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System Overview EWSD Siemens

SN2010EU13SN_0002
2002 Siemens AG
1

Contents
1 EWSD in ISDN 3
1.1 Applications of EWSD in the ISDN 4
1.2 EWSD Feature Overview 6
2 EWSD Hardware Overview 9
2.1 Mechanical Design 10
2.2 Overview: System Architecture 12
3 Functional Structure of the Digital Line Unit (DLU) 19
3.1 Function Overview DLU B/D 20
3.2 Overview of DLU G Functions 32
3.3 xDSL Interfaces at EWSD DLU 44
4 Functional Structure of the Line Trunk Group (LTG) 47
4.1 External 2 Mbps Interfaces to LTG 48
4.2 Function Overview LTG 50
4.3 LTG Functional Types 52
4.4 Functional Units of the LTG 54
5 Functional Structure of the Remote Switching Unit RSU 57
5.1 Function Overview 58
5.2 RSU Functional Units 60
5.3 RSU Capacity Stage 62
5.4 RSU Emergency Operation 64
6 Functional Structure of the Switching Network (SN) 67
6.1 Internal EWSD Interfaces on the SN 68
6.2 Function Overview SN 70
System Overview EWSD
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6.3 SN B (EWSD-CLASSIC) 72
6.4 SN D (EWSD-POWERNODE) 76
7 Functional Structure of the Coordination Processor (CP) 81
7.1 Function Overview CP 82
7.2 System Features of the CP113 84
7.3 Functional Units of the CP 86
7.4 Input-Output Processors of the CP113 88
8 Functional Structure of the SS7 Network Control 91
8.1 Function Overview of the SS7 Network Control 92
8.2 Structure of the CCNC 96
8.3 Structure of the Signaling System Network Control SSNC 100
9 Application Program System (APS) 107
9.1 Components of the APS 108
9.2 APS Facts 110
10 Overview: EWSD Internal Call Setup 113
11 Exercise 119
12 Solution 123


System Overview EWSD Siemens


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1 EWSD in ISDN
Siemens System Overview EWSD


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1.1 Applications of EWSD in the ISDN
The fully digital switching system EWSD was released on the world market in 1981
and has since then been constantly further developed.
In addition to the standard EWSD exchange which is offered in different hardware
configurations, the following special solutions are also available:
For lightly populated areas, it is however possible to use very small exchanges
from the EWSCountry range (e.g. the Small Digital Exchange SDE for up to 3000
subscribers).
If there is no infrastructure for telecommunications equipment, EWSD can then be
delivered in containers which in addition to the EWSD switching equipment, also
contain the required equipment for power supply, air conditioning, transmission
technology and a main distributor.
Application options in ISDN/PSTN:
Local network node:
Up to 250,000 analog/digital subscribers (1 million in the EWSD powernode) can
be connected either directly or via V5 interfaces using access networks.
With direct connection, the EWSD units for subscriber interfaces can be installed
both remotely and in exchange buildings. Remote installation (Remote DLU /
Remote Switching Unit RSU) supports the direct connection of subscribers of
different local networks to one EWSD.
It is also possible to offer with EWSD a so called high bit rate access to the
Internet (i.e., the hardware required for xDSL solutions can be integrated into
EWSD).
Furthermore EWSD can be equipped with an integrated Point of Presence PoP
(Remote Access Server for 64kb/s Internet access of dial-in users).
These two options enable internet traffic off loading in the local EWSD network
node.
Transit network nodes:
Up to 60,000 digital trunks (240,000 in the EWSD powernode) from/to other
exchanges can be connected to EWSD via 2Mbps PCM routes. The 2Mb/s
interfaces for the trunks can be installed both in the exchange building or remotely
(Remote Switching Unit RSU solution).

Gateway network nodes:
EWSD offers networks of other operators/countries all gateway functions such as
international signaling procedures, echo compensation for inter-continental
connections or satellite routes and inter-administrative billing and statistics.

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Service Switching Point SSP of the IN:
EWSD can serve as SSP for IN connections. EWSD can also support the dialog
between subscriber and Service Center Point SCP (User Interactive Dialog) using
voice recognition and individual announcement systems. It also provides access to
external intelligent peripherals such as voice or faxmail systems.
All applications can be combined in an exchange.
direct connection of
subscribers via local
DLU or remote RDLU/RSU
V5 interfaces to the
access networks
Local Node
(optional with
internet traffic
off-loading)
Transit Node
EWSD
Gateway Node Service Switching Point SSP
EWSD in the ISDN/PSTN
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Local or remote (via RSU)
connection of 2 Mb/s
systems (E1)

Fig. 1

TIP
It is also possible to configure EWSD in such a way that it can be used as a very
powerful stand alone Signaling Transfer Point STP (called hiS700).

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1.2 EWSD Feature Overview
EWSD features should
offer subscribers the possibility to use the telecommunications services with
operating comfort in a versatile manner
yield optimal business management results for the operating company
adapt to current needs easily.
So far as feature recommendations or standardizations of ETSI or ITU-T exist, these
are taken into consideration upon the realization of the feature in EWSD.
The offer of features has grown a great deal since the introduction of EWSD. This
trend continues, following the demands of the market. Here a difference must be
made between the offer of features and the scope of features of an EWSD version
delivered to a network operator. The actual feature scope of an EWSD version
delivered to a network operator is the contractually regulated subset of the feature
offer. It is established in a project-specific feature list.
The abundance of EWSD features is subdivided into feature groups:

Interface to
subscriber
equipment
features
Analog
subscriber
features
System
features
e.g.
Automatic
Call
diversion

callback
Malicious
Call tracing
as with
analog
subscribers,
but in addition
e.g.

Closed user
group
Multiple
subscriber
numbers
e.g.
analog a/b
interface
digital U
interface
V5
interfaces
e.g.
Control
of the system
time with
a radio clock

File transfer
to the post-
processing
center
Numbering and routing
features
Interexchange
signaling
features
e.g.
Digit translation with
consideration to calling
party attributes
(e.g. local area code
of the calling party)
Selection of the route
of a call by means
of fixed alternative
routing or optimized
dynamic routing
e.g.
Channel
associated
signaling such
as MFCR2, E&M...
Common
channel signaling
CCS7 with
user/application
parts such as
ITUP, ISUP,
SCCP, TCAP,
INAP...
Charging
features
e.g.
Metering
procedure

Automatic
message
accounting
Billing
between
network
operators
ISDN
subscriber
features


Fig. 2


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GEOcentrex features ADMOSS features
Implementation of exchange
features for one group of
subscribers directly connected to
EWSD (CENTREX group) such
as
Common abbreviated
directory number list
Call Pick Up
The possibility to administrate
the database of the CENTREX
group from one subscriber-
equivalent connected control
terminal
ADMOSS (Advanced
multifunctional operator service
system), with its multifunctional
operator's position (MSB) facilitates
the provisioning of operator
services in the network such as
Directory number information
with immediate forwarding
Language assistance for
international calls
Booking of calls
Setup of large conference
circuits
O&M features
Service handling point tasks for
handling IN features such as
Freephone
Televoting
Universal personal
telecommunication
e.g.
Decentralized O&M terminals:
operation and maintenace
terminal (NetM-boot or
BCT/BOOT)
Centralized operation via a
network management center
with net manager NetM
Intelligent network features

Fig. 3
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System Overview EWSD Siemens


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2 EWSD Hardware Overview
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2.1 Mechanical Design
Rackrow
One or several network elements of the same or different types can be installed in
an installation room. The individual installation units are installed in rows. Such a
row is called a rackrow. These rackrows are numbered consecutively (rackrow
number) inside a room to make it possible to find them for maintenance.
Rack
A rack is subdivision within a rackrow. A rack has two doors on both the front and
rear side for reaching the HW modules or the cabling of the rack. A rack is
identified by the rack number.
Frame
The frames are located inside the rack. A frame comprises a metal frame as a
mechanical carrier, plastic shelves on the front side for holding the hardware
modules, and a multilayer backplane on the back side for the electric connections
within a frame and for plugging the cable to other frames or external equipment. A
frame can hold one or two horizontal rows of modules, depending on the size of
the backplane. A frame is identified by the so-called mounting unit or MUT. The
MUT serially numbers the individual horizontal sections of a rack from top to
bottom.
Two types of frames are used in the moment: SIPAC and SIVAPAC. Both types
mainly differ in the structure of the backplane and the plugs.
Module
The HW modules are located within the frame. The module rows within a MUT
are identified with the letter A or C in order to facilitate finding the modules even
with frames of several rows. The position of the modules within a module row are
identified by the module location or MOLOC (with SSNC called PITCH), which
is stamped on the metal carriers of the frame.
The entire rear wall cabling is pluggable. The cables are delivered with connected
cable connectors and in the required length.
EWSD installations get their supply voltage (48 V or 60 V DC) from central power
supply systems with battery.

System Overview EWSD Siemens


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SIEMENS SIEMENS SIEMENS
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4
EWSD Mechanical Setup
01
02
03
04
05
06
M
U
T
1
2
3
Rack rows
Racks
1 2 3
Module location
001 007 013 019 025 031 037 043 049 055 061 067 073 079 085 091 097 103 109 115 121
Module frame
M
o
d
u
l
e

Fig. 4

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2.2 Overview: System Architecture
2.2.1 Overview of Hardware Configurations and Software
Releases
Currently EWSD is used in over 100 countries where the hardware configurations
and software releases in the table below are mainly used.
The different HW units are described on the following pages.




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Hardware
Configuration
Software
Version
max. switched
traffic volume
in ERLANG
Busy Hour
Call Attempts
EWSD CLASSIC

with Common
Channel Network
Controller CCNC

with Switching
Network SN A/B

with Remote
Switching Unit RSU
(only V14A / V15)
V11 / V12 /
V13A / V14A /
V15
up to 25000 more than
1000000
EWSD POWERNODE

with Signaling
System Network
Control SSNC

with Switching
Network SN D

with Remote
Switching Unit RSU
(only V15)
V13T / V15 up to 100000 up to 4000000

Fig. 5

TIP
Following additional features can be also used with EWSD SW versions V12I, V13I,
V14A and V15:
high bit rate Internet access via xDSL lines
integrated PoP for dial-in users

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2.2.2 Overview: HW Units of EWSD CLASSIC Configuration

EWSD-CLASSIC includes the following HW units which are all equipped with their
own control processors.
Digital Line Unit (DLU)
Digital Line Unit version A/B/D are connected to 2 LTG's via a maximum of four
2Mbps. Digital Line Unit version G is connected to 4 LTG's via a maximum of
16x2Mbps. Compared with the DLU A/B/D, more subscribers can be connected
here and a larger traffic volume can be relayed towards the LTGs.
By default, ISDN BA and analog subscribers are connected to the DLU. Here the
DLU serves as a digital concentrator. Furthermore the DLU can contain a packet
hub which is used as an interface to the Internet for the High Bit Rate Data of the
xDSL subscribers of this DLU (ATTANE hiA functionality).
Line Trunk Group (LTG)
The LTG serves to connect up to four PCM30 systems (2Mbps) which are used to
connect other exchanges, DLU's and PBX's. The individual LTG's are connected
to the duplicated switching network via 8Mbps highways.
Furthermore a PoP can be connected to the LTG. Such a PoP takes over the
Remote Access Server RAS functions for dial-in users. In case of using a
SURPASS hiG1000 as a RAS, we speak about a so called "integrated PoP" with a
PA interface to "his" EWSD exchange.
Switching Network (SN A/B)
The SN serves to through connect the individual user channels of the 8Mbps
highways from the incoming LTG's to the corresponding outgoing LTG'S, to
through connect the SS7 signaling channels to the Common Channel Signaling
Controller and of the messages channels from the LTG's to the CP. The SN is
duplicated and can be equipped with a maximum of 504 LTG's. It receives setup
commands from the CP for parallel through connecting in both SN's.
Remote Switching Network (RSU)
The RSU enables the operation of DLU`s and LTG's at a site remote from the host
exchange. The LTG's of the RSU are connected to the Remote Timeslot
Interchange (RTI) which is an RSU internal switching network. The RTI is
connected via PCM30 links to the Host Timeslot Interchange (HTI) in the host
EWSD. The HTI itself is linked by 8Mbps highways to the SN. Calls between two
ports of an RSU are normally directly switched in the RTI and not routed via the
host exchange. It is possible to connect the RSU to other exchanges or to another
RSU of the same host exchange.
Common Channel Signaling Controller (CCNC)
The CCNC ensures the security, message distribution and message routing of the
CCS7 messages. It is connected to the SN via a maximum of two 8Mbps highways
and via this has access to the individual SS7 signaling channels of the PCM30
systems connected to the LTG's. Within EWSD the CCNC communicates with the
user parts in the LTG via the messages channel system.

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Central Clock Generator (CCG)
The CCG synchronizes the clock generators in MB, CCNC, SN, LTG and DLU.
This guarantees synchronism between transmitter and receiver on the EWSD
internal 8Mbps highways. In synchronous networks the CCG's of the individual
network nodes work with the same clock.
Coordination Processor (CP)
The CP controls the setup of connections (call-processing) and carries out
safeguarding tasks for the entire exchange. Therefore it is connected via the
Message Buffer (MB B) to the control of the SN as well as to the control of the
LTG's (via the SN). The MB itself is connected to the SN using 8Mbps highways.
Furthermore the CP has a connection to the CCNC control to relay the CCS7
messages to the corresponding users in the LTG's and vice versa.
The duplicated Magnetic Disk Memory (MDD) and the Magneto-optical Disk
(MOD) / Magnetic Tape Device (MTD) are used as back-up memories for the
complete EWSD software.
The CP additionally performs operation and maintenance O&M tasks and offers
therefore interfaces to the local O&M terminals (Basic Craft Terminal). The system
panel SYP is connected to the CP for visual and audible alarming.
Via x.25 links the CP can be connected to a billing Post-Processing Center as well
as to a Network Management Center (with Net Manager NetM).
CCNC
MB CCG
SN
0 & 1
LTG
Partner
exchange
(2Mbps with
trunks & SS7 links)
LTG
LTG
DLU
PBX
Main station
subscribers
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CP
X.25 connections
to NetM and
postprocessing
centers
BCT
MDD
MOD
HTI RTI LTG DLU
RSU
EWSD CLASSIC
max. 6 CAP

Fig. 6
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2.2.3 Overview: Hardware Units of EWSD POWERNODE
Configuration
Compared with the CLASSIC configuration, the following new HW units are used in
the EWSD POWERNODE:
SN Version D (instead of SN A/B)
The SND connects up to 2016 LTG's.
MB Version D (instead of MB B)
Serves to distribute the message flow CP-LTG, CP-SND, SSNC-LTG and LTG-
LTG.
Netmanager (NetM)
The Netmanager is used for local and central operation and monitoring of the
EWSD Powernode.
Signaling System Network Control (SSNC) (instead of CCNC)
The SSNC ensures the security, message distribution and message routing of the
SS7 messages. This occurs with high capacity and flexibility which meet the
current and future demands with respect to message throughput and new features.
It primarily provides the protocol functions of the Messages Transfer Part (MTP)
and the Signaling Connection Control Part (SCCP, user part for non-user channel
related signaling applications).
In opposite to the CCNC it is possible to directly connect 2Mbps systems to the
SSNC. These contain either 31 x 64Kbps SS7 channels or one 2Mbps SS7
channel (high speed link with ATM protocol)
The SSNC has its own OAM platform. To operate it, it is equipped with V24/LAN
interfaces to connect the Net Manager NetM.
Coordination Processor
The CP is connected via an so called ATM bridge processor (AMP) to the SSNC.
The switching efficiency of the CP (BHCA) is considerably better with the
POWERNODE then when used in the CLASSIC configuration. This is because
messages between LTG - LTG and LTG - SSNC directly passed by the MB D and
are not routed through the CP (CP is not loaded by the EWSD internal message
exchange.

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EWSD
Powernode

LTG
LTG
SSNC
MBD
2Mbps with
Trunks and
64kbps SS7 Links
64 kbps or
High Speed
SS7 Links
207Mb/s
CP
NetM
207Mb/s
LTG
LTG
DLU
SND

Fig. 7
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System Overview EWSD Siemens


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3 Functional Structure of the Digital Line Unit
(DLU)
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3.1 Function Overview DLU B/D
The DLU is used as a digital concentrator for the connection of subscribers to
the EWSD.
In this paragraph only the connection of analog and ISDN-BA subscribers to the DLU
is described. The so called High Bit rate access to the internet via xDSL will be
described at the end of the DLU chapter.
3.1.1 Connectivity
Analog connectivity is for:
Main station lines with pulse dialing, pushbutton dialing, call charge display
Coinbox telephones
Small analog private branch exchanges with/without direct-inward-dialing
Digital connectivity is for:
ISDN Basic Accesses
Small digital private branch exchanges
Connection of an access network (AN) via V5.1 interface
3.1.2 Connection Capacity and Expansion Possibility of a DLU
Depending on used module types and required traffic volume:
up to approx. 900 analog subscriber lines or
up to approx. 800 digital subscriber lines (ISDN BA)
up to 32 V5.1 interfaces
Mixture of analog subscribers, digital subscribers and V5.1 interfaces in view of the
fact that max. 120 calls can be held simultaneously
Expansion in small modular steps:
Each with an analog subscriber line module (SLMA for 16 subscribers)
Each with an digital subscriber line module (SLMD for 16 subscribers)
Each with a subscriber line module (SLMX) for two V5.1 interfaces with 30
subscribers each (access network AN)
Note:
The DLU type DLUV can be used as an alternative to SLMX in the standard DLU.
Only V5.1 access networks can be connected to a DLUV (max. 10 x V5.1 per DLUV).

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digital
maximum
120 user
channels
with 64 kbps
DLU B/D
Concentration
of the subscriber accesses
Analog/digital conversion
for analog subscribers
Modules
SLM for the connection of
a/b interfaces
(SLMA with 16 subscriber
line circuits SLCA)
U interfaces
(SLMD with 16 subscriber
line circuits SLCD)
V5.1 interfaces
(SLMX with
two V5.1 interfaces)
External interfaces to DLU
Analog 2 wire interface for a/b
connection
Digital 2 wire interface for basic
access (U interface of BA)
2 Mbps PDC
Analog subscribers
Small PSTN PBX
Digital subscribers
Small ISDN PBX
V5.1 interface to the AN

Fig. 8

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3.1.3 Connecting Possibilities of the DLU B/D to EWSD
The DLU is connected to the LTG by a maximum of four primary digital carriers
(PDC), whereas a DLU is linked with two LTG as a rule for reasons of availability. As
an exception the HW type DLUV provides up to two PDC which may be regarded as
PDC0 and PDC2 in the following text.
The DLU can be used locally in the exchange or remotely in the vicinity of the
subscriber.
It is possible to connect the local DLUB to the LTG by two 4096 kbps routes instead
of four 2Mbps routes.
All features are regardless of whether the DLUB is operated locally or remotely.
Common channel signaling (CCS)
Channel 16 in the first and third PDC is used for the transmission of control
information messages between the DLUB and the line/trunk groups (LTG).
Here channel 16 on the first PDC transmits the control information messages for the
60 user channels to PDC 0 and 1, and channel 16 on the third PDC the control
information messages for the user channels to PDC 2 and 3.
For the local DLU interface, channel 32 on both 4096-kbps connections is used for
CCS.
High reliability
High reliability is yielded by:
the connection of the DLUB to two LTG
The duplicating of DLU units with central functions
constant self testing


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PDC3
DLU LTG
LTG
DLU
Local application
PDC0
PDC1
PDC2
CCS
CCS
CCS
CCS
PDC3
PDC0
PDC1
PDC2
Remote application
DLU
LTG
CCS
PDC0
PDC1
60 user channels
one CCS time slot between DLU control DLUC
and LTG control GP
alternative: 1 x 4 Mbit/s for local DLU interface

Fig. 9

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3.1.4 Central Functional Units of the DLU B/D
Control unit for DLU (DLUC)
The control unit for DLU (DLUC) controls the DLU internal functional sequence
and distributes or concentrates the signaling from and to the subscriber line
circuits. For reasons of reliability and to increase the throughput rate, there are two
DLUCs in the DLU. They work independently of each other in load sharing so that
the one DLUC takes on all tasks should other DLUC fail. Every DLUC is
responsible for two PDC (60 user channels, one CCS).
Each DLUC has access to the processors of all subscriber modules and other DLU
functional units via the DLU internal control bus. Present messages are cyclically
requested of the modules; the modules are selected directly for transfer of
commands and data.
Digital interface units of the DLU (DIUD or DIU:LDID)
The DIUD has two interfaces for connecting two PCM30 primary digital carriers
(PDC). The PDC link the DLU with the LTG. Symmetrical or coaxial lines can be
connected.
The DIU:LDID has a 4096 kbps interface for connecting a DLU in local use to the
LTG. The connection ensues via a symmetrical copper line. With the DIU:LDID,
the contents of 60 user channels and of one CCS signaling channel are
transmitted via a single 4096 kbps primary digital carrier (instead of two PCM30
primary digital carriers).
The DIUD gathers the control information message from channel 16 of a PDC and
relays it to the DLUC. In the reverse direction, the control information messages
coming from the DLUC are inserted into channel 16 of the same PDC and then
transmitted to the LTG.
With the DIU:LDID, the signaling in channel 32 is transmitted.
Furthermore the DIUD or the DIU:LDID forms the interface between the channels
of the DLU internal 4096 kbps user information network and the channels of the 2
or 4 Mbps routes to the LTG. The user information is distributed to the subscriber
line modules (SLMs) or relayed from them to the LTG via the 4096 kbps bus.
Test unit (TU)
The TU carries out manual or routine testing of the subscriber lines and subscriber
line circuits. No TU is necessary if exclusive use is made of ILTF (integrated line
test function).

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SLM DIUD
DLUC
DLUC
SLM
TU
Control
network 0
0
1
PDC
DLU-System
0
DLU-System
1
2
3
Subscriber
accesses
DLU
DIUD
Control
network 1
User information
network 0
User information
network 1
Testbus
to all SLM

Fig. 10
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3.1.5 Subscriber Line Modules
Subscriber Line Module SLMA
The standard modules for connecting analog subscribers (SLMA:FPE or ILTF-SLMA
respectively) have 16 analog subscriber line circuits (SLCA), an SLMCP control unit,
and a duplicated interface to the two control and user information bus systems. They
generate the ringing current and the charge pulses for the analog telephones.
The SLMA with integrated test function for subscriber lines (ILTF = integrated line test
function) replaces the SLMA:FPE and the Test Unit (TU). The functions otherwise
performed by the TU are implemented in the subscriber line circuits (ILTF-SLCA).
Therefore no Test Unit (TU) is needed in cases where exclusive use is made of ILTF-
SLM.
The ILTF-SLMA is implemented in two variants:
SLMA:ITF (without Metallic Test Access)
SLMA:ITM (with Metallic Test Access)

Special SLMA modules are available for special cases (e.g. connection of
subscribers via pair gain, connection of non-ISDN exchanges with direct-inward-
dialing). If use is made of those special SLMA modules or of SLMA:FPE with external
ringing generator, the TU is still needed.


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Analog
subscriber
line
Standard SLMA
SLCA
Control part SLMCP
0
15
Control bus 0
(DLUC0)
Control bus 1
(DLUC1)
4096-kbps-bus 0
(DIUD0 or
DIU:LDID0)
4096-kbps-bus 1
(DIUD1 or
DIU:LDID1)
Test bus
(not in case of
ILTF-SLMA)
Battery Supply
Overvoltage Protection
Ringing
Signaling
Coding
Hybrid 2/4-Wire
Testing

Fig. 11

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Subscriber Module SLMD
The standard module for connecting digital subscribers (SLMD:QFB) has 16 digital
subscriber line circuits (SLCD), a control section, and a duplicated interface to the
two control and user information networks.
Depending on the project specific encoding on the digital 2 wire subscriber line, the
module SLMD:TFB can also be used.

TIP
ILTF-SLMA can provide for SLMDs the necessary test functions which otherwise are
performed by the TU. This works for the so called ILTF-SLMD (ILTF = integrated line
test function). Therefore no SLMD-modules with integrated ILTF is existing.



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ISDN
subscriber
lines
SLMD
SLCD
Control part
0
15
Test bus
Control bus 0 (DLUC0)
Control bus 1 (DLUC1)
4096-kbps-bus 0
(DIUD0 or DIU:LDID0)
4096-kbps-bus 1
(DIUD1 or DIU:LDID1)
Overvoltage protection
Provisioning of the time multiplex interface with the 2B and D channel with a total
of 144kbps and the 16kbps for the clock synchronization (layer 1 of the DSS1)
Echo compensation for the bidirectional digital transmission on the 2-wire
subscriber line (layer 1 of the DSS1)
2-wire/4-wire conversion and adaption of the line code used on the subscriber
line (layer 1 of the DSS1)
Separation of the DSS1 signaling messages from the X.25 data packets of the
subscriber (layer 2 of the DSS1)
Protection of the transfer of the DSS1 signaling messages in the D channel
(layer 2 of the DSS1)
Test access to the subscriber line/circuit

Fig. 12
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3.1.6 Stand-alone Service of a DLU
If both control units of a DLU lose their signaling channel to the LTG owing to
transmission faults (failure of the PDC) or LTG failures, a DLU can continue to work
in stand alone service. This feature is as a rule available to all remote DLU. For this
the DLU must be equipped with a stand alone service control module (SASC-E).
This module assumes the control of the call setup between subscribers of the same
DLU when in stand alone service. The through-connection of the voice
communication follows internally in the DLU. Metering does not take place.

TIP
If several remote DLU are next to one another, they can be aggregated to a remote
control unit (RCU). Up to 6 remotes DLU are linked to one another for this (inter-
DLU connections).
If the individual DLU of an RCU go into stand alone service, calls between
subscribers on different DLU of the RCU are still possible.
The inter-DLU connections are used in stand alone service only.


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Remote control unit (RCU)
Analog and
ISDN sub-
scriber lines
Links
between
the DLUs
of an RCU
DLU1
DLU6
DLU2
DLU4
DLU3
DLU5
LTG
LTG
PDC0
PDC1
PDC2
PDC3
PDC0
PDC1
PDC2
PDC3
with CCS
without CCS

Fig. 13
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3.2 Overview of DLU G Functions
From software release V15 the DLUG can be used as a digital concentrator to
connect subscribers to EWSD. This section only deals with connecting analog and
ISDN-BA subscribers, the xDSL solutions for high bit rate Internet access are dealt
with in a later section.
3.2.1 Options to Connect to DLU G
There are analog connection options for:
individual connections with pulse dial, key dial, charge display
coin telephones
small analog PBX's with/without extension
There are digital connection options for:
ISDN -
small digital PBX's
the connection of Access Network to PSTN or ISDN subscribers via a V5.1
interface (DLUV)

3.2.2 Allocation Capacity and Upgrade Options of a DLU G:
Maximum load: 390 ERL
Depending on module equipping:
up to approx. 2000 analog subscriber lines or
up to approx. 1500 digital subscriber lines (ISDN basic connections)
up to 40 x V5.1 interfaces
Upgrade in small modular steps:
each with one analog subscriber line module (SLMA for 32 subscribers)
each with one digital subscriber line module (SLMD for 16 subscribers)
each with one V5.1 line module DLU-V for 10 V5.1 interfaces with 30 subscribers
per interface (Access Network AN)


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DLU G
Concentration
of the subscriber accesses
Analog/digital conversion
for analog subscribers
Modules
SLM for the connection of
a/b interfaces
(SLMA with 32 subscriber
line circuits SLCA)
U interfaces
(SLMD with 16 subscriber
line circuits SLCD)
V5.1 interfaces
(DLUV with
ten V5.1 interfaces)
External interfaces to DLU
Analog 2 wire interface for a/b
connection
Digital 2 wire interface for basic
access (U interface of BA)
2 Mbps PDC
Analog subscribers
Small PSTN PBX
Digital subscribers
Small ISDN PBX
V5.1 interface to the AN

Fig. 14

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3.2.3 Options to Connect DLUG to EWSD
The DLU is connected to LTG's via a maximum of 16 primary multiplex lines (PDC),
although for reasons of availability, a DLUG is usually connected to four LTG's.
The DLU can be used locally in the exchange or remotely close to the subscribers.
For the local DLU interface it is possible to connect the DLU to the LTG via 4096
kbps routes (local digital interface LDI) instead of two 2Mbps routes.
All features are independent of whether the DLU is operated locally or remotely.
Each DLUV module (10 V5.1 interfaces) is connected independently of the other DLU
parts via 2 PDC's.
Common Channel Signaling (CCS)
For the transmission of control information between the DLU and the line modules
(LTG), a 64kbps channel is used by default per LTG which is located in PDC0 time
slot 16.
This channel transmits the control information for all user channels on all PDC's to
this LTG. Here a modified CCS7 protocol is used.
High service reliability
High service reliability results from:
the connection of the DLU to at least two LTG's
the duplicating of DLU units with central functions
constant self-testing


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DLUC 1,
DLUC:LDI
for local DLUG
or
DLUC30
for remote
DLUG
LTGN
LTGN
LTGN
LTGN
ALEX
option.
SASC-G
option.
MTA
option.
Special 2)
module types
SLMD16 DLUG
TS16
TS16
TS16
TS16
(2Mbps) or (4Mbps) per LTG 4 x
signaling channel between DLU and LTG for controlling all speech channels
between DLU and LTG
2 x
TS16

Fig. 15
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3.2.4 Central DLUG Functional Units
The DLU controller (DLUC30/DLUC:LDI) controls the DLU-internal functional process
and distributes and concentrates the signaling and the user channels from and to
subscriber line circuits. For reasons of service reliability and to increase the
throughput rate, there are two DLUC's in the DLU. They work independently of one
another in load sharing so that if one DLUC fails the other DLUC take over all tasks.
Connection of the DLU control to the LTG's
DLUC30 to control max. 8 PDC (2Mbps) to 2 LTG's
Each DLUC is responsible for a maximum of 8 PDC's which connect this DLU to 2
LTG's. All user channels of maximum 4 PDC's to an LTG are usually controlled by
one signaling channel (TS16 of the first PDC).
DLUC:LDI to control max. 4 x 4Mbps to 2 LTG's
Each DLUC:LDI (only local DLU's) is responsible for a maximum of four 4096-kbps
interfaces which connect this DLU to 2 LTG's. All user channels of maximum two
4096 kbps multiplex lines (instead of 4 PCM30 multiplex lines) to an LTG are
usually controlled by one signaling channel (transmission in the first 4096 kbps
multiplex line).
Connection of the DLU control with the DLU subscriber modules
Each DLUC has access to all peripheral DLU modules via the DLU-internal bus
system.
The DLU-internal bus systems are routed separately for both DLUC's via the so-
called bus distributors (BD) to the individual SLM's.
Each DLUC takes care of one bus system per connected LTG so that each
subscriber module is connected to both DLUC's via a total of 4 bus systems.
However, generally the SLMD modules only have interfaces to two bus systems,
therefore subscribers are only served by 2 of the maximum 4 LTG's (normally the
first LTG at each DLUC).
Control bus:
The control bus enables the DLUC to access the processors of all subscriber
modules and other DLU functional units. The modules are queried cyclically on
existing messages (e.g. subscriber state change). These messages are relayed to
the relevant LTG via the signaling channel. In the other direction the control bus
serves to hand over commands and data to the relevant subscriber module. The
DLUC receives these commands via the signaling channel from one of the
maximum two connected LTG's.
Payload network:
The DLUC continues to form the interface between the channels of the DLU-
internal payload network and the user channels of the 2 or 4 Mbps routes to the
LTG. The useful information is distributed to the subscriber line module (SLM) and
from there forwarded to the LTG via this network.
The payload network can work with 4 or with 8 Mbps.


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1) up to 4 PCM30 or 2 LDI with 1 CCS /
2) e.g. LTOD, LTCD, COTU etc.
DLUG
DLUC 1,
DLUC:LDI
for local DLUG
or
DLUC30
for remote
DLUG
DLUC 0,
DLUC:LDI
for local DLUG
or
DLUC30
for remote
DLUG
LTGN
LTGN
LTGN
LTGN
1)
ALEX
option.
SLMA32
SASC-G
option.
MTA
option.
1)
Special 2)
module types
1)
1)
SLMD16

Fig. 16
DLUC 0
LTG x
1
LTG x
0
DLUC 1
LTG y
1
LTG y
0
I
O
P
I
O
P
DLU Bussystem
(control & user info)
BDs 0
BDs 1
max.
4 PDC
per LTG
SLMA
(SLMD only
connected to
one bus per
DLUC)

Fig. 17
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3.2.5 DLUG Subscriber Line Modules
SLMA subscriber line modules
The standard modules used to connect analog subscribers (SLMA) have 32 analog
subscriber line circuits SLCA, a control SLMCP and four interfaces to the internal
control and payload (PCM) networks. Ringing current and call-charge impulses for
the analog telephones are produced on the module. Simultaneously they contain the
required hardware for internal/external testing of the connected subscribers.
There are three variants of the SLMA:
SLMA:ITFG (subscriber check via EWSD)
SLMA:ITMG(with Metallic Test Access for external subscriber check)
SLMA:ITHG (with Metallic Test Access and increased power supply for coin
telephones)

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Port 0
Port 31
.
.
.
.
SLIC
subscriber line
interface circuit
SLMCP
FEprom
feeding-
interface
Powersupply
DC- DC
converter
overvoltage protection
2/4 wire
line feeding
ringing and metering
analog/digital conversion
testing
SLMA:ITFG
2x PCM-bus
to DLUC0
2x PCM-bus
to DLUC1
2x Control-bus
to DLUC0
2x Control-bus
to DLUC1

Fig. 18
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Subscriber Module SLMD
The standard module for connecting digital subscribers (SLMD:QFB) has 16 digital
subscriber line circuits (SLCD), a control section, and interfaces to two control and
payload (PCM) networks (one per DLUC only).
Depending on the project specific encoding on the digital 2 wire subscriber line, the
module SLMD:TFB can also be used.


TIP
ILTF-SLMA can provide for SLMDs the necessary test functions which otherwise are
performed by the TU. This works for the so called ILTF-SLMD (ILTF = integrated line
test function). Therefore no SLMD-modules with integrated ILTF is existing.



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ISDN
subscriber
lines
SLMD
SLCD
Control part
0
15
Test bus
(not in case of
ILTF-SLMD)
Control bus 0 (DLUC0)
Control bus 1 (DLUC1)
4096-kbps-PCM bus 0
(DLUC0)
4096-kbps-PCM bus 1
(DLUC1)
Overvoltage protection
Provisioning of the time multiplex interface with the 2B and D channel with a total
of 144kbps and the 16kbps for the clock synchronization (layer 1 of the DSS1)
Echo compensation for the bidirectional digital transmission on the 2-wire
subscriber line (layer 1 of the DSS1)
2-wire/4-wire conversion and adaption of the line code used on the subscriber
line (layer 1 of the DSS1)
Separation of the DSS1 signaling messages from the X.25 data packets of the
subscriber (layer 2 of the DSS1)
Protection of the transfer of the DSS1 signaling messages in the D channel
(layer 2 of the DSS1)
Test access to the subscriber line/circuit

Fig. 19
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3.2.6 Emergency Operation of a DLU G (Stand-alone Service)
If both DLUC lose all their signaling channels to the LTG because of transmission
errors (PDC failure) or LTG failure, a DLU can continue to work in emergency
operation (stand alone service). This feature is usually available to all remote DLU's.
The DLU must be equipped with an emergency operation control module SASC-G.
In emergency operation, this module takes over the control of setting up a connection
between subscribers of the same DLUG. Voice connections are through connected
internally in the DLU. Calls are not metered. There is no connection to subscribers at
other DLU's.


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LTG
SLM
SLM
D
L
U
C
SASC G
control
LTG
LTG
LTG
A
B
traffic

Fig. 20
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3.3 xDSL Interfaces at EWSD DLU
Subscriber modules which provide xDSL subscriber line interfaces can also be
integrated into a DLU. The administration of these modules require the NetM.
Such a DLU is then called a hiA7100 which belongs to the ATTANE product family.
The xDSL technology provides the subscriber simultaneously with
high bit rate Internet access
normal POTS or ISDN connections to other analog or digital subscribers
The POTS / ISDN connections of the xDSL subscriber are routed to an LTG as with
other analog / digital EWSD subscribers via the DLU-internal control and payload
network and the DLUC.
With high bit rate Internet access the useful information must by contrast be handed
over directly from the DLU into the IP network of the Internet Service Providers ISP.
This means, here is no circuit-switched connection setup by EWSD towards a Point
of Presence PoP of the ISP as is the case with conventional remote dial-in users.
Therefore neither the DLUC of the DLU nor any other EWSD system unit is loaded by
the data transfer of these high bit rate accesses.
The DLU must be upgraded by three components to become a hiA7100:
Packet Hub SLMI:PHx with interface to the ISP's packet network
The Packet Hub offers access to the ISP's data network for maximum 14 xDSL
subscriber modules. Here the Packet Hub supports the following interfaces toward
ISP: Ethernet, Frame Relay or ATM.
DLU-internal ATM connection between the individual xDSL subscriber modules
and the Packet Hub
These connections are implemented individually for each xDSL subscriber module
either using plug-in cable (front side of the subscriber module for the front side of the
Packet Hub) or via the backplane of the DLU.
Subscriber modules with xDSL interfaces
SLMI:FMx for 8 subscriber lines with ADSL.Lite Protocol:
For each subscriber, a POTS connection (analog telephone) and a high bit rate
data connection (PC with ADSL.Lite network interface card NIC) can
simultaneously exist through EWSD to the ISP. The following maximum bit rates
apply to the data connection: downstream 1.5 Mbit/s, upstream 512 kbit/s

SLMI:AMx for 8 subscriber lines with ADSL protocol:
For each subscriber, one POTS or 2 ISDN connections through EWSD and a high
bit rate data connection to the ISP can exist simultaneously. For the POTS / ISDN
connections, another SLMA / SLMD is currently required in the DLU in addition to
the SLMI:AMx module.

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The following equipment is required at the subscriber side:
a) ISDN terminal equipment connected to the NT BA or analog telephone for the
circuit-switched connections through EWSD
b) PC with Ethernet interface connected to an ADSL NT or PC with
integrated ADSL network interface card NIC for high bit rate
data connection to the ISP
c) NT splitter as termination of the ADSL line at the subscriber. NT BA or an
analog telephone as well as ADSL NT or ADSL NIC are connected to this
splitter
The following maximum bit rates apply to the data connection:
downstream 6 Mbit/s, upstream 640 kbit/s

High Bit Rate Data Services
in DLU used as hiA7100
DLU
ADSL
ADSL.Lite
Micro
filter
Voice
Splitter
ADSL.Lite
(HBR data
plus
POTS)
NT BA
SLMI:FMx
SLMI:AMx
+ SLMA/D
SIEMENS NIXDORF
SIEMENS NIXDORF
SIEMENS NIXDORF
DLU System
Packet
Hub
HBR data
via ATM
Voice via
DLU Bus
to
LTG
to ISP via
ATM/FR/
Ethernet
ADSL
(HBR data
plus
POTS/BA)
ADSL NT
Ethernet

Fig. 21
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4 Functional Structure of the Line Trunk
Group (LTG)
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4.1 External 2 Mbps Interfaces to LTG
for the connection of digital trunks with CAS signaling from/to nodes of the PSTN
for the connection of digital trunks from/to nodes of the ISDN, for the connection of
CCS7 signaling channels from/to nodes of the ISDN or central databanks such as
the service control point (SCP) of the IN
For the connection of large PSTN private branch exchanges with CAS signaling
for the connection of large ISDN private branch exchanges, intelligent peripherals
(IP) of the IN, or packet handlers of a X.25 packet network (PSPDN) by the
primary access (PA) with DSS1 signaling
Connection of access networks with PSTN or ISDN subscribers by V5.2 interface
Connection of local or remote DLU


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LTG
4x
2 Mbps
PDC
Digital trunks with CAS
Digital trunks and CCS7
signaling channels
PABX lines with CAS
PABX lines with DSS1 (PA)
V5.2 interface to the AN
DLU
External 2 Mbps interfaces

Fig. 22
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4.2 Function Overview LTG
The line trunk group (LTG) forms the interface between the digital environment of the
node and the digital switching network (SN).
Connection to the duplicated switching network:
8Mbps SDC with 128 time slots
(If the LTG is part of an RSU the SDC are connected to the RTI of the RSU. The RTI
itself is connected to the SN via the so called HTI.)
Function of the LTG:
The LTG take on decentralized control tasks for reducing the load on the coordination
processor (CP).
The LTG communicate with the CP / SSNC or CCNC / other LTG via message
channels (MCH) for this.
The LTG always sends and receives the speech information via both switching
networks (SN0 and SN1).
However the LTG only relays the speech information from the active switching
network outward. The other SN is designated as inactive. The LTG can immediately
send and receive the current user information with it in case of a fault.

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Call processing:
decentralized control
tasks for call setup to
reduce the load of the CP
Interface conversion
between duplicated SN
and the digital
environment of the node
(through-connection
of the user information)
LTG
SN0
SN1
8Mbps SDC
8Mbps SDC
PDC 3
PDC 2
PDC 1
PDC 0
Signaling to other nodes, DLU/subscribers and PBX:
- Generation of signaling messages to be sent
upon initiative of the CP
- Pre-evaluation of received signaling messages and
relay to the CP
Communication via the message channels with:
- the CP
- the SSNC / CCNC
- other LTG
Generation of audible signaling tones for the subscriber (tone
generator) and evaluation of the DTMF dialed digits (code receiver)
Call processing tasks of the LTG

Fig. 23
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4.3 LTG Functional Types
In order to optimally realize various line types and signaling systems, several LTG
functional types each with specific application programs are available.
These various functional types of the LTG SW determine the connecting capabilities
to an LTG.
Different types of LTG frames exist simultaneously.
The table opposite shows which LTG software functional type is compatible with
which hardware implementation.

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LTG
Software Functional Type
Compatible
LTG
HW - Type
Funktional type B
can be applied to connect:
DLU
PBX
Intelligent peripheral
Packet handler of a X.25 packet network
V5.2 Access Network (only to LTG M/N )
LTG G/M/N
Funktional type C
can be applied to connect:
Trunks with CAS signaling
Trunks with CCS7 signaling
CCS7 signaling channels
LTG G/M/N
Funktional type D
can be applied to connect:
International trunks with echo suppression /
No5 signaling
LTG D
Funktional type H
Frame handler for (de)concentration of X.25
data packets from ISDN subscribers
LTG H

Fig. 24

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4.4 Functional Units of the LTG
Group processor (GP)
The GP converts signaling messages of the connected nodes/DLU/PBX into the
EWSD intra-system message format and controls the functional units of the LTG
via the signal highways (SIH).
The GP communicates with the CP, the SSNC/CCNC, and other LTG via the
duplicated message channel (MCH).
Group switch GS
The group switch realizes the following at the instigation of the GP:
The through-switching of individual speech channels between the PDC and the
SDC with and without attenuation.
The interconnection of tones of the TOG and of code receivers to the user
channels of the PDC.
The formation of three-way conferences
The link to the LTU is realized by speech highways (SPH), the link to the SN by
the LIU.
Link interface unit (LIU)
The LIU serves to connect the LTG to the duplicated SN (SN0 and SN1) via an 8
Mbps SDC each.
Code receiver (CR)
The code receiver (CR) of the signal unit makes DTMF/MFC signaling for the call
processing SW of the LTG available.
The essential tasks are
a) Reception and detection of multi-frequency signals (DTMF, MFC-R2, MFC-R1,
CTC)
b) Report of detected signal to the GP
Tone generator (TOG)
The tone generator (TOG) of the signal unit centrally generates the necessary
audible signaling tones for subscribers and the frequencies necessary for the MFC
signaling.

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Line trunk unit (LTU)
The line trunk unit (LTU) adapts the connected lines to the internal interfaces of
the LTG and equalizes delays (synchronization of nodes and line bit rate).
The digital interface units (DIU) serve to this purpose (connection of PDC or 4
Mbps routes of local DLU).
In addition, the LTU can also include modules with special functions such as test
equipment for trunks or an individual announcement system.

DIU
Special
module
DIU
GP
SPH
SPH
SPH
8Mbps
SPH
Signal Unit
CR / TOG
SIH
PDC
PDC
SIH
SIH
LTU GS
LIU
Speech
route
E
W
S
D
i
n
t
e
r
n
a
l

m
e
s
s
a
g
e

e
x
c
h
a
n
g
e
S
N
0
S
N
1

Fig. 25
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System Overview EWSD Siemens


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5 Functional Structure of the Remote
Switching Unit RSU
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5.1 Function Overview
The RSU enables the operation of up to 50,000 subscribers with DLU`s and LTG's at
one of the sites remote from the host exchange. The connection from the host
exchange to the LTG's of the RSU is realized from the switching network (host) via
the Host Timeslot Interchange HTI via PCM30 with Interface Trunks to the Remote
Timeslot Interchange RTI.
The heart of the RTI is a switching network which should be considered an extension
of the host switching network. Connections between Subscriber-, trunk- or PBXLine-
ports connected at the same RSU are directly switched in the RSU switching network
without having to route the connection via the host exchange.
It is possible to connect the RSU via Backdoor trunks to other exchanges or via
Sidedoor trunks to another RSU (the same host exchange).
In the event of a fault (e.g. failure of the host exchange or failure of the transmission
routes from the host exchange to the RSU), RSU enables stand-alone operation.
This means that calls between subscribers of an RSU are possible.


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Interface
trunks
Interface
trunks
Sidedoor trunks
Backdoor
trunks
HTI Host timeslot interchange
RSU Remote switching unit
RTI Remote timeslot interchange
Other exchange
Other exchange
SN SN
CP
D
L
U
L
T
G
H
T
I
LTG
EWSD RSU
L
T
G
D
L
U
EWSD RSU
L
T
G
D
L
U
Backdoor
trunks
R
T
I
R
T
I
CCNC/
SSNC
EWSD host exchange

Fig. 26
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5.2 RSU Functional Units
Each HTI and RTI is internally duplicated with the exception of the interface module
DIU240 (Plane 0 and 1 of HTI / RTI). The essential functional units of HTI and RTI
are:
TSI (AMUX and TSIM)
The core of the HTI/RTI is the TSI (Time Slot Interchange) unit which consists of the
AMUX modules (0 to 7) and the TSIM module. The TSI forms the switching network
in the RSU with a matrix 128 x 8 Mbit/s.
MH module
The message channels (MCH) between the LTG's and the host message buffer are
administered in the HTI/RTI by the MH modules. The message channels have their
own transmission protocol (High Speed Link HSL) for transmission on the interface
trunks. Each MH module administers 16 MCH the individual MH modules together
form an MH pool.
RSUC module
The RSUC module is responsible for controlling the HTI/RTI. It communicates with
the host CP in a similar manner to the CP with the GP (Group Processor) of the LTG.
The RSUC module communicates internally with the TSI and MH modules for
connection setup, connection release and OA&M.
DIU240 module
The interfaces module for the interface trunks/sidedoor trunks is the DIU240. Each
DIU240 has 8 x 2 Mbit/s interfaces. Each DIU240 is connected to both redundant
system halves (plane 0 & 1) of their RTI and HTI.

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plane0
plane1
SN 0
SN1
HTI
L
T
G
TSI
TSI
M
H
M
H
R
S
U
C
R
S
U
C
M
H
M
H
RTI
TSI
TSI
M
H
M
H
R
S
U
C
R
S
U
C
M
H
M
H
DIU
240
DIU
240
DIU
240
DIU
240

Fig. 27
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5.3 RSU Capacity Stage
Maximum number of HTI on a host EWSD
Up to 32 HTI can be connected to a host exchange. The maximum value of the HTI is
different according to switching network type:
SNA/B = 8 HTI
SND = 32 HTI.
Maximum number of RTI / remote LTG per HTI / host EWSD
Per HTI it is possible to connect maximum 14 RTI.
In total however a maximum of 254 RTI and therefore 254 RSU can be connected
to a host EWSD.
Up to 71 remote LTG's can be connected to a HTI via the maximum 14 different
RTI's (RSU).
All remote LTG's in the host exchange must have their own 8Mbps interface
between switching network and the supporting HTI. In addition the RSUC of the
HTI requires its own 8Mbps highway to the SN.
Therefore it is not possible using RSU to exceed the maximum number of LTG's
pre-specified by the switching network size of the host EWSD.
RSU module frames
The module frames are housed in a rack together with LTG's. Depending on the
number of the connected LTG's and according to the expected traffic load, in addition
to this basic frame, up to three extension frames with additional MH, DIU240 and
AMUX are required. A frame always contains the identical modules for both planes of
RTI / HTI.


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Interface
Trunks
CP
D
L
U
L
T
G
L
T
G
TSIM +
AMUX
RTI
RSU
Host Exchange
RSUC
MH
DIU 240
DIU 240
L
T
G
DIU 240
SN
RSUC
MH
DIU 240
DIU 240
DIU 240
HTI
Interface
Trunks
to other
RSUs
Sidedoor
Trunks
to other
RSUs
up to
71 LTGs
up to
24 DIUs
up to
192 PCM30
(E1 links)
up to
24 DIUs
1 ... 14 RSU per HTI
(max. 71 LTG per HTI)
up to 8 HTIs with SN A/B
32 HTIs with SN D
up to 254 RSU
per EWSD Host
TSIM +
AMUX
Backdoor
Trunks

Fig. 28

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5.4 RSU Emergency Operation
If an RTI looses all signaling channels to the host owing to transmission errors (PCM
failure) or HTI/host total failure, the RSU can continue working in emergency
operation (stand alone service).
In emergency operation, this RTI tasks over controlling the connection setup between
all subscribers connected to this RTI. The voice connection is through connected
internally in the RTI (TSI).
During stand alone operation no charge registration is performed.
Call set ups via sidedoor trunks or via SS7ISUP backdoor trunks are not possible.
Only connections between 2 subscribers of the same RSU and connections via
specially administered "default backdoor trunks with CAS signaling" are set up.



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RSU
DLU
LTG
Host
DLU
LTG
possible trafficpaths
Signaling
LTG
predefined CAS-
backdoor trunks
or PAslave
CSS7
backdoor
tunks
LTG
sub-
scriber
sub-
scriber
sidedoor
trunks

Fig. 29

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6 Functional Structure of the Switching
Network (SN)
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6.1 Internal EWSD Interfaces on the SN
The internal interfaces from LTG, HTI, CCNC and MB to the SN are implemented
using Secondary Digital Carrier SDC with 8Mbps (the SSNC has no direct interface
to the SN).
Here the SN serves to establish the transient bi-directional through connecting of
data of a 64kbps connection between two LTG's (payload) and also to the semi-
permanent through connecting of the 64kbps message channels MCH to exchange
internal messages between the LTG, SSNC/CCNC and CP.
The CP and SSNC have access to this internal message channel system via the MB.
(The CCNC of EWSD Classic has access via the CP.)
The processor of each LTG (Group Processor GP) uses the time slot 0 on the SDC
to the SN as its message channel.
In the case of the RSU the interfaces on the SN and the LTG are as described. Only
between HTI and RTI are the SDC implemented in several 2Mbps PCM.

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Collection of the MCH
from the various LTG CP
Time slot 0:
Message channel (MCH) between
LTG and MB (semipermanent through-connection)
for communication between LTG/CP/SSNCorCCNC
Time slot 1-127:
Used for the transient
through-connection of the calls
between two subscribers/trunks
LTG
LTG
MB
SN
2 Mbps PDC
8 Mbps SDC
SSNC
CCNC
or

Fig. 30
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6.2 Function Overview SN
The switching network SN is the link within a node for:
User channel connections between the LTG (temporary through-connections)
the EWSD internal message exchange between the controls of the LTG,
SSNC/CCNC, and CP via the fixed message channels (MCH)
the CCS7 signaling messages between the CCS7 signaling channels on the PCM
routes connected to the LTG and the SSNC/CCNC (by MML command
established nailed-up connections NUC, in case of SSNC the NUC is established
via a so called "inward LTG").
The switching network is completely duplicated (SN0 and SN1). All calls are always
simultaneously through-connected through both SN, whereas the LTG only though-
connects the user channel information coming from the active SN to the PCM routes.
If the active SN fails, the other SN (stand-by SN) is switched to without any loss.
The through-connection in the SN B takes place according to the time - space - time
principle (change of the time slot, change of the highway, change of the time slot), in
the SN D a so called switching matrix is used. Every through-connection
guarantees in both cases a transparent bi-directional 64kbps path through the SN.
Sequence for the temporary through-connection of the circuit connections:
The CP call-processing programs look for a free call path in the software switching
network image of the CP database from the LTG of the calling party to the LTG
of the called party, for instance.
CP issues setting instructions to the control units of the SN for through-connecting
the calculated call path.
The SN - control units execute the setting instructions in the responsible modules.
The call path from the LTG of the calling party through the SN to the LTG of the
called party is thus through-connected.
Afterward the call-processing programs start a call path through-connection test
outgoing from the A-LTG (cross office check COC) in order to check whether the
performance of the call path through the SN is free of fault.
Along with the temporary through-connections (transient connections), there are also
the semi-permanent connections:
The nailed up connections (NUC) set per MML command
The through-connection (set by the CP software) of the message channels
between the control unit of the LTG and the message buffer (MB)

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LTG
LTG
CCNC
MB
User channels between 2LTG
EWSD internal messages
between LTG, SSNC/CCNC,
and CP (message channels)
Control
CP
Setting
instructions
Message
channels
of all LTG
8 Mbps
Switching modules
handling
SN 0 & SN 1
EWSD-CLASSIC
SN A or SN B
SSNC

Fig. 31
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6.3 SN B (EWSD-CLASSIC)
6.3.1 Functional Units of the SN
The SN is offered in various increments. Except for the small switching networks for
max. 31 or 63 LTG (combined space-time stages), the SN comprise the subdivisions
time stage group (TSG) and space stage group (SSG).
Time stage group (TSG):
Every time stage group serves to connect the SDC to/from the LTG, the CCNC,
and the MB (together with max. 64 of this SDC). An SN can consist of a maximum
of 8 duplicated TSGs.
There is a switch group control (SGC) in every TSG which is connected to the CP
by means of an own SDC via the message buffer (MB). The SGC receives the
setting instructions for the temporary or permanent bi-directional 64 kbps through-
connection from the CP. The SGC realizes the through-connection by setting the
individual time stage modules (TSM) of a TSG. Every TSM can change the
position in time and space of any time slot in any manner for a group of 8
connected SDC in a TSG.
The following types of SDC differentiate:
SDC:LTG, secondary digital carrier between SN and every LTG for the circuit
connections (time slots 1-127) and for the message exchange between the LTG
control unit GP and the CP (message channel to time slot 0).
SDC:CCNC, one or two secondary digital carrier for through-connecting the CCS7
messages between CCNC and the signaling channels on the PCM routes to the
LTG.
SDC:TSG, a secondary digital carrier between SN and MB for relaying the
message channel of all LTG of this TSG to the CP.
SDC:SGC, a secondary digital carrier between the control unit SGC of this TSG
and the MB for relaying the setting instructions of the CP to the TSG.
Space stage group (SSG):
The SSGs serve to through-connect the calls between TSMs in the same or in
different TSGs. An SN can consist of a maximum of 4 duplicated SSGs.
There is a switch group control (SGC) in the SSG which is connected to the CP via
the message buffer (MB). The SGC receives the setting instructions for the
temporary or permanent bi-directional 64 kbps through-connection from the CP.
The SGC realizes the through-connection by setting the individual space stage
modules (SSM) of an SSG. Every SSM can change the highway of the time slot for
all connected SDC in any manner.

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The individual TSGs and SSGs are connected to one another by SDC:SSG. Here the
TSGs and the SSGs of the same switching network (SN0 or SN1) normally work
together. In the case of an error, a TSG of SN0 can work together with an SSG of
SN1, for instance. This possibility of protection switching grants the duplicated SN a
very high failure security.

SDC
time slot y
TSM
SDC
Time Stage module TSM
time slot x
time slot x
SSM
time slot x
Space Stage module SSM
TSG0-0
LTG0-x
CCNC
MB
CP
SGC
TSM
TSM
SSG0-0
SGC
SSM
SSM
TSG0-7
SGC
TSM
TSM
SSG0-3
SGC
SSM
SSM
Setup of an SN (example: SN0)

Fig. 32
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6.3.2 Capacity Stages of the SN
Since the SN is offered in many capacity stages, the actual size of the SN can be
adapted to the expected amount of traffic of an exchange. Here the traffic to be
through-connected measured in Erlang as dimensioning sizes is to be observed.
Remark:
Except the beside shown capacity stages there are also offered a SN for 31LTG and
a SN for 63 LTG.
Notes on capacity/ space requirements of the SN capacity stages
For the given values, the highest technically possible values are concerned.
If a CCNC is connected, 1 to 2 SDC:CCNC is added depending on the number of
the CCS7 signaling channels and the number of SDC:LTG reduces accordingly.
Space requirements in the rack:
Every TSG needs only one frame in the rack.
Every SSG needs only a half of a frame in the rack.
The remaining space in the rack can be used for LTG.
a) A maximum of 4 LTG frames can be additionally mounted in a rack for TSG.
b) A maximum of 3 LTG frames can be additionally mounted in a rack for SSG.
c) A maximum of 4 LTG frames can be additionally mounted in the rack of the
SN:63LTG.
d) The SN:31LTG is put in the rack of the CP.

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TSG
0.0
TSG
1.0
TSG
0.1
TSG
1.1
SSG
0.0
SSG
1.0
SN:126LTG
SN0
SN1
SN:252LTG
TSG
0.0
TSG
1.0
TSG
0.1
TSG
1.1
TSG
0.2
TSG
1.2
TSG
0.3
TSG
1.3
SSG0.0
SSG0.1
SSG1.0
&
SSG1.1
SN0
SN1
SN:504LTG
SSG0.2
&
SSG0.3
SSG1.2
&
SSG1.3
SSG0.0
&
SSG0.1
SSG1.0
&
SSG1.1
TSG
0.7
TSG
1.7
TSG
0.6
TSG
1.6
TSG
0.5
TSG
1.5
TSG
0.4
TSG
1.4
TSG
0.3
TSG
1.3
TSG
0.2
TSG
1.2
TSG
0.1
TSG
1.1
TSG
0.0
TSG
1.0
SN0
SN1
SN for
max.
126 LTG
SN for
max.
252 LTG
SN for
max.
504 LTG
Traffic (ERL.) 6300 12600 25200
Number of subscribers with
pure local exchange
60000 120000 240000
15000 30000 60000
Ratings
Number of trunks with
pure transit exchange

Fig. 33
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6.4 SN D (EWSD-POWERNODE)
6.4.1 Functional Units of the SN D
The SND is a completely new switching principle based on a single-stage switching
matrix (grate-like matrix) compared to SNB. Here the "time-space-time" structure is
no longer used. To ensure a particularly high level of reliability, SND is completely
duplicated.
SND is based on two types of frames
Frame Switching Network MUltipleXer (F:SNMUX) and
Frame Switching Network Matrix (F:SNMAT).
A multiplexer and a demultiplexar are provided for the existing environment with
F:SNMUXA which bundle 2 x 64 x 8 Mbit/s LTG lines to two optical lines connected
to F:SNMAT. Switching is implemented by F:SNMAT.
In smaller exchanges (up to 252 LTG's) F:SNMUXA can execute switching by itself
(without SNMAT). Here the two required SNMUX's (per SN side) are connected
directly to one another using the optical lines.
To connect the SND with the co-ordination processor CP, an MBD message
distributor is required.
The following interfaces can be differentiated:
SDC:LTG
Secondary multiplex line between SN (SNMUX) and each LTG for the user
channel connections (time slots 1-127) as well as for the message exchange
between the LTG control GP and the CP (Message Channel on time slot 0). The
SDC:LTG are identical to the SDC:LTG at the SN B.
SDC to the MBDH in the MB D
Secondary multiplex line between SNMUX and MBDH to relay the message
channel of half of all LTG's of this SNMUX to the CP. This corresponds to the
SDC:TSG in the SN B.
MBD-Sx
Secondary multiplex line between the control module in SNMUX / SNMAT and the
MB-D to relay the setting instructions of the CP to the switching network.


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LTG 0-1
LTG 0-63
LTG 1-1
LTG 1-63
SNMUX
0
LTG 30-1
LTG 30-63
LTG 31-1
LTG 31-63
SNMUX
15
SNMAT
CP
MBD
.
.
.
...
.
.
.
.
.
.
0
1
0
127
30
31
0
127
8 Mbit/s
SDC-interface
920 Mbit/s
optical interface
920 Mbit/s
optical interface
2 x MBD-S1
1 x MBD-S3
(1 x MBD-S3
only with SN252 LTG)
920 Mbit/s
optical interface
920 Mbit/s
optical interface
...
...
...
MBDH
2 x MBD-S1

Fig. 34
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6.4.2 SN D Capacity Stages

max.
number of
LTG
DE-TYPE max.
number
of
SNMUX
per SN
side
SNMAT-
per SN
side
Traffic
Erl
252 DE6.0 2 0 12600
252 DE6.1 *) 2 1 12600
504 DE6.2 4 1 25200
756 DE6.3 6 1 37800
1.008 DE6.4 8 1 50400
1.260 DE6.5 10 1 63000
1.512 DE6.6 12 1 75600
1.764 DE6.7 14 1 88200
2.016 DE6.8 16 1 100800
*)
use DE6.0 instead of DE6.1 if not more thane 252 LTG are
planned (because DE6.0 does not require an SNMAT).

Fig. 35 Capacity stages of SN D

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F:SNMUXA 0
F:SNMUXA 1
F:SNMUXA 0
F:SNMUXA 1
F:SNMUXA 0
F:SNMUXA 1
F:SNMUXA 0
F:SNMUXA 1 F:SNMAT 0
F:SNMAT 1
0 1 2 15
F:SNMUXA 0
F:SNMUXA 1
F:SNMUXA 0
F:SNMUXA 1
F:SNMUXA 0
F:SNMUXA 1
0
1
SN D - DE6.0
for 126 LTG
SN D - DE6.0
for 252 LTG
SN D - DE6.8
for 2016 LTG

Fig. 36
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7 Functional Structure of the Coordination
Processor (CP)
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7.1 Function Overview CP
The CP coordinates the work of the individual EWSD system units.
For call processing, the CP assumes the central tasks for a call setup. In the
course of this, LTG and the SSNC/CCNC reduce the load on it.
For operation and maintenance, the CP makes the interfaces available for the
man-machine dialogue (input of commands, output of messages and alarms) and
to the mass storage devices (magnetic tape/magnetic disk).
For safeguarding, the CP assumes the master-function for monitoring the EWSD
hardware and software.

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Call processing:
Digit translation
Routing
Zoning
Path selection through the
SN
Charging
Traffic data administration
Network management
Operation & maintenance:
Input and output from/to
external memories (EM)
Communication with the
local and central O&M
terminals for the purpose
of administration of the
database
Alarm indication
CP113C / CP113CR
Safeguarding:
Self-supervision
Supervision of all EWSD functional units
Fault detection
Fault analysis

Fig. 37
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7.2 System Features of the CP113
CP types:
the coordination processor 113C (CP113C) or
the coordination processor 11CR (CP113CR) as a special version for use in
rural/container exchanges
The primary features of a CP113C/CR are:
Application of a modular multiprocessor system with combination of task and load
sharing
adaptability to different exchange sizes:
The performance is dependent on the capacity stage, with CP113C more than
1,500,000 busy hour call attempts (BHCA).
(The effective, dynamic call setup performance depends on the available features
and the actual call-mix. They must be individually specified for every time in use.)
Redundancy by duplication of major functional units and pool formation with the
call processors
Use of high performance microprocessor types (processing width of 32 bit/
addressing capacity up to 4 Gbytes)
Common memory with a capacity of (at present) 64 Mbyte to 1024 Mbyte (1Gbyte)
(used chip at present: 16 Mbit DRAM)
Local memory per processor with a capacity of max. 64 Mbyte (used chip at
present: 16 Mbit DRAM)

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Input/output processors to:
EWSD functional units
Mass storage devices
Local O&M terminals for manual Boot
NetM
Post processing center
Interfaces of the CP
High-performance multiprocessor system with
32 bit processing width
More than 4,000,000 call setups per hour
Security redundancy of the central units
Modular expandable hardware
(number of processors and memory size)
System features of the CP

Fig. 38

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7.3 Functional Units of the CP
By adding functional unit of the same type, it is possible to expand the basic capacity
of the CP113C, depending on necessity. This applies both for the arithmetic and
storage capacity and for the connection of call processing and administrative
peripherals.
Base processors (BAP)
One of the two base processors is operated as master (BAPM) and the other as
spare (BAPS). The BAPM handles the administrative tasks and in addition call
processing tasks proportionally. The BAPS handles only call processing tasks. If the
BAPM fails, the BAPS becomes master and assumes the administrative tasks
(active/stand-by redundancy for the administrative tasks).
Call processors (CAP)
The call processors (CAP) of the CP113C exclusively handle call processing tasks.
They work in according to the load sharing principle. The CAP generate a pool
redundancy for call processing tasks together with the BAPS and BAPM in that one
more processor is available than required for the fulfillment of the nominal call
processing handling capacity (n + 1 redundancy). The CP113C can therefore
continue to produce the full nominal load even if one processor (BAP or CAP) fails.
With EWSD CLASSIC the maximum number of CAPs is 6 while with EWSD
POWERNODE you can have up to 10 CAPs in the CP.
Input-output controls (IOC)
The IOC each generate a common interface to bus B:CMY for max. 12 in-output
processors (IOP) via bus B:IOC. The input-output controls (IOC) and the connected
input-output processor (IOP) for the connection of administrative/data
communication devices (e.g. input device, mass storage device) and the peripheral
EWSD system units (e.g. LTG/SN via message buffer) are so dimensioned that they
can assume the tasks of the partner device if it should fail.
Common memory (CMY)
The content of both CMY is always the same; all write and read cycles of the
processors always run simultaneously in both CMY. While the content of the local
memory (LMY) of the BAP and CAP are only accessible to their own respective
processors, all processors of the CP have read and write access to the duplicated
CMY. All programs and data (resident components of the EWSD software) which are
relevant to the work of the processors of the CP are stored in the CMY.
Bus to the common memory (BCMY)
Every BAP, CAP, IOC, and CMY is connected to both common bus systems B:CMY.
Normally the data and addresses between processor and CMY are transmitted when
a write or read cycle takes place via the B:CMY0 to the CMY0 and via the B:CMY1 to
the CMY1. In the case of an error (e.g. failure of B:CMY0 and CMY1), the processors
can, for instance, also communicate with the CMY0 via the B:CMY1.

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ATM Bridge Processor (AMP)
If a SSNC (EWSD powernode) is connected (usually instead of the second IOC pair),
the AMP is used. It represents the interface between the ATM equipment in the
SSNC and the co-ordination processor CP113C. The AMP is tasked with
implementing with the data streams between the ATM format to the SSNC and the
internal EWSD format. The AMP pair works in the working/spare mode, i.e. both
AMP's simultaneously receive identical messages. The messages are however only
sent from the active ones.

CP113C
CAP CAP BAPM BAPS
IOC1
IOC0
IOC3/
AMP1
IOC2/
AMP0
IOP
IOP
11
B:IOC
0
Basic capacity of the CP113C,
Capacity of the CP113CR
CMY1
CMY0
B:CMY0
B:CMY1

Fig. 39
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7.4 Input-Output Processors of the CP113
The duplicated operating and data equipment (O&M periphery) are always connected
to two different IOC's. If an IOC or the corresponding input-output processor fails,
input or output occurs via the partner IOC from and too redundant operating and data
equipment.
IOP:MB to connect the peripheral EWSD system units
The input-output processors for message distributors IOP:MB are the interfaces of
the CP113C/CR to the peripheral EWSD system units. The EWSD internal
communication with the controls of the peripheral system units is processed via this.
The number of IOP:MB used is dependent of the size of the network node. The
connection from the IOP:MB's to the peripheral EWSD system units is cross-jointed.
If one of the two IOP:MB's fails, then the other takes over the data exchange on its
own.
If the ProfiBus is used instead of the SYPC, the HW variant IOP:MB/PB (PB =
ProfiBus) must be used. It can be used for each IOP:MB. Mixed equipping is
possible.
The following are connected to the IOP:MB's:
the duplicated message distributor MB
the duplicated central clock generators CCG
the controls for the network of the central common channel signaling channels
CCNC (does not apply if the SSNC is used).
the system panel control (SYPC)
(does not apply if the SSNC/NetM or IOP:MB-PB is used)
IOP to connect the CP operating and data equipment
The input-output processor IOP:UNI allows the following equipment and lines to be
connected:
magnetic tape device MTD
magnetic disk device MDD
magneto-optic disk device MOD (replacement of the MTD)
optionally a terminal for operation and maintenance (BCT) and two data lines or
three data lines (data line with switching protocol)
The input-output processor IOP:LAU (also called IOP:SCDP) allows two data lines
to be connected using the packet-switched protocol X.25. Both remote input
equipment/Network Management Center and Post-processing Centers can be
connected via this.

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Input-output-processor for time and alarms IOP:TA
The duplicated IOP:TA takes over two tasks which are independent of one another:
monitoring of the fans in the CP racks
hardware time of the CP: master for the system time managed in the BAPM
The time in the IOP:TA is clocked by the CCG. The applicable time can be entered
during commissioning per command from the operator. This does not apply if a radio
clock (Radio Clock Device RCD) is connected to the IOP:TA. In this case the time in
the IOP:TA is always adjusted to the radio clock time.

B:CMY0
B:CMY1
Alarm
Output
MB
0/1
IOP:MB
IOP:MB IOP:UNI
IOP:MB
IOP:MB
IOC0 IOC1
IOP:UNI
B:IOC0
Connection
of data lines
(X25LINK)
Data lines
(V.24/V.28, X.21/V.35
Data lines
(V.24/V.28, X.21/V.35
IOP:LAU
IOP:LAU
CCG
0/1
IOP:MB
IOP:MB
B:IOC1
IOP:TA
IOP:TA
Radio
Clock
Device
MTD
MDD
MTD
MDD
IOP:MB
SYPC IOP:MB
MOD
MOD
SI EMENS NIXDORF
BCT
SIEMENS NI XDORF
BCT
C
C
N
C
CCNP
0
CCNP
1
P
r
o
f
i
b
u
s
IOP:MB/PB
IOP:MB/PB
Alarm
Input
CT
SYPC or
Profibus

Fig. 40
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8 Functional Structure of the SS7 Network
Control
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8.1 Function Overview of the SS7 Network Control
For the CCS7 signaling between exchanges, the individual signaling messages
(MSU) are transmitted on the central signaling channels. These signaling channels
are called signaling links. They generate an independent signaling network in an
ISDN next to the user channel network. In this signaling network the individual
exchanges function as Signaling Points SP. Each signaling point is identified by its
Signaling Point Code SPC .

User channel- and signaling networks use the same PCM transmission routes
between the exchanges. Whether a 64kbps channel is used on a PCM route as user
or signaling channel must be administered in the database of the exchanges.

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MSU
MSU
MSU
MSU
MSU
MSU
Message
Transfer
Part MTP
User
(here ISUP)
ISUP-Trunk
ISUP-
Trunk
PCM
PCM
PCM
PCM
PCM
User
User
User
User
SP
SP
SP SP


SP Signaling Point
MSU Message Signal Unit
ISUP ISDN User Part
Fig. 41 Signaling and Traffic Network
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The users of this signaling network are the LTG in the EWSD. In the GP of the LTG,
the CCS7 user part software (with ISDN, CCS7ISUP) is responsible for the
generation/evaluation of the MSU (Level 4 of the CCS7).
The CCS7 message transfer part (MTP) handles the transfer of the MSU between
the users in two exchanges. It comprises:
the physical signaling network established by the signaling links (level 1 of the
CCS7)
the control of the signaling network, with EWSD the common channel network
control CCNC or the Signaling System Network Control SSNC (level 2 and 3 of
the CCS7). The CCNC/SSNC thus generates the link between the users (LTG) of
the CCS7 and the signaling links.
The essential tasks of the CCNC/SSNC are:
Error control of the MSU on the signaling links against transmission errors and
monitoring of the signaling network (level 2 of the CCS7)
Selection of the signaling link when sending an MSU to the partner exchange
(level 3 routing)
Test of whether an MSU received via a signaling link is specifically for a user of the
own exchange or whether the MSU must be relayed to another exchange (level 3
discrimination)
Distribution of an MSU received via a signaling link to the users concerned (LTG)
(level 3 distribution)

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CCNC/SSNC
MTP
level 2 & 3
LTG
CCS7/ISUP
level 4
LTG
CCS7/ISUP
level 4
Partner
Exchange Y
Partner Exchange X
PCM routes
to the partner
exchanges
EWSD
CCNC/SSNC
Protection of the transport of the MSU
Routing of the MSU to be sent
Discrimination of the received MSU
Distribution of the received MSU
to the LTG concerned
Signaling Link: Transport of the MSU (level 1)
Trunks (user channels)
EWSD internal communication

Fig. 42
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8.2 Structure of the CCNC
8.2.1 Interfaces of the CCNC
The CCNC has two interfaces to EWSD to fulfill its tasks:
Interface to the signaling links:
All signaling links realized as 64kbps PCM time slots are transparently through-
connected as nailed up connection (NUC) through LTG and SN to the CCNC. The
CCNC is connected via max. 2 SDC on the duplicated SN for this.
Interface to the user part software in the LTG:
In order to relay the MSU between CCNC and the users in the LTG, the CCNC is
directly connected to the CP. With this interface it has access to the message
buffer (MB) and from there to the message channels of the individual LTG.

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LTG
CCS7 / ISUP
LTG
CCS7 / ISUP
CCNC
CCS7
Level 2
&
Level 3
MB
CP
SDC:LTG
Signaling
Link
PCM
SDC:LTG
SDC:CCNC
SDC:TSG
Message
Channel
Message Channel
of all LTG
Nailed Up Connection NUC
Route of the MSU between CCNC and the user part
SN0&1
PCM
Trunks
NUC

Fig. 43
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8.2.2 Functional Units of the CCNC
The functional units of the CCNC are divided into three groups:
Duplicated multiplex/demultiplex system for adaptation of the 8 Mbps SDC
interface to the SN (MUXM/MUXS)
Per signaling link an own module for carrying out the error control of the
transmission (SILTD, maximum 254), 8 SILTD each are merged into one SILT
group and have a common interface to the duplicated CCNP
Duplicated unit for carrying out routing, discrimination, and distribution including
the interface to the CP (CCNP0 and CCNP1), work in active/stand-by mode)
The fitting-out of the multiplex system and the number of the SILTD's depends on the
number of signaling links that are connected to this CCNC.

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SILT-group 31 SILT-group 0
CCNC
S
I
L
T
D
S
I
L
T
D
S
I
L
T
D
CCNP 0 CCNP 1
to 2 IOP:MB of the CP
Max. 254 links on 2 SDC via SN0
Multiplex system
per SDC:
one MUXM
per SILT-Grp.:
one MUXS
Max. 254 links on 2 SDC via SN1

Fig. 44
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8.3 Structure of the Signaling System Network
Control SSNC
8.3.1 General Characteristics of the SSNC
In the EWSD powernode the SSNC takes over the control of the SS7 network instead
of the CCNC. Here the SSNC can be used as signaling end or signaling transfer
point:
interface between the signaling network and the user programs in the LTG's
(Signaling End Point SEP function)
transfer from SS7 MSU without relaying to the user in the same exchange
(Signaling Transfer Point STP function)
The SSNC fulfills, like the CCNC, the so-called SS7 Message Transfer Part MTP
functions (discrimination, distribution, routing and message back-up).
Furthermore the SSNC can also take over the tasks of a SCCP Relay Point SRP
(Global Title Translation GTT for MTP users at non-user channel related SS7
signaling) and can function as a so called Local Number Portability Database Server.
In contrast to the CCNC, the SSNC is equipped with its own O&M interface to the
Netmanager NetM (Ethernet IP interface with Q3 protocol) and with back-up
memories (magnetic disk / magneto-optic disk). Therefore with regard to the OAM, it
is independent of the CP. Thus it is possible to also use the SSNC outside of EWSD
as a stand-alone Signaling Transfer Point STP (product is then called hiS700).



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CCNC SSNC
Version 15
MSU throughput per second
in STP configuration
6,400 500,000
MSU throughput per second
in SEP configuration
5,800 100,000
Signaling Links 254 1500
Capacity of CCNC and SSNC

Fig. 45

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8.3.2 SSNC Interfaces
Connecting the SS7 signaling channels
The SS7 signaling channels can be connected to the SSNC in three ways:
direct connection of 2 Mbps PCM transmission routes (E1) with 32 x 64kbps time
slots (Synchronous Transfer Mode STM) where the time slot 1-31 is used
exclusively for 64kbps SS7 signaling channels
(usually used when using the SSNC as stand-alone signaling transfer point STP)
direct connection of 2 Mbps PCM transmission route (E1) with a 2 Mbps high-
speed SS7 signaling channel (Asynchronous Transfer Mode ATM)
(usually used when using the SSNC as stand-alone Signaling Transfer Point STP)
indirect connection (via EWSD) of 64kbps SS7 signaling channels located in
2Mbps PCM transmission routes which simultaneously transport user channels
(not with stand-alone STP)
The connection of such an SS7 signaling channel occurs as a nailed-up
connection (NUC) from the LTG to which the PCM route transporting the channel
is connected via the EWSD switching network to the SSNC. Because the SSNC
however has no direct interface to the SN, this NUC runs via the switching network
only to another LTG ("inward LTG). This collects several SS7 NUC's from
different LTG's and then bundled routes them in a 2 Mbps cable with maximum 31
signaling channels to the SSNC.
Interface to the CP (not with stand-alone STP)
The connection to the CP is used to monitor and communicate with the CP-SS7 user
parts. It is connected using 207Mbps optical fiber cable (ATM200) to the AMP in the
CP.
Interface to the MB D (not with stand-alone STP)
The SSNC has up to 10 ATM200 interfaces to the MBDA in the MB D. The EWSD
internal exchange of the SS7 ISUP messages between the user LTG's (LTG which
serves the user channel affected by an SS7 MSU) and the SS7 MTP functions in the
SSNC runs via these interfaces.

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Affected speech channel
Signaling link
Outward LTG
ISUP LTG
Inward LTG
SN
MB-D (MBDA)
AMP
CP
Message
Channel
31 SS7-Links
with 64 kbit/s
or
1 HS -Link
with 2 Mbit/s
ATM-bridges
(optical)
SSNC
Level 2 & 3
(MTP)
direct connected E1
exclusively used
for SS7 links
NetM
OAM

Fig. 46
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8.3.3 SSNC Functional Units
Three types of module frames are used for the SSNC. The SSNC racks are
manufactured in the ICN construction, i.e. they are somewhat deeper and wider than
EWSD structure.
ATM Switching Network ASN (2 module frames for ASN 0 and 1)
The ASN is a switch matrix which
switches the communication-streams of the individual SSNC functional units with
MB D and CP
switches the communication-streams between the individual SSNC functional units
SSNC basic frame SCB
The SCB contains the following (internally duplicated) functional units of the SSNC:
Line Interface Card (LIC)
The duplicated Line Interface Card LIC forms the physical interface between the
SSNC units and the SS7 network.
Up to 8 PCM 2Mbps lines can be connected to an LIC module. These PCM routes
can come either directly from the transmission network or from different inward
LTG's. Therefore an LIC can provide the interfaces for maximum 248 x 64kbps
signaling channels.
Main Processor MP
The Main Processors (MP) are the central components of the SSNC. Each MP is
duplicated internally (MPU0 and MPU1). The different MP's fulfill different tasks:
MP:OAM (MP for OAM functions of the SSNC)
The MP:SA is used once in the SSNC and contains interfaces to connect the
Netmanagers NetM (Ethernet), the hard disks (SCSI bus for MDD and MOD ) and
the connection unit for alarm lines ALIB.
MP:SLT (MP for signaling link termination)
Each MP:SLT carries out the MTO tasks of an SS7 network control for maximum
127 signaling channels (depending on signaling traffic) when dealing with SS7
messages (discrimination, distribution, routing and back-up).
The total number of the MP:SLT in the SSNC depends on the signaling
requirement of the network node (maximum 47 MP:SLT).
MP:SM (MP for the SSNC database administration)
The MP:SM is used once in the SSNC. Its signaling manager function serves to
permanently update the SSNC database. This also guarantees that each MP:SLT
always has an up-to-date picture of the signaling database.
MP:STATS (MP for statistics)
The MP:STAT is used once in the SSNC and administers the different SS7
statistics data which are collected in the individual MP:SLT.

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ATM Multiplexer AMXE
The AMXE serves as a concentrator toward ASN and provides 32 x 207Mbps ATM
interfaces to connect the internal SSNC units LIC and MP and the optical cables to
the AMP of the CP and MBDA of the MB
Extension frame SCE (maximum 7 for 1500 signaling channels)
The SCE contains a duplicated AMXE and serves to include other MP's and LIC's.
The number of the SCE's is determined by the number of the LIC's and MP's
whereby 7 SCE are required with maximum capacity (1500 signaling channels) 7
SCE's.
LIC
A
S
N
LIC
MP:SLT
MP:SM
MP:OAM
SN
LTG
LTG
AMPC IOP:MB
LTG
LTG
DLU
M
B
D
A
MB D
A
M
X
E
NetM
High Speed
Links (/2Mbps)
SS7 Links
(64kbps)
Trunks and SS7 Links (64kbps)
CP113C
SSNC
Ethernet
X.25
MP:SLT
MP:STATS

LIC Line Interface Card
MP:SLT Signaling Link Terminal
MP:SM Signaling Manager
MP:STATS Statistics Handler
MP:OAM Stand Alone OAM Platform
MP Main Processor
ASN ATM Switching Network
AMXE ATM Multiplexer Type E
NETM Net Manager
Fig. 47
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9 Application Program System (APS)
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9.1 Components of the APS
The APS comprises all of the software necessary for operating an EWSD exchange;
that is, all necessary programs for the control units of the individual EWSD system
units and the complete database.
The APS software parts relevant for the CP, CCNC and LTG are completely stored
on the on the magnetic disk of the CP. Furthermore, the SW components relevant to
the individual system units are located in the memory of these control units as
resident software. (The SSNC part of the APS of a Powermode is stored on the disks
of the SSNC.)
The database of the APS disintegrates into semipermanent and transient data.
The semipermanent data such as the directory number of the subscriber are
entered and changed by the operator via the man machine interfaces. This happens
in the form of man machine language (MML) commands (CP) or Q3 Requests
(SSNC).
The transient data such as the current status of a subscriber (idle or busy) are
independently administered by the control units in the systems units.
The programs of the APS can be corrected by incorporating PATCH commands
during operation. These changes must not be carried out without prior consultation
with Siemens.
Data recorded by the EWSD during operation (e.g. charges or traffic measurement
results) are stored on the magnetic disk of the CP in files. They can be transmitted
and evaluated by the network operator either with copies on magnetic tapes or via
electronic file transfer to a post-processing center. (Same happens to the statistic
data collected and stored in the SSNC.)
The software of an exchange is supplemented by firmware components, which is
stored in EPROM of the individual system units.

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Software Firmware
(e.g. recovery
programs for
the individual
control units)
Files for
collecting
data
(e.g. charges)
Stored in files
on the magnetic
disks, transfer
to the post-
processing
center possible
Stored in
EPROM of the
system units
Database CODE
Transient
data
Indepen-
dently
admini-
strated
by the
system
control
(e.g. status
of the
subscriber)
Can be
corrected
per patch
Semi-
permanent
data
Created by
the operator
per MML
(e.g. DN
of the
subscriber)
completely stored on both magnetic
disks of the CP (except SSNC SW)
Relevant components resident in the
memory unit of the system units
Every change of the semi-permanent
data leads to an immediate update
of the APS to the magnetic disks

Fig. 48
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9.2 APS Facts
APS production:
Siemens periodically produces new APS versions with new features. Therefore the
principle scope of features of an APS is marked by its version number.
Such a basic APS does not yet have a database.
The basic APS of a version is then adapted to the needs of any network operator.
The result is a customer APS with the scope of features for the network operator
negotiated by contract. Since this APS is not yet exchange-specific, it also does not
have a database yet.
This customer APS is then delivered as a magnetic tape or a magneto-optical disk
and installed in the individual exchanges (commissioning procedure).
During this procedure, the prepared database in the form of command files is also
installed. Customer APS plus database then form the exchange-specific customer
APS.
APS Upgrade:
If, upon installation of the APS, a first-time start-up is not involved but rather a new
version for an existing exchange. the complete loading procedure is carried out
during normal operation of the exchange. After the new APS is loaded, the switch-
over to the new APS takes place with only a short interruption (approx. 1 minute) of
call processing. This fast upgrade is achieved by the OSU procedure (OSU=
Optimized System Upgrade). It requires specially sufficiently dimensioned memory in
all LTG..
APS backup
While in operation, backups of the current APS are periodically made. These backup
APS generations are stored both onto the magnetic disks (frozen condition) and
magnetic tapes/magneto-optical disk. If the current APS is destroyed, the CP/SSNC
can start-up again with these backups.

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Feature scope of the basic
APS version X:
Feature scope of the basic
APS version X+1:
transferred
new
Feature scope of the
Customer APS
version X+1:
Feature scope
as agreed
upon by contact
Feature not
purchased by
network operator
Customer APS + database for an exchange
= Exchange Specific Customer APS

Fig. 49
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10 Overview: EWSD Internal Call Setup

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The call setup described below refers to analog pushbutton subscribers who are
connected to a DLU. Here the functional units assigned to the calling party are
designated with A and those assigned to the called party with B. The duplication of
the SN is not explicitly taken into consideration in the description of the bi-directional
through-connection of the user channel through EWSD.
1. The calling party lifts the handset, SLCA in A-DLU detects the loop closure, A
SLMCP establishes the call attempt upon querying the SLCA.
2. The A-DLUC notices the call attempt upon the cyclical querying of the SLMCP
and sends a corresponding message to the A-GP in time slot 16 of the PDC.
3. The A-GP determines the class of service and the authorization of the calling
party from its database and selects a time slot on the SDC for the call. Then the
A-GP reports the call attempt and the SDC time slot selected for this call to the
CP via message channel (MCH).
4. The A-GP allocates a channel on the PDC to the call attempt and reports this via
the A-DLUC to the A-SLMCP. This sets the A-SLCA onto this channel. The A-
SLCA inserts a loop-around for send and receive direction.
5. The A-GP sets its GS for the testing of the speech route between A-SLCA and A
LTG (loop check):
a) Test tone of the TOG is through connected in the A-SLCA direction
b) Receive direction from the SLCA is through-connected to the CR
6. After successful testing:
a) A-GP through-connects the dial tone to the A-SLCA per GS
b) A-SLMCP sets the through-connection of the dial tone to the subscriber in the
A-SLCA on command of the A-GP
c) CR remains connected for the evaluation of the DTMF dialed digits
7. The calling party begins with the pushbutton dialing:
a) CR evaluates the received DTMF tones and relays the dialed digits to the A-
GP
b) GP switches off the through-connection of the dial tone in the GS after
receiving the first digit
c) GP picks up the dialed digits and sends the complete called partys directory
number to the CP via message channel
8. The CP locates the port (DLU/SLMA/SLCA) of the called party from the dialed
digits and checks whether it is idle. If this is the case, the status of the called
party is changed in the database from idle to busy.

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9. The CP selects the B-LTG and the time slot on the corresponding SDC and
reports this to the B-GP via message channel. The A-GP is also notified of the
number of the selected B-LTG.
Furthermore the CP transfers the command for setting the through-connection of
the call between A and B LTG to the SGC. The SGC sets the concerned modules
of TSG and SSG accordingly.
10. The A-LTG arranges for a test of the SN through-connection between A-GS and
B-GS (cross office check COC) on command of the CP.
11. When the COC is successful:
a) The A-GP sets the GS through-connection between the time slots selected for
this call on the PDC to the A-DLU and the SDC to the SN.
b) The A-GP notifies the B-GP that the COC was successful via message
channel.
12. The B-GP:
a) Selects a channel on the PDC and notifies the B-SLMCP of this via the B-
DLUC. The B-SLMCP sets the B-SLCA accordingly (loop-around from receive
and send direction).
b) Carries out the loop check (see 5.)
13. After a successful loop check:
a) The B-GP sends the command for ringing via B-DLUC to the B-SLMCP. This
arranges for the creation of the ringing current.
b) The B-GP sets its GS to the through-connection of the TOG ring-back tone to
the calling party. The ring-back tone is relayed via the through-connection to
the A-SLCA set in the SN and A-GS and from there is relayed to the calling
party.
14. If the called party lifts the handset (answering):
a) The B-SLCA detects the loop closure and the B-SLMCP switches the ringing
current off.
b) The B-DLUC recognizes that the called party has answered upon cyclical
querying of the B-SLMCP and notifies the B-GP of this.
15. The B-GP:
a) Switches off the through-connection of the ring-back tone in its GS.
b) Sets the through-connection between the time slots selected for this call on the
PDC to the B-DLU and the SDC to the SN in its GS. The calling party and the
called party can now speak to one another.
c) Notifies the A-GP of the start of the call via message channel. This begins with
the metering.
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DIUD
DLUC
A-DLU
SLCA
SLMCP
A-LTG
DIU
TOG
GS
CR GP
16
PDC
MCH
SDC
DIUD
DLUC
SLCA
SLMCP
B-LTG
DIU
TOG
GS
CR
GP
16
PDC
MCH
SDC
a/b
a/b
Calling party
Called party
MB
CP
SDC
TSG/
SSG
SN
SGC
...
MCH
of the
A-LTG
MCH
of the
B-LTG
B-DLU
CP Coordination processor
MB Message Buffer
CR Code receiver
SGC Switching network control
DIU Digital interface unit
SLCA Subscriber line circuit analog
DIUD Digital interface unit for DLU
SLMA Subscriber line module analog
DLU Digital line unit
SLMCP Processor for SLMA
DLUC DLU control
SN Switching network
GP Group processor
SSG Space stage group
GS Group switch
TOG Tone generator
LTG Line trunk group
TSG Time stage group
MCH Message channel
SLMA
SLMA

Fig. 50
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11 Exercise
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Exercise
Title:
EWSD hardware overview and functional structure
Objectives:
The course participant will be able to:
sketch the HW architecture and the mechanical setup
describe the basic features of the functional structure of the
system units
Pre-requisite:
None
Task
Answer the questions on the next page!
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Questions: Answers:
Through what are two modules electrically connected
to one another
when they are in the same frame?
when they are in two different frames?

Which EWSD system unit serves to concentrate the
subscriber accesses?

How many LTG (max.) can be connected to an SN with
4 TSGs per switching network?

Which double faults lead to a failure of the CP113?
Which EWSD system unit carries out the
Level 2/3 tasks of the CCS7?
Level 4 tasks of the CCS7?

Which system unit serves to connect
ISDN main station subscribers?
large ISDN private branch exchanges?
PCM routes from other exchanges?
V5.2 access networks?



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12 Solution
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Solution
Title:
EWSD hardware overview and functional structure
Objectives:
The course participant will be able to:
sketch the HW architecture and the mechanical setup
describe the basic features of the functional structure of the
system units
Pre-requisite:
None
Task
Answer the questions on the next page!
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Questions: Answers:
Through what are two modules electrically connected
to one another
when they are in the same frame?
when they are in two different frames?


Backplane of the frame
Plug-in cable between the
frames
Which EWSD system unit serves to concentrate the
subscriber accesses?
DLU
How many LTG (max.) can be connected to an SN with
4 TSGs per switching network?
252, if no CCNC is being
used
Which double faults lead to a failure of the CP113? Failure of both BAP or both
CMY or both B:CMY
Which EWSD system unit carries out the
Level 2/3 tasks of the CCS7?
Level 4 tasks of the CCS7?

CCNC or SSNC
LTG
Which system unit serves to connect
ISDN main station subscribers?
large ISDN private branch exchanges?
PCM routes from other exchanges?
V5.2 access networks?

DLU
LTG in B function
LTG in C function
LTG in B function