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Unit : 1

What is Physics?; Scope and excitement; Physics in relation to science, society

and technology, Need for measurement, units for measurement, systems of units-SI :

fundamental and derived units. Dimensions and their applications. Orders of

magnitude, Accuracy and errors in measurement-random and instrumental errors,

Significant figures and rounding off, Graphs, Trigonometric functions, simple

ideas of differentiation and integration.

Unit : 2

Objects in motion in one dimension, Motion in straight line, unit and direction

for time and position measurement. Uniform motion, its graphical representation

and formulae, speed and velocity, relative velocity, instantaneous velocity.

Uniformly accelerated motion, its velocity-time graph, position-time graph and

formulae. General relation between position and velocity, application to uniformly

accelerated motion. Acceleration in general one-dimensional motion.

Unit : 3

Vectors and scalars, vectors in two dimensions, general-vectors, vector addition

and multiplication by a real number, zero-vector and its properties. Resolution of

a vector in a plane, rectangular components. Scalar and Vector Products. Motion in

two dimensions, cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration-projectile

motion, general relation among position-velocity-acceleration for motion in a

plane-uniform circular motion. Motion of objects in three dimensional space

(elementary ideas).

Unit : 4

Laws of Motion

Force and inertia, first law of motion. Momentum, second law of motion, impulse,

some kinds of forces in nature. Third law of motion, conservation of momentum,

rocket propulsion. Equilibrium of concurrent forces. Static and kinetic friction,

laws of friction, rolling friction, lubrication, Inertial and non-inertial frames

(elementary ideas).

Unit : 5

Work done by a constant force and by a variable force, unit of work, kinetic

energy, power, Elastic collision in one and two dimensions, Potential energy,

gravitational potential energy, and its conversion to kinetic energy, potential

energy of a spring. Different forms of energy, mass energy equivalence,

conservation of energy.

Unit : 6

Rotational Motion

Centre of mass of a two-particle system, momentum conservation and centre of mass

motion. Centre of mass of rigid body, general motion of a rigid body, nature of

rotational motion, rotational motion of a single particle in two dimensions only,

torque, angular momentum and its geometrical and physical meaning, conservation of

angular momentum, examples of circular motion (car on a level circular road, car

on banked road, pendulum swinging in a vertical plane). Moment of inertia, its-

physical significance, parallel axis and perpendicular axis theorem (statements

only).

Unit : 7

Gravitation

Acceleration due to gravity, one dimensional motion under gravity, two-dimensional

motion under gravity. Universal law of gravitation, inertia and gravitational

mass, variations in the acceleration due to gravity of the earth, orbital

velocity, geostationary satellites, gravitational potential energy near the

surface of earth, gravitational potential, escape velocity.

Unit : 8

Specific heat, specific heat at constant volume and constant pressure of ideal

gas, relation between them, first law of thermodynamics. Thermodynamic state,

equation of state and isothermals, pressure-temperature phase diagram.

Thermodynamic processes (reversible, irreversible, isothermal, adiabatic). Carnot

cycle, second law ofthermodynamics, efficiency of heat engines : Conduction,

convection and radiation. Thermal conductivity, black body radiation, Wien's law,

Stefan's law, Newton's law of cooling.

Unit : 9

Oscillations

Periodic motion, simple harmonic motion (S.H.M.) and its equation of motion.

Oscillations due to a spring, kinetic energy and potential energy in S.H.M.,

Simple pendulum, physical concepts of forced oscillations, resonance and damped

oscillations.

Unit : 10

Waves

Wave motion, speed of wave motion, principle of super-positions, reflection of

waves, harmonic waves (qualitative treatment only) standing waves and normal modes

and its graphical representation. Beats, Doppler effect. Musical scale, accoustics

of building.

Unit : 11

Electrostatics

Frictional electricity, charges and their conservation, elementary unit, Coulomb's

law, dielectric constant, electric field, electric field due to a point charge,

di-pole field and dipoles' behaviour in an uniform (2-dimensional) electric field,

flux, Gauss's law in simple geometrics, Conductors and insulators, presence of

free charges and bound charges inside a conductor, Dielectric (concept only),

Capacitance (parallel plate), series and parallel, energy of a capacitor, high

voltage generators, atmospheric electricity.

Unit : 12

Current Electricity

Introduction (flow of current), sources of e.m.f., cells : simple, secondary,

chargeable, electric current, resistance of different materials, temperature

dependence, thermistor, specific resistivity, colour code for carbon resistances.

Ohm's law. Kirchoff's law, resistances in series and parallel, series and parallel

circuits, Wheatstone's bridge, measurement of voltages and currents,

potentiometer.

Unit : 13

Electric power, heating effects of current, chemical effects and law of

electrolysis, simple concept of thermoelectricity, thermocouple.

Unit : 14

Oersted's observation, Biot-Savart's law (magnetic field due to a current

element), magnetic field due to a straight wire, circular loop and solenoid. Force

on a moving charge in a uniform magnetic field (Lorentz force), cyclotron (simple

idea), forces and torques on currents in a magnetic field, forces between two

currents, definition of ampere, moving coil galvanometer, ammeter and voltmeter.

Unit : 15

Magnetism

Bar magnet (comparison with a solenoid), lines of force, torque on a bar magnet in

a magnetic field, earth's magnetic field, tangent galvanometer, vibration

magnetometer, para, dia and ferromagnetism (simple idea).

Unit : 16

Induced e.m.f., Faraday's Law, Lenz's Law, Induction, self and mutual inductance,

alternating currents, impedance and reactance, power in a.c., electrical machines

and devices (transformer, induction coil, generator, simple motors, choke and

starter).

Unit : 17

Electromagnetic oscillations, some history of electromagnetic waves (Maxwell,

Hertz, Bose, Marconi). Electromagnetic spectrum (radio, micro-waves, infra-red,

optical, ultraviolet, X-rays, beta and gamma rays) including elementary facts

about their uses and propagation, properties of atmosphere w.r.t various parts of

electromagnetic spectrum.

Unit : 18

Ray optics as a limiting case of wave optics, reflection, refraction, total

internal reflection, optical fibre, curved mirrors, lenses, mirror and lens

formulae, Dispersion by a prism, spectrometer and spectra-absorption and emission;

scattering, rainbow. Magnification and resolving power, telescope (astronomical),

microscope.

Unit : 19

Discovery of electron, e/m for an electron, electrical conduction in gases,

particle nature of light, Einstein's photoelectric equation, photocells.

Unit : 20

Rutherford model of the atom, Bohr model, energy quantization, hydrogen spectrum,

composition of nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, size of nucleus, radioactivity,

Mass energy relation, nuclear fission and fusion, nuclear holocaust.

Unit : 21

Crystal structure-Unit cell; single, poly and liquid crystal (concepts only)

Energy bands in solids, conductors, insulators and semi-conductors, PN junction,

diodes, junction transistor, diode as rectifier, transistor as an amplifier and

oscillator, logicgates and combination of gates.

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