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### TRIGONOMETRIC IDENTITIES

The six trigonometric functions:

Sum and product formulas:

opp
y
hyp
r
1
1
sin acos b = [sin(a + b )+ sin (a - b )]
sinq =
=
csc q
=
=
=
2
hyp
r
opp
y
sin q
b =
1
cos
asin
[sin (a + b ) - sin (a -
b )]
2
x
hyp
r
1
1
cosq =
=
sec q
=
=
=
cos
acos b = [cos (a + b )+
cos (a
- b )]
2
hyp
r
x
cos q
1
sin a sin b = [cos (a - b )- cos (a + b )]
opp
y
sin q
x
1
2
tan q
=
=
=
cot q
=
=
=
a
+
b
a
-
b
sin a
+
sin b
= 2
sin(
)cos( )
x
cos q
opp
y
tan q
2
2
a
+
b
a
-
b
sin a
-
sin b
= 2
cos(
)sin( )
2
2
sin (a ± b ) = sin acos b ± cos a sin b
a
+
b
)cos( )
a
-
b
cos a
+
cosb
= 2
cos(
2
2
cos(a ± b) = cos a cosb m sin a sin b
a
+
b
)sin( )
a
-
b
cosa
-
cosb
= - 2
sin(
2
2
tan
a
±
tan
b
tan(
a
±
b
)
=
1m tan
a
tan
b
2
2
2
Law of cosines:
a
=
b
+
c
- 2
bc
cos
A
tan 2 q
=
2 tan q
tan
2
1 -
q
2
sin 2q = 2sin qcosq
cos2
q =
2cos
q -
1
side a.
p
1 =
2
2
2
cos 2
q =
1
-
2sin
q
cos2
q =
cos
q
2
2
sin
q +
cos
q -
q = 1
sin
180
180
p
2
2
2
2
tan
q +1 =
sec
q
cot
q +1=
csc
q
Reduction formulas:
sin(-q) = -sinq
cos(-q) = cosq
1
1
2
2
sin(q) = -sin(q - p)
cos(q) = -cos(q - p)
sin
q =
(
1-
cos
2q
)
cos
q =
(
1+
cos
2q
)
2
2
tan(-q) = - tanq
tan(q) = tan(q - p)
1
-
cosq
q
1 +
cosq
m
sin
x =
cos(
x ±
p
)
±
cos
x =
sin(
x ±
p
)
sin q
= ±
cos
= ±
2
2
2
2
2
2
±
j
q
Complex Numbers:
e
=
cos
q ±
j sin
q
q
1
-
cos
q
sin q
1 -
cos q
tan
= ±
=
=
j
q
-
j
q
1
j
q
-
j
q
2
1
+ cos q
1 + cos q
sin
q
cos
q =
1
(
e
+
e
)
sin
q =
(
e
-
e
)
2
j 2
TRIGONOMETRIC VALUES FOR COMMON ANGLES
Degrees
sin qq
cos qq
tan qq
cot qq
sec qq
csc qq
0
0
0
1
0
Undefined
1
Undefined
30
p/6
1/2
3 /
2
3 / 3
3
2
3 / 3
2
45
p/4
2 / 2
2 / 2
1
1
2
2
60
p/3
3
/
2
1/2
3
3 / 3
2
2
3 / 3
90
p/2
1
0
Undefined
0
Undefined
1
3
-1/2
-
120
2p/3
/
2
-
3
3 / 3
-2
2
3 / 3
135
3p/4
2 / 2
-
2 / 2
-1
-1
-
2
2
150
5p/6
1/2
-
3 /
2
-
3 / 3
- 3
- 2
3 /
3
2
180
p
0
-1
0
Undefined
-1
Undefined
210
7p/6
-1/2
-
3 /
2
3 / 3
3
- 2
3 /
3
-2
225
5p/4
- 2 / 2
-
2 / 2
1
1
-
2
-
2
240
4p/3
-
3
/
2
-1/2
3
3 / 3
-2
- 2
3 /
3
270
3p/2
-1
0
Undefined
0
Undefined
-1
300
5p/3
-
3
/
2
1/2
-
- 3
3
2
- 2
3 /
3
315
7p/4
- 2 / 2
2 / 2
-1
-1
2
-
2
330
11p/6
-1/2
3 /
2
-
3 / 3
- 3
2
3 / 3
-2
360
2p
0
1
0
Undefined
1
Undefined
Tom Penick
tomzap@eden.com
www.teicontrols.com/notes

Sum or difference of two angles:

Double angle formulas:

Pythagorean Identities:

Half angle formulas:

where A is the angle of a scalene triangle opposite

2/20/2000

Expansions for sine, cosine, tangent, cotangent:

357

6

5!

7!

246

cos

y =

1

2

4!

6!

tan y = y +

y

3

+

2

y

5

+L

3

15

1

-

y

-

y

3

-

2

y

5

cot y =

y

3

45

945

sinh

y

=

1

2

e

y

-

e

-

y

1

e

-

## )

cosh

y

=

y

+

e

y

2

sin y = y -+-+L yyy

-+-+L yyy

-L

Hyperbolic functions:

sinh jy = jsin y

cosh jy = jcos y

tanh jy = jtan y

Expansions for hyperbolic functions:

 sinh y = y + y 3 +L 6 cosh y = 1 + y 2 +L 2 sech y = 1 - y 2 + 5 y 4 -L 2 24 ctnh y = 1 + y - y 3 +L y 3 45 1 y 7 y 3 csch y = + - -L y 6 360 tanh y = y - y 3 + 2 y 5 -L 3 15

Tom Penick

tomzap@eden.com

www.teicontrols.com/notes

2/20/2000