desirable) 6his is e&plained in detail in te&t and e&amples) 6he !lammable and Combustible 5i#uids Code% as promulgated by the +ational !ire *rotection -ssociation% +!*- +o) <0% is used as a basis for this program) .mportant stipulations are7 3) "olume contained in dike area shall not be less than the full tank) /9e have taken one tank per dike0) 1) !or crude petroleum with boilover characteristics% stored in fi&ed roof tanks% the contained volume above shall be calculated by deducting the volume of the tank below the height of the dike) <) Earthen dikes < ft or more in height shall have a flat section at the top not less than 1 ft wide) 8) 6he slope of the earth wall shall be consistent with the natural angle of repose of the material of construction) 2) 6he walls of diked area shall be restricted to an average height of 6 ft above interior grade) ;ikes are constructed in circular% s#uare or rectangular configurations) !or the purposes of this program% the volumes contained in the dikes are calculated as invented frustums of a cone or pyramid) 6he dike volume /converted to barrels0 is compared to the total volume /volume of tank or volume of tank plus boilover% if applicable0) 6he calculations begin with given dike centerline% dike width at top% repose angle of soil and trial ;H) -s long as the dike volume is less than the total volume the program loops% incrementing ;H for the ne&t calculation) 9hen the two volumes converge% calculations stop and input data and results are displayed or printed) 6he ;H value% when the volumes converge% is the solution)

Example 3. .n some cases% it will be re#uired to ascertain dike diameter or sides for a fi&ed dike height /;H0) 6his is accomplished by storing ;H "alue in 0@% setting !lag 03 /for single calculation0) *ress A-%A A:A or ACA key in trial centerline distances) 6he results of any calculation give one an opportunity to compare total barrels with dike volume) 6he alter centerline distances to fit trend and continue) Eee E&ample <) 6his program is based on site being essentially level) Source Pipe Line Industry% -ugust 34>6)