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4.2 ANSWERS TO EXAM QUESTIONS 1.

(a) (i) Increase (if wrong no further marks in part (i) higher P gives lower yield or moves to left Eqm shifts to reduce P or eqm favours side with fewer moles Endothermic if wrong no further marks in part (ii) increase T increases yield or moves to right Eqm shifts to reduce T or eqm favours endothermic direction Moles of iodine = ! "# Moles of $I = !1%" If & " missed' ma( 1 in part (iv) If wrong no marks in (i) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

(ii)

(b)

(i)

(ii)

*$ " )*I " ) " Kc = *$I) must be square brackets (penalise once in paper)
+ if round' penalise but mark on in (iv) if Kc wrong' no marks in (iv) either but mark on from a minor slip in formula

(iii)

, cancels in Kc e(pression or no moles same on top and bottom of e(pression or total moles reactants = moles products' i!e! total no of moles does not change
( ! "#) " " Kc = ( !1%")

(iv)

1
+"

= ! 1%- or 1!%- & 1

.onseq on (i) Allow 0.018 or 1.8 102 (v) Kc = //!- or /0 Conseq i.e. (answer to (i ))1

1 1
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*4) *$ " 2) "


2. (a) 1c =

*3) *.$ # 2$) "


c

(1)

if K expression wrong lose units mark in (e) also must be [ ]

1 (b) !oles of X5 !"/ 6 !1# = !1" (1) !oles of met"anol5 !#7 6 !"0 = ! 8 (1) !oles of water5 !"0 (1) Equal no! of moles on each side of equation (1)
OR V cancels out (provi e not incorrectl! "ualifie )

(c)

(d)

!1# , !1" Cal#$lation5 1c = , = 11(!7) (1)

!"0 , ! 8 ,

"

"

(1)

#an score all 3 conse" on (b) an (c) $f ifferent values from (c) use allow units onl! (conse" on correct K )
c

%nits of Kc5 none (1)


but lose t%is mark if K is wrong even if none given
c

# (e) decrease (1) 1


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3.

(a)

&q$ation K#

9" : 2"

"92 (1) "

*92)" ; *9") *2") (1)

1 c

(b)

< e m p e ra tu re =s temperature increases 1c increases (or yield increases) (1) $ence reaction endothermic (1) " "

(c) (d)

<he product yield is very small (1) 4ield does not >ustify cost of producing high temp (1) (i) (ii) "92 : 2" "92" (1) ?isplaced to the right (1) 9o change (1)

C"ange in eq$ili'ri$m (osition C"ange in eq$ili'ri$m #onstant

#
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4.

(m$st state #orre#t effe#t on )iel* or rate to s#ore t"e reason mark) < effect5 effect5 reason5 +, more particles have EAEa +, more successful;productive collisions@ B effect5 effect5 +, greater collision frequency@ (- of . mark)
[']

higher temp5 higher temp5 endothermic

yield greater or shifts equilibrium to right@ rate increased@

1 1

1 1

higher pressure5 yield less or shifts equilibrium to left@ higher pressure5 rate increased@

reason5 increase in gas moles C to D 1

*$ " )*I " )


5. (a) (b) (i) 1c =

*$I)"

(1) "

! / or 1;" (1) forward rate increases (1) reverse rate increases (1) allow 1 mark for >ust EincreasedF allow " marks for Eboth increasedF (ii) (iii) no change (1) no change (1)

" 1 1
[']

6.

(a)

(i)

Moles 9a2$ = mv;1 = 1!/ & %"!/;1 = !1 8 to !11 (1) Moles of ethanoic acid at equilibrium = moles sodium hydro(ide (1) Moles ester = moles water (=moles acid reacted) (1) = !" + !1 8 = ! - to !-" (1) Moles ethanol = !11 + ! -1 = ! 18 to ! " (1) K. = *Ester) *Gater);*=cid) *=lcohol) (1) Allow if $se* #orre#tl) = ( ! -1)"; !1 - & ! 1- = #!% to 7!- (1) Ignore $nits /0 Allow t"e answer 1 one mark as #orre#t knowle*ge %

(ii)

Himilar (types) of bond broken and made (1) Hame number of the bonds broken and made (1) an) n$m'er if eq$al /0 If a list gi en t"en t"e total n$m'er of ea#" t)(e of 'on* 'roken an* ma*e m$st 'e t"e same

"

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7.

(a)

$omogeneous@ ?ynamic@ Equilibrium5 Equation@ Kc@

=ll reactants in the same phase or state (1) .ontinuous or Ion6goingI (1) .oncentrations of reactants and products constant or rates of forward and backward reactions equal (1) "9$# 9" : #$" (Must be decomposition) (1) /

*9")*$")#;*9$#)" (1)

(b)

.onditions5

decomposition favoured by high temp (1) since the reaction endothermic or logical statement with application of Ce .hatelierIs principle (1) decomposition favoured by low pressure (1) " mole gas giving 7 moles gas or more gas moles on right (1) 7

(c)

In practise

low pressure means low production (1) low pressure means low rate (1) high temperature means high rate (1) high temperature e(pensive (1)

.atalyst

equilibrium yield unaffected (1) rates of forward and backwards reactions increased by an equal amount (1) more hydrogen produced in a given time (1) Ma( 0
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