Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 10

Obligation, Necessity, And Prohibition ­ Presentation Transcript

o  strong obligation◊AFFIRMATIVE USE  
o We can use “must”, “have to” and “have got to” to express obligation. 
o Broadly speaking, when “must” is used, the obligation comes from the speaker, (internal obligation): 
o I really must stop smoking. 
o If we talk about or report an obligation that comes from “outside” (for example: a regulation or order 
from somebody else) 
 ◊“ must” is possible (especially in written rules)  
 Cars must not be parked here. 
 ◊“ have to” is more common  
 I have to work from 9 a.m till 5 p.m. (an order from the boss) 
 “ have got to” is usually only used in spoken English or written fiction. It ◊can be used for 
“external” and “internal” obligation  
 I’ve got to post this letter before 7 0’clock. 
In negative sentences “don’t need to”, “needn’t”, “don’t have to” or ◊“haven’t got to” is 

used to say that there’s no obligation;  
 you needn’t work tomorrow if you don’t want to. 
  mustn’t)◊(NOT  
 “ Mustn’t” is used to tell people not to do things; means that something is ◊wrong, 
dangerous or not permitted  
 you mustn’t move any paper on my desk. 
o “ Should” and “ought to” are used to express mild obligation and duty, and ◊in general to say what we 
think it is good for people to do  
 you shouldn’t work too hard. 
o In most cases, both “should” and “ought to” can be used with more or less the same meaning. 
 You should /ought to go and see your uncle. He’s very ill. 
o However, there is a slight difference: 
When we use “should” we give our own subjective opinion; 

“ Ought to” has a rather more objective force, and is used when we talk about laws, duties and 

 We ought to go and see your uncle next week, but I don’t think we will. 
 It would sound strange to use should and then add we are not going to see him. 
6. BE ALLOWED TO + infinitive 
o It’s used to talk about things you can do or are permitted to do. 
o It is similar in meaning with “permit”, however “permit” is a little more formal. 
o Both verbs can be followed by OBJECT + INFINITIVE 
 We don’t allow people to smoke in class. 
o It’s worth stating here that when there is no personal object , a gerund ◊(­ing form) is used  
 We don’t allow smoking in class. 

Auxiliary verbs: ' mood '

Lexical verbs: ( e.g. Listen , eat, talk).


will - may - can - could - should - ought to - have -

dare to - need (not) - might - must - would - ( used to )

General characteristics :

1°) No (s) for 3rd person singular present.

2°) Followed by bare infinitive, except: have (to) - ought (to).

3°) For questions you invert the subject and the modal .
Can I ? Should he ? Would they ?
4°) Negative: Modal + not

Ability - Obligation/Necessity - Probability - Permission

Prohibition - Willingness - Prediction/Certainty


A) Can is more common in the present:

Past: - he could play the piano.

- I'm sure you can't do it.

- Can you drive ?

B) Past ability: could/ be able:

1- When he was young he could/was able to run fast .

2- He fell into trouble and was able to save himself. (ability in a particular situation)

C) Could ( in the present) _ condition:

1- I could get you a drink if you want. ( requests: could is more polite than can)
2- Could you open the window please ?
3- He said he could type. (reported speech)
1- Even good students can make mistakes. (occasional)
2- A good car can cost a lot of money. (general characteristics)
3- he could be funny. (sometimes)

Possibility: (can/ could/ may/ might)

1- Traditional products can be found anywhere in Morocco.
2- The North can be very cold . (Affirmative present)
3- he can be very arrogant. (occasionally) (general possibility)

1-She might ( could ) be right. (present)
2- He might know the answer. (future)
3- They might/could listen to you. (future)

- may/might: 50% certainty.

- may: reasonable possibility.
- might: most strong possibility.

4- It may/might/could snow. (less)

5- It may not be as cold as last years. ( negative possibility)

C) Could/can't/couldn't ( for conclusions about the past):

1- It could be true. ( It's possible that it's true)

2- It can't be true. It's impossible. (confident)
3- It couldn't be true. It's impossible. (hesitant)

D) May/might instead of will/would:

- If you knock on the door, She will (certain) / may (possible) answer.

Permission (can/could/may/might):

May I ? Can I ? Could I ? Might I ?

1- May I join ? (most confident)
2- Might I join ? ( weakest)
3- Could I possibly join ? (more formal)
4- Do you think I could possibly join ?
1- I can use my brother's car wherever I want .(present _future)
2- He may use the phone.( present_ future)

C) Use may to talk about authority:

- Police officers may ask people their IDs. (have the right)

- You can park here. (you're allowed)
- You can't park here.

E) Past permission:

1- When we were young, we could / were allowed /to stay

in the playing ground.
2- She got a visa and was allowed to enter the country.
( permission for a particular action)

F) Concessive may:

- your job may be demanding, but it's not boring.

G) Reported speech:

1- "You may leave". He told her she might leave.

2- " You can decide later". She told him he could decide later.

Necessity/Obligation (must/mustn't/have to/have got to):

1- Must (present & future):

a-Obligation: Doctor: "You must take this medicine".

b- Strong advice: You must see this film.
c- Command: You must phone Mr. Smith ASAP.
d- Inner compulsion: I must go now.
e- Logical deduction: Ali must have done it.

2- Must/Have to :

Have to
Obligation Obligation

Internal External

Personal Facts

Present/future All tenses

Source of authority

Doctor: " You must take some exercise."

Patient: " I have to take some exercise."

Have to => I have to read these books .

I've had to give up my job .
They had to change plans .
You will have to work harder .

Mustn't / Don't have to :

You mustn't do it => prohibition

You don't have to do it =>absence of obligation

3-Have got to present/future:

He's got to stay in bed .

You've got to work harder = you have to work harder .

4-Mustn't = prohibition:

- He mustn't leave before I tell him .

- Muslims mustn't drink alcohol .
- This door must not be left open (notice).

Absence of obligation ( Needn't/ don't need to/ don't have to):

You needn't come

He need study only the first chapter.

You needn't wear a uniform. (present)

We needn't travel until 4 pm. (future)

2- Semi-modal / Regular verb: Needn't Vs Don't need to

You needn't read the whole book .

You don't need to see a doctor .

I don't have to work afternoon.

- Lexical verb: he needs a book.

- Semi-Modal: He need work hard. ( need + infinitive without to)

Habitual /already planned actions (future):

Don't have to / don't need to

I don't need to get up until 9 on Tuesdays.

We don't have to be there until 1 pm.

I haven't had to see a doctor.

We may not need to hurry.

We wouldn't have to hurry if the film started later.

We wouldn't have had to sleep in the car if we ha d booked a room .

need John see a doctor ?

No, he needn't.
Yes, he must.

Should/Ought to:

Moral Obligation - Advice - Criticism - Expectation

Duty - Future Probability

a-Present / Future / Past :

You should/ought to to be doing your homework .

You should/ ought to apologize to him later.

I knew I ought to write/have written .

b- Should is common / moral duty:

You should obey your parent .

This word is mi-spelt . There should be another F.

c- Advice:

You should/ ought to practise more .

He should / ought to be preparing for his exam.

You should / ought to read this book .

d- Notices => should :

Candidates should answer questions .

Passengers should be in possession of this documents.

e- Future probability ( should is common):

After exercises and revision grammar shouldn't be a problem.

He should / ought to have done it.

I should/ought to have helped them.



1- Future certainty:

He'll be 37 next month.

They'll have the result by 10 .

2- Conditional I:

It'll go bad if you have it out of the fridge.

3- Request:

Will you help me do this exercise?

Won't: (refusal / unwillingness)

This box is too heavy, it won't move.

We won't give up smoking.


1- Conditional II ; III :

If I had known I wouldn't have gone .

If he were rich he would help his friend .

2- Polite request:

Would you mind not doing that ?

3- Regret:

I'd like to have gone.

I'd rather not have met her.

4- Preference:

I'd like to go.

I'd rather stay in .

5- Persistence:

The rain went on. It wouldn't stop.

6- After wish & if only:

I wish he wouldn't say that again.

If only he would listen to me .

Used to + verb/ Didn't use to / did he .. use to:

a- When he was young he would sit on the river bank =

When he was young he used to sit on the river bank.

b- they used to have a Renault 5.

Would => used => actions.

She used to live in London.

She is used to him. (accustomed)

She has become used to winters in London.

She is getting used to getting up early .

( to be used to - to become - to get ) => accustomed .

Dare :

He dared me to do it . (lexical verb - challenge)

I dare to go ( semi-modal)

He doesn't dare to come in .

She dare not move.

- Does he dare ( to walk ) like that ? (verb)

- Dare he swear in front of his father ? ( semi-modal )

Dare you answer back ?

She dare not say a word in front of him .

- I dare say .

- How dare you ? (indignation)

Had better ('d better) (advice - warning - threat ) (present - future):

We'd better do some extra hours .

You'd better not tell him .

Hadn't you better do your homework ? (unusual)

You'd better fly .

She'd better not touch it.

You'd better give him the money.

Past modals:

May / might / should / must have done .

Could have done.

Can't have done.

He needn't have done .