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# Lecture 3 Si Sinusoidal id l Steady-State St d St t A Analysis l i ( ) (III)

(chapter 9)

L Learning i goals l

Understand physical meanings of sinusoidal (ac) signals Understand the meaning of rms value of sinusoidal (ac) signals Understand phasor concepts and be able to perform a phasor transform and an inverse phasor transform Be able to transform a circuit with a sinusoidal source into frequency domain using phasor concepts Know how to apply pp y circuit analysis y methods to solve a circuit in frequency domain Be able to analyze circuits containing ideal transformer/ linear transformers using phasor method

Phasor
Phasoroperationtransferv(t)fromtimedomiantoafrequency

domain V

## v ( t ) = Vm cos( t + ) timedomain V = Vm e j frequencydomain = Vm = Vm cos + jVm sin

(complex ( p domain) )

## Inverse Phasor Transform

Inverse phasor operation transfers the v(t) from a frequency domain to a time domain 1 Inverse phasor transform P :
P 1 Vm e j = Re Vm e j e j t j t = Re V e

Examples:

## V = 100e ; = 300 rad , Findv(t)=? s

45o

v ( t ) = 100cos(300t + 45o )V

Source Transformation

Definition: Two configurations are equivalent if any resistor RL between a and b experiences the same current flow (and thus the same voltage drop).

Source Transformation

## Relationship between vs and is

vs iL = R + RL

R iL = is R + RL

This results into is = vs/R If the polarity of vs is reversed, the orientation of is must be reversed as well.

Source Transformation

## What happens if there is a resistor RP parallel to vs, or a resistor RS in series to is?

Source Transformation

What happens if there is a resistor RP parallel to vs, or a resistor RS in series to is? RP and RS have no effect on equivalent circuit w.r.t. terminals a and b, because the circuit produces the same voltage lt and d current t in i any l load d RL . So, if we are only interested in the load between a and b then we can ignore Rp and Rs b, But the total power is different !

Source Transformation

## Whats wrong g with the following g solution ?

Source Transformation

## Find the p power associated with the 6V source

Source Transformation

## Find the p power associated with the 6V source

Source Transformation

## The power associated with 6V source is

p = (19.2 - 6)/16 * 6 = 4.95w

## Source Transformation and Th-No Equivalent Circuits in Frequency-Domain

Source transformation:

The techniques for finding the Th. equ. Voltage & impedance are identical to those used for resistive circuits, except that the frequency-domain equivalent circuit involves the manipulation of complex quantities

Source Transformation
Example: p

Findv0 (t ) = ?

Source Transformation
s e Answer: Apply phasor transformation
= 4000 r s
240 cos(4000t + 53.13o ) 24053.13o 96sin 4000 96 90o 0.015 H j L = j 60 25 1 = j 60 6 jC

## 240 cos(4000t + 53.13 )

o

v0 (t )

96sin 4000t

Source Transformation

24053.13o

96 90o

## sourcetransformon 240 53.13o seriesj 60 24053.13o 453.13o o I= = = 4 36.87 parallelj 60 o 90 j 60

Source Transformation
j60 20 30
24053.13o

96 90o

-j60

## Redraw the circuit:

4 36.87o

24 90o 5

Source Transformation
4 36.87o

24 90o 5

## Add two current sources together

24 4 36.87 + ( 90o ) 5
o

24 24 o = 4cos( 36.87 ) + j sin( 36.87 ) cos( 90 ) j sin( 90o ) 5 5 24 = 3.2 j 2.4 + j = 3.2 + j 2.4 5
o o

Source Transformation
4 36.87o

24 90o 5

Equivalent Z :

1 1 1 1 Z eq = + + + j 60 30 j 60 20 Z eq = 12
1

## V0 = 12 (3.2 + j 2.4) = 48 36.86o v0 ( t ) = 48cos(4000 48 (4000t + 36.86 36 86o ) volt lt

Source Transformation
Example: Find the phasor voltage V0

400o

## Hint: Apply source transformation and equivalent impedance of series/parallel impedances

Replace a series combination of the voltage source & the impedance with the parallel combination of a current source and the impedance

400o

## (p (polarity y of voltage g source defines reference direction for current source I)

Combine two parallel branches into a single impedance Apply source transformation to convert the parallel combination to a series combination

Combine two parallel branches into a single impedance Apply source transformation to convert the parallel combination to a series combination

## Thvenin & Norton Equivalents

Every network consisting of independent and dependent sources and resistors with two terminals a and b can be replaced with equivalent circuits of the following form:

## Thvenin & Norton Equivalents

Only useful if we are interested in effect on a load How to calculate vTh and RTh ? Open circuit (RL = ) vTh is open circuit voltage of original circuit Short Sh t circuit i it (RL = 0) ishort = vTh / RTh RTh = vTh / ishort h t Dead network resistance (all sources = 0) RTh = vT / iT

## Thvenin & Norton Equivalents

Open circuit: (v0-25)/5 + v0/20 3 = 0 v0 = vTh = 32V Sh t circuit: Short i it ( (v0-25)/5 25)/5 + v0/20 3 + v0/4 = 0 v0 = 16V ishort = 16/4=4A RTh = vTh/ishort = 8 Can we apply Source Transformation to obtain the same result ? How ?

## Thevenins equivalent q circuits ( (Norton) )

VTh: Thevenin Th i voltage lt or open circuit voltage In: Norton current or short circuit current Zs: Source impedance p dead network impedance

## Thevenins equivalent q circuits ( (Norton) )

Example: Find the Thevenin equivalent circuit

400o

VTh , I N , Z s

IN

1 + j3

0.2+ j0.6

IT

400

9 j3

10 j19

IN

IT =

Vs Z eq

IN

1 + j3
IT

## 02+ j0.6 0.2 06

400

9 j3

10 j19

IN

400o 400o o = = 10.55 70.92 IT = 1.239 + j 3.584 3.7970.92o = 3.45 j 9.97 Amp

## Thevenins equivalent circuits (Norton) q ( )

The dead network impedance Turn off all sources in the network:

1 + j3

I4

0.2 + j0.6
I3

I2
a

I1

9 j3

10 j19

Zs

Z s = {[(1 + j 3) / /(9 j 3)] + (0.2 + j 0.6)} / /(10 j19) = 2.63 + j 2.84 = 3.87 47.2o

## Find the Thevenin equivalent q in Frequency q y domain

VX

Apply 2 source transformations to 120V, 120V 12om, 60om in order to get a 100V source in series with a 10om. How to find VTh ?

VX

## H How to fi find d RTh ?

Use test voltage source VT, deactivate Ind. Sou. Apply Kichhoffs laws:

## How to calculate VTh: ? How to calculate RTh: ?

To calculate VTh: many ways, use node voltage equs. To calculate RTh: many ways, use test voltage source

+ V1 -

+ VTh -

Find dt the e Thevenin e e impedance: peda ce remove e o e independent depe de t cu current e t source, then apply a test voltage source

Example:

j 40

VA

60
40
1000
o

j20

V0

Find V0 =?

## Node-Voltage Node Voltage Method

VA 100 0 VA VA + + =0 40 60 + j 20 j 40
o

## VA = 30 j 40 j 20 o V0 = VA = 15 15.8 8 18.45 18 45 volt 60 + j 20

1 1 1 100 0o + + VA ( )= j 40 40 60 + j 20 j 40

## Mesh-Current Mesh Current Method

gmeshcurrentanalysis: y Example: p FindVx using
C1 =100F
R1 = 100
I1
I2

vx

C2 = 20F

Given:
R2 =10

L 1 = 200mH
v1

R3 = 500

v2

V2 = 2060o volt

Z C1 = j 26.5

## Convert time domain to ff domain

Z C 2 = j133

VX

C1 = 100 F j 26.5
R2 =10

R1 = 100

## C 2 = 20 F j133 L1 = 200mH j 75.36

I1

I2
Z L1 = j 75.36

V1

R3 = 500

V2

KVL:
V1 = I1 R1 + I1 Z C 1 + ( I1 I 2 )( Z L1 + R3 ) V2 = ( I1 I 2 )( R3 + Z L1 ) I 2 Z C 2 I 2 R2