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Improving Support Needs for Urban Water Supply in NTB and NTT

Detailed Engineering Design for PDAM Ende

Improving Support Needs for Urban Water Supply in NTB and NTT
Detailed Engineering Design for PDAM Ende

TECHNICAL REPORT
August 2011

INDONESIA INFRASTRUCTURE INITIATIVE This document has been published by the Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative (IndII), an Australian Government funded project designed to promote economic growth in Indonesia by enhancing the relevance, quality and quantum of infrastructure investment. The views expressed in this report do not necessarily reflect the views of the Australia Indonesia Partnership or the Australian Government. Please direct any comments or questions to the IndII Director, tel. +62 (21) 230-6063, fax +62 (21) 3190-2994. Website: www.indii.co.id.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This report has been prepared by Cardno-CRM Consulting Team who was engaged under the Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative (IndII), funded by AusAID, as part of the NTT/NTB Water Governance Project Stage 2 Activity 183. Any errors of fact or interpretation are solely those of the author. Cardno-CRM Consulting Team Jakarta, August 2011

IndII 2012 All original intellectual property contained within this document is the property of the Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative (IndII). It can be used freely without attribution by consultants and IndII partners in preparing IndII documents, reports designs and plans; it can also be used freely by other agencies or organisations, provided attribution is given. Every attempt has been made to ensure that referenced documents within this publication have been correctly attributed. However, IndII would value being advised of any corrections required, or advice concerning source documents and/ or updated data.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACRONYMS ................................................................................................................. III CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION......................................................................................... 1 1.1 INSTRUCTION AND OBJECTIVE................................................................ 1

CHAPTER 2: SYSTEM REVIEW ....................................................................................... 2 2.1 2.2 CURRENT SUPPLY ................................................................................ 2 INTAKE AND PRODUCTION FACILITIES ...................................................... 2 2.2.1 Pre-Sedimentation Tank......................................................... 4 2.2.2 Slow Sand Filter Units ............................................................ 4 2.2.3 Disinfection ........................................................................... 5 2.2.4 Ongoing Project ..................................................................... 5 SERVICE STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION..................................................... 5 2.3.1 Service Reservoir ................................................................... 6 2.3.2 Distribution Pumps ................................................................ 6

2.3

CHAPTER 3: PROJECTED NEEDS .................................................................................... 7 3.1 3.2 3.3 DEMAND ........................................................................................... 7 INTAKE AND PRODUCTION FACILITIES ...................................................... 7 SERVICE STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION..................................................... 8

CHAPTER 4: DESIGN NOTES FOR WTP UPGRADING ...................................................... 9 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 SCOPE OF WORKS ............................................................................... 9 PLANT CAPACITIES .............................................................................. 9 WATER SOURCE CONSIDERATIONS ......................................................... 9 PRE-SEDIMENTATION ........................................................................ 10 MIXING AND COAGULATION ............................................................... 10 SEDIMENTATION ............................................................................... 10 FILTRATION...................................................................................... 11 TREATED WATER STORAGE ................................................................. 11 REAGENTS ....................................................................................... 12

4.10 TREATED WATER PUMPING STATION .................................................... 12 CHAPTER 5: FOUNDATION CONSIDERATIONS ............................................................ 13 CHAPTER 6: RSF PLANT OPERATION ........................................................................... 15 CHAPTER 7: FUNDING CONSIDERATIONS ................................................................... 16 CHAPTER 8: CONCLUSIONS ......................................................................................... 17 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................... 18

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Chemical Dosing ........................................................................................... 12 Table 2: Comparison of Weight of Existing and Proposed Structure ............................ 13

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: PDAM off-take weir at Bendung Sokamoki on Wolowana River .....................3 Figure 2: Slow sand filter units .....................................................................................4 Figure 3: Short and medium term demand by source in Ende .......................................7

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ACRONYMS
ADB APBD Asian Development Bank Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Daerah (Regional or Local Government Budget for income and Expenditure) Anggaran Pendapatan dan Belanja Negara (National Budget for Income and Expenditure) Above Sea Level Badan Perencanaan dan Pembangunan Daerah (Local Development Planning Agency) Australian Government Overseas Aid Program Biro Pusat Statistik (Central Statistics Bureau) Regional Agency for the Public Works Department Direktorat Jenderal Cipta Karya (Directorate General of Human Settlements under the Public Works Department) Departemen Perkejaan Umum (Public Works Department) Government of Indonesia Indonesia Rupiah Indonesian Infrastructure Initiative Non-Revenue Water Perusahaan Daerah Air Minum (Local Goernment Water Supply Enterprise) Nusa Tenggara Timur (Province) Nephelometric Turbidity Units Nusa Tenggara Timur (Province) Rapid sand filter Surat Ijin Pengambilan Air (Water Abstraction Permit) Slow sand filter

APBN

ASL Bappeda

AusAid BPS Dinas PU DJCK

DPU GoI IDR INDII NRW PDAM

NTB NTU NTT RSF SIPA SSF

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CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION
1.1 INSTRUCTION AND OBJECTIVE

This is the Final Report of the Cardno-CRM Consulting Team with regard to the NTT/NTB Water Governance Project Stage 2 Activity 183. It describes the overall project achievements under this activity. The work has been carried out pursuant to an instruction from SMEC International. The work forms part of the Indonesian Infrastructure Initiative (IndII) which is funded by the Australian Government through AusAid. The objective of the activity is to provide the PDAMs of Ende, NTT and Dompu, NTB with procurement documents for capital works which will expand their systems. The proposed works include the implementation of a conversion of existing slow sand filters to rapid sand filter operation in Ende and an upgrading of the distribution network in Dompu. The NTT/NTB Water Governance project has secured Social Contracts between the PDAMs, Local Governments (LGs), and the water supply consumer representatives of the participating LGs. As part of the incentives for achieving the outputs of the social contracts, IndII has agreed to provide support to the PDAMs and LGs. In the case of Ende and Dompu that support includes assistance with the design of the water supply improvements necessary to utilise funds provided for expansion by the LG. The design assistance is the objective of this consulting assignment. The report defines the scope of Detailed Engineering Designs for capital works required for systems expansion in each location. The related tender documents for these works have been provided separately. It is important to note that the scope of work does not include consideration of the affordability of such works in terms of increased operational and loan service costs leading to increases in tariffs.

DETAIL ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR PDAM ENDE Final Report

CHAPTER 2: SYSTEM REVIEW


2.1 CURRENT SUPPLY

The city of Ende is located on the southern shores of Flores Island in relatively mountainous terrain. It is some 750 kms east of Denpasar. The current population of the town is just in excess of 260,000 persons. The town has a broad economic base and operates as a service centre for the surrounding area. It has no major industry with fishing, tourism and the Flores University being the significant contributors to the local economy. The population is growing at a modest rate of 1.15 percent per annum. PDAM Kelimutu Ende provides water supply services to some 8,089 customers. In excess of 95 percent of these connections are domestic. The current total production capacity is around 52 l/sec. This is made up of a main town area supply system of 17 l/sec in a slow sand filter treatment plant and 35 l/sec in five separate small spring supplied systems. The major supply system from the Wolowana River was constructed in the mid-1980s. The original DJCK design report1 indicates that this main town area supply system originally had a design capacity of 30 l/sec. This applied to the treatment plant and also the service storage and distribution system. PDAM have calculated that they need 87 l/sec of production capacity to fully service the 8,089 customers currently connected to their systems. PDAM also propose that the expansion works should focus on the main system supplied from the Wolowana River. The increase of production capacity immediately required is therefore some 35 l/sec. The following sections of this report therefore focus on the main town area supply system from the Wolowana River only.

2.2

INTAKE AND PRODUCTION FACILITIES

The Wolowana River intake and production facilities consist of: Intake weir Raw water transmission mains Pre-sedimentation tank Slow sand filter beds Disinfection equipment

Direktorat Jenderal Cipta Karya: Perencanaan Teknis Sistem Penyediaan Air Bersih Kota Ende1988

DETAIL ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR PDAM ENDE Final Report

CHAPTER 2: SYSTEM REVIEW

The current draw-off from the Wolowana River is at a diversion weir north of the treatment plant. The minimum debit in the river was reported by PDAM as 900 l/sec. The PDAM currently does not have a formal permit for abstraction (SIPA) from the river. Since the flow in the river is quite substantial and the distance to the sea relatively short, consideration of downstream users in any increased abstraction should not present a problem.
Figure 1: PDAM off-take weir at Bendung Sokamoki on Wolowana River

Note: The PDAM intake pipe is submerged in the irrigation channel and there are sandbags atop the weir to increase the water level upstream and in the irrigation channel.

Initially the raw water intake was located at Kelurahan Rawarangga (elevation 50.1m) upstream of current draw off. However, the transmission pipe was laid across the river without any protection and during the rainy season increasing water levels and high flow rates caused many pipe breakages. Eventually the transmission pipe was washed away causing a stoppage of production. PDAM relocated the draw off to the weir at Bendung Sokomoki (elevation 44.3m). The raw water now flows by gravity through two parallel pipes 200mm diameter and of length 1.5km. The capacity of each pipe is around 40 l/s. The transmission pipe has been simply laid inside an irrigation channel for much of its length. The quality of water observed at the time of the visit was quite good. It appeared suitable for discharge direct to the distribution system after disinfection, however there is no by-pass facility on the slow sand filters. Although the raw water condition at the time of the visit was quite clear, it can suddenly change during the rainy season with turbidity becoming much higher (> 50 NTU). Apart from this turbidity problem there are several upstream users of the water. Community usage for bathing and washing adjacent to the pipe inlet causes detergent

DETAIL ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR PDAM ENDE Final Report

to flow to the irrigation channel and also to the transmission main. There is no bar screen to prevent the inflow of plastic, leaves or other waste into the pipe. The slow sand filter plant is located in a compound adjacent to the main north-south road in the north of the city. The compound also accommodates the PDAM offices and workshop facilities.
Figure 2: Slow sand filter units

Note: The water truck is parked in the remaining vacant land which will be the area used for construction of the new 30 l/sec plant being provided by Dinas PU Propinsi NTT.

2.2.1 Pre-Sedimentation Tank Raw water flows by gravity into the pre-sedimentation tank which has total a volume 300 m3. There is one tank of 8.5m width by 19.65m length and 2.5m depth. The detention time in the pre sedimentation tank at the design production capacity of 30 l/s is about 3 hours.

2.2.2 Slow Sand Filter Units From the pre-sedimentation tank water flows through a diversion channel and is divided to two compartments of slow sand filter units. These are reinforced concrete and are in a sound condition structurally. The tanks are 15.1m width by 25.0m length and 3.0m depth. The slow sand filters are relatively simple in arrangement, having only three basic elements: filter box, filter sand and under drain and support system.

DETAIL ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR PDAM ENDE Final Report

CHAPTER 2: SYSTEM REVIEW

Because of a relatively low rate velocity in the SSF, head loss across the bed occurs gradually over a much longer time. Slow sand filtration accomplished its treatment primarily through biological activities with the bulk of this activity taking place at top layer and called schmutdecke, as an accumulation of organic and in organic debris and particulate matter in which biological activity is stimulated and therefore recommended raw water turbidity should be less than 5 NTU. Depth of the sand is 120 cm and the PDAM uses local beach sand which they have washed to remove salinity. Gravel support media uses local gravel with the coarsest on the bottom and becoming finer within each layer. The total depth of gravel is 30 cm. Supernatant water height is about 80 cm above the filter sand. The under drains consist of a manifold with perforated laterals installed below the gravel/sand filter. The lateral pipe diameter is 2 with a distance of 60 cm with under drain header diameter 8. All the lateral pipes are PVC type.

2.2.3 Disinfection Disinfection is achieved with sodium hypochlorite using dosing equipment from Mohm. Sodium hypochlorite is diluted in a tank with concentration of 5-10 percent. There is no exact dosing since the PDAM does not have the required laboratory equipment. Raw water and clear water analysis is done only once a month by Balai Kesehatan and Teknik Lingkungan Kabupaten Ende.

2.2.4 Ongoing Project Construction has commenced for an additional treatment plant located alongside the slow sand filter plant. This plant is being provided by the Central Government under APBN funding. The project management for the plant design and construction is being provided by the Provincial Dinas PU Cipta Karya, based in Kupang. The plant will draw water through the current intake system from the Wolowana River and will provide 30 l/sec of additional production capacity. It is expected to be operational before the end of 2011.

2.3

SERVICE STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION

The service storage and distribution system which is served by the main Wolowana River treatment plant consists of: Service reservoir Pumps to distribution system Distribution mains House connections

DETAIL ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR PDAM ENDE Final Report

2.3.1 Service Reservoir The capacity of the service storage is only 200m3 which is less than 8 percent of Slow Sand Filter design production rate of 30 l/s. The storage reservoir was built in mid1980s and consists of two tanks with dimensions width 4m by length 12.5m and depth 2.5m.

2.3.2 Distribution Pumps The distribution system serviced by the treated water abstracted from the Wolowona River includes both pumping and gravity feed. The treated water is pumped to the service reservoir at an elevation of 60m asl located at Jalan Eltari. There are some tappings for consumers along the pipeline to Reservoir at Jalan Eltari. The distribution system pumps originally included: 1 Unit Ebara Multi stage Pump coupled with Teco electromotor, with capacity Q= 37.5 l/s and total head H=96m 1 unit Ebara Multi Stage Pump coupled with Dong Feng Diesel Engine (1 unit) with capacity Q= 37.5 l/s and total head H=96m

Operation of the system was initially by one pump when electricity was available. If no electricity was available the pump coupled with diesel engine was used. Due to the efficiency of pump and problems with diesel engine, the pump with diesel engine was abandoned in 2005 after new Grundfoss pumps (3 no.) provided by AusAid were installed. The new vertical spindle Grundfoss pump specification is: capacity each pump Q= 17,5 l/s and total head H=96 m. Two pumps are operated with one pump standby. However at times PDAM operate three pumps together which provides a total capacity 52.5 l/s through a combination of the Ebara pump 37.5 l/s and one Grundfoss pump 17.5 l/s. This operational method indicates that the SSF fed system is being operated at above the initial design level.

DETAIL ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR PDAM ENDE Final Report

CHAPTER 3: PROJECTED NEEDS

CHAPTER 3: PROJECTED NEEDS


3.1 DEMAND

PDAM Ende assess that the total demand to service existing customers is 87 l/sec. PDAM has a current formal waiting list of some 1,250 customers. This represents around 11 l/sec of additional demand assuming a NRW level of 30 percent at around 120 l/cap/day. Therefore to service the existing customers plus the waiting list some 98 l/sec of production or an additional 46 l/sec is required. Since the on-going PU project will provide an extra 30 l/sec, a possible interim upgrading of the existing Wolowana treatment plant for the short term might add around 16 l/sec capacity bringing it to 33 l/sec.
Figure 3: Short and medium term demand by source in Ende 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Short term Medium term Springs PU addition 2011 Main WTP

The draft Business Plan, which was prepared with assistance from IndII, indicates that the PDAM wish to add a further 10,000 connections in the five year period to 2016. This would double the size of the existing operation and represents around 83 l/sec of additional demand, assuming an improved NRW level of 20 percent. Taking the ongoing PU project and improved NRW into account, the upgrading of the existing Wolowana SSF treatment plant for the medium term should provide an overall capacity of around 100 l/sec in order to service the Business Plan.

3.2

INTAKE AND PRODUCTION FACILITIES

The first requirement for the medium term expansion is provision of an additional raw water transmission main. This would deliver an additional 50 l/sec by gravity to the

DETAIL ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR PDAM ENDE Final Report

treatment plant. At the meeting on 3 August 2011, the PDAM expressed a wish that a new intake be constructed some 6.5 km upstream of the existing treatment facilities. It appears, from the above demand analysis that a conversion of the existing slow sand filter treatment plant to conventional rapid gravity sand filter operation should provide a new plant with a total capacity of in the order of 100 l/sec. From a site constraint viewpoint, it appears that the major area of vacant land still available at the site will be occupied by the new 30 l/sec treatment plant being provided by Dinas PU. Discussions with PDAM have confirmed that they wish any upgrading of the slow sand filter plant should be accommodated within the existing structures. The consultants assessed that a conversion of one of the existing tanks will provide sufficient additional treatment capacity for the medium term. A longitudinal division of the converted tank is also proposed so that two units of nominal capacity 50 l/sec can be constructed. The plant is proposed to include chemical dosing, mixing, clarification in hopper bottomed units fitted with lamellar plates and conventional rapid gravity sand filters. A new pump house and associated facilities will be required to accommodate the increased production capacity. The consultant also proposes that a by-pass be provided to the plant for periods when the raw water quality is such that it requires chlorination only.

3.3

SERVICE STORAGE AND DISTRIBUTION

The Wolowana system was designed to provide 30 l/sec to the main area of the town. The current service reservoir capacity of 200m3 is grossly inadequate. A total capacity of 1,800m3 is recommended. Since only one of the existing slow sand filters is needed for conversion for the medium term, it is proposed that the second be converted for use as a clearwater tank/service reservoir. This would provide an additional 900m3 of service storage capacity. Clearly, since the original distribution system was designed to provide 30 l/sec capacity, considerable upgrading will be required to accommodate the proposed expansion of production facilities. A full evaluation of the scope of upgrading required is beyond the scope of work for this project.

DETAIL ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR PDAM ENDE Final Report

CHAPTER 4: DESIGN NOTES FOR WTP UPGRADING

CHAPTER 4: DESIGN NOTES FOR WTP UPGRADING


4.1 SCOPE OF WORKS

Pursuant to discussions following submission of the Initial Assessment Report it was concluded that the scope of work in Ende include: The conversion of existing filter no.1 into two parallel treatment units each of 50 l/sec capacity providing: o chemical dosing o mixing o clarification o rapid gravity sand filtration The provision of a by-pass facility

The design aims to achieve conversion of an existing Slow Sand Filter to Rapid Sand Filter operation with additional process of flocculation and sedimentation and disinfection. Construction of 100 l/s plant shall be located at the existing SSF adjacent to PDAM Ende office.

4.2

PLANT CAPACITIES

Following the consultants review and based on discussions with both PDAM Ende and IndII it was agreed that the design the conversion of the SSF to RSF be based on the following capacities: Raw water Treated water 110 lps 100 lps

4.3

WATER SOURCE CONSIDERATIONS

All vegetation and debris must be removed from the intake at Wolowona River. From an operational viewpoint, during low turbidity (less than 5 ppm) water should be diverted to by-pass the Rapid Sand Filter (RSF). It must be emphasised that environmental protection shall be required to prevent erosion along the river bank (irrigation channel). The raw water will flow by gravity to the treatment plant as indicated by the following levels: Raw water level upstream the inlet of treatment plant Treated water reservoir, top water level Treated water level, minimum level 20.12 m asl 19.50 m asl 17.50m asl

DETAIL ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR PDAM ENDE Final Report

4.4

PRE-SEDIMENTATION

It is proposed that the existing pre-sedimentation tank shall continue to be used. Detailed data on this existing tank is as follows: Dimensions Water depth Volume Detention time 16.75 x 8 m 3m 402 m3 60 minutes

During periods when the raw water turbidity is low, raw water may be either passed directly to the RSF or if the quality permits it may be passed directly to disinfection facility and the clearwater storage tank, proposed to be provided by conversion of the second SSF unit.

4.5

MIXING AND COAGULATION

The mixing and coagulation tank shall be designed for a raw water flow of 110 l/s with 2 compartments @ 55l/s capacity (198m3/hr). Their characteristics are as follows: Detention time Minimum Volume Dimension Water height Volume 20 minutes @ 198 m3/hr 1/3x198 = 66 m3 7x4m 2.5 m 70 m3

4.6

SEDIMENTATION

The plant shall include two Sedimentation Tanks with lamella/plate settlers. Each sedimentation tank shall be sized and designed to treat half nominal input i.e. 55 l/s (198 m3/hr). Their characteristics are as follows: Surface loading Minimum area Total area Dimensions Water height Volume Retention time 5.65 m3/m2/hr 198/5.65 = 35 m2 35 m2 7x5m 2.5 m 87.5 m3 135 minutes

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DETAIL ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR PDAM ENDE Final Report

CHAPTER 4: DESIGN NOTES FOR WTP UPGRADING

Lamella plate/tube settler: Hexagonal tube settler (2 inch/50 mm, =60) preferable since higher efficiency compared to plate settler Sludge extraction larger diameter pipe to permit higher desludging rate (up to 10 percent)

4.7

FILTRATION

Each sedimentation tank (198 m3/hr) will be served by 2 Filters (99 m3/hr), and shall have characteristic as follows: Filtration velocity Surface area Dimension Back wash water flow Backwash air flow Depth of sand/gravel Sand effective size 3.5 m3/m2/hr 99/3.5 = 28 m2 7x 4m 198 m3/h (7m3/h/m2) 396 m3/h (14 m3/h/m2) 1m 0.9- 1.0 mm

The backwashing equipment shall include: Two backwash pumps (one as stand by) Two air blowers (one as standby)

4.8

TREATED WATER STORAGE

Reservoir converted from unit SSF Additional Reservoir converted from existing SSF with dimension as follows: Dimension Total area Water height Volume Retention time 24 x 15 m 360 m2 2m 720 m3 720/(2x198)x60 = 110 minutes

DETAIL ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR PDAM ENDE Final Report

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4.9

REAGENTS

The storage space of all reagents shall be designed for capacity of 110 l/s. For each reagent, 2 preparation tanks (24 h retention time) shall be provided. Preparation tanks and dosing pumps shall be sized on the following basis of 110 l/s capacity.
Table 1: Chemical Dosing Maximum dosage 50 3 Consumption kg/hr 19.8 1.2 Concentration solution g/l 150 150 Output l/h 130 8 Tank Volume m3 3.2 0.2

Chemical Alum Sulphate Sodium Hypochlorite

4.10 TREATED WATER PUMPING STATION The treated water shall be pumped up to the Eltari Reservoir located at elevation + 60 m. 3 no pumps of 50 l/s head 92 m capacity each, shall be installed with two operation and one standby.

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DETAIL ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR PDAM ENDE Final Report

CHAPTER 5: FOUNDATION CONSIDERATIONS

CHAPTER 5: FOUNDATION CONSIDERATIONS


As outlined above, the RSF plant will simply be constructed within an existing SSF which, for the present, continues to be operated. As such it was not possible to test the foundations underneath the tank in order to check for any possible settlement problems. In addition soil test results were sought from the Provincial Dinas PU who are constructing a new plant adjacent to the existing SSF plant. No soil test results are available. The area of Ende is strongly influenced by volcanic activity (Ref 1). The town area is quite hilly with rock outcropping in many locations. The immediate area around the Wolowona River is a mixture of extrusive and intrusive rocks, especially alkaline Andesite lava and volcanic breccia of a young age. The foundation under the existing tanks is therefore reasonably solid and possibly rock. For the purpose of comparison we have computed the total weight of the existing single SSF and the weight of the new RSF which will be constructed inside the existing tank.
Table 2: Comparison of Weight of Existing and Proposed Structure DIMENSIONS (M) ITEM
Length

WEIGHTS (KGS) Water


1,065,435

Width

Height

Floor 266,359

Wall 177,525

Sand
1,278,522

Total 2,787,841

SLOW SAND FILTER RAPID SAND FILTER Flocculator Tube Settler Filter Filtrate Sump Pump house SSF box TOTALS

26

14

15 15 6 2 6

4 6 15 15 15

2 3 3 3 3

80,475 226,563 217,500 72,500 0

134,125 110,692 65,250 20,010 87,000 266,359

36,274 206,280 93,012 105,156 65,250 177,525 683,497

0 0 184,440 0

250,874 543,534 560,202 197,666 152,250 443,884

597,038

683,436

184,440

2,148,411

DETAIL ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR PDAM ENDE Final Report

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Notes: 1. 2. Assumptions for Specific Gravity: Sand and rock 1,800 kg/m3, Concrete 2,500 kg/m3. Wall thickness for all concrete structures is 300 mm

Based on the above calculation the new RSF will apply a lesser load on the foundation and therefore it may be expected that no settlement problems will be encountered. However, it is recommended that the civil works contract include site investigation work prior to commencement of construction. The minimum bearing capacity required would be: 2,148,411 kg/(26 x 14) sq m= 5.9 tonne per sq m FOS 1.5 x 5.9 = 8.9 tonne per sq m

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DETAIL ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR PDAM ENDE Final Report

CHAPTER 6: RSF PLANT OPERATION

CHAPTER 6: RSF PLANT OPERATION


Included as Annex A to this report are a series of Standard Operating Procedure sheets. These will need to be supplemented with data and information which will be provided by the successful bidder for supply of the plant and equipment. In addition to the above it is recommended that consideration be given by IndII to providing further assistance at the time of startup and commissioning the new RSF plant. This might be in the form of hands-on operator training.

DETAIL ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR PDAM ENDE Final Report

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CHAPTER 7: FUNDING CONSIDERATIONS


PDAM advised that a limited budget might be provided by the Local Government for the RSF conversion works and this would be in the order of Rp200-300 million. The Consultants preliminary estimate of cost for the treatment unit upgrading with full mechanical equipment and facilities for semi-automatic operation is in the order of Rp2 to 3 billion (A$220,000 to $330,000). This is some ten times the amount reported to be accessible from the APBD. In addition, the Consultant suggests that significant additional works, apart from the WTP conversion, need to be undertaken before the new plant can be fully utilised. At discussions with the PDAM on 3 August 2011, the PDAM expressed a wish that some grant funding might be provided either through IndII or the APBN. They also expressed a wish that IndII might provide some assistance with regard to computerisation, software and human resource development.

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DETAIL ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR PDAM ENDE Final Report

CHAPTER 8: CONCLUSIONS

CHAPTER 8: CONCLUSIONS
It was concluded that the proposed conversion of the existing SSF to RSF could be achieved from a technical viewpoint. The DED work was therefore based on the following: The conversion of existing filter no.1 into two parallel treatment units each of 50 l/sec capacity providing: o Chemical dosing o Mixing o Clarification o Rapid gravity sand filtration The provision of a by-pass facility

It is recommended that the civil works contract include site investigation work prior to commencement of construction. The minimum bearing capacity required would be 8.9 tonne per sq meter. Attention is drawn to the need to provide the following additional works so that the new rapid gravity sand filters can be fully utilised: The conversion of filter no. 2 into a clearwater reservoir (achieved by providing a roof over the existing structure) Additional raw water transmission main of 50 l/sec capacity and 6.5km in length Disinfection (needs to be coordinated with on-going PU project for new 30 l/sec plant) Additional clear water distribution pumps Upgrading of the distribution system to accommodate the increased production capacity

From a priority viewpoint consideration might be given to constructing the raw water transmission main, by-pass and disinfection facilities as a first phase with the full conversion to rapid gravity sand filter operation following when funds permit.

DETAIL ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR PDAM ENDE Final Report

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REFERENCES
1. DJCK Perencanaan Teknis Sistem Penyediaan Air Bersih Kota Ende 1988 2. Peraturan Menteri Pekerjaan Umum No. 18/PRT/M/2007, DGCK, Dep.PU, 6 June 2007

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DETAIL ENGINEERING DESIGN FOR PDAM ENDE Final Report

SCOPING STUDY SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT INDONESIA

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