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1 Collect mature Moringa oleifera seed pods and remove seeds from pods.

2 Shell seeds (remove seed coat) to obtain clean seed kernels; discard discolored seeds. 3 Determine quantity of kernels needed based on amount and turbidity of water; in general 1 seed kernel will treat 1 liter (1.056 qt) of water. 4 Crush appropriate number of seed kernels (using grinder, mortar & pestle, etc) to obtain a fine powder and sift the powder through a screen or small mesh. 5 Mix seed powder with a small amount of clean water to form a paste. 6 Mix the paste and 250 ml (1 cup) of clean water into a bottle and shake for 1 minute to activate the coagulant properties and form a solution. 7 Filter this solution through a muslin cloth or fine mesh screen (to remove insoluble materials) and into the water to be treated. 8 Stir treated water rapidly for at least 1 minute then slowly (15-20 rotations per minute) for 5-10 minutes. 9 Let the treated water sit without disturbing for at least 1-2 hours. 10 When the particles and contaminates have settled to the bottom, the clean water can be carefully poured off. 11 Mix seed powder with a small amount of clean water to form a paste. 12 Mix the paste and 250 ml (1 cup) of clean water into a bottle and shake for 1 minute to activate the coagulant properties and form a solution. 13 Filter this solution through a muslin cloth or fine mesh screen (to remove insoluble materials) and into the water to be treated. 14 Stir treated water rapidly for at least 1 minute then slowly (15-20 rotations per minute) for 5-10 minutes. 15 Let the treated water sit without disturbing for at least 1-2 hours. 16 When the particles and contaminates have settled to the bottom, the clean water can be carefully poured off. 17 This clean water can then be filtered or sterilized to make it completely safe for drinking.

DANGERS Secondary Infection: The process of shaking and stirring must be followed closely to activate the coagulant properties; if the flocculation process takes too long, there is a risk of secondary bacteria growth during flocculation.

Recontamination: The process of settling is important. The sediment at the bottom contains the impurities so care must be taken to use only the clear water off the top and not allow the sediment to re-contaminate the cleared water. Additional contaminants: Moringa treatment does not remove 100% of water pathogens. It is acceptable for drinking only where people are currently drinking untreated, contaminated water. By Beth Doerr, ECHO Staff Published 2005

One solution to the water woes of many of the worlds poor may lie in the pea -sized seeds of the widely grown Moringa oleifera tree, experts say. The Moringa oleifera [seed technique] can be an important, sustainable and affordable method towards waterborne disease reduction and can improve the quality of life for a large proportion of the poor, said Micheal Lea, author and researcher with Clearinghouse, an Ottawa-based organization researching low-cost water purification technologies. According to Leas 2010 publication, seeds from the Moringa, a tree (also described as a shrub) which grows in Africa, Central and South America, the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, can be crushed into a powder and mixed with surface water to produce a 90-99% bacterial reduction, making untreated water safely drinkable. The technique is not new. Communities in Sudan have been using the multipurpose Moringa tree as a source of food and as a water purifier for centuries. The plant is fast-growing, nutritious, edible and drought resistant, and can be grown in your backyard. Its seeds are soft and can be crushed using everyday tools, such as a spoon and a bowl. The ability to purify water using such accessible techniques, and others has significant life-saving potential. Globally, approximately 1.1 billion people do not have access to drinking water and diarrhea remains the leading cause of illness and death, according to the latest UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs report. With the number of people without access to safe water expected to rise to two billion by 2025, several independent Moringa tree cultivation projects have started in the past few years. In the Breman Baako village of Ghana, the Moringa community organization has cultivated Moringa plantations. Several thousand people depend on them as a food source. The Moringa is protein and vitamin rich, so people eat the leaves and use the seeds as a spice in food, said Abu Bakkar Abdulai, Ghana country director of the Moringa community. But there is a need for clean water so we are trying to inform the communities about this other technique as well. While the technique has potential, Kebreab Ghebremichael, a water purification expert with the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Institute for Water Education, says it would be best used at the household level. The technique is easy and inexpensive and many people already have this tree in their backyards, said Ghebremichael, who studied the Moringa tree seed purifying technique for his PhD. However, non-processed Moringa cannot be used in centralized large water systems because the organic content from the seed may give taste and odor problems if it stands for a long time before consumption. The Moringa seed purification technique works best for purifying surface water, such as rivers, streams, lakes and ditches, but not for underground water sources. So it would not be able to resolve the problem of natural arsenic poisoning that afflicts many

populations in Asia. This method is not a silver bullet, but could be used during emergencies and where people have no resources to treat the water they drink, Lea said. - See more at: http://www.predafairtrade.net/2011/04/magic-tree-seeds-to-purify-dirtywater/#sthash.CDXAqCQW.dpuf

Parts of the Science Investigatory Project Report

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Science Investigatory Project

Doing an investigatory project considers as a major achievement of any students in Science. Through scientific investigation, they learn how to apply the acquired knowledge, scientific concepts, theories, principles and laws of nature. They can use their higher-order process or thinking skills in conducting a research. Let us provide you a brief description of the parts of the Science Investigatory Project Report below. Title The Title should be clear and precise. It has an objective or purpose. It should not be written too long or too short. By just reading the title, you can determine what the investigative study is all about. Abstract The Abstract should be one or two paragraphs only. It includes your research problems, the method or procedure that you used and the findings or conclusion of the study. Chapter I 1. Introduction and Its Background The Introduction is about one page only wherein it includes the background of the study and its rationale. It usually leads into the research problem. 2. Statement of the Problem The Statement of the Problem has two categories namely: the general problem and specific problems. Usually, one general problem and three specific problems which derived from the general

problem. The research problems should be specific, reliable,valid, measurable, objectively stated. It can be a question form or in a declarative statement. 3. Formulation of the Hypothesis The Formulation of the Hypothesis has two types namely: the null hypothesis and affirmative hypothesis. Hypotheses is a scientific guess which intends subject for thorough investigation. It is recommended to use null hypothesis in your research project. 4. Significant of the Study The Significant of the Study indicates how important is your investigatory project for the people, environment and community as a whole. It is really relevant in the changing world or global impact into the field of technology. 5. Scope and Delimitation of the Study The Scope and Delimitation of the Study covers the range of your research. It includes the period of research, the materials and equipment to be used, the subject of the study or the sample of the study, the procedure and the statistical treatment to be used. 6. Definition of Terms The Definition of Terms has two types: the Dictionary-derived definitions and the Operational definitions which derived from how these terms were used in your research. Chapter II Review of Related Literature and Studies Related Literature The Related Literature are statements taken from science books, journals, magazines, newspapers and any documents from authorized scientists, Science experts or well-known Science agencies. These statements can support your study through their concepts, theories, principles and laws. Footnoting is important on this part. Related Studies The Related Studies are those researches which may be local and foreign studies who can attribute to your research or can support your investigation scientifically. Footnoting is also important on this part. Chapter III Methodology has several parts namely: the subject of the study, the procedure and the statistical treatment 1. The Subject of the Study The Subject of the Study includes your population and the sample. It applies the sampling techniques to obtain a good sample of the study. Your sample should be valid and reliable. 2. The Procedure The Procedure is the step by step and systematic process of doing your research. It includes the materials with right amount of measurements, the appropriate equipment to be used in doing the scientific investigation. It consists of several trials with control variables, independent variables and

dependent variables. Gathering of data is essential in any kind of research. It is recommended to use control and experimental set-ups to arrive at valid conclusion. 3. The Statistical Treatment The Statistical Treatment comes in various ways. It can be mean, median, mode, percentage, Chisquare, standard deviation, T-test, Pearson r, Spearman rank or Anova I or Anova II. It is recommended to use T-test in any experimental research.

Chapter IV Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data 1. Presentation of Data, Analysis and Interpretation of Data The data gathered should be presented in order to be analyze. It may be presented in two forms namely: through table or graph. You may use both of them if you want to clearly figure out your data. A table has labels with quantity, description and units of measurement. Graph has several types namely the line graph, bar graph, pie graph and pictograph. Choose what type of graph that you prefer to use. Analyze the data that had been gathered, presented in table or graph scientifically. You interpret the data according to what had been quantified and measured. The numerical data should be interpreted clearly in simple and descriptive statements. 2. Results Results show the findings or outcomes of your investigation. The result must be based according to the interpreted data. Chapter V Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation 1. Summary The Summary briefly summarizes your research from Chapter I to Chapter IV which includes the research problems, methodology and findings. It consists of one or two paragraphs only. 2. Conclusion The Conclusion is the direct statement based on findings or results. It should answer your hypothesis and research problems. 3. Recommendation The Recommendation is given based on your conclusion. You may give few recommendations which you think can help the fellow Science students, researchers, consumers or the entire community where people live in.

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