Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 38

A

Dissertation Report on

Solar Shading & Tracking as a Key Code for Building Integrated Photovoltaic Application in Indian Tropical Context

Guide: Prof. Ashok B. Lall

Sumanyu Vasist

0441731604

University School of Architecture and Planning Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University Kashmere Gate, Delhi

University School of Architecture and Planning

Kashmere Gate, Delhi-6

School of Architecture and Planning Kashmere Gate, Delhi-6 Dissertation Title Solar Shading & Tracking as a

Dissertation Title

Solar Shading & Tracking as a Key Code for Building Integrated Photovoltaic Application in Indian Tropical Context

Approval Certificate

The following study is hereby approved as a creditable work on the approved

subject, carried out, and presented in a manner sufficiently satisfactory to warrant its

acceptance.

It is to be understood that by this approval the undersigned does not necessarily

endorse or approve any statement made, opinion expressed or conclusions drawn

therein, but approve the study only for the purpose for which it is submitted and

satisfies himself as to the requirements laid down by the dissertation committee.

Name of the student

Sumanyu Vasist

0441731604

Name of the Guide

(Prof. Ashok B. Lall)

Introduction

01

The Setting

   
 

The Central Concept

03

 

The Tropics

05

 

Indian Solar Context

06

The Issue and Methodology

08

Case Studies

 

10

   

1. Denmark: Brundtland Centre

11

   

2. Spain: Univer

12

   

3. The Netherlands: Energy Research Foundation

13

   

4. Italy: The Children’s Museum of Rome

14

   

5. Japan: S.B.I.C East Building

15

   

6. Germany: Fraunhofer ISE

16

   

7. The Netherlands: Le Donjon

17

   

8. UK: Jubilee Campus Nottingham University

18

   

9. A Chart: Features of case studies

19

Lessons Learned

20

Conclusions

23

Appendix

1. From PV cells to module to arrays

25

 

2. Sunlight in different regions of the world

26

 

3. Day lengths in different regions of the world

26

 

4. Comparative analysis of solar context

27

 

5. Global radiations in Indian sub-continent

27

 

6. Tax and excise benefits for solar technologies

28

 

7. R & D projects on Solar PV Program in India

30

 

8.List of figures and Photographs with sources

31

 

9.

References

32

Acknowledgements

 

34

Introduction

Photovoltaic (PV) power's potential for wide distribution makes it a unique and novel energy source that can be embedded within the fabric of individual buildings, while shifting power generation away from being large- scale and regionally located. As a consequence, a free, clean and silent electrical supply can be introduced into cities, towns and built-up areas. Building-integrated photovoltaic (BiPV) involve combining solar photovoltaic electricity technologies with those of building construction. This subject is of great interest to those in the fields of energy conservation and building design. Its significance, however, cannot be underestimated in the context of the more familiar notion of sustainable development. The concept of sustainability is more relevant than ever; it is a dynamic process that enables all people to realize their potential, and improve their quality of life in ways which simultaneously protect and enhance the Earth's life-support systems. PV addresses these essential aspects. The current level of fossil fuel power generation is by far the greatest barrier to a state of sustainable equilibrium. Photovoltaic energy is already making a significant contribution towards the transition to 'renewable' sources - the key to achieving a sustainable society. The relevance of BiPV in a sustainable world becomes clear after close examination of the three words in the acronym:

Building(s) protect against the extremes of climate. They evoke mood; they can excite, delight, and create a sense of wellbeing and repose. In the developed world, buildings also account for approximately one half of all energy consumed. The current energy generation process and reliance on fossil fuel sources is one of the major threats to achieving sustainable goals for the building sector.

Integrated means interdependence and interaction. In a sustainable world, it is recognized that each action has consequences beyond the specific end at which it is aimed. The construction of a building may successfully accommodate and enhance the activities contained within it, but it will also have an effect on its immediate physical setting, the climate, the neighbors and local community, the region and, ultimately, the globe itself. Sustainable development endeavors to anticipate these effects and, through integration with one another, ensures that adverse effects are minimized and, if unavoidable, are in some way balanced by those that are benign or of equal value. Integration in sustainable development therefore seeks to reduce and harmonize detrimental environmental impacts. It also seeks economy of means and of materials in developing new industry opportunities. This, in the right

1

hands, promotes elegant design. The goals of integration in PV are just those of sustainable development. Photovoltaic is a technology whereby sunshine is converted into electricity. Just as plants use chlorophyll to photosynthesize the sun's irradiation in order to provide energy for their growth, a building can use particular composite solar components to meet the energy needs of its occupants. Only 14.4 per cent of sunshine survives filtering from the Earth's atmosphere and falls on land where it can be harvested. This is, however, 2,800 times more than our energy needs! With intent of thinking beyond oil and emerging awareness towards harnessing renewable sources of energy, Building Integrated Photovoltaic provides a great option. This is altogether a new concept and idea. Hence, its viability in different parts of the world is a serious concern. As we know that the sun behaves differently in different parts of the world, thereby specific and directed strategies must be adopted for the application of Integrated Photovoltaic. This would help to develop a dedicated code for the specific regions of the world, hence maximizing the efficiency of harnessing this free, clean and silent solar energy in that specific region of the world.

Since, every region is unique not only in terms of its solar geometry but also true to its regional aspects like incorporation of scientific and technological breakthroughs, government schemes policies and intents, support for research and development, vision towards sustainability and solar power, vision of that region for the future at large. The above forms the broader setting of this dissertation and the research at large. This dissertation is directed towards architects, designers, clients, policy makers, students and people in instrumental positions who are sensitive towards the greater idea of sustainable future by incorporation of technological advancement and breakthroughs in most efficient, clean and bionic ways.

This dissertation is specific to the technological wonder and bio-mimicked concept of Building Integrated Photovoltaic, directed towards its application in the tropical regions of the world focusing the Indian context.

Under the above framework, the hypothesis of this dissertation is

Solar shading and tracking as a key code for Building Integrated Photovoltaic application in Indian Tropical Context

2

The Central Concept

Solar power is the most reliable source of electricity in the world today. Photovoltaic modules generate electricity when they are exposed to sunlight. The actual creation of usable electrical current in a solar cell takes place at the atomic level. The most commonly available solar cells are made from high-grade silicon that is treated with negatively and positively charged semi-conductors, phosphorus and boron. This process is called `doping’. When light energy (photons) strikes the face of the cell, it excites the electrons within the cell. This flow of electrons (current) from the negative semi-conductor (phosphorus) to the positive semi-conductor (boron) is what we call the photovoltaic (PV) effect.

Fig: 01. Diagram of the PV effect

to the positive semi-conductor (boron) is what we call the photovoltaic (PV) effect. Fig: 01. Diagram

3

The Building Integration Attributes to Photovoltaic

Of the various renewable energy sources, photovoltaic power is the only one whose hardware lends itself to composite manufacture with conventional building materials such as glass, metal and plastics [See Appendix-1]. From the point of view of the architect & engineer considering the incorporation of PV, the product is available in the same way as any other building component, but also in a variety of forms and with very particular installation requirements. It is this ability to offer the same attributes as a conventional building component and its versatility in application that makes PV uniquely suitable for building integration

Advantages of Building Integrated Photovoltaic

Building Integrated Photovoltaic systems can provide the function of protecting the building envelope from the weather, avoiding the use of other more expensive conventional cladding or roofing materials. The avoided cost of these materials is subtracted from the installation cost of BIPV improving their economics. However, in order to be effective, BIPV products should match the dimensions, structural properties, qualities, and life expectancy of the materials they displace.

Building Integrated Photovoltaic produce electricity at the point of use avoiding transmission and distribution of electricity and the costs and losses associated with this. Regarding especially grid connected systems; the building owner is also capable of obtaining significant revenues by selling the surplus electricity generated to the utility grid so that the high initial cost of BIPV will surely be considered as a financially beneficial and viable investment.

Photovoltaic on buildings uses existing infrastructure. No further ground area is needed to tap the sun as a source of energy. This is particularly significant in the densely populated areas with regard to solar energy supply in the future.

Synergies with other parts of the building envelope reduce additional investment costs (winter garden, balcony roofs, etc.). Photovoltaic modules are components in the building envelope.

Photovoltaic modules are an architectural expression of innovation and high technology. In particular, they enhance the public image of a company when used as a component in prestigious facades of the company buildings.

The architectural quality of a PV facade gives an alternative to other well- established cladding materials (PV instead of marble?)

4

The Tropics

The Tropics Fig 02: Tropical regions The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth where

Fig 02: Tropical regions

The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth where the sun passes through the zenith twice during the solar year (once as the sun appears to go north and once as it appears to go south). At the limits, called the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, this occurs once at the relevant solstice. This area is centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere, at approximately 23°26' (23.4°) N latitude, and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere at 23°26' (23.4°) S latitude. Sunlight in the tropical regions has a typical nature, the sunrays fall quite normal to the surface [See Appendix-2]. The sun angle is very less hence restricting the exposure of sun to vertical elements, which in turn restrict the exposure of the sunlight to the vertical parts of the buildings such as facades. Hence the integration of PV is most efficient in the horizontal elements of the building for maximum exposure. Tropical regions have longer exposure to light as the daylight remains for longer period of the day [See Appendix-3] which is really an added advantage which is only there in the tropical regions of the world for the installation of PV Because of the above set-up, application of PV in solar shading [see Appendix-4] becomes an impotent aspect for the tropical regions as it not only catches sun (give shade and shelter) but is very efficient as it gets maximum exposure to the sunlight.

5

The Indian Solar Context

Indian tropical context is more or less same to the tropical context of the world. It also posses same features like of sun angles, longer day lengths and high radiations. India's power sector has a total installed capacity of approximately 1,44,913 Megawatt (MW) of which 60% is coal-based, 25% hydro, and the balance is the gas and nuclear-based. Power shortages are estimated at about 11% of total energy and 15% of peak capacity requirements and are likely to increase in the coming years. In the next 10 years, another 10,000 MW of capacity and investment of about Rs. 24 lakh crore are required. Fortunately, India lies in sunny regions of the world. Most parts of India receive 4-7 kWh of solar radiation per square meters per day with 250-300 sunny days in a year [See Appendix-5]. India has abundant solar resources, as it receives about 3000 hours of sunshine every year, equivalent to over 5,000 trillion kWh. India can easily utilize the solar energy or Solar Power. Today the contribution of Solar power with an installed capacity of 9.84 MW, is a fraction (less than 0.1 percent) of the total renewable energy installed 12,632.67 MW (as on 31march 2008 by MNRE).

The emergence of the solar electric architecture is not only an outcome of the positional or geographical context of India but also because of the sentimental set-up in India. Prime Minister of India unveiled a National Climate Change Action Plan in June 2008. The plan will be implemented through eight missions with main focus on solar energy in the total energy mix of the country.

on solar energy in the total energy mix of the country. Fig 03: Quote of Hon

Fig 03: Quote of Hon Prime Minister of India on solar energy

Also there are numerable rebates and tax benefits available [See Appendix-6] for the production, manufacture, distribute and market the products related to solar power. Also special customs and excise duty benefits are provided as part of the overall policy to develop, promote and encourage the use of solar power in India. The Research and Development (R&D) efforts in the Solar Photovoltaic technology have been aimed[ See Appendix-7] at development of materials used in fabrication of Solar cells and modules, different types of Solar cell device

6

structures, module designs, components, sub-systems and systems, with a view to reduce the cost and improve the overall efficiency at different stages. Truly, Indian solar context gives an apt setting (geographical and intentional) for the incorporation of solar technologies which addresses the greater idea of sustainability at large.

Solar shading as an inherent concept of Indian Architectural prospect

Because of the Indian climatic set-up, solar shading always had been an inherent part of Indian Architecture. Be it traditional or modern, in every era solar shading was an intrinsic part of the building design. Many times, solar shading elements and devices were a significant part of the architectural expression and emotion. Every climate responsive design and interventions in India, kept in mind the idea of solar shading. Elements like eaves, sunscreens, louvers etc are an integral part of the overall Indian architectural language. Atriums/courtyards, canopies and pergolas are intrinsic part in Indian architecture. They are not only considered significant but also many times celebrated by elaborate design attentions. Hence, the standing of solar shading elements and concepts is very high in climate responsive Indian architectural expression and is true to the regional aspects of Indian tropical context.

7

The Issue

In the circumstance of the present global state of affairs, it is palpable to give importance and preference to the technological aspects which respond and respect the greater notion of sustainability. With the idea of thinking beyond oil, the pressure of developing and incorporating new technologies relating to energy conservation are greater than ever. There is an extended pressure on large oil importing nations like India to harness their renewable sources of energy to greater extends. India lies in the sunny regions of the world. Moreover, the intentional set-up is very favorable, where governmental policies, vision, support of research and development, etc. all provide a platform for the implementation of energy related concepts. Hence the emergence of solar electric architecture in India is inevitable. One of the obvious technological options available is Building Integrated Photovoltaic, which respects, reflects and relates to the larger idea of sustainable developments at large. Since, there are exclusive aspects for the Indian tropical context; it would have an obvious reason to explore the codes for the same and combining them with the advanced technology available. Hence, the need for the code for application of Building Integrated Photovoltaic was felt. Since in the Indian set-up, the code must be highly efficient and multi- dimensional, so as to discount the factor of affordability (an important issue in India). Moreover, the code must be true to its regional qualities so that it is accepted with least resistance. Under above formwork, it was realized that Solar Shading and tracking is a key code for the application of Building Integrated photovoltaic in the Indian Tropical Context. Solar shading which is an integral part of the Indian architectural language and expression and truly respond to the Indian solar context is taken as a key code for its regional qualities and acceptance. Also, it’s obvious that these are the elements which are used to catch the sun and also give shelter. Solar tracking is seen as a code as it increases the efficiency hugely, which was very much required for this part of the world. Consequently, this code will (a) give shade and shelter (because of its application in shading elements) (b) give useable energy (because of the PV application on those areas) (c) give very high efficiency (because of the tracking of the sun). This dissertation claims: Solar Shading and Tracking as a Key Code for the Application of Building Integrated Photovoltaic in Indian Tropical Context.

8

Methodology

This dissertation aims to develop a code for the PV application in Indian Tropical Context. In accordance to the hypothesis, it was appreciated that Solar shading and tracking is the code for the same. The methodology adopted would be the careful analysis of different case studies taken up from various sources. These case studies form the basis of this dissertation. The case studies would stringently be filtered through the two main concepts of solar shading and tracking. They will be chosen which seem to demonstrate the hypothesis. General heads of the case studies would include the objective or intent of the client, type of integration, specific material technology and costing. Under the formwork of the above, the inferences will be drawn. The inferences will show what all lessons are learned from the matrix of the case studies. These lessons learned would be the background of the conclusion for this dissertation.

9

DENMARK: BRUNDTLAND CENTRE

Fig 04: View of atrium

Case Study 01

BRUNDTLAND CENTRE Fig 04: View of atrium Case Study 01 Project 14.25 kWp Location/City Toftlund

Project

14.25 kWp

Location/City

Toftlund

Country

Denmark

Type of PV building

Roof, canopy and facade systems

Building Type

Commercial

New/ Retrofit

New

Sunshine Hours

1,922 hours per year

PV Design Two types of PV system were used in the building envelope. A PV array was integrated into the roof of the atrium, a central space connecting the adjacent two-storey buildings. Another array of PV modules was mounted on the southeast facade of the office section. The atrium roof, incorporating transparent PV modules, stretches out above the entrance of the building, creating a large canopy. The steel truss roof, combined with the alternating

pattern of dark, round cells against the transparent glazing, gives the atrium a high-tech atmosphere. Special attention was paid to providing a soft diffuse quality of daylight in the interior of the atrium. The vivid blue color of the PV system integrated in the facade has an even greater impact on the building's

image.

Energy & Performance:

PV Power generation: 13,500 kWh per annum (DC) PV exported to the grid: 11,000 kWh per annum (AC) Provision and control of daylight, combined with high-efficiency artificial lighting and movement sensors saved approximately 70% of electricity for lighting compared to traditional office lighting designs.

.

10

SPAIN: UNIVER

Fig 05: View of pergola

Case Study 02

SPAIN: UNIVER Fig 05: View of pergola Case Study 02 Project 200 kWp Location/City Jaen Country

Project

200 kWp

Location/City

Jaen

Country

Spain

Type of PV building

Facade-integrated, pergola (building canopy), parking canopy

Building Type

Commercial

New/ Retrofit

Retrofit and new (pergola)

Sunshine Hours

Yearly average = 4.9 hours per day

PV Design

The installation is divided into four PV sub-generators with different architectural solutions and configurations (PV generators and inverters). ). The intention was to analyze the performance of different PV modules (mono- and poly-crystalline), inverters (central inverter or string oriented inverters) and the potential for use on buildings such as pergolas, parking canopies and facades in the south of Spain, especially in Jaen.

The pergolas provide shade and shelter to the area, hence giving double benefit. The idea of incorporation of PV in parking canopies is a smart decision as these canopies are used to catch the sun and give shade to the cars below and also act as a power generator

Energy & Performance:

Since the UNIVER project annual PV yield is around 250 MWh, its related environmental benefits include an annual remission of 125 tonnes of carbon dioxide and 350 kg of sulphur oxides.

11

INDIA: PEDA OFFICE COMPLEX

Fig 06: View of Front

Case Study 03

PEDA OFFICE COMPLEX Fig 06: View of Front Case Study 03 Project Punjab Energy Development Agency

Project

Punjab Energy Development Agency (PEDA)

Location/City

Chandigarh, Punjab

Country

India

Type of PV building

Atrium/Skylight and Roof integrated systems

Building Type

Office complex

New/ Retrofit

New

Sunshine Hours

2000 hours per year

PV Design

The three-dimensional form of the building has been developed in response to the solar geometry of that region. The solar photovoltaic at the roof level would be used to run the lighting and cooling systems. On cloudy days, it would have two day battery back-up to run machines.

The introduction of building integrated PV in the roof area is not only a design feature but also provide diffused light beneath it. This way the PV panels provide double benefit of producing free and clean energy for the users and also creating a semi-shaded space for the office block

and also creating a semi-shaded space for the office block Fig 07: View of Interior Energy

Fig 07: View of Interior

Energy & Performance:

Mr S.S Sukhon, Director PEDA said `Against the normal requirement of 200 kW power load, we will take only 80 kW connection to run the system. Rest of the power demand requirements would be met by

solar power plant. Besides that additional power produced on weekends and holidays would be sold to the UT grid. ‘

12

THE NETHERLANDS: ENERGY RESEARCH FOUNDATION (ECN) - BUILDING 31

Case Study 04

Fig 08: Lamella Shading System

- BUILDING 31 Case Study 04 Fig 08: Lamella Shading System Project Energy Research Foundation (ECN)

Project

Energy Research Foundation (ECN) —Building 31

Location/City

Petten

Country

Netherlands

Type of PV building

PV lamella (tracking) system, canopy and curved roof integration

Building Type

Office building and research laboratories

New/ Retrofit

Retrofit

Sunshine Hours

Yearly average = 4.05 hours per day

PV Design

PV Design include lamellas as shading devices. Each metal lamella was to be about 840 mm wide, 3000 mm long and covered by three standard poly- crystalline PV modules. The lamella at eye-height for a sitting person working in the interior is moveable, to allow exterior views. The rear of the metal lamellas has holes for ventilation of the PV panels. Each string consists of 42 standard modules from the lamellas and 12 transparent modules from the canopy. These shading elements give both shade and power. With the incorporation of the tracking system the efficiency increased hugely.

of the tracking system the efficiency increased hugely. Fig 09: Lamella Shading System with elevation and

Fig 09: Lamella Shading System with elevation and section

Fig 09: Lamella Shading System with elevation and section Fig 10: Integration of PV molecules into

Fig 10: Integration of PV molecules into metal shading system

13

ITALY: THE CHILDREN'S MUSEUM OF ROME

Fig 11: View of skylight

Case Study 05

MUSEUM OF ROME Fig 11: View of skylight Case Study 05 Project 15 kWp Location/City Rome

Project

15 kWp

Location/City

Rome

Country

Italy

Type of PV building

Roof and canopy (tracking) integrated systems

Building Type

Commercial

New/ Retrofit

Retrofit

Sunshine Hours

Yearly average = 4.3 hours per day

PV Design

The first PV design approach proposed a moveable 3 kWp PV roof structure that would shelter the large skylight, and 12 kWp moveable canopies shaped like a 'Meccano' toy, placed along the south facade. The cost analysis demonstrated that the solution of replacing conventional glass with double- glazed PV modules in the skylight reduced the cost of the PV installation and also eliminated the cost of maintenance of the mechanical roof structure. The PV skylight also contributes significantly to improving the overall indoor comfort and the aesthetic quality of the roof.

There was not a specific requirement to use photovoltaic, but the exposure of children to alternative energy was considered to be an effective illustration of the basic aim of this museum: to heighten awareness of the quality of urban life through 'a transparent guided itinerary' of everyday activities.

Energy & Performance:

The estimated overall energy directly produced by the PV will be 18,000kWh/year, but the PV used as a passive cooling and heating device will reduce the consumption of energy for heating The energy produced will be directly used in the museum.

14

JAPAN: SBIC EAST BUILDING

Case Study 06

Fig 12 : PV vertical Louvers

EAST BUILDING Case Study 06 Fig 12 : PV vertical Louvers Project 15 kWp Location/City Rome

Project

15 kWp

Location/City

Rome

Country

Italy

Type of PV building

Roof and canopy (tracking) integrated systems

Building Type

Commercial

New/ Retrofit

Retrofit

Sunshine Hours

Yearly average = 4.3 hours per day

PV Design

The SBIC East building has four types of BiPV: eave-type array on pergola; inclined-type array on roof; furring-type array on parapet; and shade louver- type array.

furring-type array on parapet; and shade louver- type array. Fig 13 : PV Shade Louvers Fig

Fig 13 : PV Shade Louvers

and shade louver- type array. Fig 13 : PV Shade Louvers Fig 14 : PV Eave

Fig 14 : PV Eave Type Array on pergola

Energy & Performance:

The SBIC East building system has operated well since April 1998. The system provided 30,400 kWh electricity

15

GERMANY: FRAUNHOFER ISE

Fig 15: View of roof

Case Study 07

GERMANY: FRAUNHOFER ISE Fig 15: View of roof Case Study 07 Project 20 kWp Fraunhofer Institut

Project

20 kWp Fraunhofer Institut fuer Solare Energiesysteme ISE

Location/City

Freiburg

Country

Germany

Type of PV building

Atrium and façade integrated systems

Building Type

Research facility

New/ Retrofit

New

Sunshine Hours

Yearly average = 4.8 hours per day

PV Design

The main entrance foyer is dominated by an atrium with a saw-toothed roof and integrated PV modules. External blinds with a light-redirecting function

provide solar control. The saw-toothed roof over the atrium offers some 70 square meters of area for PV modules and is a good example to illustrate the design process. Good daylighting conditions are essential for the use and the

aesthetic effect of an

inclination of the shed-skylights near the optimum of 35°.

There was special attention given to the semi-shaded space beneath the skylight. The skylight was designed to give an architecturally pleasing feel and responsive to the solar geometry to give pleasing architectural expression and generate usable energy

The first geometry was chosen yielding an

Energy & Performance:

An annual yield of around 16MWh is expected for all the PV systems, which should meet the entire demand for office lighting in the building

16

THE NETHERLANDS: LE DONJON

Fig 16: North Facade

Case Study 08

THE NETHERLANDS: LE DONJON Fig 16: North Facade Case Study 08 Project Le Donjon Location/City Gouda

Project

Le Donjon

Location/City

Gouda

Country

Netherlands

Type of PV building

PV canopy above facades Office building

Building Type

Office building

New/ Retrofit

New

Sunshine Hours

Yearly average = 4.05 hours per day

PV Design The PV modules are produced as custom-sized frameless laminates. The transparent back foil allows a semi-transparent visual appearance. The use of PV modules as little roofs above walls for buildings with flat roofs was a good strategy, especially as the roofs are small and the attic walls will shade part of the roof. The PV modules therefore:

•function as rain protection for the attic walls and substitute a horizontal metal covering; •protect the facade from rainwater; •Could function as sunscreens. For design reasons (rainwater flush) the PV canopy was designed to run around the roof with a uniform inclination of 5° to the horizon. For that reason, the PV elements are all inclined to the centre of the roof, so the PV modules on the south side are 5° inclined to the north and so forth.

Energy & Performance:

PV system 6.2 kWp

17

UK: JUBILEE CAMPUS NOTTINGHAM UNIVERSITY

Case Study 09

Fig 17: Roof showing solar shading

UNIVERSITY Case Study 09 Fig 17: Roof showing solar shading Project Jubilee Campus Nottingham University

Project

Jubilee Campus Nottingham University

Location/City

Nottingham

Country

United Kingdom

Type of PV building

Roof-integrated

Building Type

Educational

New/ Retrofit

New

Sunshine Hours

Yearly average = 3.4 hours per day

PV Design The PV cells are an integral part of the atria roofs within the school of management, the department for computer science and the faculty of education. They provide shading to the spaces below and replace the glazing system with laminated glass panels with integrated square PV cells. It was realized that the application of shaded PV application is also extended to the connecting corridors and spaces, which enhances the scope of Building integrated PV applications. This strategy not only provide the required shade and shelter to the connecting spaces but also generates usable power.

Energy & Performance:

The total energy output of the PV installation is 51 MWh per year with a peak output capacity of 53.3 kW

18

Lessons Learned

We are already aware of the significance of solar shading & tracking (as a concept) in the Indian tropical regions. Giving it a designation of a key code was inevitable and obvious. Hence, solar shading & tracking as a key code for Building Integrated Photovoltaic application in the Indian tropical scenario come up with a Triple bonus (a) Provides shading, which is the basic function, (b) Provides power, as it catches sun and convert its energy into usable form, (c) High efficiency, as it tracks the sun. Demonstration of the same was seen in the previous chapter. Each case study and example is peculiar in nature and provides us with a valuable and viable input which would eventually help in drawing key code for the Integrated Photovoltaic application. Numerous lessons were learned during the compilation of the case studies which in turn provided a great formwork of this dissertation.

In the Indian tropical set-up, the building envelope provides a number of possibilities for the integration of Photovoltaic. Taking solar shading is a leading concept, elements like sunscreens and louvers, eaves, aria and skylights, canopies and pergolas become key areas for the desired photovoltaic applications.

Sunscreens and Louvers: Building designs in Indian Tropical situation provides a suitable integration of all types of screens and louvers. See Case Study [6] where numerous options for the integration of PV are demonstrated, from vertical louvers to furring-type array on roof. Also See Case Study [4], where lamella façade shading & tracking system is designed, which provide greater efficiency and the required shade to the building. Eaves: In the tropical regions of the world eaves have a special place as they not only provide shade to the building façade but also act as a rain protection element for the vertical walls of the building. Hence they are generally articulated and given great significance. See Case Study [6] where semi- transparent eave array was used as one of the design feature. Also, See Case Study [8], which is an excellent example of this type of integration, it was realized that, it have a greater viability in dense urban scene where there are large dimensions of exposed roof profile and very less non-shaded vertical surfaces. Atria and Skylights: Possibly one of thee most elaborate and architecturally invigorating applications of PV has been in Atria and Skylight systems. See Case Study [1] and Case Study [7] where this integration generates

20

not only electricity for the use, but also a pleasing and semi-shaded atrium beneath. Also See Case Study [3] where a remarkable architectural expression was achieved by the incorporation of these PV modules in the skylight roof providing enough daylighting requirements, architecturally pleasant semi-lit space and of coarse generation of power. Its relevance extend to the connecting corridors and spaces, see Case Study [9] where an expressive connecting space is realized by the incorporation of PV array into the glazed roof. This integration also try to demonstrate an idea to the viewer/user and make him conscious of the building systems, see Case Study [5] were the skylight is integrated with PV to demonstrate an idea of conservation of solar power in addition to the obvious reasons. Canopy and Pergolas: The need for the canopies and pergolas are not only for an advanced architectural experience and expression but also these elements provide shade, shelter and cooling effect in the sunny regions of the world. See Case Study [2] where the integration of PV in pergola and in parking canopy makes a great architectural solution. Also see Case Study [5] where solar tracking canopy forms an integral part of the design, making it very efficient. It was found that the indoor climate and natural quality of the light would benefit substantially from the mechanical moveable elements in the canopy.

It is a lucid idea that installation of tracking systems with the shading elements in the integrated photovoltaic application would increase the efficiency of the system. See Case study [4] where mechanical tracking lamellas are installed which increases the overall efficiency of the installations and also provides the user with desired shading options. Amazingly, sometimes when the system is well designed and responsive, the increased efficiency of PV discount many costs. See Case Study [5] where it was realized after the cost analysis, that the solution of replacing conventional glass with double-glazed PV modules reduced the cost of the PV installation and also eliminated the cost of maintenance of the mechanical roof structure.

Integrated photovoltaic application provides with many options, generally it is a part of the holistic design like in Case Study [1] where an conscious effort was made to incorporate PV integration. A startling case was Case Study [3] where truly the holistic approach was included, where three- dimensional form of the building has been developed in response to the solar geometry. Case Study [7] and Case study [4] include PV installation at particular angles to truly respond to the solar geometry of the region. Not only in new constructions but also in older constructions this technology can go hand-in-glove. See Case Study [2], Case Study [4] and Case

21

Study [5] where the buildings are retrofit. Also see Case Study [6] in which the idea of incorporating PV as a shading element came very late but worked beautifully. Hence, the flexibility and freedom which is given by this innovation is immense and will clearly find way in any region of the world especially in Indian Tropical set-up where solar shading concepts are inherent to the regional architecture and expression.

The usable energy produced by this system is generally utilized by the building itself and some of them give the excess electricity to the UT grid, which in turn pay the company a handsome rewards. See Case Study [1], this way the energy losses during the transmission and maintenance of electricity are discounted further. Also an excellent example is of Case Study [3] where the building required only 80kW power load than 200kW, they also have a back-up of two days, additional power is given back to the grid. This will be of tremendous benefit for the Indian energy scenario, which is why government not only encourages these initiatives and ideas but also give grants and tax benefits for the demonstration of such innovations. It was interesting to know that, many of these projects were a demonstration of an idea or an image. Sometimes to educate like in Case Study [5], somewhere it matches the company’s vision, see Case Study [8], and sometimes it’s the show of the client’s sensitivity to wards the energy issues like in Case Study [3]. Hence, it not only respects but also reflects the idea and notion of energy consciousness at large.

There were many projects which were funded by different govt. & non Govt. organizations, this reflect that the technology is expensive but the governmental set-up want to promote this, as it feels that it is good for the future. Moreover as the cell technologies and efficiencies are developed, the factor of affordability is discounted.

Needless to say every Case Study someway or other contributes to the greater idea of sustainable growth and development by saving energy and cutting the emission of harmful gases to the atmosphere. This noble idea can very well be addressed in many ways, on of the way is by careful incorporation of technological advancement and breakthroughs in most efficient, clean and bionic ways.

22

Conclusions

The energy demand in the emerging economies of the world – including India and China – is projected to be double over the next quarter- century. Hence there is a pressure on these economies to extend, develop and incorporate the use of technological advancements and breakthroughs to their advantage and harness the renewable sources of energy (like solar power through Building Integrated Photovoltaic). Being a tropical nation, India provides an apt solar setting for the application of the same. Nevertheless, India always reflect, respect and responds to the vision of sustainable growth at large. Hence provide a pertinent setting (both geographically/climatically and intentionally) for the application of the Integrated PV in buildings. Because of India’s unique context, the need for codes for the PV application in Building was felt. This dissertation deals with the same.

Numerous lessons were learned during the compilation of case studies (as stated in the previous chapter) and it was comprehended that solar shading and tracking have the potential to be a Key code for the application of Building Integrated Photovoltaic in Indian Tropical Context. Architects, designers, engineers have done this in many part of the world but this concept of Application of PV with shading & tracking holds a strong viability in this part of the world.

We must not forget that solar shading is an inherent concept of the architectural emotion and expression in India; hence integration of PV with this concept increases its capability and acceptability. This way the application of PV becomes truly `integrated’ with the build environment in Indian setup, true to its regional sentiments and aspects. Also, solar shading elements till now were only catching the sun and giving shade and shelter, but with the integration of PV it started generating usable power which is clean, free and relates to the greater idea of sustainability. Solar tracking as a code straight away directs towards the need for a highly efficient system. Higher efficiency is directly related to the payback time, and discounts the factor of affordability (which is an critical factor in the Indian context)

Hence it would be unambiguous so state:

Solar Shading & tracking as a Key Code for the application of Building Integrated Photovoltaic in Indian Tropical Context.

23

As a consequence of adopting the stated strategy, many challenges seem to be addressed like;

Cost: Since the code clearly reflects the idea of high efficiency and less payback time, the cost and the affordability factor is discounted. Land: Since the application is an integral part of the build-up area no extra land is required for its application. Integration: The code truly integrates with the coherent aspect of the Indian architectural language that is solar shading. Also the modules can be well integrated with existing and new structures in an architecturally pleasing way, as seen in case studies. Expression: Its integration truly reflects and respects the larger idea of energy consciousness and sustainability. Efficiency: Not only solar tracking but also the integration of PV in building add to the efficiency, as it discounts the transmission and distribution costs of electricity. Harnessing the renewable (solar) energy: This way it can produce a free, clean and silent power with minimal dependence on conventional sources of energy and save/ reduce the emission of huge amount of harmful gases into the atmosphere. Plays nature’s idea: like tree leaves gives shade and shelter and also generates energy for its own. Similarly, PV applications give shade and shelter beneath and also generate useable power for the building, truly a bio-mimicked concept and idea.

This dissertation would achieve its mission if it can attract the interest of its target group, namely architects, designers, clients, policy makers, students and people in instrumental positions who are sensitive towards the greater idea of sustainable future by incorporation of technological advancement and breakthroughs in most efficient, clean and bionic ways.

24

Appendix 1

From cells to module to arrays

Appendix 1 From cells to module to arrays 25

25

Appendix 2

Sunlight in different regions of the world

Appendix 2 Sunlight in different regions of the world Appendix 3 Day lengths in different regions

Appendix 3

Day lengths in different regions of the world

Appendix 2 Sunlight in different regions of the world Appendix 3 Day lengths in different regions

26

Appendix 4

Appendix 4 Appendix 5 Global radiations, annual mean 27

Appendix 5

Global radiations, annual mean

Appendix 4 Appendix 5 Global radiations, annual mean 27

27

Appendix 6

Tax Benefits

Accelerated Depreciation benefits allowed for solar products

Flat plat solar collectors

Concentrating and pipe type solar collectors

Solar cookers

Solar water heaters and systems

Air / gas / fluid heating systems

Solar crop driers and systems

Solar refrigeration, cold storage and air-conditioning systems

Solar stills and desalination systems

Solar power generating systems

Solar pumps based on solar thermal and solar photovoltaic conversion

Solar photovoltaic modules and panels for water pumping and other applications

Wind mills and any specially designed devices which run on wind mills

Any special devices including electric generators and pumps running on wind energy

Biogas plant and biogas engines

Electrically operated vehicles including battery powered or fuel-cell powered vehicles

Agricultural and municipal waste conversion devices producing energy

Equipment for utilizing ocean waste and thermal energy

Machinery and plant used in the manufacture of any of the above sub-items

Customs and Excise Duty

(A) CUSTOMS DUTY

*Peak rate of basic customs duty unless specified is 10% (Notification No. 21/2002 item No 86, condition 5)

1. The following goods, namely:

Silicon in all forms, that is, polycrystalline silicon or ingots, for the manufacture of undiffused silicon wafers; NIL

Undiffused silicon wafers, for The manufacture of solar cells or Solar cell modules;

(Chapter No. 85 item No. 8541.40)

2. Photovoltaic cells whether or not assembled in modules or made up into panels NIL

Solar Cells NIL

PV Modules

(Chapter No. 94 item No. 9405 50 40)

28

4.

Equiment gadgets based on solar energy 7.50%

(Notification No 25/99, List A, Items no 7,18 %38)

5. Specified raw materials for manufacture of solar cells and module Nil

EXCISE BENEFITS for FY 2007-08

As per Notification No 6/2000 Item no 237, list 9

1. Specified Non Conventional Energy Devices / Systems

These Include the following

Flat plate solar collectors

Black continuously plated solar selective coating sheets (in cut lengths or in coils and fins and tubes)

Concentrating and pipe type solar collectors

Solar cookers

Solar water heaters and systems

Solar air heating systems

Solar low pressure steam systems

Solar stills and desalination systems

Solar pumps based on solar thermal and solar photovoltaic conversion

Solar power generating systems

Solar photovoltaic modules and panels for water pumping and other applications

Solar crop driers and systems

Wind operated electricity generators, their components and parts thereof

Water pumping windmills, wind aero-generators and battery chargers

Bio-gas plants and bio-gas engines

Agricultural, forestry, agro-industrial, industrial, municipal and urban waste conversion devices producing energy

Equipment for utilizing ocean waves energy

Solar lantern

Ocean thermal energy conversion systems

Parts consumed within the factory of production of such parts for the manufacture of goods specified at S.Nos.1 to 19 above

Solar photovoltaic cells

29

Appendix 7

R & D projects on Solar PV Program in India.

The Solar Energy Centre has been established by Government of India as a part of MNRE to undertake activities related to design, development, testing, standardization, consultancy, and training and information dissemination in the field of Solar Energy.

Recently, development of polycrystalline silicon thin film Solar cells and small area Solar cells concluded at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Science at Jadavpur University.

The National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi is working on development of materials and process to make dye sensitized nano-crystalline TiO2 thin films.

The Centre for Materials for Electronics, Pune has been working on development of phosphorous paste for diffusion of impurities in Solar cells.

Under a joint R&D project of MNRE and Department of Science & Technology (DST), the Indian Association for Cultivation of Science (IACS), Kolkata continued to work on optimization of process for fabrication of large area double junction amorphous silicon modules.

Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore to develop efficient electronic system for connecting small PV systems to the grid.

Indian Institute of Technology Bombay to work on development and testing of low concentration PV systems.

The scientists at the Indian Association for Cultivation of Sciences, Jadavpur continued their work on development of nano and multi junction silicon thin film Solar cells and optimization of the performance of multi junction thin film Solar cells through computer modeling.

A proto type solar car was successfully developed and demonstrated by the students of Delhi college of Engineering. The car operates on Solar power, which is stored in storage batteries. In one charge the car is capable of traveling about 70 km. The maximum speed of the car was demonstrated at 60 km/hr. The Solar car was also displayed in the 9th Auto Expo held in New Delhi during 10-17th January, 2009.

30

8. List of Figures and photographs

 

Title/ Description

Page

Cover Page

PV incorporated, ENC Building 42, The Netherlands Photographer: John Lewis Marshall

Cover

Fig 01

Diagram of PV effect Source: Internet

3

Fig 02

Tropical Regions of the world Source: Internet (www.wikipedia.com)

5

Fig 03

Quote of Hon Prime Minister of India on solar energy Source: Internet (www.solarindiaonline.com)

6

Fig 04

View of atrium Source: Book, Recent experiences in Building Integrated PV.

10

Fig 05

View of pergola Source: Internet( www.ujaen.es)

11

Fig 06

View of Front of PEDA Source: Internet

12

Fig 07

View of Interior of PEDA Source: Energy-efficient Buildings in India

12

Fig 08

Lamella Shading System Source: Architectural Quality of Building Integration of Solar Energy

13

Case studies in The Netherlands.

Fig 09

Lamella Shading System with elevation and section

13

Source: Architectural Quality of Building Integration of Solar Energy

Case studies in The Netherlands

Fig 10

Integration of PV molecules into metal shading system Source: Architectural Quality of Building Integration of Solar Energy

13

Case studies in The Netherlands

Fig 11

View of skylight Source: ), La Stampa

14

Fig 12

PV vertical Louvers Source: Building Integrated Photovoltaic designs for commercial & Institutional Structures – A sourcebook for Architects

15

Fig 13

PV Shade Louvers Source: Building Integrated Photovoltaic designs for commercial & Institutional Structures – A sourcebook for Architects

15

Fig 14

PV Eave Type Array on pergola Source: Building Integrated Photovoltaic designs for commercial & Institutional Structures – A sourcebook for Architects

15

Fig 15

View of roof Source: Internet (www.ise.fhg.de)

16

Fig 16

North façade

17

Source: Architectural Quality of Building Integration of Solar Energy

Case studies in The Netherlands.

Fig 17

Roof showing solar shading Source: Building Integrated Photovoltaic designs for commercial & Institutional Structures – A sourcebook for Architects

18

31

9. References

Introduction David Lloyd-jones,Steven strong,Tjerk Reijenga; (2005), Designing with Solar Power

The Central Concept Leenders, F. Van Der Ree & Prasad.DK; (2001), Photovoltaic Cogeneration in the Built Environment

Building Integration Attributes to Photovoltaic Wern.C & Barram. F; (2004), Solar Integration in Commercial Buildings

Advantages of Building Integrated Photovoltaic Jackson T, Oliver M,. (2000) Viability of Solar Photovoltaic. Energy Policy 28

] M.M. Karteris, K.P. Papageorgiou and A.M. Papadopoulos, (2006). Integrated photovoltaics as an element of building’s envelope.

The Tropics

] Koenigsberger, Ingersoli, Mayhew, Szokolay (2001) Manual of Tropical Housing and Building-

Climatic Data. Orient Longman Limited

] Patrick l. Osborne.(2000). Tropical ecosystems and Ecological concepts. Cambridge University

Press

Indian Solar Context Bansal N.K, Mathur J (Indian Building Congress); (2008) Practical Handbook on energy Conservation in Buildings www.solarindiaonline.com

Case Study 1, DENMARK: BRUNDTLAND CENTRE Collins. R, Davenport. T & Scahch .M, (2004), Recent experiences in Building Integrated Photovoltaic.

Case Study 2, SPAIN: UNIVER www.ujaen.es

Case Study 3, INDIA: PEDA OFFICE COMPLEX Mili Majumdar (TERI & MNES); (2002) Energy-efficient Buildings in India

Case Study 4, THE NETHERLANDS: ENERGY RESEARCH FOUNDATION Reijenga. T; (2000), Architectural Quality of Building Integration of Solar Energy – Case studies in The Netherlands.

Case Study 5, ITALY: THE CHILDREN'S MUSEUM OF ROME Wetzel. T, Baake .E & Muelbauer. A, (2001), La Stampa

32

Case Study 6, JAPAN: SBIC EAST BUILDING Eiffert. P & Kiss. G.J; (2005), Building Integrated Photovoltaic designs for commercial & Institutional Structures – A sourcebook for Architects

Case Study 7, GERMANY: FRAUNHOFER ISE www.ise.fhg.de

Case Study 8, THE NETHERLANDS: LE DONJON Reijenga. T; (2000), Architectural Quality of Building Integration of Solar Energy – Case studies in The Netherlands.

Case Study 9, UK: JUBILEE CAMPUS NOTTINGHAM UNIVERSITY Eiffert. P & Kiss. G.J; (2005), Building Integrated Photovoltaic designs for commercial & Institutional Structures – A sourcebook for Architects

33

Acknowledgements

I would like to express my thanks to my guide Prof. Ashok B. Lall. His advice, expertise and encouragement always pushed me to think new and better. And, for parting his valuable time for this paper.

I would like to express my thanks to my year coordinator Architect Arunav Dasgupta for leading us and always being around even in tough times. His directions and guidance have a pivotal role in completion of this paper.

Also, thanks to my dear friends especially Garima, Swati, Sumeet, Rahul & Sudhanshu who have given unconditional support to me. In addition, a special thanks Liesbeth Vanbaelen of HB Design who also guided me in this topic via emails and internet discussions.

Finally, thanks to the school friends, faculty and management for their supportive role.

Sumanyu Vasist

(0441731604)

University School of Architecture and Planning