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NC STATE UNIVERSITY
NC STATE UNIVERSITY
NC STATE UNIVERSITY Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at NC State University Research and Graduate Programs

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at NC State University

Research and Graduate Programs

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Welcome

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Research Programs

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Academic Programs

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Our Department’s Home

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The Golden LEAF BTEC

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The University; Raleigh and Region

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Faculty

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Current Students’ Undergraduate Institutions

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Recent Graduates

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NC State Ph.D. Graduates Working in Academia

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Departmental Donors

Graduates Working in Academia 40 Departmental Donors Photography: Roger Winstead, Becky Kirkland, Dr. Ed

Photography: Roger Winstead, Becky Kirkland, Dr. Ed Funkhouser, and Triggs Photography, LLC.

NC State University is an equal opportunity and affirmative action employer and is dedicated to equality of opportunity within its community. Accordingly, NC State University does not practice or condone discrimination, in any form, against students, employees, or applicants on the grounds of race, color, national origin, religion, sex, sexual orientation, age, veteran status, or disability. NC State University commits itself to positive action to secure equal opportunity regardless of those characteristics.

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Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at NC State

Introduction

The Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engi- neering at North Carolina State University excels in the areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology, polymer science, applied molecular biosciences, environmentally sustainable solvents and chemical processes, colloidal and interfacial science, molecular thermodynamics and simulation, electronic mate- rials, catalysis, and electrochemical engineering. Our faculty research productivity places us among the best programs: In the most recently available annual compilation (Chemistry and Engineering News, 2007), the Department was ranked # 2 in research expenditures and # 10 in PhD production in the cohort of U.S. chemical engineering programs. Our faculty are recognized by peer groups as leaders in research and education. Three faculty, Carol Hall, Keith Gubbins, and Joseph DeSimone, are members of the National Academy of Engineering, and eight faculty are Fellows of various professional societies, three of whom are Fellows of multiple societies. Some recent national award winners include Jan Genzer, who received a National Science Foundation Special Creativity Award, and Orlin Velev, who was one of only

15 faculty members nationwide to receive the 2006 Camille Dreyfus Teacher-Scholar Award. Keith Gubbins received the American Chemical Society Joel Hildebrand Award in the Theory of Liquids, and Richard Spontak received the ACS Chemistry of Thermoplastic Elastomers Award. Christine Grant received the Professional Award in Chemical Engi- neering from the National Organization of Black Chemists and Chemical Engineers, and Joseph DeSimone received the prestigious Lemelson-MIT Prize. This $500,000 Prize is known as the “Oscar for Inventors” and “recognizes individuals who translate their ideas into inventions and innovations that improve the world.” Three faculty, Joseph DeSimone, Keith Gubbins, and Carol Hall, were recognized by the American Institute of Chemical Engineers in the organization’s 2008 Centennial celebration as members of the top “One Hundred Engineers of the Modern Era.” NC State continues to offer the environment and faculty support necessary to prepare hard-working graduate students for the rigors of academic and industrial research. We take special pride, not only in our research and teaching

We take special pride, not only in our research and teaching Lindsey Jerrim and Hyung-Jun Koo

Lindsey Jerrim and Hyung-Jun Koo from Professor Velev’s research group are depositing nanoparticles and live cell coatings onto solid surfaces. These nanocoat- ings can be used in novel devices for biological research and solar energy conversion.

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Graduate student Zhuo Liu, a member of Professor Ruben Carbonell’s research group, is working in

Graduate student Zhuo Liu, a member of Professor Ruben Carbonell’s research group, is working in Professor Carbonell’s Bioseparations Labo- ratory on the use of small peptide ligands to achieve a one-step affinity separation of human immunoglobulins classes (IgG, IgM, IgA) from mammalian cell culture media and human plasma.

accomplishments, but also in our long tradition of depart- mental collegiality, in the belief expressed by the faculty that “your success is my success.” Our goal is to give students the support and encouragement they need to achieve their individual intellectual promise. This attitude has been highly effective in the development of a new generation of researchers, and as a result graduates from the NC State Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering program are faculty at universities across the country and are also contributing to a wide range of industrial enterprises, from large corporations to small start-up companies. We invite you to join the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at North Carolina State University, to develop fully your potential as a researcher and to explore and devise engineering solutions to society’s pressing tech- nological needs.

Opportunities for Innovation

Creativity, collaboration, and innovation are characteris- tics emphasized and nurtured in the NC State Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering. While analysis is at the core of undergraduate instruction, creativity and synthesis are key aspects of the graduate experience. Practical solutions to technological problems require the creative synthesis of often disparate ideas and approaches. At NC State, graduate research often results in the development of innovative and patentable ideas, leading to new technologies and, sometimes, new companies. Faculty members in the Department have strong interactions with industry, including consulting, sponsored research, and/or advisory board activities. Opportunities continue to arise to use your technical and entrepreneurial abilities to create new solutions to societal problems.

Research Programs

One of the benefits of our graduate program is the diversity of the faculty’s research. Our faculty have active research programs in nearly every aspect of chemical and biomolecular engineering and are engaged in a high level of multidisciplinary research with academic and industrial collaborators worldwide. Fundamental studies will enable you to investigate nanoscale phenomena, reaction pathways in living cells, protein purification, thin-film dynamics, and polymer physics, to name a few of the myriad active research projects. Applied systems research will prompt you to fabricate functional nanostructures and nanoelectronic devices, to utilize microfluidic systems, and to develop alterna- tive sources of clean energy. The following research descriptions just begin to scratch the surface of the many opportunities in the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at NC State University.

Computational Nanoscience and Biology

The Department has world class programs in computa- tional modeling of matter at the atomic and electronic levels, focused on applications in the areas of energy, nano-structured materials, and biology. These programs are co-directed by Professors Carol Hall and Keith Gubbins. In Professor Gubbins’ research, advanced molecular simulation methods are being used to understand the effects of confinement and surface interactions on the physical and chemical behavior of guest phases within nano-porous mate- rials, such as mesoporous silicas, various forms of carbons, and nanocomposites. Studies are underway to develop applications of these materials as catalysts, as double layer electrochemical capacitors, and as energy storage devices. When used as cata- lysts, the nature of the nano-structured material, pore size, shape and connectivity, and surface defects , all have profound effects on the mechanism, rate and yield of the reaction, but these effects are poorly understood. Projects in this area include the design of efficient reactive adsorptive systems for the removal of toxic chemicals from air streams, materials for production and storage of hydrogen, and development of novel simulation methods to study simultaneous reaction with diffusion. Professor Hall’s group applies molecular thermody- namics and computer simulation to model the self assembly of biological molecules (proteins and DNA) and soft materials (polymers, colloids and surfactants). A major research focus is protein aggregation, a symptom of over 40 human diseases including Alzheimer’s (AD). Molecular dynamics simulation is being applied to investigate the formation of ordered protein aggregates, called amyloid fibrils, which are invariably found in the brains of AD disease victims. Simulations are being used to design the next generation of DNA-based nanoma- terials. The self assembly of systems of colloid particles with permanent dipole moments is being modeled in collaboration

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with Professor Velev so as to guide the discovery of advanced materials. With Professor Genzer, Hall is exploring the impact of heteropolymer sequence on interfacial properties. She is also modeling the formation and properties of micelle- and liposome-based nano-carriers for cancer drug delivery.

Catalysis, Kinetics, and Electrochemical Engineering

Reaction mechanisms and kinetics are at the center of a large body of research within the Department. For example, Professor Lamb has an active research effort in heterogeneous catalysis with emphasis on in-situ characterization using infrared spectroscopy and x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. He is currently President of the Southeastern Catalysis Society. In Professor Fedkiw’s laboratory, electrochemical kinetics studies are applied to solid polymer elect- trolyte-based reactors, including fuel cells, elec- troorganic reactor design and control, and electrochemical removal of pollutants. In a collaborative effort with faculty in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, his group is using electrodeposition methods to prepare nanocrystalline metal deposits. Professors Fedkiw and Khan are collaborating to study functionalized fumed silica for applications in composite polymer electrodes for lightweight rechargeable lithium batteries. Professor Henderson has a rapidly expanding research program for lithium battery and electrochemical capacitor materials. His focus is on the electrolyte portion of these devices – understanding fundamental solvent-salt interactions and the physical properties of such mixtures, scrutinizing ionic liquids (liquid salts) as electrolyte materials, the development of new nonfluorinated salt anions and additives to improve electrolyte properties, new methods for preparing electrolyte polymer separators, and optimization of electrolytes for very low/high temperature use (space/drilling applications).

Biomolecular Engineering and Biotechnology

Biomolecular engineering is a central focus in the Department. Twelve faculty, including Professors Carbonell, DeSimone, Flickinger, Grant, Hall, Haugh, Henderson, Kelly, Ollis, Peretti, Reeves, and Rao, have research efforts in this area, and other faculty often lend their expertise to new directives. The activities of this group of researchers fall into three broad categories – engineering of functional biomolecules, analysis of biochemical pathways in living cells, and systems biology. Professor Kelly is interested in extremophilic microor- ganisms, which characteristically inhabit biologically extreme environments. The microorganisms from these settings produce intrinsically stable biocatalysts which have wide-ranging potential uses in bioprocesses. The Kelly group relies heavily on functional genomics approaches (using cDNA microarrays)

to characterize the metabolism of hyperthermophiles as well as to identify novel biocatalysts of scientific and technological importance. Professor Peretti is interested in genetically engi- neered microbial systems used in the degradation of hazardous waste. Such bacteria have been manipulated to express novel, non-polluting biosynthetic pathways for chemical production (green chemistry). Projects involve studies of mixed-culture, mixed-substrate population dynamics and design of reactors for non-aqueous phase bioprocessing. Professor Carbonell’s most recent bioprocessing activities include investigations into the use of combinatorial peptide libraries to screen for ligands for protein purification. These ligands offer several significant advantages: low costs relative to antibodies, easy coupling chemistry, and high thermal and ionic strength stability. Professor Hall’s research is aimed at understanding the aberrant assembly of normally-soluble proteins into ordered aggregates, called amyloid fibrils, the pathological hallmark in over 20 human neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s and the prion diseases. Molecular dynamics computer simulation is being used to learn the basic physical principles governing protein fibril formation. The hope is that this work will culminate in

a detailed molecular-level picture of the fibrillization process,

ultimately providing insights to guide medical research workers directly involved in the search for therapeutic strategies to combat these diseases. Professor Haugh’s laboratory investigates chemical reaction networks that are used for integrating information and prompting decision making by mammalian (e.g. human) cells. These signal transduction mechanisms are regulated in

a complex manner both temporally and spatially, and are of

keen importance for the design of targeted therapeutic strate- gies and other biomedical applications.

therapeutic strate- gies and other biomedical applications. Charlotte Cooper, from the Kelly Group Hyperthermophile Lab,

Charlotte Cooper, from the Kelly Group Hyperthermophile Lab, is showing a negative control experiment for recombinant expression of archaeal genes in yeast. With this particular strain of yeast, the colonies turn pink in the absence of the plasmid.

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The cover image from the September 15, 2003, issue of Advanced Materials was prepared by

The cover image from the September 15, 2003, issue of Advanced Materials was prepared by Professor Genzer, Daniel A. Fischer of the Material Science and Engineering Laboratory at the National Institute of Standards and Technology; and Kirill Efimenko, Sr. Research Associate in the Genzer research group. The image illustrates how the technology of mechani- cally assembled monolayers and in-plane asymmetric stretching of uniformly coated elastomeric substrates (developed by the Genzer group) is used to create molecular gradients.

Professor Reeves’ laboratory focuses on signaling networks as well, but at the tissue level in a developing animal. These signaling pathways not only ensure that development proceeds correctly from a fertilized egg to a mature adult, but are also responsible for maintaining healthy adult tissue, and disruptions in these networks have serious implications for human disease. Research in Professor Rao’s laboratory focuses on the quantitative analysis of biochemical pathways that control self- renewal and early differentiation in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). To enable quantitative hESC biology, the Rao group is also concurrently developing novel technologies for sensitive and high throughput quantification of low abundance biomolecular species from small sample volumes. Another area of interest is the engineering of small stable proteins that bind with high affinity and specificity to targets of interest. The Rao group is exploring the use of these proteins as novel reagents to perturb biochemical pathways in hESCs, in the extracellular as well as intracellular context. Professor Grant’s group is exploring the importance of cellular age and cell line selection on the response (e.g., adhesion and proliferation) of human bone cells at their interface with engineered biomaterials. The successful implantation of novel orthopedic devices which incorporate the cell-biomaterial matrix requires careful design of both cellular and materials oriented research.

Professor Flickinger’s cross-disciplinary research program spans microbial biotechnology, biocatalysis and nanostructured materials. His group focuses on engineering nanostructured bioreactive materials, bioprocess intensifica- tion and miniaturization (BIM), and microchannel bioreac- tors, combined with microbial metabolic engineering. He is particularly interested in development of coatings of concen- trated thermostable or extremophile microbes to engineer very high intensity microbial biocatalysts. Modern biological research facilities within the Depart- ment support these research efforts, as do collaborations with life scientists at the University, at companies, and at other universities. These efforts reflect the rapid expansion of biotechnology activity at the University (including 24 academic departments) and in companies in the Research Triangle Park and surrounding region.

Biofuels and Renewable Energy Technology

The national need to employ alternatives to petroleum- based fuels has led to a major research focus at NC State for developing the science and technology needed to produce biofuels an renewable energy technologies. In addition, the historically strong collection of biological resources within the University make our Department an ideal location to pursue that development. Seven faculty, including Professors Dickey, Flickinger, Henderson, Lamb, Parsons, Peretti, and Velev

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have research efforts in these areas, including collaborations with other departments, such as Wood and Paper Sciences and Forestry and companies, such as Novozymes. Professor Dickey’s group is developing new three- dimensional, nanostructured architectures for solar cells. Nanostructured solar cells have the potential to increase the efficiency of organic photovoltaic devices in a low-cost manner such that they can be widely adopted. A limited number of ionic liquids (liquid salts) have been shown to be excellent solvents for cellulose (a polysaccharide which is essentially insoluble in all common solvents). Prof. Henderson is currently examining what characteristics of ion structure influence biopolymer solubility; how the ions affect other properties of interest such as salt melting point, viscosity, thermal stability, etc.; and the activity of cellulase enzymes for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose. These characteristics will determine whether ionic liquids are a commercially viable means of pretreatment for the conversion of cellulosic biomass into fuels and chemicals. Prof. Lamb’s group is currently developing new highly efficient catalytic processes for converting bio-based fats and oils (triglycerides) into transportation fuels (including biogaso- line) and byproduct glycerol into value-added chemicals, such as propanediols and glycerol carbonate. Biocatalysts (enzymes) are of vital importance in the production of transportation fuels from renewable resources. Bioethanol production in the US has expanded rapidly driven by high petroleum prices and government incentives for biomass-derived alternative fuels. Starch (from corn, wheat, barley, sweet potatoes, and other crops) and cellulosic biomass can be used as sources of sugars for fermentation to ethanol. Prof. Lamb’s group is also working with industry to gain a better understanding of fuel ethanol production via simultaneous saccharifica- tion and fermentation of very-high-gravity corn mash using glucoamylase enzymes and yeast. Professor Flickinger’s group has pioneered development of thin photoreactive biocatalytic composite coatings containing photosynthetic microorganisms for carbon sequestration, the production of hydrogen gas from waste organic acids, and microbial conversion of gaseous carbon (COx) to liquid fuels. Several nanostructured coating systems are being investigated such as multi-layer photo reactive adhesive coatings of purple non-sulfur bacteria, green microalgae and anaerobes. High temperature coatings of extremophiles for hydrogen gas and liquid fuel production are also being investigated. Professor Parsons’ group is exploring nanoscale process technologies to improve and advance solar energy conversion systems. For example, new fiber–based inorganic core-shell nanostructures formed by Atomic Layer Deposition are being explored to enhance charge separation for applications in dye-sensitized and hybrid organic/inorganic photovoltaic devices. Unique nanostructures will also be needed for organic solar cells to enable large densities of surface-functionalized molecules to be exposed to sunlight. Students in the Parsons

group collaborate with chemists, material scientists, and elec- trical engineers to explore integration of new materials and new device designs, including porphyrin-based compounds that can mimic photosynthetic processes. Professor Peretti is interested in genetically engineered microbial systems used in the production of liquid fuels and fine chemicals. Metabolic modeling and flux balance modeling of microbial systems having applications in mixed culture produc- tion of biofuels from synthesis gas is of particular interest. The interplay between primary and secondary metabolism involving methanogens and ethanologens is particularly challenging to capture in a modeling framework. Protein engineering is also an interest in terms of the activity and selectivity of enzymes and membrane transport proteins. Work is also underway to modify lipase expression in fungi, leading to cell surface display of the enzymes. These whole-cell immobilized catalysts have potential applications for biocatalysis where enzyme purifica- tion costs are substantial. Molecular structural modeling studies are used to investigate protein structure function relationships for lipases as a means to modify substrate selectivity, and for membrane transport proteins as a means to control the uptake and efflux of aromatic precursors and products. The Velev group is evaluating the performance of new classes of energy-harvesting and energy-saving devices based on soft materials that mimick living tissue. They are creating solar cells made of water-based gels enclosed in silicone rubber. These light harvesting devices have the potential to be flexible, scalable and environmentally friendly. These researchers are also investigating new heat-exchanging materials with networks of microfluidic channels similar to vascular networks in skin.

uidic channels similar to vascular networks in skin. Epifluoresence image taken by the Kelly group of

Epifluoresence image taken by the Kelly group of a co-culture of methane producing hyperthermophilic microorganisms under biofilm forming conditions.

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Keena Mullen from Professor Wesley Henderson’s research group uses an ion exchange column to prepare an ionic liquid (liquid salt) for the dissolution of cellulose for cellulosic biomass processing into biofuels.

cellulose for cellulosic biomass processing into biofuels. Environmental Studies The areas of energy and the

Environmental Studies

The areas of energy and the environment, green chem- istry, and life cycles are key concepts that motivate many of the leading environmental studies in the U.S. Professor Grant investigates interfacial and transport phenomena governing the adsorption/desorption of thin organic and inorganic films. Specific applications include environmentally benign alternatives to solvent-based processes for electronic materials and textile finishing. Research involving environmental remediation and waste treatment is also ongoing. Professor Ollis is investi- gating photocatalysis in a variety of applications, including purification and deodorization of air, decontamination and disinfection of water, recovery of complexed metals from water, and combined chemical and biological oxidation for efficient remediation of recalcitrant compounds. Professor Peretti continues to work on a VOC biotreatment process that couples vapor/liquid extraction with membrane-supported biodegradation of mixtures of aromatics and aliphatics.

Polymers

The polymers program has a long tradition as a world- class center for the study of structure/property relations in polymers. The rheology and processing behavior of novel and complex polymeric and colloidal systems are of interest to Professor Khan. Rheological techniques are invaluable for providing information on both the microstructural and processing aspects of such materials. Collaborative efforts between Professors Kelly and Khan are underway to develop biopolymers with controlled molecular architecture. Professor Khan also collaborates with Professor Fedkiw to develop composite polymer electrolytes which decouple the mechanical

behavior of the polymer from its conductivity. This research promises to impact the development of efficient and safe rechargeable batteries for use in electric vehicles, camcorders, laptop computers, and other advanced electronic systems. Professor Genzer’s group studies polymer behavior at surfaces, interfaces, and in confined geometries. His group is also actively involved in research on material self-assembly and directed assembly. The current research activities in the group can be broadly divided into three main areas: (i) substrate pattern recognition by copolymers; (ii) directed assembly of oligomers and polymers on elastomeric substrates; and (iii) molecular and macromolecular gradients on substrates. Professor Genzer’s group is also developing experimental and theoretical methods to study interface performance of surfactants and biologically active molecules. Many practical applications of polymers, such as nanoscale filters, chemical sensors, organic templates, and biomedical/electro-optical devices rely on heterophase poly- mers in which the size scale of phase separation ranges from a few nanometers to several microns. The research in Professor Spontak’s group focuses on the design, characterization, and modeling of such systems through the use of optical, electron, x-ray, and probe microscopies, in addition to small-angle x-ray and neutron scattering. Systems of current interest include block copolymers, organic gels, and polymer blends and foams produced in supercritical CO 2 . Professor Dickey’s group develops methods to pattern micro- and nano-scale features in polymers. Patterned poly- mers have many applications, including electronics, solar cells, and nanotechnology. The group studies and utilizes numerous methods to pattern polymers, including photoli- thography, imprint lithography, and thin-film instabilities. These techniques are of fundamental interest, but also provide enabling tools to study micro- and nano-scale phenomena and biological systems. The group is particularly interested in photosensitive materials and photopolymerizations (i.e., the use of light to induce polymerization).

Nanoscience and Nano-Engineering

The areas of nanoscience and nano-engineering are developing rapidly, in part as a consequence of research performed by chemical engineers. Faculty particularly active in this area in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering at NC State include Professors DeSimone, Dickey, Flickinger, Genzer, Khan, Parsons, Spontak, and Velev. General areas of expertise in the Department include organic and inorganic nanoparticle synthesis and manipulation, polymer thin films and func- tional surfaces, functional nanofibers, inorganic thin films and organic/inorganic hybrid materials, bio-nano-materials and structures, nanostructure self-assembly, as well as nano- materials and structures for electronic, optoelectronic, sensing and energy conversion systems. Nano-materials synthesis and surface modification for advanced nano-functional fiber systems and textile structures is another area of interest.

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Activity in nanotechnology is strongly coupled across disciplines, including strong collaborations with other researchers on campus, in industry, at national laboratories, and at other universities. NC State has recently developed a Nanotechnology Initiative to coordinate the university’s expanding nanotechnology efforts. This effort (highlighted at www.ncsu.edu/nano/) includes many faculty from the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, including the Initiative Director, Professor Parsons. Recent breakthroughs in the DeSimone laboratories using specifically-designed materials for imprint lithography have enabled an extremely versatile and flexible method for the direct fabrication and harvesting of monodisperse, shape- specific nano-biomaterials. Unlike other particle fabrication techniques, PRINT is delicate and general enough to be compatible with a variety of important next-generation cancer therapeutic, detection and imaging agents, including various cargos (e.g. DNA, proteins, chemotherapy drugs, biosensor dyes, radio-markers, contrast agents), targeting ligands (e.g. antibodies, cell targeting peptides), and functional matrix materials (e.g. bioabsorbable polymers, stimuli responsive matrices, etc). PRINT particles are presently being designed to reach new understandings and therapies in cancer preven- tion, diagnosis and treatment. The PRINT technology is playing an integral part in the NIH PPG as well as the newly awarded Carolina Cancer Center of Nanotechnology Excel- lence Grants. Professor Dickey’s group studies new materials and methods for nanofabrication. The overarching motivation for this work is to build useful tools and functional devices (e.g., nanoelectronics, solar cells, sensors, photonic structures, microfluidics, etc.) in a simple, inexpensive, and scalable manner. The group seeks to elucidate the fundamental structure-property relationships of materials such that they can be harnessed in a useful manner, and to develop new, unconventional approaches to fabricate and assemble structures into hierarchical, integrated devices. Professor Flickinger’s research program combines microbial biocatalysis and bioreactive nanostructured polymer materials. His group’s current research includes engineering polymer adhesion, coating nanoporosity and preservation of microbial viability in coatings and microbial ink-jet inks by carbohydrate glasses for applications in high intensity microchannel bioreactors and microfluidic devices. Several nanostructured coating systems are being modeled and investigated. These include multi-layer photo reactive adhesive coatings of photosynthetic microorganisms (purple non-sulfur bacteria, green microalgae) capable of producing hydrogen gas from waste organic acids, coatings of anaerobic microorganisms or enzymes tethered on nanoporous surfaces that produce liquid fuels such as methanol or ethanol from gaseous carbon, and microbial catalytic coatings in multi-phase microchannel bioreactors that produce very high intensity biooxidations.

Dr. Genzer’s group uses organic films with thickness in the range of 1-100 nm as functional substrates to form polymer- nanoparticle composites, the structure and properties of which can be finely tuned by controlling the molecular parameters of the underlying organic fi lms. Such nanocomposite materials are envisaged to be the backbone of next-generation devices used in information storage, computing, sensors and medical diagnostics applications. On a different front, the group employs nanometer thick films of biocompatible polymers to systematically study protein adsorption and cell adhesion. New electronic materials fabrication techniques require control of

chemical processes that occur at the atomic scale, especially at exposed surfaces or critical interfaces between materials. An integral focus of the Khan research group is in the area

of functional nanofibers. These nanofibers, typically obtained

via electrospinning, and ranging in diameter between 50 to 500nm, offer an exciting opportunity to develop materials with new and tailored properties. In this regard, group members are examining nanofibers of enzyme-modified biopolymers for drug delivery, carbonized nanofibers for new generation

lithium batteries, nanofibrous structures for sensor applica- tions, and templating nanoparticles in nanofibers via an in-situ process for use in biomedical applications. Projects are also underway investigating new approaches to electrospinning including the use of associative polymer to facilitate such process and solvent-free nanofiber formation. Dr. Parsons’ research focuses on fundamentals of thin fi lm materials, surface reactions, and nano–scale engineering.

A primary area of study is Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)

technology for highly conformal fabrication of inorganic insulators and metals with atomic-scale control of growth and interface formation. Parsons’ group is working to extend

interface formation. Parsons’ group is working to extend This microfluidic chip with an array of 20

This microfluidic chip with an array of 20 microliter droplets (white) is used as a reactor for the assembly of novel microstructured particles. The chip, co-invented by Professor Velev and graduate students Brian Prevo and Ketan Bhatt, replaces the beaker-and-test tube approach to studying chemical reactions with a microscopic factory for synthesizing or separating individual molecules.

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ALD into new and expanding areas, including Molecular Layer Deposition, where the chemical concepts of ALD are utilized for atomic–level integration of organic monomer and molecular building blocks into well defined polymers, as well as hybrid organic–inorganic thin films. Low temperature processing is of interest to enable non–conventional materials, including polymers or biologically active surfaces to be coated and modified. Parsons’ experience in solar energy materials is helping the group examine ALD for applications in PV and other energy harvesting devices. Th ere is also focus on modifi - cation of high surface area 3D structures, including nonwoven fibrous mats and natural and synthesized fabric structures for biological integration or bio–separation systems. Prof. Velev’s group is well known for their work in the synthesis and self-assembly of nano- and micro-particles. Understanding the principles of directed assembly driven by external fields makes possible the manipulation of live cells, colloids and droplets. Prof. Velev’s group is currently developing new “lab-on-a-chip” technologies for chemical synthesis in microscopic droplets, drug and toxin screening, handling of single live cells, and assembly of microscopic circuits and sensors. The control of interactions during the assembly process will lead to the development of new principles for engineering on the nanoscale. The group is active in the development and characterization of new types of Janus and anisotropic nanoparticles. One unique application demon- strated recently by Velev and his students is the formation of self-propelling particles, which convert the external electric energy into mechanical propulsion on the microscale. The results can find applications in dynamically reconfigurable microfluidic chips, spatially-evolving active microsensor networks, self-converging and assembling “smart” materials or possibly in future complex motile microbots.

The Institute for Computational Science and Engineering

The Institute for Computational Science and Engi- neering (ICSE) at NC State brings together expertise present across the campus in high performance computing, and offers advanced training and research to graduate students. Among the aims of the Institute are the promotion of interdisciplinary interactions in scientific computation, including multi-scale approaches to complex systems, and advanced education. The Institute organizes graduate computer science and numerical methods courses in simulation methods at the electronic, atomic, meso-, and continuum scales of matter. Workshops on special topics in high performance computation, seminars by visiting researchers, and a Visiting Professor program for talented researchers from other institutions are organized through the Institute, and provide graduate students with a wide exposure to the latest developments in this area In our department, Professors Genzer, Gubbins (Director) and Hall are active participants.

Triangle National Lithography Center

In 2003, a state-of-the-art 193 nm lithography stepper was delivered to its new home in the Triangle National Lithog- raphy Center (TNLC). The Center, jointly financed and oper- ated by NC State and UNC-Chapel Hill enables academic and industrial researchers from the Triangle and around the world to fabricate nanoscale structures using optical lithography. In addition, the Center provides local industrial partners with the infrastructure necessary to compete on the international stage in advanced applications in microelectronics, lab-on- a-chip and the nanoscale technology. The TNLC is a 900 sq ft class 100 cleanroom space housed in NC State’s Nanofabrication Facility and is an affiliate member of the National Nanofabrication Infrastructure Network (NNIN). As an outgrowth of the NSF Science and Technology Center for Environmentally Responsible Solvents and Processes, the TNLC fosters R&D toward the vision for developing sustainable, “dry” manufacturing methods based on the carbon dioxide technology platform. The TNLC serves to provide CO 2 -Based Processing Wafer Track & SEM Metrology and the “Dry” FAB of the Future Demonstration Facility. With a mission grounded in exploring, collaborating, educating, and leading, the TNLC is a magnet in the Triangle serving to elevate the capabilities of our universities, our State, our country, and our local economy.

universities, our State, our country, and our local economy. The 193-nanometer lithography stepper is housed in

The 193-nanometer lithography stepper is housed in NC State’s Monteith Research Center.

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Academic Programs

Students beginning graduate study in our department normally have earned a bachelor’s degree in chemical engi- neering. A limited number of outstanding students with degrees in biochemistry, chemistry, physics, and other branches of science and engineering are considered for admission each year. Background undergraduate courses can be completed in one to two years. Candidates for the M.S. and Ph.D. degrees select a research topic by the end of their first semester. The typical residency for a master’s degree is four semesters; a Ph.D. usually requires five years. The detailed requirements for the graduate program can be found in the NC State Graduate Catalog.

Thesis Degrees

Two different thesis degrees are offered in our graduate program, the Doctor of Philosophy and the Master of Science. In the Doctor of Philosophy program, students entering with a bachelor’s degree in chemical engineering normally complete a set of four core courses, a minimum of two advanced courses, and a two-semester sequence of research related courses. A Ph.D. student must complete a combined total of 72 credit hours in research and course work, and the student is free to take additional elective courses from any department in the university. The pair of research related courses taken by students during their first year consists of Introduction to Research during the Fall semester, and Research Proposition during the Spring semester. Because the defining difference between undergraduate and graduate study is the presence and preemi- nence of research, we offer these two novel courses to better prepare students to function at high levels of productivity in both their Ph.D. studies and careers, and to teach the mechanics of effectively communicating to a technical audience through proposals (hypotheses) and papers (results). In the Introduction to Research course, the student independently develops an original, written chemical engi- neering research paper and defends it orally to the course instructor. The course also covers issues related to research ethics. In the Research Proposition course offered in Spring, the student creates an NSF-format-like proposal, typically in the area of his/her anticipated Ph.D. study, under the guid- ance of the course instructor and thesis advisor, and defends it before a faculty committee. Successful completion of the two-semester research related courses, together with the core courses, qualifies the student to continue for the Ph.D. The next step for doctoral students is to begin research work and to prepare a thesis proposal. This proposal is presented in written and oral forms to their committee during the Fall of their third year. After passing the preliminary oral examination, the remaining step to the Ph.D. is the final oral examination (thesis defense). Prior to the thesis defense

students are required to have annual meetings with their dissertation committee. Students seeking the doctoral degree are not required to complete a master’s thesis. The M.S. thesis degree program consists of 24 semester hours of course work, including some courses outside of chemical engineering, and 6 hours of thesis research. Thesis degree students serve as teaching assistants for two semesters. This requirement is usually completed during their second and third semesters of enrollment. Several supple- mental fellowships are also awarded based on the student’s qualifications and performance.

Course Work Only (Non-Thesis) Degrees

Two similar non-thesis degrees are offered: the Master of Chemical Engineering (M.ChE.) and the Master of Science (M.S. non-thesis). The M.ChE. degree entails 30 semester hours of course work, including a required 3-credit project. The M.S. non-thesis degree also requires 30 semester hours of course work, which may include an independent project or 6 credits of supervised research. Students participating in these programs normally don’t receive Department financial assistance.

supervised research. Students participating in these programs normally don’t receive Department financial assistance. 9
supervised research. Students participating in these programs normally don’t receive Department financial assistance. 9
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Our Department’s Home

At the end of 2004, the Department moved to a new home in Engineering Building I, on the NC State Centennial Campus. EB1 contains 93,000 ft² of total floor space that is shared by the Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering. The two departments share three theater-style lecture halls that seat 66, 92, and 134 students and that occupy a total of 7,800 ft². Wireless internet access is avail- able in all areas of the facility, and a notable design feature is the 4,800 ft² lobby and atrium space which serves as a focal point of the structure. Our department utilizes 4,300 ft² of administrative offices and conference room space, 5,600 ft² of undergraduate space for the unit operations laboratory, student lounge and computer labs, 6,400 ft² for graduate student and post-doc offices, 5,100 ft² for 26 faculty offices, and 19,800 ft² for faculty research labs. Centennial Campus is a place where collaborations between academic, industrial, and governmental researchers are promoted by their close physical proximity. Many of these interactions have led to significant research partnerships and to permanent employment for NC State graduates. As the future of chemical and biomolecular engineering becomes increasingly diverse, our department is well positioned to help solve tomorrow’s complex problems through multidisciplinary research involving our Centennial Campus partners. The 1,120-acre campus is framed by the NC State main campus, the State Farmer’s Market, and downtown Raleigh. Recreational amenities include miles of jogging and biking trails, the 90-acre Lake Raleigh with a fishing pier and boat launch, and a championship golf course. Several eateries and coffee shops as well as numerous outdoor courtyards and open areas provide space for friends and colleagues to congregate, relax, and enjoy the temperate climate.

Graduate Student Association

A close knit and active community among the graduate students and faculty is fostered through the Graduate Student Association (GSA). GSA activities are centered around three aims: social interaction, professional development, and intradepartmental communication. Traditional events include the summer beach trip, fall welcome (back) picnic, spring social, and Friday afternoon gatherings throughout the year. Discussions with weekly seminar speakers, graduate student research presentations, and orientation meetings for new students enrich the graduate school experience beyond the classroom and laboratory. As a liaison between the graduate students and faculty, the GSA provides avenues for student involvement in faculty and graduate student recruiting, curriculum evaluation, and departmental and university policy making. The GSA is just one way the department demonstrates that its strength is its people.

and university policy making. The GSA is just one way the department demonstrates that its strength
and university policy making. The GSA is just one way the department demonstrates that its strength
and university policy making. The GSA is just one way the department demonstrates that its strength
and university policy making. The GSA is just one way the department demonstrates that its strength

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The Golden LEAF BTEC

According to the North Carolina Biotechnology Center, North Carolina is home to a thriving biotechnology industry. With nearly 55,000 people in 450 bioscience companies, the State ranks among the top three biotechnology regions in the United States. North Carolina is also home to one of the largest pharmaceutical/biomanufacturing clusters in the world, due to the presence of major companies such as GlaxoSmithKline, Novartis, Merck, Wyeth, and Novozymes. The Golden LEAF Biomanufacturing Training and Education Center (BTEC) is the only facility of its kind in the nation. The center simulates a biomanufacturing pilot plant capable of producing biopharmaceutical products and packaging them in a sterile environment. It also includes training and education classrooms, laboratories, building and process utilities. The BTEC hands-on, laboratory-intensive academic program is provided using pilot-scale, state-of-the-art equip- ment and systems in a simulated-cGMP environment. Several BTEC faculty hold appointments in the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering. As a consequence, opportunities exist for graduate students in the Department to work with BTEC faculty on their research projects and programs. The facility is outfitted so that students gain biopro- cessing experience using pilot-scale equipment, including bioreactors, downstream separation and purification processes, bioreactor control systems, and aseptic processing operations. In addition, the BTEC features a training and education laboratory for biotechnology support staff such as validation specialists, instrumentation technicians, equipment mechanics, microbiologists, sterile preparation technicians, biochemists and engineers from various disciplines. Faculty and instructors in the BTEC engage in cutting edge scholarship to develop next generation bioprocessing and biomanufacturing technologies.

generation bioprocessing and biomanufacturing technologies. A significant portion of the BTEC space is devoted to

A significant portion of the BTEC space is devoted

to pilot-scale bioreactor operations (20-300 L) and to related downstream processing activities. These operations are required to provide necessary scale-up of bacterial and mammalian cell cultures, followed by separation processes used to isolate the genetically engineered products from cell

to isolate the genetically engineered products from cell mass, nutrients, similar proteins, and other byproducts and

mass, nutrients, similar proteins, and other byproducts and potential impurities. The downstream purification processes in the BTEC curriculum include column chromatography, cell disruption, homogenization, centrifugation, micro- and ultrafiltration. Another important area in the BTEC is the cleanroom

and aseptic procedures portion of the facility. The aseptic procedures area is operated by the North Carolina Community College System and is used to provide intensive training in gowning and degowning, monitoring (both particulates and microbial counts), liquid filling, and general operation and behavior in a microbiological aseptic area.

In addition to undergraduate and graduate courses and

an undergraduate minor, BTEC academic plans include estab-

lishment of both a graduate minor and a Master of Science degree in Biomanufacturing.

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The University Founded March 7, 1887, NC State is a nationally recog- nized leader in

The University

Founded March 7, 1887, NC State is a nationally recog- nized leader in science and technology, with programs highly regarded around the world. The University’s unique research park, Centennial Campus, hosts more than 100 companies and agencies and creates an advanced technology community where University, industry, and government partners produce scientific and technical innovations. In 2007, the Association of University Research Parks (AURP), named the Centennial Campus as the top Research Science Park of the Year. With student enrollment over 31,000, and full-time faculty and staff at nearly 8,000, NC State is the largest university in North Carolina. The University has an annual budget of more than $1.01 billion and an endowment valued at more than $535 million. It is ranked 23rd among national research universities in non-federal funded research, 7th among national research universities in industry-funded research, and 11th nationally for total R&D among institutions without a medical school. NC State is also ranked 2nd in total research expenditures in the 16-campus University of North Carolina system. Graduate student enrollment in the College of Engi- neering for fall 2007 was 2,125.

Raleigh and Region

In 2008, Raleigh was lauded as the “#1 Best Place to Live in the U.S.” by msnbc, as the “#1 Best Place for Young Adults” by Biz Journals, “#2 Best City to Live, Work and Play” by Kiplinger’s Personal Finance, as “#1 Best Place for Business and Careers” (second consecutive year), and as “#3 Most Wired City” by Forbes.com. In 2007, Raleigh was declared to be “#3 Metro for College Educated Workers” by Expansion Management” and “#3 America’s Best Jobs in the Hottest Cities” by Business 2.0. The Research Triangle Park metropolitan area (Raleigh, Durham and Chapel Hill), provides its residents with a world- class combination of educational opportunity, economic vitality, environmental quality, and quality of life. The Triangle area is a hotbed of technology companies, including IBM, SAS, GlaxoSmithKline, Cree, Red Hat, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Cisco, Biogen Idec, Merck, RTI International, Inspire Phar- maceuticals, and Wyeth. In addition to NC State, the Triangle is home to several other colleges and universities, including Duke University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Along with its vibrant economy, Raleigh has abundant history, culture, and natural beauty. Its streets lined with towering trees, Raleigh lives up to its name as “The City of Oaks,” helping make it one of the most enjoyable locations in which to live and work in the U.S. In addition to academic pursuits, Raleigh offers cultural amenities including Broadway plays, professional symphony, opera, and ballet companies, and outstanding art, history, and science museums. The American Dance Festival and the Bull Durham Blues Festival are other major cultural events in the Triangle. Raleigh also boasts the Time Warner Cable Music Pavilion at Walnut Creek, renowned as one of the finest outdoor concert venues in the country. One of Raleigh’s most well known attractions is its climate. With weather sufficiently mild to allow outdoor activi- ties 10 months out of the year, Raleigh offers a wide variety of venues for outdoor enthusiasts. Nearby lakes and State parks provide hiking and cycling trails, campsites, boating, and fishing. Golfers, of course, will find the area superb. Also, within a day’s drive are expansive, unspoiled beaches to the east and the Great Smoky Mountains to the west. Raleigh also offers a wealth of college and professional athletics. Atlantic Coast Conference football powerhouses appear regularly in Raleigh at Carter-Finley Stadium, and the 20,000-seat RBC Center houses NC State basketball and the NHL Carolina Hurricanes franchise. In the summer, double- and triple-A baseball teams, the Carolina Mudcats and the Durham Bulls, make for fun local entertainment. Raleigh is a vibrant and beautiful city, with a diverse and rapidly growing population. Your graduate education will be enhanced by the variety of people and activities that you will enjoy in our friendly community.

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Faculty

Our research group strives to understand how molecules in solution interact with interfaces, with specific applications to bio-separations, diag- nostics and transport processes in compressible fluids. The main thrust of the bio-separations and diagnostics efforts deals with the use of solid phase combinatorial peptide libraries to screen for small peptides that will bind specifically to bio-molecules such as proteins, to viruses, and to bacteria. These small peptides exhibit great potential as ligands for large-scale affinity chromatography of therapeutic proteins to be separated from complex mixtures such as human blood plasma, milk and mammalian or microbial cell growth media. They can also be used to develop robust sensing elements to detect low concentrations of analytes in medical diagnostics and for process control applications. Peptides that can recognize and bind to viruses and bacteria can also play an important role in ensuring the safety of foods and drugs. Our group is currently participating in an effort to identify ligands that bind to prion protein, the agent associated with the transmission of prion or “mad cow disease.” We are also looking at detection and removal of viruses from blood products and at the engineering design of affinity methods for purification of the major plasma proteins. These investigations combine detailed studies of the major elements of chromatographic column design, from convective and diffusive transport of species to the surface of the pores, to the adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics. In addition, there is a need for the development and design of novel membrane separation devices that can result in faster throughput of product and can be manufactured at a lower cost to allow for disposable separation units. For this purpose, we are collaborating with Dr. Behnam Pourdeyhimi of the Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center (NCRC) at NC State to develop new microfiltration, ultrafiltration, ion exchange and affinity sepa- ration membranes based on high surface area nonwoven fabrics. For these applications, nonwoven fabrics made of relatively inexpensive materials, such as polypropylene, need to be modified by grafting the surface with various polymers that will make them hydrophilic and have the desired interactions with the proteins to be purified or removed. CO 2 -based technologies are being developed that will allow the replace- ment of hundreds of millions of pounds of organic and halogenated solvents and water used each year in chemical processes. Carbon dioxide in its liquid or supercritical phase is an inexpensive, safe, and environmentally benign solvent. It is easy to separate from most solids and liquids so it can be recycled in chemical and manufacturing processes. Novel polymer and surfactant systems that are soluble in CO 2 enable its application to a wide variety of industrial operations. Our group has helped to develop novel spin coating and free meniscus coating methods that utilize both supercritical carbon dioxide and liquid carbon dioxide as the coating solvent. More recently, we have turned our attention to the dry formulation of drug particles from supercritical fluids and to the use of high pressure solvent mixtures to the extraction of natural products, such as sclareol, from plant tissues, such as sclary sage leaves. The development of these “dry” approaches to manufacturing are challenging and interesting problems since they involve detailed knowledge of thermodynamics, heat and mass transfer and principles of colloid and interface science. All of our work is done in a collaborative, multi-institutional and multi-disciplinary environment with many industrial partners.

environment with many industrial partners. Ruben G. Carbonell Frank Hawkins Kenan Distinguished

Ruben G. Carbonell

Frank Hawkins Kenan Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering

Director, William R. Kenan, Jr. Institute for Engineering, Technology and Science

Director, Golden LEAF Biomanfacturing Training and Education Center

B.S., Chemical Engineering, Manhattan College (1969)

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, Princeton University (1973)

Areas of interest: Biochemical engineering; molecular recognition for bio-separations, and diagnostics, colloid and interface science; transport processes in compressible media.

ruben@ncsu.edu

919.515.5118

and diagnostics, colloid and interface science; transport processes in compressible media. ruben@ncsu.edu 919.515.5118 13
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Joseph M. DeSimone Chancellor’s Eminent Professor of Chemistry (UNC-Chapel Hill) William R. Kenan, Jr. Distinguished

Joseph M. DeSimone

Chancellor’s Eminent Professor of Chemistry (UNC-Chapel Hill)

William R. Kenan, Jr. Distinguished Professor of Chemical Engineering (NC State University)

National Academy of Engineering (2005)

Director, NSF Science and Technology Center for Environmentally Responsible Solvents and Processes

Director, Institute of Advanced for Advanced Materials, Nanoscience and Technology

B.S., Chemistry, Ursinus College (1986)

Ph.D., Chemistry, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (1990)

Areas of interest: Delivery of detection, imaging and therapeutic agents in nanomedicine; fluoropolymers:

photolithography, microfluidics, minimally adhesive surfaces; medical devices; colloid and surface chemistry; particle jamming and un-jamming; polymer synthesis in carbon dioxide: new polymers, interfacial science and colloids, reaction kinetics and engineering, green chemistry.

919.962.2166

www.chem.unc.edu/people/faculty/desimone/group/

desimone@unc.edu

Our group investigates complex particles and patterned substrates for applications in the life science and in material science areas. In particular we have developed a novel fabrication method called PRINT (Particle Replication In Non-wetting Templates). PRINT takes advantage of the unique properties of elastomeric molds comprised of a low surface energy perfluoropolyether network, allowing the production of monodisperse, shape specific nanoparticles and particle arrays from an extensive range of organic and inorganic liquid precursors. Life Science: To translate promising molecular discoveries into ben- efits for patients, we are taking a pharmaco-engineering systems approach to develop the next generation of delivery systems with programmable multi- functional capability. A key strategy is to apply manufacturing technologies from the microelectronics industry to fabricate polymeric delivery systems that are capable of multiple functions. This engineered nature of particle production has a number of advantages over the construction of traditional nanoparticles such as liposomes, dendrimers, and colloidal precipitates. PRINT allows for the precise control over particle size (20 nm to >100 micron), particle shape (spheres, cylinders, discs, toroidal), particle com- position (organic/inorganic, solid/porous), particle cargo (hydrophilic or hydrophobic therapeutics, biologicals, imaging agents), particle modulus (stiff, deformable) and particle surface properties (Avidin/biotin complexes, targeting peptides, antibodies, aptamers, cationic/anion charges, Stealth PEG chains). Extensive in vitro and in vivo studies have begun focused on fundamental cellular uptake and intra-cellular trafficking of particles; in vivo biodistribution; and in vivo tissue and cellular targeting for autoimmune disease and cancer treatment/diagnosis. Material Science: There are many opportunities for PRINT in advanced material science applications including the development of a novel robotic system whose dimensions and physical properties have the ability to adapt and reversibly change from solid- to liquid-like opportunities. In addition we are also focused on the fundamentals and the application of PRINT in patterned arrays and films for use in structural composites, electrets and photovoltaics. We envision a system that can be structurally rigid but, on command, “dis- solves” into a state that is highly malleable or flows like a slurry. As such, the system will be able to morph into a wide range of different configurations and be able to traverse arbitrarily shaped openings. The basic science behind this approach relies on the fact that granular materials, such as sand or dense colloids, undergo dramatic changes in rigidity at the so-called jamming transition. The proposed robotic system, termed a JamBot, will combine smart-particle technologies optimized for reversible interlocking with mechani- cal and electric-field control of jamming. In addition to particle jamming, our group is focused on the details and opportunities for roll-to-roll processing fundamentals and the application of PRINT in patterned arrays and films for use in struc- tural composites, electrets and photovoltaics.

application of PRINT in patterned arrays and films for use in struc- tural composites, electrets and

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Our group researches new materials and methods for micro- and nano- fabrication. The overarching motivation of this work is to build useful tools and functional devices (e.g., nanoelectronics, solar cells, sensors, photonic structures, etc.) in a simple, inexpensive, and scalable manner. Our approach is to (i) elucidate the fundamental properties of materials to understand their structure-property relationships such that they can harnessed in a useful man- ner, and (ii) develop new, unconventional approaches to fabricate and assemble structures into hierarchical, integrated devices. This highly interdisciplinary work combines fundamental scientific studies with theoretical consideration of engineering principles. The ability to form micro- and nano-structures in a simple, inexpensive manner has broad reaching significance in areas such as electronics, photonics, lab-on-a-chip devices, and tools for biology Background: Photolithography—a “top down” approach to nano- fabrication—is the state of the art method to form nanostructures. It is the keystone technology used to form the electronic components in devices such as computers and cell phones. Although photolithography is well-suited for semiconductor manufacturing, it does have several limitations: it is expen- sive, restricted to planar surfaces, and limited in resolution. “Bottom up” techniques (e.g., the synthesis of nanowires in solution) are capable of forming nanostructures, but these techniques are generally incapable of organizing the structures into useful devices in a scalable manner, and are often limited to structures with simple geometry. The following research areas are related by the motivation to address one or more of the limitations of top-down and bottom-up techniques. Nanofabrication: Our group develops and uses “unconventional” fabrication techniques that address one or more of the limitations of conven- tional lithographic methods. These techniques include imprint lithography, soft lithography, self-assembly, microfluidics, electric-field assisted assembly, nanoskiving, templated patterning, polymer thin-film instabilities, and shadow evaporation. These techniques provide a “tool box” with which new materials and structures can be created. Advanced Materials: Our group studies the fundamental structure- property relationship of materials such that they can be rationally incorpo- rated into useful devices and processes. We have expertise in polymers and photo-curable pre-polymers, particularly those used in photo- and imprint lithography. The properties of these materials (e.g., curing speed, sensitiv- ity, composition, dielectric constant, mechanical properties, viscosity, etc.) must be tailored and optimized depending on the application. We also have experience with fluid metals, such as gallium and eutectic gallium-indium (EGaIn). These low-viscosity fluids are particularly interesting because of their unique rheology, which is dominated by an oxide skin. We are begin- ning to understand the mechanical properties of this skin and have used this material in microfluidic devices and as soft electrodes. Functional Devices: We use the materials and techniques developed in our laboratory to fabricate functional devices—with either improved per- formance or new attributes—such as nanoelectronics, microfluidic systems, and sensors (e.g., nanostructured substrates for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, SERS). We are particularly interested in developing methods to fabricate micro- and nano-structured materials to improve the efficiency of functional devices that harvest, store, or consume energy (e.g. solar cells, batteries, and electronic devices). We are also exploring methods of self- and directed-assembly to organize nanostructures to form devices and new materials (e.g., metamaterials that have unique optical properties).

(e.g., metamaterials that have unique optical properties). Michael D. Dickey Assistant Professor B.S., Chemical

Michael D. Dickey

Assistant Professor

B.S., Chemical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology (1999)

M.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin (2003)

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin (2006)

Areas of interest: Micro- and nanotechnology; microfluidics; soft materials; nanoelectronics; photovoltaics; polymer thin-films; directed assembly.

michael_dickey@ncsu.edu

919.513.0273

materials; nanoelectronics; photovoltaics; polymer thin-films; directed assembly. michael_dickey@ncsu.edu 919.513.0273 15
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Peter S. Fedkiw Professor and Head B.ChE., Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware (1974) Ph.D., Chemical

Peter S. Fedkiw

Professor and Head

B.ChE., Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware (1974)

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley (1978)

Areas of interest: Electrochemical reaction engineering; electrocatalysis; electrochemical energy conversion; environmental applications of electrochemistry.

fedkiw@eos.ncsu.edu

919.515.3572

Electrochemical reaction engineering is our research interest: the concep- tion, analysis, design, experimental verification, and control of electrochemical devices for energy production or storage, the formation of chemical products, or the separation of components in a mixture. A part of our research effort involves studies of composite polymer electrolytes for lithium batteries based on functionalized fumed silica. This work is motivated, in part, by the need for advanced light-weight batteries for portable electronic systems. All portable electronic devices require electrical power, often supplied through a rechargeable battery. The state of battery technology, however, has not kept pace with the miniaturization of electronic circuits, and the battery is often the largest and heaviest component of a device. Only recently, lithium-ion batteries have been introduced which are a new generation of rechargeable batteries. In these cells a lithium intercala- tion, transition-metal oxide positive electrode is coupled with a carbon-based, lithium intercalation negative electrode. The specific mass and volumetric energy density (W·h/kg and W·h/l, respectively) of lithium-ion cells exceed that of any rechargeable battery currently available, which translates to less weight and longer discharge for the device. The next significant advance in battery technology is anticipated to be the development of a rechargeable lithium battery. In these cells lithium metal is the negative electrode, and thereby, the additional weight and volume of carbon in the lithium-ion battery anode are eliminated. In addition to portable consumer electronics, the electric vehicle is also a driver for the commercialization of rechargeable lithium batteries. Our research is a contribution to the development of a rechargeable lithium battery which might be used in these (and other) applications. We also study the use of perfluorinated ionomer membranes in, so-called, membrane reactors in which electrodes are embedded on both faces of the membrane. In this manner, the membrane functions both as the electrolyte and separator in an electrolytic reactor. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are also an area of interest.

and separator in an electrolytic reactor. Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are also an area

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My research focuses on biocatalytic coatings, nanostructured bioreactive

materials, bioprocess intensification and miniaturization (BIM), coating/photo and microchannel bioreactor design, combined with microbial metabolic engineering. We study how to engineer high intensity thin coating biocata- lysts. Our coating microstructure, bioreactive ink and bioreactor research

is in Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; our metabolic engineering

studies are in the Dept. of Microbiology. We use cryogenic SEM, laser scan- ning confocal microscopy and other methods to characterize nanostructured coatings containing living microbes as well as biochemical techniques to measure their activity. Our first review article “Painting and Printing Liv- ing Bacteria: Engineering Nanoporous Biocatalytic Coatings to Preserve Microbial Viability and Intensify Reactivity” was published in Biotechnology Progress (23, 2-17, 2007). Current research includes: engineering polymer adhesion, coating nanoporosity and preservation of microbial viability in coatings and ink-jet inks, advanced coating methods, photoreactive coatings and microbial engineering to enhance biocatalyst intensity. Several model systems are being investigated. It has been a goal of biochemical engineers to use photo reactive

microorganisms to generate energy, such as hydrogen gas (H 2 ), from sun- light. However previous approaches have been limited by low reactivity, low illuminated surface to volume ratio, and saturation at high light intensity

resulting in only a small fraction of the solar radiation incident on photo- synthetic microbes being converted to metabolic energy to generate H 2 . Our group recently reported the reactivity of ~60μm thick coatings of non- growing anoxic Rhodopseudomonas palustris that use nitrogenase to produce

H 2 when illuminated (Gosse et. al., 2007. Biotechnol. Prog. 23, 124-130).

Coatings of nitrogen-limited Rps. palustris produce H 2 at a constant rate for >4,000 hours when provided with acetate. We are engineering Rps. palustris to overcome light saturation in order to optimize the rate of H 2 production by altering light harvesting pigments to increase the efficiency of photon capture. We combine mutants with complementary light adsorption in multi-layer coatings. Modeling of coating optical properties (adsorption, scattering, reactivity) is another approach we use. These investigations are being extended to nanoporous polymer coatings of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that utilizes hydrogenase under sulfur limitation anaerobically to generate

H 2 from sunlight and water. In addition to photoreactivity, biocatalytic coatings and biocatalytic

membranes can also concentrate microorganisms at a phase boundary between

a gas and a liquid. We have developed reactive adhesive nanoporous latex

coatings of Gluconobacter oxydans, a strict aerobe, for high intensity whole cell biooxidations (Fidaleo et. al., 2006. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 95, 446-458). The reactivity of these 20μm G. oxydans coatings which oxidize D-sorbitol to L-sorbose is orders of magnitude higher than previously reported. A dif- fusion reaction model was developed to simulate the reactivity of coatings of G. oxydans as a function of thickness and biocatalytic activity. This model is being used to simulate the intensity of G. oxydans coatings in channels with intermittent gas-liquid Taylor slug flow and design a prototype microchannel bioreactor. New methods are being developed to coat channels with bilayer coatings with minimal diffusion limitations. Ink-jet deposition is being used

to rapidly evaluate polymer emulsions, drying conditions and coating micro-

structure for optimal reactivity and nanoporosity. This project will generate important results for development of multiphase microchannel bioreactors

and the use of microorganisms in microfluidic devices.

and the use of microorganisms in microfl uidic devices. Michael C. Flickinger Professor Associate Director, Academic

Michael C. Flickinger

Professor

Associate Director, Academic Programs Golden LEAF Biomanufacturing Training and Education Center

B.S., Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison (1973)

M.S., Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison (1975)

Ph.D., Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison (1977)

Areas of interest: Bioprocess intensification and miniaturization (BIM), bioreactive materials, biocatalytic coatings, biopreservation, nano-structured biocatalytic coatings and microbial inks.

michael_flickinger@ncsu.edu

www.che.ncsu.edu/flickingergroup/biocatalytic

919.515.0175

coatings and microbial inks. michael_flickinger@ncsu.edu www.che.ncsu.edu/flickingergroup/biocatalytic 919.515.0175 17
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Jan Genzer Professor Dipl.-Ing., Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Prague Institute of Chemical Technology,

Jan Genzer

Professor

Dipl.-Ing., Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Prague Institute of Chemical Technology, Czech Republic (1989)

Ph.D., Materials Science and Engineering, University of Pennsylvania (1996)

Areas of interest: Behavior of polymers at surfaces and interfaces; polymer thermodynamics; materials self-assembly.

Jan_Genzer@ ncsu.edu

(919) 515-2069

scf.che.ncsu.edu

The Genzer group research interests include: 1) materials self-assembly and directed assembly, and 2) the behavior of polymers at surfaces, inter- faces and in confined geometries. While the core program of our research encompasses mostly experimental approaches, we also utilize simple chemi- cal synthesis routes and computer simulation/theory. Some of the projects currently underway are listed below. We have developed 3D self-consistent field theory and Monte Carlo simulation approaches to study the interplay between the spatial distribution of surface chemical heterogeneities and monomer sequence distributions in copolymers. Our results demonstrate that when chemically heterogeneous motifs on the substrate are detected by the copolymer adsorbing segments, the copolymers can transcript them with high fidelity into three dimensions. The way the surface pattern gets transferred is dictated by the monomer sequence distribution. Relative to alternating copolymers, block copolymers are generally better in capturing the chemical pattern shape, “lifting it off” the substrate, and transcribing it into the bulk. Moreover, block copolymers with shorter adsorbing blocks are capable of better recognizing the substrate motifs. On the experimental front, we are developing simple chemical routes that allow us to control (to some extent) the sequence distribution of mono- mers in the copolymer. We have pioneered a method for fabricating “mechanically assembled monolayers” (MAMs), structures that are built by combining the self-assembly of surface grafting molecules with mechanical manipulation of the grafting points on the underlying elastic surface. We have shown that MAMs prepared by mechanically assembling semi-fluorinated alkanes possess long lasting barrier properties. We have also extended the MAMs technology to prepare polymer brushes with high grafting densities and with tunable physico-chemi- cal properties by utilizing “mechanically assisted polymer assembly”. Finally, we are interested in preparing molecular density gradients on surfaces, based on vapor diffusion of organosilanes. Our primary interest in preparing these structures and studying their properties is: 1) understanding the ability of the gradients to form continuous molecular templates for assem- bly of polymers and non-polymer clusters (e.g., nanoparticles), 2) studying the mechanism of formation of self-assembled monolayers, and 3) utilizing gradient substrates in multivariant studies of polymer interfacial behavior. We are also investigating the possibilities of using molecular gradient substrates as novel means of controlling the motion of liquids and particles.

of using molecular gradient substrates as novel means of controlling the motion of liquids and particles.

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Surface and Interfacial Science: The main area of our research program has been in surface and interfacial science, focused on solving fundamental transport and interfacial phenomena questions related to environmentally based systems. We’ve focused on the interactions of various organic/inor- ganic species with a variety of surfaces. The research questions have roots in pollution prevention, environmentally conscious manufacturing and green chemistry issues; e.g., a project on the dissolution of abietic acid in surfactant solutions investigated alternatives to solvent-intensive processes in electronic materials processing. A subsequent mechanistic study of swelling and dis- solution of thin polymer films in supercritical carbon dioxide utilized an environmentally benign solvent. Biomaterials – Biomedical Applications: There are several unresolved biology research issues related to the importance of cellular age and the selection of cell lines for subsequent testing of eventual compatibility and successful implementation of new biomaterials:

“What is the role of age on the response of a range of cells to engineered materials? What compounds in the cells are expressed and based on age and passages? Do biomaterials researchers account for these parameters when evaluating the successful cell-material interactions at the interface? How can stem cell based research assist in the resolution of these ‘age-related’ research questions?” We plan to utilize our research in bone related calcium (e.g., HAP and carbonate) systems as a foundation upon which to build our new biological research program. There are peripheral components of our previous interfacial phenomena research that intersect with biological systems. For example, the hydration studies on phospholipids are related to more complex bilayer studies aimed at determining the behavior of certain body functions. Investigations on swelling of polymer films is related to drug delivery systems utilizing small biomolecules. Finally, research on hydroxyapatite closely relates to an actual biological system, in bone regeneration and the development of replacement biomaterials, calcium species play a large role. It is this last area of research that provided the catalyst for expanding the research to encompass funda- mental behavior of cells and their behavior at the interface with biomaterials. For example, research has demonstrated that CaCO 3 substrates also support rat bone marrow stromal cell attachment and subsequent bone cell growth. It’s key to understand the cell molecular signature, the critical aspects of the micro-environment around the cells and controlling factors in both prolif- eration and apoptosis. An important aspect of the behavior (e.g., proliferation) of cells in the proximity of a surface (e.g., engineered scaffold) is the molecular signature of the cells. Every cell that attaches to a surface, whether that surface is “hard and inorganic” or “soft and organic” is affected by the composition and structure of the surface and the microenvironment created by the solution chemistry near the surface. This latter issue has not been well-defined or studied in great detail, yet may have tremendous impact on the cell-surface interactions exhibited by prosthetic implants. Cell age and number of passages is also an important aspect of compatibility with solid surfaces. Emerging collaborations with researchers in biomedical sciences and psychology at Duke and Caltech promise to provide essential answers to the relational roles of cell interaction, patient perspectives and biomaterial in orthopedic systems.

patient perspectives and biomaterial in orthopedic systems. Christine S. Grant Professor Associate Dean of Faculty

Christine S. Grant

Professor

Associate Dean of Faculty Development and Special Initiatives, College of Engineering

Sc.B., Chemical Engineering, Brown University (1984)

M.S., Chemical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology (1986)

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology (1989)

Areas of interest: Surface and interfacial science; transport phenomena; biomaterials, green chemical engineering/sustainability; lubricants in extreme environments.

grant@eos.ncsu.edu

www.che.ncsu.edu/interfacial

919.515.2317

lubricants in extreme environments. grant@eos.ncsu.edu www.che.ncsu.edu/interfacial 919.515.2317 19
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Keith Gubbins W.H. Clark Distinguished University Professor Co-Director, Center for High Performance Simulation National

Keith Gubbins

W.H. Clark Distinguished University Professor

Co-Director, Center for High Performance Simulation

National Academy of Engineering (1989)

B.Sc., Chemistry, University of London, (1958)

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, University of London (1962)

Areas of interest: Confined materials; adsorption; molecular simulation; surface properties.

keg@ncsu.edu

919.515.2262

gubbins.ncsu.edu

Our research program is aimed at understanding, at the molecular level, the behavior of nano-structured fluids and solids, and the influence of surface forces on such materials. Nano-porous materials (solid materials having pores of nanometer dimension), such as zeolites, activated carbons, silicas, etc., play a prominent role in chemical processing, particularly in separations and as catalysts and catalyst supports. Fluids confined in such porous materials possess many novel properties that can form the basis of future technologies, involving energy storage, novel reactions and separations, fabrication of small devices of molecular dimensions, etc. A second part of our program concerns the self-assembly of surfactants on solids and within narrow pores to form nano-structured materials. These materials offer great promise for applications as nanosensors, optical sensors, for enhanced separations, bioelectronic materials, to form thin films in lithographic processes and biomimetic materials. The underlying theme of our work is to develop molecular models which accurately describe the materials and systems of interest, and to use rigorous methods or statistical mechanics to determine the detailed properties and behavior of the system. Comparisons with experiment are used to check the models, but the ultimate goal is to use the simulations to carry out experiments that cannot be undertaken in the laboratory. Experimental studies complement the simulation work, and comparison of the two frequently leads to important new insights. Current areas of research fall into three areas. The first is that of modeling and understanding the fabrication of the nano-structured material itself. We are interested in understanding why a particular morphology occurs for a certain material. We have developed a good understanding of this process for glasses, silicas, carbon nanotubes, and many templated materials for example, but for other materials, such as activated carbons and self-assembled nanostructures, the synthesis process and structure/property relationships are poorly understood. The second area is the influence of confinement in porous media on physical and chemical processes, such as selective adsorption from mixtures, phase transitions, chemical reactivity, and diffusion. The third area is the development of multi-scale simulation methods that can successfully combine simulation methods at the electronic, atomistic and meso-scales, and their application to problems in polymer structures, surfactant systems, and colloids. Students working in this area will develop expertise in molecular modeling and molecular simulation, including parallelization on large national supercomputers, as well as in complementary experimental techniques.

including parallelization on large national supercomputers, as well as in complementary experimental techniques. 20

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Carol Hall’s research is driven by her fascination with molecules of interesting architectures and energetics, and by her desire to understand how these molecular features combine to yield complex mesoscopic or macroscopic structures. Her primary tools in this effort are statistical thermodynamics, which allows estimation of thermophysical properties from knowledge of intermolecular forces, and computer simulation, which permits the visualiza- tion of systems on a molecular level. Hall’s first area of research is “soft” materials, such as polymers, colloids and surfactants. Soft materials are of interest because they spontaneously self organize into mesoscopic physical structures, which can then be exploited for nanotechnology applications. In the polymers area, she and colleague Jan Genzer are investigating HAMS, heteropolymers with adjustable monomer sequences, a new type of functional material with potential applications as adhesion promoters, drug delivery devices, and nano-reactors. In the col- loids area, she and colleague Orlin Velev are exploring the self assembly, crystallization and/or gelation of systems of colloid particles with permanent dipole moments so as to guide the discovery of advanced materials in the Velev laboratory. She and her students recently began a modeling project aimed at designing responsive, multi-functional liposomes for delivery of cancer drugs.

A second area of research is protein aggregation. Protein aggrega-

tion is associated with a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and the prion diseases. She and her students are using computer simulation to investigate the formation of ordered protein aggregates, called fibrils, which are invariably found in the brains of disease victims. A coarse-grained protein folding model is being developed to enable the simulation of specific amyloidogenic peptides, including beta amyloid, the Alzheimer’s peptide.

A third area of research is DNA. She and her students are using com-

puter simulations to model DNA hybridization (the coming together of two single-strand DNA molecules to form a double helix) and to develop guidelines for designing DNA microarrays with maximum sensitivity and specificity. She is also working with a team of investigators at Duke to design the next generation of DNA-based self-assembling nanomaterials, with potential applications in programmable molecular medicine, nanoelectronics, and consumer electronics. Although most of Hall’s research is based in theory and/or computation, many of her students elect to add an experimental component to their thesis work by working in collaboration with other faculty members

work by working in collaboration with other faculty members Carol K. Hall Camille Dreyfus Distinguished University
work by working in collaboration with other faculty members Carol K. Hall Camille Dreyfus Distinguished University

Carol K. Hall

Camille Dreyfus Distinguished University Professor

National Academy of Engineering (2005)

B.A., Physics, Cornell University (1967)

M.A., Physics, S.U.N.Y., Stony Brook (1969)

Ph.D., Physics, S.U.N.Y., Stony Brook (1972)

Areas of interest: Molecular modeling and computer simulation are applied to: heteropolymers at interfaces, dipolar colloids, drug delivery, DNA hybridization, protein aggregation and amyloid formation.

hall@ncsu.edu

turbo.che.ncsu.edu

919.515.3571

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Jason M. Haugh Associate Professor B.S., Chemical Engineering, North Carolina State University (1994) Ph.D., Chemical

Jason M. Haugh

Associate Professor

B.S., Chemical Engineering, North Carolina State University (1994)

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1999)

Areas of interest: Biomedical and biochemical engineering, signal transduction networks, mammalian cell engineering.

jason_haugh@ncsu.edu

919-513-3851

www.che.ncsu.edu/haughlab

A fundamental property of living cells is their ability to respond and adapt to stimuli, yet we have only begun to appreciate cell decision-mak- ing processes at the molecular level. These mechanisms are known as signal transduction networks. While a general understanding of how intracellular signaling molecules interact in pathways has evolved in recent years, we are still unable to predict and control cell responses quantitatively under various conditions. Our interdisciplinary approach, which combines mathemati- cal modeling and analysis with molecular biology, cell biochemistry, and fluorescence imaging methods, has implications for cancer, immune regulation, and wound healing. Signaling pathways seldom operate in isolation. In particular, while specific signaling pathways are required for proliferation and survival of many cell types, the extensive crosstalk between these pathways suggests that cell life and death are co-regulated. We are currently studying such networks in fibroblasts stimulated with platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and in T cells stimulated with interleukin-2 and -4; these model systems are important for tissue homeostasis and the immune response, respectively. We have developed quantitative, high-throughput assays to measure activa- tion of key molecular intermediates, and both genetic and pharmacological approaches are used to manipulate their activation states. Kinetic models unify our observations and predict the effects of molecular interventions in combination, and pathway outcomes are correlated with cell proliferation and survival metrics to elucidate design principles for engineering the cell life-and-death switch. In wound healing, PDGF is secreted by platelets as they clot blood vessels. This stimulates directed migration of fibroblasts from connective tissue to the wound, where they play a critical role in tissue reconstruction. We have demonstrated that PDGF gradients stimulate asymmetric production of specific lipid second messengers in the cell membrane, which apparently act as a cellular compass to signal migration in the appropriate direction. We use total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) to quantitatively image the production, lateral diffusion, and turnover of these membrane lipids in individual, living cells in real time and at ~100 nm resolution. This technique is used in conjunction with reaction-diffusion models that allow us to parse out these concurrent molecular processes under uniform and gradient PDGF stimulation conditions. Improved understanding of signal- ing processes governing directed cell migration would aid in the design of therapeutic strategies that accelerate wound healing.

governing directed cell migration would aid in the design of therapeutic strategies that accelerate wound healing.

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The ILEET (Ionic Liquids and Electrolytes for Energy Technologies) Laboratory focuses on obtaining a comprehensive understanding of the link between ion/solvent structure, molecular-level interactions and electrolyte properties. Electrolytes are typically solvent-salt mixtures that conduct ions in electrochemical systems such as batteries and electrochemical capacitors. The electrolyte is both figuratively and literally the central core of batteries/ capacitors, which, in turn, are the heart which pulses life into plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). PHEVs have the potential to drastically reduce petroleum consumption through both reduced fuel use and the replacement of gasoline/diesel with a variety of biofuels. Significant changes in battery and capacitor materials are necessary, however, to achieve longer device life (from charging/discharging) and improved stability/safety at high temperatures. ILs are rapidly becoming transformative electrolyte materials for bat- teries/capacitors which will (and in a few cases already have) revolutionize current state-of-the-art electrolytes. ILs are salts, typically consisting of organic cations and inorganic anions, which melt at a low temperature (often below room temperature). The structure-property relationships being explored in the ILEET laboratory provide the foundation necessary for the eventual widespread utilization of ILs in advanced (principally lithium) batteries and electrochemical capacitors. Research involving ILs has seen explosive growth. In 1998 there were 15 manuscripts published and 2 patents fi led with the term “ionic liquids.” In 2007, there were 1711 manuscripts and 422 patents. These intriguing liquids may be utilized for a widely-varying range of applications. One of particular interest is their use as solvents for lignocellulosic biomass. Cellulose may be dissolved in high concentrations in certain ILs (but is essentially insoluble in conventional solvents). We are exploring this in-depth to determine how the ion structure influence biopolymer solubility and processing to deter- mine if ILs are viable alternatives to the monetarily and energy-intensive practices currently in use for the pretreatment and conversion of biomass into chemicals and fuels. In addition to these energy-related applications, diverse other technolo- gies based upon ILs may benefit from the research we perform including gas-separation membranes, sensors, mechanical actuators, heat transfer fluids for solar thermal energy storage, absorption cycle refrigeration using ILs as the working fluid and much more.

using ILs as the working fl uid and much more. Wesley A. Henderson Assistant Professor B.S.,

Wesley A. Henderson

Assistant Professor

B.S., Chemistry, University of California at Santa Barbara (1995)

Ph.D., Materials Science & Engineering, University of Minnesota (2002)

Areas of interest: Ionic liquids; electrolytes; batteries; capacitors; plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs); lignocellulosic biomass; biofuels.

whender@ncsu.edu

www.che.ncsu.edu/ILEET

919.513.2917

electric vehicles (PHEVs); lignocellulosic biomass; biofuels. whender@ncsu.edu www.che.ncsu.edu/ILEET 919.513.2917 23
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Robert M. Kelly Alcoa Professor Director, NC State Biotechnology Program B.S., Chemical Engineering, University of

Robert M. Kelly

Alcoa Professor

Director, NC State Biotechnology Program

B.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia (1975)

M.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Virginia (1976)

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, North Carolina State University (1981)

Areas of interest: Biomolecular engineering; biocatalysis at extremely high temperatures; microbial physiology; microbial ecology; functional genomics; enzyme engineering.

rmkelly@eos.ncsu.edu

919.515.6396

www.che.ncsu.edu/extremophiles

We are interested in microorganisms that thrive in extreme environments, with particular emphasis on hyperthermophiles, heat-loving prokaryotes that grow optimally up to and above temperatures of 100°C. These organisms can be found in globally diverse geothermal environments, including terrestrial hot springs, such as those found in Yellowstone National Park, as well as those associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents. Hyperthermophiles are interesting for many scientific and technological reasons. Primitive from an evolutionary biology perspective, hyperthermophiles can provide clues to the development of life on earth and perhaps to the existence of putative life forms on other solar bodies. Information gleaned from studies focusing on hyperthermophile microbial physiology using functional genomics approaches has already revealed aspects that relate to better-studied organisms as well as suggesting novel features. Because of the high temperatures at which hyper- thermophiles can be cultured, they possess an array of highly thermostable enzymes that hold promise as biocatalysts. The mechanisms that stabilize these biomolecules, if understood, could open up new approaches for improving other proteins through protein engineering. The organisms themselves may be useful for important biotransformations, although an evaluation of this potential is only beginning. Our research efforts are aimed at the interface between biology and engineering. We address issues of fundamental importance in understand- ing the bioenergetics, physiology, and ecology of hyperthermophiles using functional genomics, biochemical and biophysical approaches. Also of interest is the relationship between protein structure and function at high temperatures with an eye towards biotechnological opportunities. Recently, we have employed cDNA microarrays (“gene chips”) in our studies focus- ing on aspects of sugar and peptide metabolism, stress response, as well as how hyperthermophiles relate to their growth environment (e.g., biofilm formation) and to each other (intra- and inter-species interactions). Also, we have used functional genomics approaches to identify promising new bio- catalysts that have applications in areas ranging from biomass conversion to pharmaceutical manufacturing to oil and gas production. Students involved in research in our lab should expect to develop expertise in biochemistry, biophysics, microbiology, molecular biology, genomics, and bioinformatics, in addition to biomolecular engineering. While the focus of our work is on hyperthermophiles, the approaches and methodology employed are broadly useful for the study of other organisms and cells.

the approaches and methodology employed are broadly useful for the study of other organisms and cells.

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Our research program focuses on fabrication, rheology and processing behavior of novel and complex materials. Various classes of polymeric, soft-

solids, gels, colloidal, nanoparticulate and biological systems are of interest to us. We are also engaged in engineering and characterizing functional fibers, from macro to electrospun nanofibers. Of particular interest to us are those systems that are relevant environmentally, biochemically or as advanced materials. Our work, by nature, tends to be inter-disciplinary with strong collaboration both within and outside the university. A common binding thread in our work is the emphasis on unearthing relationships between material micro/molecular structure, chemistry, and macroscopic properties. Within this context, recent and/or ongoing projects in our group include

• Self-assembled nanoparticulate silica gels: interactions, micrcostruc- ture, rheology and wall-slip

• Photo crosslinked polymers: gelation and crosslinking

• Functional electrospun nanofibers i) of associative polymer ii) with metal nanoparticles

• Molecular orientation and fine structure development during polymer fiber formation

• Synthesis and characterization of nanocomposite polymer gel elec- trolytes

• Hydophobically modified associative polymers: interactions with surfactants and cyclodextrins

• Enzymatic modification of water-soluble polymer and gels

• Polysaccharide-based drug delivery via enzymatic modification

• Gelation of whey proteins through combined heat and enzyme treat- ment

• Depolymerization of polyethylene terepthalate using supercritical carbon dioxide

• Microstructure and rheology of polymer clay nanocomposites

• Gelation of cellulose acetate in mixed solvents

• Supercritical carbon dioxide facilitated micro- and nano-cellular thin film foams, polymer melt rheology From the context of potential applications, our projects traverse a wide range from drug delivery to new generation batteries. In the former case, we are examining hydrogels and nanofibers of enzymatically modified polymers and proteins for oral drug delivery. Our long standing interest in batteries involves developing nanoparticulate gels as electrolytes, and nanofibers as components of the electrodes. Electrospun nanofibers are also being investigated for use in biomedical applications, sensors, membranes, to name a few. Our interest in UV cross-linked polymers stems from their potential applicability because of their environmentally benign, solvent-free nature and their rapid (on-line) curing speed. We have developed new techniques to continuously monitor the cross-linking behavior of UV curable systems in situ in the rheometer. Hydrophobically modified associative polymers (HASE) and polymer/surfactant/cyclodextrin complexes are of significant interest because of their potential use in many applications (e.g., coatings, flocculants for waste-water treatment). Enzymatic modification of water-soluble polymers, such as guar galactomannans, offer a novel and powerful way to develop polymers with tailored architecture and properties. These polymers can be used in applications ranging from food additives to enhanced oil/gas production. And finally, we are examining CO 2 -induced plasticization of polymers as a novel route to enhance polymerization and processability and develop new systems.

polymerization and processability and develop new systems. Saad A. Khan Professor B.S., Chemical Engineering, Princeton

Saad A. Khan

Professor

B.S., Chemical Engineering, Princeton University (1980)

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, MIT (1985)

Areas of interest: Polymer science, rheology, nanoscience; gels; suspensions; associative polymers; electrospun nanofibers.

khan@eos.ncsu.edu

www.che.ncsu.edu/khangroup

919.515.4519

suspensions; associative polymers; electrospun nanofibers. khan@eos.ncsu.edu www.che.ncsu.edu/khangroup 919.515.4519 25
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H. Henry Lamb Professor B.S., Chemical Engineering, North Carolina State University (1982) Ph.D., Chemical Engineering,

H. Henry Lamb

Professor

B.S., Chemical Engineering, North Carolina State University (1982)

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, University of Delaware (1988)

Areas of interest: Catalysis, biocatalysis, and surface science.

lamb@ncsu.edu

919.515.6395

Catalysts are used in a wide variety of industrial applications to accel- erate the rates of chemical transformations. Heterogeneous catalysts (e.g., zeolites, supported metals, and transition metal sulfides) are used in petroleum refining, chemical manufacturing, and pollution abatement. We are currently developing new highly efficient catalytic processes for converting bio-based fats and oils (triglycerides) into transportation fuels and converting byprod- uct glycerol into value-added chemicals, such as propanediols and glycerol carbonate. Biocatalysts (enzymes) are of vital importance in the production of transportation fuels from renewable resources. Bioethanol production in the US has expanded rapidly driven by high petroleum prices and government incentives for biomass-derived alternative fuels. Starch (from corn, wheat, barley, sweet potatoes, and other crops) and cellulosic biomass can be used as sources of sugars for fermentation to ethanol. We are currently working with industry to gain a better understanding of fuel ethanol production via simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of very-high-gravity corn mash using glucoamylase enzymes and yeast. This research is facilitated by applying in-situ near infrared spectroscopy, in-situ Raman spectroscopy and on-line mass spectrometry. Catalytic reactions occur at specific active sites, e.g., gold nanoparticles on a metal oxide support or lattice defects on a metal oxide surface. Moreover, since catalysis is a dynamic phenomenon, the active site is often formed only under reaction conditions and changes in metal oxidation state and metal- ligand coordination occur during the catalytic cycle. Better fundamental understanding of heterogeneous catalysis should lead to improved catalysts for efficient, environmentally benign production of chemicals and fuels. In our basic catalysis research, we employ spectroscopic tools to elucidate the structure of the active site and identify key surface reaction intermediates. In-situ x-ray absorption spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy are applied under steady-state and transient conditions to characterize conventional high-surface-area catalysts. We are also pursuing research on planar model catalysts prepared by depositing metal nanoparticles on metal oxide thin films. These model catalysts can be characterized using a variety of ultra-high- vacuum surface science techniques including Auger electron spectroscopy, temperature-programmed desorption, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and supersonic molecular beam scattering.

temperature-programmed desorption, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and supersonic molecular beam scattering. 26

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One objective of our current research is to develop oil-water interfacial synthesis as a benign alternative to conventional syntheses that require the

use of toxic solvents. In the interfacial synthesis, a combination of innocuous oil and aqueous phases is used in place of toxic organic solvents. The multiple functions which previously limited the choice of a solvent are now decoupled and are met separately by a biphasic mixture. The desired reaction is effected at the oil-water interface by means of a surface-active catalyst complex, the use of an emulsifier, and optimization of oil-water phase ratio and pH of the aqueous phase.

A novel biphasic synthesis technology is being developed for commercial

application as a result of pioneering work performed in our laboratory. The technology utilizes a biphasic liquid mixture – typically an aqueous-organic mixture – as the reaction medium, a surface-active catalyst complex to effect the desired synthesis reaction at the interface, and an emulsifier to increase the interfacial area. Major advantages of the new technology include: (1) circum- vention of the solubility incompatibility problem between reactants or between a reactant and the catalyst; (2) avoidance of the use of a toxic or hazardous organic solvent that may otherwise be needed; (3) easy catalyst recovery and

re-use while retaining the characteristic advantages of homogeneous catalysis, namely, high reactivity, selectivity and reproducibility under mild reaction conditions; (4) possibility of simultaneous product removal during reaction such that the yield of desired intermediate product may be increased; and

(5) possibility of regio- and stereoselectivity control through the directional influence of the liquid-liquid interface on molecular orientations.

A wide selection of tasks is available in this emerging field, including

development of a novel column reactor that permits simultaneous reaction and product removal, application of the technology to specific synthesis reactions of commercial interest, development of surface-active ligands with the desired metal-complexing ability and catalyst promoting effect, and fundamental kinetic and modelling studies.

effect, and fundamental kinetic and modelling studies. P.K. Lim Professor B.S., Chemical Engineering, Cornell

P.K. Lim

Professor

B.S., Chemical Engineering, Cornell University (1975)

M.S., Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois (1978)

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois (1979)

Areas of interest: Biphasic synthesis using surface active catalyst complexes; column reactors for simultaneous reaction and product removal; interfacial phenomena; homogeneous catalysis; free radical chemistry.

lim@eos.ncsu.edu

919.515.2328

product removal; interfacial phenomena; homogeneous catalysis; free radical chemistry. lim@eos.ncsu.edu 919.515.2328 27
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David Ollis Distinguished Professor B.S., Chemical Engineering, Caltech (1963) M.S., Chemical Engineering, Northwestern

David Ollis

Distinguished Professor

B.S., Chemical Engineering, Caltech (1963)

M.S., Chemical Engineering, Northwestern (1964)

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, Stanford (1969)

Areas of interest: Photochemical engineering; biochemical engineering; engineering education.

ollis@ncsu.edu

919.515.2329

engineering education. ollis@ncsu.edu 919.515.2329 Chemical Engineering - Photocatalytic remediation involves

Chemical Engineering - Photocatalytic remediation involves the use of light activated semiconductor oxide catalysts for the oxidative remedia- tion of contaminated air, water, and solid surfaces. Applications for such photocatalysis include organic contaminant mineralization , detoxification and dehalogenation of synthetic organic chemicals, oxidation of inorganic contaminants such as ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, oxidative and reductive removal and recovery of metals, microbial cell killing and viral deactivation for water disinfection, total carbon analyzers for water analysis, and self-clean- ing glass and tile surfaces. Projects underway or recently completed include fundamental models of photon utilization, interplay of reaction kinetics, light transport, and mass transfer, modeling of free radical kinetics on surfaces, catalyst regeneration, and coupled and integrated processes which couple photoprocesses with other physical (membrane, adsorption) and oxidative (chemical, biological) processes. Technology Literacy - “Engineers create new devices; scientists play with ideas”. To the extent that this simplification is true, it suggests that engineering should represent itself within the academic community as the creator of devices. This view provides us with opportunities for engineer- ing to create and offer a variety of technology literacy courses to students in other colleges, including humanities, social sciences, education, foreign languages, education, management, and architecture and design. We have been exploring for more than a decade the various ways in which “device dissection” laboratory experiences can be used to provide inexpensive, scal- able education opportunities for such a diverse set of university students. Now is the time in US engineering schools to crystallize cohesive national models for technology literacy courses for college graduates. Our teaching and research efforts are aimed at demonstrating the variety, and ease, with which such offerings may be created and funded. Cross-College Collaboration - After more than a century of engineering education, the recently enacted ABET accreditation criteria demand creation of a more broadly educated engineer than previously considered within the undergraduate curriculum. These 21 st century criteria allow for imaginative incorporation of learning opportunities from the liberal arts, within the engineering curriculum, that have only begun to be seriously explored. Our efforts will include experiments in “writing across engineering”, engineer- ing design as “structural art”, and foreign language immersion courses for engineers and scientists styled as “language, technology, and culture”. Our research will also examine ways to assess and evaluate the types of learning most productively addressed through these various formats.

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Thin film materials are ubiquitous in natural systems and in engineered devices. Our research group studies the fundamentals of advanced thin film material synthesis and related nano-scale structure engineering. A primary focus in our group is Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) which is a unique thin film formation technology that enables highly conformal fabrication of inorganic insulators and metals with atomic-scale control of growth and film thickness. We are also actively exploring the extension of ALD into the newer field of Molecular Layer Deposition (MLD), where the chemical concepts of ALD are utilized for atomic-level integration of organic mono- mer and molecular building blocks into well defined polymer thin films and

novel hybrid organic/inorganic materials. Deposition tools are designed and fabricated in-house.

A long–standing theme of our group’s research is to push the chemical

limits of material fabrication and processing at low surface temperatures. We are particularly interested in fundamental surface reactions that can proceed when temperatures are withheld below 150 °C, allowing nonconventional materials, including polymers or biologically active surfaces to be coated and modified. Thin films on flexible polymer substrates for solar energy conver-

sion or information display systems, for example, are potential applications of this work. Based on our history in solar energy materials, we are working to examine how ALD and MLD techniques can help improve advanced organic photovoltaic devices as well as altogether new energy harvesting and energy saving devices. Our studies of fundamental surface reactions utilize a range of in–situ surface characterization techniques including quartz crystal microbalance, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy and real–time conductivity, to directly probe chemical and physical mechanisms associated with film nucleation and growth. A growing focus is on modifica- tion of high surface area 3D structures, including functional fiber structures,

nonwoven fi brous mats and natural and synthesized fabric structures. Potential applications include coatings for biological implants or materials modification for bio-separation systems, as well as sensing devices, and environmental and health monitoring systems. Some of the key challenges for future nano-scale thin film materials and surface modification include the following:

• What new types of thin film materials, including electro-active polymers or organic/inorganic hybrid materials can be deposited at low temperature with controlled composition?

• What unique surface chemistry approaches can be used to control the atomic composition and function of new material structures?

• How can the interface junction between two very dissimilar materi- als, such as an inorganic metal in contact with an organic polymer or a molecular monolayer be controlled at the atomic scale?

• Can processing temperatures be pushed to near room temperature to eliminate possible thermal damage to materials?

• How can uniformity and conformality be routinely achieved and controlled at the nano- or monolayer-scale over large deposition areas with high throughput? Answers to these questions are being addressed in the research projects in our group. We believe the new knowledge and technological advances being realized in our research will impact many current application areas, and will also likely help realize many new advances in materials that are not yet envisioned by us or by other current researchers.

not yet envisioned by us or by other current researchers. Gregory N. Parsons Professor Director, NC

Gregory N. Parsons

Professor

Director, NC State Nanotechnology Initiative

B.A., Physics, SUNY College at Geneseo (1980)

Ph.D., Physics, North Carolina State University (1990)

Areas of interest: Atomic layer deposition, including fundamental surface reactions and advanced applications; organic/inorganic materials and interfaces; physics of thin film devices

parsons@ncsu.edu

www.che.ncsu.edu/thinfilm

919.515.7553

materials and interfaces; physics of thin film devices parsons@ncsu.edu www.che.ncsu.edu/thinfilm 919.515.7553 29
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Steven W. Peretti Associate Professor B.S., Engineering and Applied Science, Yale University (1979) Ph.D., Chemical

Steven W. Peretti

Associate Professor

B.S., Engineering and Applied Science, Yale University (1979)

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, California Institute of Technology (1987)

Areas of interest: Bioprocess design; biofuels and bioproducts; metabolic characterization; modeling.

peretti@eos.ncsu.edu

919.515.6397

Our research is guided by the premise that macroscopic biological behavior can be directly and knowledgeably manipulated for commercial benefit using reactor design and genetic engineering. The key concept in that statement is knowledge of the biological system. We use molecular biology and computer modeling to analyze metabolic regulation and evaluate potential manipulation scenarios. The primary focus of our work is the construction of processes capable of executing bioconversions that can replace homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic processes in current industrial use. We believe that eventually, fine chemicals and commodity chemicals will join the list of compounds that undergo significant bioprocessing. Bioconversion offers the advantages of reactant specificity, high product selectivity, low operating temperature and pressure, high product stereoselectivity and minimal generation of hazardous wastes. Implementation of biocatalytic processes will in many cases dramatically reduce the requirement for downstream separation and purification as well. We are currently studying the activity and selectivity of membrane-spanning efflux pumps that mediate bacterial resistance to solvents and antibiotics through selective excretion. A developing application involves the processing of biomass for the production of fuels and chemicals. For example, while biodiesel offers an alternative to petroleum-derived diesel (petrodiesel), its generation also produces a glycerol stream that must be refined or otherwise treated. We are investigating the use of lipases to convert glycerol efficiently to glycerol car- bonate, a chemical useful in the production of polymers and fine chemicals. The lipase work is being extended to the production of biodiesel from low quality feed, including used fryer oil and trap grease. We are also evaluating fermentative routes to convert glycerol to propanediols. Plants produce primary and secondary products, in addition to bulk carbohydrates, that could add value to biofuels produced from lignocellulose, starch, and sugars. The co-production of edible vegetable protein and biofuels would also help address the fuels versus food debate. Green plants have been shown to be capable of producing high grade protein products. Th ese products would be competitive with casein or even egg white ovalbumin, and could improve co-production economics dramatically. Th e research program we are pursuing in collaboration with crop scientists is focused on development of field and process technologies that would recover these higher value protein co-products from green plant biomass while maintaining the fitness of the spent biomass to be fermented to ethanol or other products of interest.

biomass while maintaining the fitness of the spent biomass to be fermented to ethanol or other

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Our research is in the area of molecular and cell bioengineering. We are interested in the molecular control of cellular processes to solve therapeuti- cally relevant problems. Proteins mediate and control several cellular processes. For instance, cytokine binding to cell surface receptors can trigger a series of biochemical reactions leading to outcomes such as proliferation, differentiation or death. Aberrant protein-mediated processes are involved in pathological states such as cancer. Our central hypothesis is that manipulating molecular interac- tions through engineered proteins can be used to understand and ultimately control cellular processes. We have the capability to engineer biophysical properties of proteins such as binding affinity and thermal stability as well as soluble protein expression. We use powerful protein engineering tools such as yeast surface display and mRNA display to generate proteins with desired properties. These proteins enable us to study and ultimately control cellular processes and may potentially be clinically relevant. We are particularly interested in the area of stem cell bioengineering Stem cells are “master” cells that can self-renew as well as develop into many different cell types. Stem cells have great potential in regenerative medicine. They can also be used as a basis to develop model systems for drug evalua- tion. One of the major challenges in this area is to understand and control the molecular decisions that control stem cell fate. Our approach involves the use of engineered proteins to quantitatively study and ultimately control molecular interactions that govern stem cell fate.

control molecular interactions that govern stem cell fate. Balaji Rao Assistant Professor B.S., Chemical Engineering,
control molecular interactions that govern stem cell fate. Balaji Rao Assistant Professor B.S., Chemical Engineering,

Balaji Rao

Assistant Professor

B.S., Chemical Engineering, UICT (formerly UDCT), Mumbai, India (1999)

S. M., Chemical Engineering Practice, MIT (2001)

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, MIT (2004)

Areas of interest: Molecular and cell bioengineering; molecular control of cellular processes; stem cell bioengineering.

bmrao@ncsu.edu

919.513.0129

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Gregory T. Reeves Assistant Professor B.S., Chemical Engineering, B.S., Mathematics, University of Florida (2002) Ph.D.,

Gregory T. Reeves

Assistant Professor

B.S., Chemical Engineering, B.S., Mathematics, University of Florida (2002)

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, Princeton University (2008)

Areas of interest: Tissue patterning in development, control of cell-cell comunication, gene networks.

control of cell-cell comunication, gene networks. Our research interests lie in the area of quantitative

Our research interests lie in the area of quantitative studies of pattern formation in developmental biology. Besides being a fascinating subject

– studying the process by which a single cell develops into a mature adult

animal – this field is important for studies in medicine (e.g., cancer research) and tissue engineering. However, several major conceptual gaps remain before we can predict and manipulate developmental events in such appli- cations. The lab integrates tools from applied math, chemical engineering, developmental biology, microscopy and image processing to bridge these gaps. Specifically, we seek to understand transport mechanisms of signaling molecules in developing tissues, as well as answer systems-level questions in developmental pattern formation, such as the intracellular interpretation of extracellular signals and the mechanisms that establish sharp, robust cell fate boundaries. Theoretical and molecular studies of development have revealed a gen- eral cell-cell signaling model responsible for a wide range of tissue pattern- ing events throughout the development of all animal species. In this model

– the “morphogen gradient” model – a small domain of cells within a tissue

begins to broadcast a signal in the form of a small protein, called a morpho- gen. This signal directs the cells within the tissue to differentiate according to the strength of signal they receive. We are interested in the dynamics of morphogen transport in epithelial layers. Our experimental approach is to

use live-imaging techniques to directly monitor gradient formation and target gene output in space and time. Detailed computational models for the time- evolution of the gradient will prove to be necessary to integrate the full range of our experimental data and guide design of future experiments. In the establishment of nearly all morphogen-mediated domains of gene expression, the boundaries between these domains are both extremely sharp and highly robust. The mechanisms that ensure either of these features

– despite natural variations in, and perturbations to, a comparatively shallow

gradient – seem to contradict. To determine how these systems are optimized to simultaneously exhibit a high degree of both robustness and sharpness, our lab studies the how morphogen-mediated signal is transformed into an altered gene expression suite. However, not even the phenomenology by which cells interpret the signal is currently known. Furthermore, positive and negative feed-back loops in these systems may additionally affect signal interpretation. Detailed models of these processes have yet to be formulated, as they require knowledge of the subcellular localization of signaling components as well as DNA-level interactions that regulate gene expression. Our goal is to answer these outstanding mechanistic questions to help explain, at a systems-level, the balance between robust and precise patterning.

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Emerging multifunctional polymers designed for use as responsive, sensory or otherwise “smart” materials in nanotechnology, biotechnology, energy/environmental science, and homeland defense often possess a micro- or nanostructure that imparts such systems with specific properties. Improved design of these polymers necessarily requires an understanding of the ther- modynamic, kinetic and material factors governing structural evolution and stability of nanostructured polymers, polymer blends, molecular organogels and polymer nanocomposites. The mission of the Polymer Morphology Group (PMG) is to (i) design, from the bottom-up, novel nano/microstructured soft material systems for targeted applications, (ii) develop a fundamental (supra)molecular understanding of property development in such materials, (iii) use and/or develop analytical methods capable of elucidating morphological and property characteristics, and (iv) assess the role of alternative processing routes on morphological and property development. Nanostructured polymers are multiphase polymer systems exhibiting nanoscale structural elements that are intended to provide the polymer with specific chemical or physical attributes. One class of nanostructured polymers includes block copolymers, macromolecules capable of (i) spontaneously self-organizing into nanoscale domains, (ii) compatibilizing phase-separated polymer blends or (iii) modifying the chemical nature of a surface. We have developed fundamental paradigms regarding the phase behavior and proper- ties of block copolymers by examining topics such as crystallization-directed morphological development in discrete block copolymer assemblies, thin-film stabilization through the use of block copolymers as interfacial modifying agents, solvated triblock copolymers as high-performance/energy-efficient dielectric elastomers, and surface-biofunctionalized electrospun microfibers via field-driven copolymer surface enrichment. Moreover, we have pioneered the use of transmission electron microtomography (TEMT) as a quantitative analytical tool in the 3D study of nanostructured polymers. Examples of microstructured polymers include microcellular foams and polymer blends. Blends of particular interest to the PMG include those composed of at least one biopolymer, such as silk fibroin, which can be regenerated and mixed with other polymers to fabricate novel materials pos- sessing unique properties. Physical methods by which to prepare new polymer blends by, for instance, high-energy mechanical alloying, electrospinning or supercritical-fluid exposure are also topics addressed by the PMG. Self- assembled fibrillar networks (SAFINs) of interest to the PMG are network materials that can be physically formed from low-molar-mass organic gelators incorporated into soft polymers. Thermoreversible self-assembly of the gelator molecules into nanofibrils induces a skeletal network that imparts solid-like behavior to the polymer. Polymer nanocomposites are hybrid materials that combine the property attributes of polymers with those of nanoscale inorganic objects to achieve vastly improved properties. We have demonstrated that the gas-separation characteristics of polymers can be greatly enhanced through the addition of nanoparticles, and that the position of nanoparticles within nanostructured block copolymers can be controlled on the basis of nanoparticle size, concen- tration and selectivity. Moreover, we have likewise found that the addition of nanoparticles can alter the stability of block copolymer nanostructures. Nanoparticles grown via chemical reduction of organometallic salts in dense polymer matrices provide alternative means by which to generate multifunc- tional polymer nanocomposites.

which to generate multifunc- tional polymer nanocomposites. Richard J. Spontak Professor B.S., Chemical Engineering,

Richard J. Spontak

Professor

B.S., Chemical Engineering, Pennsylvania State University (1983)

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley (1988)

Areas of interest: Polymer morphology and phase stability; multifunctional and nanostructured polymers, blends and networks; application of microscopy techniques to polymer science and engineering.

Rich_Spontak@ncsu.edu

919.515.4200

networks; application of microscopy techniques to polymer science and engineering. Rich_Spontak@ncsu.edu 919.515.4200 33
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Orlin Velev Professor M.Sc., Chemical Physics and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Sofia, Bulgaria (1989) Ph.D.,

Orlin Velev

Professor

M.Sc., Chemical Physics and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Sofia, Bulgaria (1989)

Ph.D., Physical Chemistry, University of Sofia, Bulgaria (1996)

Areas of interest: Colloidal nanoscience and nanoengineering; microfluidics and on-chip devices for materials synthesis and manipulation; assembly of nano- and microstructures with photonic, optical, biological and electrical functionality; colloidal interactions, self-assembly and crystallization; biosensors and microrobotics.

odvelev@unity.ncsu.edu

919.513.4318

crystal.che.ncsu.edu

odvelev@unity.ncsu.edu 919.513.4318 crystal.che.ncsu.edu The major thrust in our research is the self-assembly of

The major thrust in our research is the self-assembly of microparticles, nanoparticles and live cells into advanced materials and microscopic func- tional structures. Controlled colloidal assembly can produce micro-structured photonic and electronic materials, chemical and biological sensors, and bioelectronic devices more easily than common lithographic and microfab- rication technologies. The fundamental goal is to develop and model novel principles for nanostructure assembly. This will allow design and assembly of new materials and devices from colloidal components in a manner similar to the present design of electrical microcircuits. The first area of research in our group is in developing of new principles for making functional microdevices by interfacing colloidal assemblies with electronic chips. We have introduced dielectrophoresis – forces and mobility of particles imparted by an alternating electric field – as a powerful tool for manipulation and fabrication of microscopic structures. For example, we have discovered a method for the in situ assembly of state-of-the art microscopic biosensors and of metallic nanoparticle wires up to centimeters in length. These microwires can be used as self-assembling “wet” circuits that can electrically interface a living cell in a bio-electronic circuit, create sensors, or wire electronic chips. The second research area is the fabrication of nanostructured coat- ings and materials based on colloidal crystals. We have been the first to use colloidal crystals as templates for the preparation of “inverse opals,” which by now are one of the most studied photonic materials. We have obtained a new type of material – nanostructured porous gold, which has unique optical and photonic properties and holds promise for advanced applications in electro- optics, microelectronics, or catalysis. We are developing environmentally friendly methods for making such nanomaterials by using liquid CO 2 media. We use such films in specialized optical coatings and high-performance flow chemical sensors based on surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Our third major area of research interest is microfluidics and bioassays. Our group has developed a liquid-liquid microfluidic system for manipulation of freely suspended nanoliter droplets without any contact with a solid surface. Water or hydrocarbon droplets floating on denser perflourinated oils are driven by electric fields applied by arrays of electrodes below the oil. These new liquid-liquid microfluidic chips could be a versatile platform for microscale transport, mixing, and chemical and materials synthesis. We are studying how to confine living cells or genetic material into individual droplet containers, and using them to perform biochemical reactions, precipitation, chemical and biological assays, or parallel drug or toxin screening. The lab- on-a-chip research project is also oriented to the formation of a new class of particles with shapes ranging from spherical through ellipsoidal and even to toroidal “doughnuts.” By combining modeling with experiments, we are learning how such special particles can be fabricated by computer controlled microscopic “factories” on a chip. Recent areas of interest of our group include the application of microfluidics and nanostructures in solar cells and devices for energy management. We have begun the development of a new class of solar cells made of water-based gels. These light harvesting devices are inspired from natural plant tissues and have the potential to be flexible, scalable and environmentally friendly. They may lead in the future to the creation of bioelectronic solar cells. Velev group is also developing new highly efficient heat-exchanging materials with embedded networks of microfluidic channels similar to vascular networks in skin.

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This series of images from Professor Gubbins’ group illustrates successful methods to develop molecular simulation

This series of images from Professor Gubbins’ group illustrates successful methods to develop molecular simulation protocols to mimic the synthesis of nano-porous materials. The material under study is a highly disordered porous carbon made from saccharose, with pores of 1 nm or less. The figure on the right shows nitrogen adsorbed into this material while the figure on the left is a simulated TEM image.

while the fi gure on the left is a simulated TEM image. This cover image from

This cover image from the August 2008 issue of the AIChE Journal was produced by Dr. Hall’s research group. The image is a close up of a protofilament formed at the end of a simulation of 96 model polyalanine peptides. Four beta sheets are shown. Backbone united atom spheres NH, Cα , and CO spheres are reduced in size for ease of viewing.

, and CO spheres are reduced in size for ease of viewing. Lisa G. Bullard Teaching
, and CO spheres are reduced in size for ease of viewing. Lisa G. Bullard Teaching
, and CO spheres are reduced in size for ease of viewing. Lisa G. Bullard Teaching
, and CO spheres are reduced in size for ease of viewing. Lisa G. Bullard Teaching

Lisa G. Bullard

Teaching Associate Professor Director of Undergraduate Studies

B.S., Chemical Engineering NC State (1986)

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon (1991)

Richard M. Felder

Hoechst Celanese Professor Emeritus

B.Ch.E., City College of New York (1962)

M.A., Chemical Engineering, Princeton (1964)

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, Princeton (1966)

Harold B. Hopfenberg

Camille Dreyfus Professor Emeritus

S.B., Chemical Engineering, MIT (1960)

S.M., Chemical Engineering, MIT (1961)

Ph.D., Chemical Engineering, MIT (1965)

George W. Roberts

Professor Emeritus

B.S., Chemical Engineering, Cornell University (1961)

Sc.D., Chemical Engineering, MIT (1965)

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Current Students’ Undergraduate Institutions

Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology Bogazici University Cairo University Clemson University Colorado State University Connecticut College Cornell University CPE Lyon East Carolina University Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology Hanyang University Harbin Institute of Technology Harvey Mudd College Hunan University Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Indian Institute of Technology, Madras Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee Indian Institute of Technology, Varanasi Johns Hopkins University Jordan University Kuwait University Lafayette College Michigan State University Michigan Technological University Middle East Technical University Mississippi State University Nanjing University of Technology National Taiwan University North Carolina A&T State University North Carolina State University Northwestern University Ohio State University Pennsylvania State University Purdue University Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology Seoul National University ShanDong University Tianjin University

Tsinghua University Universidad Simon Bolivar University of Alabama University of Arizona University of California, Davis University of Dayton University of Delaware University of Florida University of Kansas University of Kentucky University of Maine University of Maryland University of Mumbai, Institute of Chemical Technology University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill University of Notre Dame University of Rochester University of South Alabama University of South Carolina, Columbia University of the Philippines University of Virginia University of Wisconsin, Madison Vanderbilt University Virginia Commonwealth University Virginia Polytechnic and State University West Virginia University Yonsei University Zhejiang University

University Virginia Polytechnic and State University West Virginia University Yonsei University Zhejiang University 3636

Recent Graduates

2008

NAME

Dipak Burau Suk Tai Chang Paul Chin Caryn Heldt Matthew O. Hergistad Surendra K. Jain Young Kuk Jhon Lawrence A. Strickland Xiaoyu Sun Sachin Talwar Xenia Tombokon Vincent Verruto Chun-Chao Wang Michael C. Weiger Haiou Yang Christopher Aberg Matej Krajcovic

2007

Tamer S. Ahmed Alan An-lei Chang Chung-jung Chou Kristen K. Comfort Shalini Gupta Daniel M. Kunicicky Yong Li Joshua K. Michel Joan D. Patterson Erik E. Santiso Matthew B. Smith Shaun A. Tanner Sabrina Tachdjian Julie Ann-Crowe Willoughby Amy E. Zweber Remil M. Aguda

DEGREE

ADVISOR

EMPLOYER

Ph.D.

Haugh

Ph.D.

Velev

U. Wisconsin-Madison Post-Doc Sandia National Labs Post-Doc TIAX LLC RPI Post-Doc NC State University of Michigan Post-Doc NC State NC State Sabic DuPont NC State PetroBeam University of Virginia Post-Doc NIST Post-Doc NC State Trinity Consultants Inc. Weill Cornell Medical College

Ph.D. Ollis Ph.D. Carbonell Ph.D. Carbonell Ph.D. Gubbins Ph.D. Genzer Ph.D. Hall/Genzer Ph.D. Spontak Ph.D.
Ph.D.
Ollis
Ph.D.
Carbonell
Ph.D.
Carbonell
Ph.D.
Gubbins
Ph.D.
Genzer
Ph.D.
Hall/Genzer
Ph.D.
Spontak
Ph.D.
Khan
Ph.D.
Carbonell/Kilpatrick
Ph.D.
Kilpatrick
Ph.D.
Haugh
Ph.D.
Haugh
Ph.D.
Carbonell
M.S.
Spontak
M.S.
Haugh
Ph.D.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.
Ph.D.
M.S.
Roberts
Carbonell
Kelly
Haugh
Velev/Kilpatrick
Velev
Overcash
Kelly
Roberts/Khan
Gubbins
Genzer/Kilpatrick
van Zanten
Kelly
Genzer
Carbonell/DeSimone
Kilpatrick/Carbonell

NC State Post-Doc Nektar Therapeutics NC State Post-Doc Catalent Pharma Imperial College Florida Dept of Envr Protection Georgia Tech Post-Doc Genencor Corning MIT Post-Doc Diosynth Biotechnology Vanderbilt University Post-Doc Cornell Medical College Post-Doc MeadWestvaco IBM Talecris Biotherapeudics

Recent Graduates (continued)

2006

NAME

Ketan H. Bhatt Supriyo Bhattacharya Naresh Chennamsetty Donald A. Comfort David J. Frankowski Aysa A. Galbraith Yazan A. Hussain Arthi Jayaraman Michael J. Kelly Christopher Kloxin Samsheer Mahammad Alexander J. Marchut Brian G. Prevo Angelica M. Sanchez David B. Terry Bin Wei Kristen K. Comfort Jason L. Stone Chun-chao Wang

2005

Collins Appaw Rajendra R. Bhat Changwoong Chu Ahmed S. Eissa Keith L. Gawrys Francisco R. Hung Matthew R. Johnson Jaehoon Kim Tao Liu Kie Jin Park Ian C. Schneider Michael R. Tomlinson Jr. Dawei Xu Fadhel Azeez Dipak Baru Alison J. Julson

DEGREE

ADVISOR

Ph.D.

Velev

Ph.D.

Gubbins

EMPLOYER

University of Illinois Post-Doc Beckman Institute MIT Post-Doc Wyeth Dow Chemical NW Arkansas Community College NC State Post-Doc University of Illinois Post-Doc NC State Post-Doc University of Colorado Post-Doc Johns Manville Bristol-Myers Squibb U. C. - Santa Barbara Post-Doc Cabot Quality Chemical Labs National Starch & Chemical NC State Ph.D. Candidate Cree Research NC State Ph.D. Candidate

Ph.D. Gubbins Ph.D. Kelly Ph.D. Spontak/Khan Ph.D. Hall Ph.D. Grant Ph.D. Hall/Genzer Ph.D. Parsons Ph.D.
Ph.D.
Gubbins
Ph.D.
Kelly
Ph.D.
Spontak/Khan
Ph.D.
Hall
Ph.D.
Grant
Ph.D.
Hall/Genzer
Ph.D.
Parsons
Ph.D.
van Zanten
Ph.D.
Khan
Ph.D.
Hall
Ph.D.
Velev
Ph.D.
Khan
Ph.D.
Parsons
Ph.D.
Spontak/Genzer
M.S.
Haugh
M.S.
Genzer/van Zanten
M.S.
Haugh
Ph.D.
Khan/Kadla
Ph.D.
Genzer
Ph.D.
Parsons
Ph.D.
Khan
Ph.D.
Kilpatrick
Ph.D
Gubbins
Ph.D.
Kelly
Ph.D.
Carbonell
Ph.D.
Roberts/DeSimone
Ph.D.
Parsons
Ph.D.
Haugh
Ph.D.
Genzer/Gorman
Ph.D.
Roberts
M.S.
Fedkiw
M.S.
Parsons
M.S.
Ollis

NC State Post-Doc BD Technologies Samsung Cairo University Nalco Company University of Wisconsin Post-Doc Wyeth NC State Post-Doc NC State Post-Doc Novellus Scripps Research Institute AAAS NC State Post-Doc NC State Ph.D. Candidate NC State Ph.D. Candidate Boston Scientific

Ph.D. Graduates Working in Academia

Hubert Winston Viney Aneja Chen-Chi Ma Charles Gooding Bob Kelly Russell Rhinehart Joseph McGuire Harold Monbouquette Roberto Guzman Bruce Locke Candis Claiborn Daniel Forciniti John Weidner Tom Wood Arun Yethiraj Pam Dautenhahn Steve Beaudoin Kristina Rinker Tonya Klein Srinivasa Raghavan Debbie Follman Monica Lamm Heath Turner Michael Riley Ahmed Abdala Qixin Zhong Coray Colina Ahmed Eissa Francisco Hung Ian Schneider Don Comfort Arthi Jayaraman

1975

1977

1978

1979

North Carolina State University (Retired) North Carolina State University National Tsing Hua University Clemson University North Carolina State University Oklahoma State University Oregon State University UCLA University of Arizona Florida State University Washington State University University of Missouri-Rolla University of South Carolina Texas A&M University of Wisconsin McNeese State University Purdue University Colorado State University University of Alabama University of Maryland Purdue University Iowa State University University of Alabama New Mexico Tech Petroleum Institute University of Tennessee Pennsylvania State University Cairo University Louisiana State University Iowa State University University of Dayton University of Colorado

1981 1985 1987 1987 1988 1989 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1992 1995 1998 1999
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In addition to these NC State graduates with academic positions, eighteen of our Postdoctoral Resaerch Associates have accepted academic appointments since 1999.

Departmental Donors

The Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering gratefully acknowledges the support provided by the industries, government agencies, institutes, and foundations listed below:

22nd Century Limited

ACS-Petroleum Research Fund

Alditri Technologies

Army Research Office

Balchem

Becton Dickinson

Biofuels Center of NC

Cabot

Camille & Henry Dreyfus Foundation

Center for Aseptic Processing and Packaging Studies

CFD Research Corporation

Coats North America

Dade-Behring

Dairy Management Inc.

DARPA

Department of Education

Department of Energy

Diversified Energy

Dow

Dupont

Eastman Chemical

Eaton Corporation

ExxonMobil

Fluor

Fuji Silysia

Golden LEAF Foundation

INEST/Quantum Resources Corp.

International Lead Zinc Res

International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering

Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation

Kenan Center for the Utilization of CO 2 in Manufacturing

Liquidia Technologies, Inc

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

MeadWestvaco

Mitchell Kapor Foundation

National Institute of Standards & Technology

National Academies – Keck Futures Initiative

Technology National Academies – Keck Futures Initiative NC Biotechnology Center Novozymes Phillip Morris USA
NC Biotechnology Center Novozymes Phillip Morris USA Project SUCCEED RTI International Siemens, Inc. SINTEFF
NC Biotechnology Center
Novozymes
Phillip Morris USA
Project SUCCEED
RTI International
Siemens, Inc.
SINTEFF
Syngenta
Unilever
University of Colorado
University of Minnesota
Vertex Pharmaceuticals

National Institutes of Health

National Science Foundation

National Starch & Chemical

NC Department of Transportation

NC State Engineering Dean’s Office

NC State Faculty Research and Professional Development

NC State Nonwovens Cooperative Research Center

NC State University Extension Grant Program

Norwegian Research Council

NSF Science and Technology Center for Environmentally Responsible Solvents and Processes

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Semiconductor Research Corporation

UNC – General Administration

UNC – Office of the President

UNC Cancer Research Fund

University of Virginia (US Dept. of Health)

US Air Force Office of Scientific Research

US Department of Agriculture

US Navy - Office of Naval Research

United Resource Recovery Corp.

All of the following journal cover images and the associated research were produced by Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering faculty and graduate students at North Carolina State University.

were produced by Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering faculty and graduate students at North Carolina State University.
were produced by Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering faculty and graduate students at North Carolina State University.
were produced by Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering faculty and graduate students at North Carolina State University.
were produced by Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering faculty and graduate students at North Carolina State University.
were produced by Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering faculty and graduate students at North Carolina State University.
were produced by Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering faculty and graduate students at North Carolina State University.
were produced by Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering faculty and graduate students at North Carolina State University.
were produced by Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering faculty and graduate students at North Carolina State University.
were produced by Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering faculty and graduate students at North Carolina State University.
were produced by Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering faculty and graduate students at North Carolina State University.
were produced by Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering faculty and graduate students at North Carolina State University.
were produced by Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering faculty and graduate students at North Carolina State University.
were produced by Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering faculty and graduate students at North Carolina State University.
were produced by Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering faculty and graduate students at North Carolina State University.
were produced by Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering faculty and graduate students at North Carolina State University.
were produced by Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering faculty and graduate students at North Carolina State University.
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Campus Box 7905 North Carolina State University Raleigh, North
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Campus Box 7905 North Carolina State University Raleigh, North
Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Campus Box 7905 North Carolina State University Raleigh, North

Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering Campus Box 7905 North Carolina State University

Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905

919.515.2324

www.che.ncsu.edu