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Professions

Professions can be either masculine ( artist, journalist)


orfeminine (, ). There are also some professions that can
beboth masculine andfeminine, depending on gender of a person you are speaking
about ( manager, designer). Here is the list of some
commonly used professions.

Actor

Actor, artist

Basketball player
Volleyball player
Journalist
Waiter
Singer
Pianist
Sportsman

Tennis player
Football player

=
Boss

Broker

Designer
Diplomat
Director
Doctor
Engineer
Manager
Minister
Operator
Politician
President
Programmer
Psychologist
Secretary
Trader
Chief
Economist
Lawer

Student

Russian names

Gender Endings of a Noun


As you may have noticed, Russian nouns have genders. You can identify gender
ofanoun by its ending. Check out the table below for all possible variants. Please note:
both masculine and feminine nouns can end with the soft sign -. To avoid confusion,
memorize such words and their gender by heart.

Table: Endings of Nouns According to their Gender

(masculine)
A word ends
onaconsonant

-/-

Exceptions

,
,
,
,
,

usually denote
professions

80% of Russian words

, ,
,

, ,
,

(feminine)

(neuter)

(plural)

,
, ,

also some months

, , ,
, , ,
, ,

, ,
,

, ,
,
,

, ,
, ,
,

, ,
, ,
,

, ,
, ,

after consonants
, , , , , ,

only after
,

only after
,

, ,
, ,

, ,

1. These nouns are only in Plural ()


, , , ,

Remember

, ,

2. Some nouns have an unusual Plural form:


,
3. These words have an -a endings in Plural
, , , ,
, , ,

, ,
, ,

Nouns Animate and Inanimate


In the Russian language, all nouns fall into two categories animate and inanimate.
The first unites human beings (including professions and places in society), animals,
birds and fish. All of these words answer the question ? The second category
includes objects which answer the question ?

Animate

Inanimate

Who is it?

What is it?

a human

a table

a dog

a house

a cat

a car

mama

a computer

a friend

juice

a brother

a book

a teacher

a lamp

a director

metro

a student

a ticket

a manager

a lion

a shark

Remember
Names of social groups, like
, ,
are inanimate in Russian.

Countries, Nationalities
and Languages
C

Country

Where from?

His nationality

Her nationality

Their nationality

Spoken language

Language

Australia

Austria

England

()
America, (USA)

Argentina

Belgium

Bulgaria

Germany

Netherlands (Holland)

Greece

Denmark

Spain

Italy

Canada

-
-

China

Korea

Norway

Poland

Portugal

Russia

Romania

Serbia

Country

Where from?

His nationality

Her nationality

Their nationality

Spoken language

Language

Turkey

Finland

France

Czech Republic

Switzerland

-
-
-

Sweden

Japan

Personal Endings of Russian Verbs,


Present Tense
In Russian there are generally two types of verbs, and every verb has different endings
depending on the person and number you use. The table below will help you understand
the difference between these two groups.
If the infinitive of the verb ends with - or -, then it falls into group 1.
If the first infinitive form ends with anything else (typical endings are - and -),
then it is part of the group 2.

Personal Endings of Russian Verbs, Present Tense


Group 1

Group 2

Infinitive:

Infinitive:

Adverbs and
Time in the Russian language is described with the help of the adverbs and .
The adverb can mean that:
a process has not started yet;
the desired result has not been achieved so far;
an action which was to have finished at the moment of speech is still going on.

?
.
Do you have a car?
No, not yet.

?
, .
Is Olga resting?
No, she is still working.

?
, .
Does he work?
No, he is still a student.

?
, .
Are you having lunch?
No, not yet. I am working.

The adverb can mean that:


a process has finished;
the result has been achieved;
there is already another action under way at the moment of speech.

?
, !
Do you have a car?
Yes, I have one already!

?
, .
Is Olga resting?
Yes, she is already resting.

?
, .
Is he a student?
No, he is already working.

?
, .
Are you having lunch?
No, I am already working. lunch is over

Whose? ? Possessive
pronouns
The question Whose? has several forms in Russian. Each form depends on the gender
and number of the object ? (masculine), ? (feminine), ? (neuter), ?
(plural for all genders). To answer this question we use possessive pronouns, which also
depend on the gender and number of the object about which you want to speak.

my

your

her

his

our

your

their

,
,
,

,
,
,

,
,
,

,
,
,

Remember

Pronouns , , are static, they never change their form. Other pronouns change
according to the gender ofthenoun theyre used to describe, and not according togender
oftheperson, whos speaking.

Possessive Pronouns

.
?

.
?

.
?

.
?

?
.

?
.

?
.

?
.

Conjunctions , , ,

Part 1.

Conjunction
Conjunctions in the Russian language are used to connect words in a sentence.
Theconjunction connects the components of a sentence.

Part 2.


-
.

I am reading a book and


thinking

He speaks English and Russian


well.

Its mom and dad.

Conjunction
The conjunction contrasts actions, objects and their characteristics.

Part 3.

,

.


,
.

He reads German poorly,


buthe can speak it well.

This is a small, but interesting


town.

I speak Russian badly,


butIunderstand it well.

Conjunction a
The conjunction is used to give a more accurate description of an object or action,
rather than to contrast them.


,
.


, .

,
.

Moscow is not a small,


butabig city.

My name is not Maria,


butMarina.

Im not from America,


butAustralia.

Where?
This is the most popular question in the Russian language. ? (Where have
you been?), ? (Where is my computer?), ?
(Where is my money?). You can answer questions with using the Prepositional
Case (which can be used to show location).
To put a word in the Prepositional Case, add the ending - to the unchangeable part
ofamasculine singular noun ( , ) or change
theending of a feminine singular noun to - ( ; ).
The prepositions and (in, at and on, at) are used to describe location:
means inside something or inside any building ( , , ),
means a position on a horizontal surface, in the open, or to indicate a process
( onatable, at the market, at a lecture).

General rule

On a horizontal surface

Inside something

Process

How to form Prepositional case


?

, , ,

, , ,

, , , ,
, ,

, , , ,
, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

Some situations to use either or


Situations to use

Situations to use

Continents, countries, cities,


locations

Directions

, , ,

, , ,
, ,

Institutions, establishments

, ,
, , ,
, , ,
, ,

Islands; shores of rivers, lakes,


seas; mountains

, , ,
,

Surfaces and floors

, , ,
, ,

Social groups

, ,

Processes

Inside

, , ,
, ,

, , ,

Remember
, , , ,
,

, , ,
,

There are a few words that never change their ending


/

. I am in metro. (Inside of a system).


. Pavel goes by metro. (He uses a transport system).

( = ). Yesterday we were in the cinema.

. He lost everything in casino.

. Money is in the coat (Inside of it).


. There is a hole at your coat (on a surface of it).

. I am going to the seaside ( = at the seashore).


. A ship is sailing in the sea. (A ship is inside the sea).

Tenses of Verbs
Russian verbs have only 3 tenses past, present and future. It is very easy when
you speak about anything that happened some time ago (even one second ago),
you should use the Past Tense. If youd like to tell about anything that is going
to happen use the Future Tense. The table below will help you understand
how to form different tenses.
To form the Past Tense you only need to know the infinitive form of the verb.
You should also remember that verbs in the Past Tense have only 4 forms:
(masculine), (feminine), (neuter, rarely used) and (plural).

to know, inf.

Some Verbs in Past Tense


group 1

group 2

infinitive:

infinitive:

(-,-)
(-,-)

(-,-)
(-,-)

(-,-)
(-,-)

(-,-)
(-,-)

(-,-)
(-,-)

(-,-)
(-,-)

(-,-)
(-,-)
(-,-)
(-,-)
(-,-)
(-,-)

How to Form Different Tenses


(past tense)

(present tense)

(future tense)


(rarely used as it identifies
anon-animated object)

(to work)

+ infinitive

(to eat)

+ infinitive

(to drink)

+ infinitive

Remember
(to be)

Never used


.
2

Adjectives
Russian adjectives agree in gender with the nouns they describe. Adjectives are given
in dictionaries in the masculine singular form .

Dictionary form

Masculine form ( )

Feminine form ( )

beautiful

The following table will give you a general understanding of how Russian Adjectives change
their endings.
Following , ,

Following , , ,

Ending
isunstressed

Ending
isstressed

Ending
isunstressed

Ending
isstressed

Ending
isunstressed

Ending
isstressed

Remember

Antonyms of some commonly used adjectives


()

Colors

Adverbs and Adjectives


In Russian, adverbs answer the question How? ?. They are formed
from adjectives and always end with an -. To form an adverb, replace the ending
of the adjective (its last two letters) with the - ending.

Adjective

Adverb

Remember
Use adverbs only together with related verbs. Adverbs are inflexible.
Adjectives are used together with nouns and agree with nouns in gender
and number.

Noun + ?

Verb + ?

Accusative Case Direct Objects


In almost every sentence there is an active subject and a passive object. The subject
can consist of a noun and a related adjective. The noun answers questions such as ?
? (Who? What?). An adjective that describes the subject and agrees with the noun
answers the question (, , )? (Which?). The subject
is always in the Nominative Case.
A passive object is always in the Accusative Case. An object can also be comprised
of a noun and an adjective. In this case, the noun answers the question ? ?.
An adjective which describes the object answers the question (,
, )? for inanimate objects and (, , )?
for animate objects.

is a subject

is a subject.

.
is an active subject and the verb
form agrees with it. isan object
(object of my love) and,therefore, is used
in Accusative

Part 1.

Table: Nouns in the Accusative Case

Nominative
(ActiveSubject)

Accusative
(Passive Object)

Nominative
(ActiveSubject)

Accusative
(Passive Object)

? (animate subject)

? (animate object)

? (inanimate subject)

? (inanimate object)

, , ,

, ,
,

, ,

, ,

, ,

,
,

, ,

, ,

, , ,
, , ,

, ,
, , ,
,
1

Part 2.

Adjectives in Accusative
/

Nominative

Accusative

Subject (?)

Object (?)

Remember
Inanimate objects, masculine and neuter, do not change their form
inAccusative!

Notice the endings!


Ending of a noun ,
Ending of an adjective ,

Part 3.

Personal pronouns in Accusative


Nominative
?

Accusative
?

. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

. ?

. .

. .

Part 4.

Table: The demonstative pronoun and its forms: ,


, , in the Accusative Case

,
.

,
.

,
.

,
.

Part 5.

Verbs, that require the Accusative Case.


to know

to read

to watch

to see

to write

to remember

to understand

to love / to like

to want

to order (in a restaurant)

to buy

to listen

to eat

to drink

Numbers
1

11

20 -

100

12

30 -

200

13

40

300

14

50

400

15

60

500

16

70

600

17

80

700

18

90

800

19

900
1 000

10

Remember

When we use the number 1 (, , ), we match the gender of this number


with the gender of the noun it is modifying:

, , ,
,

, , ,
, ,

, , ,

To express complex numbers like 21, 22, etc, first we should name a bigger number
andthen the smaller one
25 ( ) 20 () 5 ().
74 ( ) 70 () 4 ().
169 ( ) 100 () 60 () 9 ()

345

56

478

94

289

300 40 5

50 6

400 70 8

90 4

200 80 9

Nouns Singular in the Genitive ase


The Genitive Case answers the questions ? ? and can be used to express
the absence of somebody or something:
. (I have a dog) . (You dont have a

dog.)
+ object in Genitive

The Genitive Case is used to express the absence of any ingredient. If you wish to order
a pizza without cheese (for example), you should use the preposition (without)
and an object in the genitive:
. .

+ Genitive
+ object in Genitive
.

.
.
.

.
(JPG 234 KB)

Genitive endings vary according to nouns gender

+ ?
(Nominative case)

+ ?
(Genitive case)

Ending: - -, - -, - -

Ending: zero ending -, - -, - -, - -

Remember
. .
. .
. .
. .

Genitive and Tenses


(Past tense)

(Present tense)

(Future tense)

Positive construction
.

Negative construction

Remember

. (double negation + Genitive)


.

Genitive with Prepositions


The Genitive Case answers the questions ? ? and is used generally
to express the absence of somebody or something. However there are some other
situations where the Genitive is required. Always use it with the following prepositions

...

without

excluding,
exept

after

fromto

for

at

from

+ Genitive

(without)

(excluding
exept)

(after)

...
(from...to)

(for)

(at)

(from)

Masculine/Neuter

Feminine

, .

, .

, .

, .

10 .
- 6.

15
.

?
.

?
.

?
.

?
.

Genitive Case Plural


1) Unlike Genitive singular, Genitive Case plural is used to speak about the quantity
of something (5-20, 30,40 100, how much, few,
a lot, not much, not a lot).
2) Just like Genitive singular, it is used to speak about the absence of something
(with the words , , ). Genitive Case Plural is also used after
the prepositions (without), (excluding, exept), (after),
(fromto), (for), (at, in constructions like ), (from).

5200, 20, 25
29 30, 40...100

+ Genitive Plural
.

100
.

There are a lot of rivers in Russia.

There were no computers a hundred


years ago.

It is not raining in Africa during summer.


(Literally In summer in Africa there
are no rains).

This building was built without nails.

How to form Genitive plural


Nominative singular

Masculine

Genitive plural

The word ends on a hard consonant (/, /, , , /, /, , , , ) -


, , , ,

, , ,
,

The word ends on - -


,

The word ends on -, -, -, -, - -


, , , , ,
.

Neuter

, , , ,
,

The word ends on -, -, -, -, - -


,

The word ends on - drop the ending


, ,

Feminine

, ,

The word ends on -/- drop the ending


, , , ,

, , , ,

The word ends on -, -, -, - -


, , ,

, , ,

The word ends on -, -, -, - -


, ,

, ,

The word ends on - -


,

Remember
, , , , , , ,

, , , , , ,
,

Nom. S.

,
Gen. Pl.

.
2

Nouns in the Instrumental Case


Instrumental Case answers questions ? ? and, it is easy to guess, is used to
express the concept of an instrument.
Nom. Sing.

Verb

Instr. Sing.

.
Konstantin writes with a pencil.

Nom. Sing.

Verb

Instr. Sing.

.
Egor Petrovich eats his salad with a fork.

Instrumental is often used with preposition c to indicate that subject does anything
together with an object.
Nom. Sing.

Verb

Instr. Sing.

.
Natalia went to the theatre with her brother.

Nom. Sing.

Verb

Instr. Sing.

.
Alexander drinks coffee with milk.

Part I.

Nouns in the Instrumental Case. Singular

? ?
Nominative

? C ?
Instrumental

Remember

Masculine words that end with a vowel


(, , etc) will change their
endings as their feminine counterparts
do ( , ).

zero ending -/

- -,- -

There are no animate neuter


gender nouns.

- -, - -

Part II. Nouns in the Instrumental Case. Plural


To form Instrumental Plural well start with the Nominative Singular form. Note that
neuter nouns have same endings in the Instrumental Case as masculine ones.

? ?
Nominative

? C ?
Instrumental

hard ending -



- -

Remember

Irregular endings





? ?
Nominative

? C ?
Instrumental



-, - -




- / - -

Remember

Irregular endings

Reflexive Verbs
Reflexive verbs in Russian have the suffix . How to form them and what they mean
are explained below
1. The subject performing an action is simultaneously the object of the action: ,
, . Such verbs are formed from verbs which require
an object in the Accusative Case
+ ?
+ ?
+ ?

. .
. .
. .

2. A number of actively participating subjects are affected by each others actions:


, , . Such reflexive verbs require an object
in the Instrumental Case while they are formed from verbs requiring objects
in the Accusative Case
+ ? + ?;
+ ? + ?;
+ ? + ?

. .
. .
. .

3. The subject performs an action in its own interest: , . Such


reflexive verbs are formed from verbs which require an object in the Accusative Case
+ ? ? + ?
+ ? ? + ?

. .
. .

4. The subjects action belongs to his or her sphere of interest: ,


, . Such reflexive verbs require an object in the Instrumental
Case and are formed from verbs which require an object in the Accusative Case
+ ? ? ?
+ ? ? + ? ?
+ ? ? + ? ?

. .
. .
.
.

Conjugation of Reflexive Verbs


(?) to be interested in smth.


/

(? ?) to be occupied with smth.




/

Reflexive Verbs in the Past Tense



to be interested in smth

to go in for smth.

Dative Case
Part 1.

Nouns and Adjectives


This case is used when you are going to speak about indirect objects and answer
the question ? ? (Whom? and What?). For example, in the sentence
Pavel gives Lena a present Pavel is the subject, a present is the direct object
and Anna is the indirect object. In Russian this sentence will sound like
.

Nom. S.

Verb

Acc. sing.

Dat. S.

Most popular verbs used withtheDative Case


?

Verb

Dative Sing.

Accusative Sing.

Endings and personal pronouns in Dative


Nom.

Remember

Dat.

Zero Ending -, - -

- - ,- -, - -

Masculine words that end with


a vowel (, , etc) will
change their endings like feminine
nouns do (, )
,

- -, - -

- -, - -


In case of - ending in Nom.Pl.:


use - ending after soft
consonants, use - after all hard
ones: ,

Part 2.

Constructions I like/ dont like/ need to/ have


to/ allowed to/ not allowed to do something,
Personal pronouns in Dative
If youd like to say that your physician didnt allow you to drink vodka,
youhavetousethe Dative Case in Russian.

/
like / do not like

Dative +

need to / do not need to

allowed to / not allowed to

Dative

Verb

Predicative

Acc. Sing.

Dative

Predicative Verb Acc. Sing.

Anton has to hurry.

Vladimir likes to ride a bicycle.

Also, if you are cold/ hot/ sad/ feel bad/ feel good, you use similar constructions.
Dative

Adverb

Dative

Adverb

I feel cold!

I am bored.

Nom.

Dat.

/ / /
/ + Infinitive

(? - adverb) , ,
, , ,

Part 3.

Dative with words of movement. Preposition .


+ Dative
?

To whom are you going tonight?

Im going to the doctor.

?
.

? ( / )

To whom are you going to visit in the


summer?
Im going to visit a friend.

Prepositional Case
This is the final, 6th case in the Russian language. The prepositional answers
the questions ? ? (which mean About whom? About what?)
and is mostly used with the prepositions or ( if following word starts
with a vowel) about. Other prepositions of this case are in, at, on, at.

Examples with the preposition


( if following word starts with a vowel):
.
Mama thinks about her son.


.
Ivan Petrovich writes a note about
his work.

?
What are you talking about?

?
Whom are you thinking about?

This preposition is always used to express ones feelings, object of speech, dreams,
thoughts, etc. Here are some verbs that are used together with the Prepositional Case

to think

to talk

to tell

to dream

to write

to argue

The prepositions and are used to express position of something

Part 1.

Nouns in the Prepositional Case


Singular

Feminine

? ? - Nominative

? ? - Prepositional





- -

Remember

Masculine





- zero ending -

Neuter



- / - -

Remember

Plural
? ?
NominativeSingular

? ?
Prepositional Plural

- / - zero ending -



- -

Remember!
There are some words that form Prepositional
plural from Nominative plural







soft endings - / - -



- -

Words that exist only in Plural form

(, )

any ending -

Part 2.

Personal Pronouns in the Prepositional Case


?

Declension in all cases


Part 1.

Nouns and Adjectives

1.1 Declension of Nouns and Adjectives: Masculine and Neuter

Nominative

-, -, - + -

-, - + -, -

Questions

? ? (nouns)
? ?
(adjectives)

Genitive
Questions

? ? (nouns)
? (adjectives)
? ? ?
(both)

-, - + -, -

Prepositions

, , , ,
, , , , ,

-, - + -, -

Dative
Questions

? ? (nouns)

? (adjectives)

Prepositions

Accusative

-, - + -, -

Questions

? ? (nouns)

Person / Animate noun

? ? ?
(adjectives)

? ? (both)
Prepositions


Object / Inanimate noun

-, -, - + -


Accusative

-, - + -, -

Questions

? ? (nouns)

Person / Animate noun

? ? ?
(adjectives)

? ? (both)
Prepositions


Object / Inanimate noun

-, -, - + -


-, - + -, -

Instrumental
Questions

? ? (nouns)

? (adjectives)

Prepositions

, , , , ,
,

Prepositional
Questions

-, - + -

? ? (nouns)

? (adjectives)

? ? (adjectives)

Prepositions

, ,
/ (If the following
noun starts with a vowel)

Declension in all cases


1.2 Declension of Nouns and Adjectives: Feminine

Nominative

-, - + -, -, -

Questions

? ? (nouns)

? (adjectives)

Genitive

-, - + -, -

Questions

? ? (nouns)
? (adjectives)
? (both)

Prepositions

, , , ,
, , , , ,

Dative

-, - + -, -

Questions

? ? (nouns)
? (adjectives)

Prepositions

Accusative

-, - + -, -, -

Questions

? ? (nouns)
? ?
(adjectives)

? (both)
Prepositions

Instrumental

-, - + -, -, -

Questions

? ? (nouns)
? (adjectives)

Prepositions

, , , , ,
,

Prepositional

-, - + -, -

Questions

? ? (nouns)
? (adjectives)
? ? (both)

Prepositions

, ,
/ (If the following
noun starts with a vowel)

Declension in all cases


1.3 Declension of Nouns and Adjectives: Plural

Nominative

-, - + -, -, -

Questions

? ? (nouns)

? (adjectives)

Genitive

-, - + -, -, -

Questions

? ? (nouns)
? (adjectives)
? (both)

Prepositions

, , , ,
, , , ,
, , , ,
, -,

Dative

-, - + -, -

Questions

? ? (nouns)
? (adjectives)

Prepositions

,
Persons / Animate nouns

Accusative

- - + -, -

Questions

? ? (nouns)
? ?
(adjectives)
? ? (both)
Prepositions


Objects / Inanimate nouns

-, - + -, -, -

Instrumental

-, - + -, -

Questions

? ? (nouns)
? (adjectives)

Prepositions

, , , , ,
,

Prepositional

-, - + -, -

Questions

? ? (nouns)
? (adjectives)
? ? (both)

Prepositions

, ,
/ (If the following
noun starts with a vowel)

Declension in all cases


2.2 Feminine

Nominative
Questions

? ? (nouns)
? (adjectives)

Genitive
Questions

? ? (nouns)
? ? (both)
Prepositions

, , , ,
, , , , ,

Dative
Questions

? ? (nouns)
? (both)
Prepositions

Accusative
Questions

? ? (nouns)
?
? ? (both)
Prepositions

Instrumental
Questions

? ? (nouns)

? (both)
Prepositions

, , , , ,
,

Prepositional
Questions

? ? (nouns)
?
? ? (both)
Prepositions

, ,
/ (If the following
noun starts with a vowel)

Declension in all cases


2.3 Plural

Nominative
Questions

- -

? ? (nouns)
?

Genitive
Questions

? ? (nouns)
?
? (both)
Prepositions

, , , ,
, , , , ,

Dative
Questions

? ? (nouns)
?
Prepositions

Accusative
Questions

Person / Animate

? ? (nouns)
? ?

? ? (both)

Object / Inanimate

Prepositions

Instrumental
Questions

? ? (nouns)

?
Prepositions

, , , , ,
,

Prepositional
Questions

? ? (nouns)
?
? ? (both)
Prepositions

, ,
/ (If the following
noun starts with a vowel)

Declension in all cases


Part 3.

Personal Pronouns
Nominative

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

()

Questions

? ?

Genitive
Questions

? ?
?
Prepositions

, , , ,
, , , , ,

Dative
Questions

? ?
Prepositions

Accusative
Questions

? ? (nouns)
Prepositions

Instrumental
Questions

? ?
Prepositions

, , , , ,
,

Prepositional
Questions

? ? (nouns)
? ? (adjectives)
Prepositions

, ,
/ (If the following
noun starts with a vowel)

Declension in all cases


Part 4.

Declension of the word in all genders and numbers

Nominative
Questions

? ? ?
?

Genitive
Questions

? ? ?
?
Prepositions

, , , ,
, , , , ,

Dative
Questions

? ?
?
?
Prepositions

Accusative
Questions

? (?
object)

Person /
Animate
noun

Person /
Animate
noun

? ?
? (? object)
Prepositions

Object /
Inanimate
noun

Object /
Inanimate
noun

Instrumental
Questions

? ? ?
?
Prepositions

, , , , ,
,

Prepositional
Questions

? ? ?
?
Prepositions

, ,
/ (If the following
noun starts with a vowel)

Aspects of Russian Verbs


Imperfective and Perfective
The Russian verb has 3 tenses and 2 aspects. Aspects describe different qualities
ofanaction it is either acting (the process of doing something - Imperfective)
ortheresult of an action (after someone has finished doing something - Perfective).
Using theImperfective/Perfective depends only on the intention of the speaker
to emphasize different aspects of action in his orher speech.

process

R e s u lt

I will be drawing a picture tomorrow.

Tomorrow Ill draw a picture.


It means

,
.
I am going to draw tomorrow, but
there isnoguarantee that Ill finish my
picture thatday.

.
I will finish the picture tomorrow.

Thats why the Perfective can be used only in the Past or Future tense, since
the result can beeither reached in past, or it will be reached in future. Russians use
the Imperfective forthePresent tense, since the present is in progress.
If you require emphasizing in your speech a necessity of fulfillment or a desire to finish
anaction and achieve a result use the Perfective.

Examples:
!
!

If you need to say that the process of doing something is necessary and important,
then use the Imperfective!

Examples:
!
.
.

Table of difference between two aspects


Imperfective
1. Process
.

Perfective
1. Result


.

!

2. Regularity of doing something


.
.

2. Something is done (or is going


tobe done) only once

!

, .

3. Simultaneity of different actions


,
.

3. Sequence of actions
,

.

The Perfective aspect of Russian verbs is formed from the Imperfective by using
different prefixes and suffixes

Imperfective

Perfective
Prefixes

to watch
to listen to
to play
to work
to go for a walk
to breakfast
to lunch
to dinner
to call
to give (as a present)
to dance
to eat
to drink
to draw
to write
to read
to pay

Suffixes
-to finish
to study
to answer, to reply
to meet

to show
to tell

-a
a
The verb is shortened

to buy
to start
to give

Other verbs

to speak
to take

Aspects of verbs denote tenses


The Perfective can be used only in the Past or Future tense, since the result can
bereached only in past, and there is still a chance that there will be a result in future.
Also please note that verbs in the Perfective aspect in the Future tense change persons
as verbs in the Imperfective aspect in the Present tense.

Imperfective

Perfective

1. Past tense
, , ,

, ,
,

, ,
,

, ,
,

, ,
,

, ,
,

2. Present tense


/

There is no perfect form



3. Future tense

Directions and Places


There are three main questions in Russian: ?
(which means Where are we going to drink beer?), ? (Where have
you been?), ? (Where do you know it from?). You should
know the answers andthecorrect grammar.
The Accusative answers the question ?, use the Prepositional to answer ?,
andtheGenitive for ?.
If you need to mention a person in your answer, use the following cases:
? (= ?) Dative, ? (= ?) and ? (= )
Genitive.

Constructions to speak about directions and places


?

Where to?

Where?

Where from?

Accusative

Prepositional

Genitive

()

? to whom?

? whose (place)
at?

? Whose
(place) from?

Remember some commonly-used words


- home

at home

from home

here (direction to)

here (place)

from here

there (direction to)

there (place)

from there

to the right

on the right

from the right

to the left

on the left

from the left

up (direction to)

up (place)

from a higher place

down (direction to)

down (place)

from a lower place

Verbs of Motion
We use two general types of verbs to talk about motion in Russian. For our purposes we
will call them groups and . It is convenient to use them because whoever
you are speaking with understands at once what time and direction you are talking
about and how often you move that way. It is better to learn these verbs in pairs.

Main Russian verbs of motion


to go

to go

to fly

(on foot)

(by any type of wheeled


transport by bicycle, car,
train, etc.)

(or to move by any sort of air


transport by plane, aerostat,
rocket, etc.)

to swim, to sail

to run

(or to move by any sort of ship


transport)

(also related to sports


jogging, marathon, etc.)

There are three pairs of optional verbs that do not mean motion themselves but are used
together with main verbs of motion.

o carry something in ones


hands

to carry with any sort


ofvehicle

to drive

(is used together with


and)

(is used together with


and )

(a car, a bicycle, a plane


any sort of vehicle)

Table: Meanings of verbs of motion


group

group

One time (only this moment)

Many times (action is repeated)

now, today, yesterday,


tomorrow

regularly, every day,


often, permanently,
rarely, never.

.
Im going to work now

.
I go to work every day.

.
Tonight we are going to the theatre.

.
We go to the theatre every Saturday.

.
Mother is going to the store.

.
Mother goes to the store on weekends.

.
The boat is sailing to the island.

5 .
The boat has sailed to this island for 5 years
already.

. There

. To and from

?
.

,
.
I went to the swimming pool in the morning
(there), andthen came back home (from there).

, , , , , ,

1.

2.

Where are you going?


Im going to the swimming pool.
?
.
Where are you going?
We are going to see our grandmother.

, , , , , ,

.
Last night we went to see our grandmother with
mybrother. (it is obvious that we came back)
.
We went to Samara last weekend. (round trip)

?
.
Where is this plane flying?
It is flying toSamara.

3.

At the moment of motion something else


was (or is) happening

In a sense of to be able to do

, .
When I was walking in the park, I was thinking
about my vacation. (Iwas walking and thinking
at the same time)

.
5.
Our little son cannot walk yet. Hes only 5months
old.

,
.
When she was going by metro she met her friend.

!
My wife cannot swim at all!

,
.
When he was flying home from a business trip
my brother met a pretty girl.

, .
I can drive, but I dont like it.

Table: Meanings of verbs of motion


group

, , , , , ,

4.

group

, , , , , ,

With verbs (to love),


(to like)
.
I like walking in the park.
,
.
He does not like to take the metro, thats why
hebought acar.
.
This girl likes swimming.

Table: Verbs of motion and tenses


group

, , , , , ,

group

, , , , ,
,

Past tense
Usually is used only in the sense of one-time action
and simultaneously with other process

Used in the sense of regular, repeated action.

Present tense
Used in the sense of one-time action, happening
at the moment of speech.

Used in the sense of regular, repeated action.

Future tense
Used with prefix (see lesson 32)

Used in the sense of Im planning to do this


regularly or I surely will be able to do that

2 .
,
.
,
.
3

Table: Conjugation of verbs of motion in Present and Past tenses

Present tense


/



Past tense

Present tense


/



Past tense



Verbs of Motion with the Prefix


-
Part 1.

Verbs of motion with the prefix -, tenses


andaspects
The prefix - can be added to all verbs of motion. The resulting verbs are perfective
in aspect and thus can only be used in the Past and Future Tenses.

Past tense

?

.

Where is Ivan?
He left for university.

Dad left for work an hour ago.

In the evening the friends


headed to a bar for some beer.

Tonight Im going to the


theatre with my sister.

We are going to the seaside


insummer.

Tomorrow he is flying home.



,

.

He walked around the room for


a few minutes and sat down on
the sofa.

We flew for a short while


andlanded.

He took a short drive around


thecity and realized that now
heknows the place quite well.

Future tense

Past tense

Future tense



.
Ill go shopping for a while
andcome back.



,
, ?
Mum, can dad and I go for a
short drive in the new car?

Anyone willing to go for


a short helicopter ride?

Part 2.

- + verbs from the group - meanings


Verbs from the group with the prefix - can have the following meanings:
1. Absolute beginning of motion, direction or purpose not specified
(themotion comes after a static condition).
2. Beginning of a new stage of motion (there has already been some
motion before).
3. Action as intention, desire or a supposition in the Future Tense.

1.

.
He stood up and left.


.
We went to a caf after work.

I left home and went to the


bank to take some money out
of my account.

2.

3.

,

.


,
.

We were stuck in a traffic


jam andthen started moving
slowly.

I was jogging and then got


tired and started walking.

I was walking in the city for a


long time, and then went to the
theatre.


,
.

I will not go to work tomorrow;


Iwill go to see a doctor.

He will fly to America in a


month.


.
We will go to our country
house onthe weekend.

3.

Part 3.


,
.

I will not go to work tomorrow;


Iwill go to see a doctor.

He will fly to America in a


month.


.
We will go to our country
house onthe weekend.

- + verbs from the group - meanings


Verbs from the group with the prefix - can have the following meanings:
1. The action lasted a short while.
2. The action is not very significant.

1.

2.

-

.

He walked about the room


forawhile and then sat down.

We drove around in the new


car forjust a short while.

The bird flew above the field


for a while.

I want to do a little shopping.

We will run at the stadium


forawhile.

I`d like to swim in the pool


a little bit.

Summary Table: Meanings of verbs of motion


with the prefix -
+ verbs from the
group

+ verbs from the


group

, , , ,

, , , ,

Meaning
1. Absolute beginning of motion, direction
orpurpose notspecified (the motion
comes after astatic condition).

1. The action lasted a short while.

2. Beginning of a new stage of motion (there


has already been some motion before).

2. The action is not very significant.

3. Action as intention, desire


or a supposition intheFuture Tense.

Remember
Verbs of motion with prefixes have one peculiarity: the Present Tense usually requires a verb
from the group, as they show that the action is taking place right now. Verbs from the
group are used in the Past Tense in the meaning of a completed action orinthe Future Tense
in the meaning of potential result.

, . -
, .
Are you saying youve seen a lot? I have traveled around the world more than you.

.
.
The captain has sailed all the oceans and seas. He is an old sea dog.

Part 4.

Table: Conjugation of mostly used verbs


fromthe group with the prefix -
group

group

group

group

Present tense


/



Past tense

Present tense


/



Past tense


Verbs of motion with the prefixes


-, -
The Russian language has special prefixes which, if added to verbs of motion, denote
direction and thus help people understand each other correctly.

Part 1.

Prefix -
The prefix - denotes movement to the inner part of an object. The key point here is
that somebody or something moves from the outside to the inside. Verbs with the prefix
- answer the question ? (Where?)

I am going into the office now.

You are going into the metro.

We are going into


the restaurant.

Table & examples: Meanings of groups of verbs f motion withprefixes


- and-
Remember
Verbs of motion with prefixes have one peculiarity: the Present Tense usually requires a verb from the group,
as they show that the action is taking place right now. Verbs from the group are used in the Past Tense in the
meaning of a completed action orinthe Future Tense in the meaning of potential result.

group

group

Past Tense
Meaning: Result of an action. Used frequently.

Optional meaning: two actions are taking place


or took place simultaneously.

, .

, .

, .

Present Tense
Meaning: A process. Used frequently.

_____________

.
.

Future Tense
Optional meaning: two actions are/will be taking
place simultaneously.

Meaning: potential, predictable result. Used


frequently.

5 .
-.

Part 2.

,
.

Prefix -
The prefix - denotes movement directed from the inside to the outside. The pattern
is usually used to emphasize the fact that somebody or something has left some place.
Verbs with the prefix - answer the questions ? ?
(From where? where?)

I am going out of the office


now.

You are going out of the metro.

We are going out


of the restaurant.
2

Table & examples: Meanings of groups of verbs ofmotion


with prefixes - and-
Remember
Verbs of motion with prefixes have one peculiarity: the Present Tense usually requires a verb
from the group, as they show that the action is taking place right now. Verbs from
the group are used in the Past Tense to show a completed action or in the Future Tense
to indicate a potential result.

group

group

Past Tense
Meaning: Result of an action. Used frequently.

Optional meaning: two actions are taking place


or took place simultaneously.

5 .

, .

?
.

,
.

Present tense
Meaning: A process. Used frequently.

_____________

.
.
! !

Future tense
Meaning: potential, predictable result.
Used frequently.

Optional meaning: two actions are/will be taking


place simultaneously

5 .

,
.

30 .

,
.

Part 3.

Table: Conjugation of mostly used verbs of motion


withprefixes - and -
-

group

group

group

group

Present Tense


/



Past Tense

Present Tense


/



Past Tense

Present Tense

The verbs and


arenotcommonly used.

Past Tense


Part 4.

Prefixes and nouns


Besides verbs, these prefixes can also be added to nouns. The resulting words also
denote direction

(entrance)

(exit)

(vehicle entrance)

(vehicle exit)

_____________

(a zone of aircraft departure)

Remember
The prefixes - and - denote a very precise change of position within a limited space
and specify whether it is directed inside or outside

Verbs of motion with the prefixes


- and -
Part 1.

Prefix -
The prefix - denotes arrival somewhere, at some place. The key point here
isthepresence of a person or object in the given place. Verbs with the prefix answer the questions ? ? (Where? From where?).

.
The plane arrived.

We arrived at the meeting at6oclock.


(We are now atthemeeting in an arranged
place.)

Mother arrived home from work.


(Mother was at work, butnow sheisat home.)

A new colleague has come to us from America.


(He used to work inAmerica, but now he works
with us.)

The plane arrived attheairport on time.


(Theplane is at the airport now.)

Table & Examples: Meanings of groups of verbs ofmotion


with the prefix -
Remember
Verbs of motion with prefixes have one peculiarity: the Present Tense usually requires a verb from
the group, as they show that the action is taking place right now. Verbs from the
group are used in the Past Tense to show a completed action or in the Future Tense to indicate
a potential result.

group

group

, , , , , ,

, , , , , ,

Past Tense
Meaning: result of an action. Used frequently.

Optional meaning: The regularity or periodicity


ofanaction in past. Used with the words ,
, , etc.

Present Tense
Meanings: 1. A process. Used frequently.
2. The regularity or periodicity of an
action inpresent. Usewith the words
, , ,
etc.

_____________________________

.
.
.

.

Future Tense
Meaning: potential, predictable result. Used
frequently.

Optional meaning: The regularity or periodicity


ofanaction in future.


, .


, .

Part 2.

Prefix -
The prefix - denotes departure from some place. The key point here is the absence of
a person or object in the given place and its relocation to another place. Verbs withthe
prefix - answer the questions ? ? (Where? From where?).

.
The plane departed.

Father left for work inthemorning.


(Father isnot athome, he has gone to work.)

Mother arrived home from work.


(Mother was at work, butnow sheisat home.)

12 .

The plane departed at 12 noon. (The plane isnot


at the airport now, it is flying to another city.)

Our friend has gone onabusiness trip.


(Ourfriend isnot with us now, heisinanother
city.)

Table & Examples: Meanings of groups ofverbs


of motion with the prefix -
Remember
Verbs of motion with prefixes have one peculiarity: the Present Tense usually requires a verb from
the group, as they show that the action is taking place right now. Verbs from the
group are used in the Past Tense to show a completed action or in the Future Tense to indicate
a potential result.

group

group

Past Tense
Meaning: result of an action. Used frequently.

Optional meaning: The regularity or periodicity


ofanaction in past. Used with the words ,
, , etc.

Present Tense
Meanings: 1. A process. Used frequently.
2. The regularity or periodicity of an
action inpresent. Usedwith the words
, , ,
etc.

_____________________________

.
.
, .

Future Tense
Meaning: potential, predictable result. Used
frequently.

Optional meaning: The regularity or periodicity


ofanaction in future.

5 .


, .

, .

,
.

Part 3.

Conjugation
Remember
The prefixes - and - denote a non-specific change of position of a person or object, usually
within a large space or long distances, while pointing only at the presence or absence ofsomebody
or something in the given place at the moment of speech.

group

group

group

group

Present Tense


/



Pasnt tense

Present Tense


/



Pasnt tense


Present Tense


/



Pasnt tense

Present Tense


/



Pasnt tense


Verbs of motion with the prefixes


and
Verbs of motion with the prefixes - and - denote a local change of position
within a limited space: getting closer or moving away.

Part 1.

Prefix -
The prefix - is used in the Russian language to denote somebodys approach
toanobject from a short distance. Verbs with the prefix - answer the questions
? ? (Where, to whom?).

.
The cat came up to the ball.

,

.

Meaning: I was in the same


room where the computer was,
I approached the computer and
switched iton.

Meaning: The car was not far


from the office, then it came
even closer and finally stopped.

Meaning: I woke up when


the plane was approaching
Shanghai.

Table: Meanings of groups of verbs


and indifferent tenses
Remember
Verbs of motion with prefixes have one peculiarity: the Present Tense usually requires a verb fromthe group,
as they show that the action is taking place right now. Verbs from the group areused in the Past Tense to show
a completed action or in the Future Tense to indicate a potential result.

group

group

Past tense
Meaning: result of an action. Used frequently.

Meaning: a process of motion that took place


inthepast.

.
Optional meaning: two actions are taking place
ortook place simultaneously.

,
.
Present tense
Meaning: a process. Used frequently.

_____________

Future tense
Meaning: potential, predictable result.
Usedfrequently.

Optional meaning: two actions are/will be taking


place simultaneously.

,
.

Part 2.

Prefix -
The prefix - denotes moving a short distance away from a person or an object. Verbs
with the prefix - answer the questions ? ? ?, ?
(From where, from whom where, to whom?).

.
The cat walked a little bit away from the ball.

Meaning: The window and the table


are in the same room.The person
stood at the window a short time
ago, now he is standing at the table.

Meaning: I cant have you standing


beside me, so move away.

Meaning: The bus moved away


from the bus stop.

Table: Meanings of groups of verbs


and in different tenses
Remember
Verbs of motion with prefixes have one peculiarity: the Present Tense usually requires a verb from the group,
as they show that the action is taking place right now. Verbs from the group are used in the Past Tense to show
a completed action or in the Future Tense to indicate a potential result.

group

group

Past tense
Meaning: result of an action. Used frequently.

Meaning: a process of motion that took place


inthepast.


Optional meaning: two actions are taking place
ortook place simultaneously.

, ,
.
Present tense
Meaning: a process. Used frequently.

_____________

Future tense
Meaning: potential, predictable result.
Usedfrequently.

Optional meaning: two actions are/will be taking


place simultaneously.

10 .

,
.

Part 3.

Conjugation
group

group

group

group

Present tense


/



Past tense

Present tense


/



Past tense

Present tense


/



Past tense


Present tense


/



Past tense

Present tense


/



Past tense


Verbs of motion with the Prefixes


- and -
The Russian language has special prefixes which, if added to verbs of motion, denote
direction and thus help people understand each other correctly.

Part 1.

Prefix -
The prefix - denotes movement along, past something, or through something,
sometimes covering long distances. Occasionally the time taken to cover the distance
may also be specified. Verbs with the prefix - answer the questions ?,
? / ? (Where? To whom? Along what? Past what?).

.
The cat walked by the ball.

I am passing along the office.

You are passing along the


metro.

He walked past me without


noticing me.

Table: Meanings of groups of verbs of motion


and
Remember
Verbs of motion with prefixes have one peculiarity: the Present Tense usually requires averb fromthe group,
as they show that the action is taking place right now. Verbs from the group are used in the Past Tense
in the meaning of a completed action orinthe Future Tense inthemeaning of potential result.

group

group

Past Tense
Meaning: result of an action. Used frequently.

Optional meaning: two actions are taking place


ortook place simultaneously.

,
.

Present Tense
Meaning: a process. Used frequently.

_____________

Future Tense
Meaning: potential, predictable result.
Usedfrequently.

Optional meaning: two actions are/will be taking


place simultaneously.

5 .

,
.

Part 2.

Prefix -
The prefix - denotes relocation of a person or object from one place toanother.
It may also denote movement across something or diagonal movement. Verbswith
the prefix - answer the questions ? ? (From where? Where?).

.
The cat is crossing the street.

Im crossing the street (going


from one side to another).

You pass into second year


ofUniversity.

Were going from the kitchen


into the living room.

Table: Meanings ofgroups of verbs of motion


and
Remember
Verbs of motion with prefixes have one peculiarity: the Present Tense usually requires a verb from the group,
as they show that the action is taking place right now. Verbs from the group are used in the Past Tense to show
a completed action orinthe Future Tense to indicate a potential result.

group

group

Past Tense
Meaning: result of an action. Used frequently.

Optional meaning: two actions are taking place


ortook place simultaneously.

5 .

,
.

Present Tense
Meaning: a process. Used frequently.

_____________

Future Tense
Meaning: potential, predictable result.
Usedfrequently.

Optional meaning: two actions are/will be taking


place simultaneously.

5 .

,
.

Part 3.

Table: Conjugation of mostly used verbs


withprefixes - and -
-

group

group

group

group

Present Tense


/



Past Tense

Present Tense


/



Past Tense

Present Tense


/



Past Tense


Verbs of motion with the prefixes


-, ()-
Verbs of motion with the prefixes - and ()- denote relocation of a person
orobject within a limited space.

Part 1.

Prefix -
The prefix - denotes movement of a person or transport behind an object
orapersons short stay somewhere. Verbs with the prefix - answer the questions
? ? (Where? To whom?).

.
The bird flew into the nest.

,
.

Meaning: Stopped by for


ashort visit. Came over.

Meaning: Its not about an


intentional trip to the store, but
rather about a request to drop
in there on the way home.

Meaning:
tomove around, from
oneplace to another.

Table: Meanings of groups of verbs of motion


and in different tenses
Remember
Verbs of motion with prefixes have one peculiarity: the Present Tense usually requires a verb from the group,
as they show that the action is taking place right now. Verbs from the group areused in the Past Tense to show
a completed action or in the Future Tense to indicate a potential result.

group

group

Past tense
Meaning: result of an action. Used frequently.

Meaning: a process of motion that took place


inthepast

.
Optional meaning: two actions are taking place
ortook place simultaneously.

, .
Present tense
Meaning: a process. Used frequently.

_____________

Future tense
Meaning: potential, predictable result.
Usedfrequently.

Optional meaning: two actions are/will be taking


place simultaneously.

, .

Part 2.

Prefix ()-
The prefix ()- denotes movement of a person or transport around an object
orvisiting all similar places with some purpose. Verbs with the prefix () answer
the questions ? ? (What? Whom?).

.
The car moved round the puddle.

Meaning: The car bypassed


some object - moving around.

Meaning: Go around
thecourtyard or along
it`sperimeter without entering
the courtyard.

Meaning: Here the verb


implies that we
went into all stores and looked
for a present in each and every
one of them.

Table: Meanings of groups of verbs of motion


and in different tenses
Remember
Verbs of motion with prefixes have one peculiarity: the Present Tense usually requires a verb from the group,
as they show that the action is taking place right now. Verbs from the group are used in the Past Tense to show
a completed action or in the Future Tense to indicate a potential result.

group

group

Past tense
Meaning: result of an action. Used frequently.

Meaning: a process of motion that took place


inthepast

.
Optional meaning: two actions are taking place
ortook place simultaneously.

, .
Present tense
Meaning: a process. Used frequently.

_____________

,
.

Future tense
Meaning: potential, predictable result.
Usedfrequently.

Optional meaning: two actions are/will be taking


place simultaneously.

,
.

Part 3.

Table: Conjugation of mostly used verbs


withprefixes - and ()-
group

group

() group

group

Present tense


/



Past tense

Present tense


/



Past tense


Present tense


/



Past tense

Present tense


/



Past tense


Verbs of motion with the prefix


-
Verbs of motion with the prefix - denote relocation of a person or object
within a fairly large space: coming near, reaching an object or goal.

Part 1.

Meaning of the prefix -


The prefix - denotes approaching an object which was not far away originally.
Verbs with the prefix - answer the questions ? ? (Reached what?
Reached whom?) and are often used together with the preposition - after them.

.
The cat reached the ball and sat.

He walked to the subway


andstopped. (He reached
thesubway).

We got to our station andwent


out. (We reached our station).

The athlete ran to the finish


line first. (He reached it).

Table: Meanings of groups of verbs of motion


and in different tenses
Remember
Verbs of motion with prefixes have one peculiarity: the Present Tense usually requires a verb from the group,
as they show that the action is taking place right now. Verbs from the group areused in the Past Tense to show
a completed action or in the Future Tense to indicate a potential result.

group

group

Past tense
Meaning: result of an action. Used frequently.

Optional meaning: two actions are taking place


ortook place simultaneously.

,
.

Present tense
Meaning: a process that is taking place right now
orregularly. Used frequently.

_____________

Future tense
Meaning: potential, predictable result.
Usedfrequently.

Optional meaning: two actions are/will be taking


place simultaneously.

,
.

Part 2.

Conjugation
group

group

group

group

Present tense


/



Past tense

Present tense


/



Past tense

Present tense


/


Past tense


Verbs of motion with the


Prefixes - - (-)
andthepostfix -
Verbs of motion with the prefixes - and - denote relocation of a person or object
within a large space: coming near or going away.

Part 1.

Prefix - + postfix -
The prefix - and the postfix - denote the process of different subjects or objects
approaching one place or goal when used with a verb in the plural. Verbs with the prefix
- and the postfix - answer the questions ? ? (Where? To whom?).

.
The birds fre flocking to the island.

The guests were gathering for


the birthday party atourhome.

The delegates were gathering


for the conference.

The birds flocked to the lake.

Table: Meanings of groups of verbs of motion


and in different tenses
Remember
Verbs of motion with prefixes have one peculiarity: the Present Tense usually requires a verb from the group,
as they show that the action is taking place right now. Verbs from the group are used in the Past Tense to show
a completed action or in the Future Tense to indicate a potential result.

group

group

Past tense
Meaning: result of an action. Used frequently.

Optional meaning: two actions are taking place


ortook place simultaneously.

, .

Present tense
Meaning: a process that is taking place right now
orregularly. Used frequently.

_____________

Future tense
Meaning: potential, predictable result.
Usedfrequently.

Optional meaning: two actions are/will be taking


place simultaneously.

,
.

Part 2.

Prefix - (-) + postfix -


The prefix - (-) denotes the process of subjects or objects going far away
from one person or object when used with a verb in the plural. Verbs with the prefix
- (-) answer the questions ? ? ? (From where?
From whom where?)

.
The birds are flying away from the island.

The guests went back to their


homes when it was well past
midnight.

After the meeting, the friends


parted their ways.

The birds scattered (away)


from the lake.

Table: Meanings of groups of verbs of motion


and in different tenses
Remember
Verbs of motion with prefixes have one peculiarity: the Present Tense usually requires a verb from the group,
as they show that the action is taking place right now. Verbs from the group are used in the Past Tense to show
a completed action or in the Future Tense to indicate a potential result.

group

group

Past tense
Meaning: result of an action. Used frequently.

Optional meaning: two actions are taking place


ortook place simultaneously.

, .

Present tense
Meaning: a process that is taking place right now
orregularly. Used frequently.

_____________

Future tense
Meaning: potential, predictable result.
Usedfrequently.

Optional meaning: two actions are/will be taking


place simultaneously.

,
.

Part 3.

Conjugation
Remember
As verbs of motion with the prefixes - and - (-) and the postfix - denote motion
of more than one person or subject, they are used only in Plural forms.

group

group

group

group

Present tense



Past tense

Present tense



Past tense

Present tense



Past tense

Present tense



Past tense

Verbs of Motion with prefixes


Prefix

Meaning

Verbs

Question

Prep.

Example

1. Beginning
of motion perfective
aspect.

? ?

, ,

1. .

2. A little bit, for a short


while, insignificantly
imperfective aspect.

Where? Towhom?

2.
.
3. .

? ?

Where? Across what?

1.
.
2.
.
3.
.

Moution to the inner part


of something

Motion from theinside


to the outside

Coming near tosomething

? ?
Where? Towhom?

? ?
From where?
From whom?

, ,

1. .

, ,

1. .

2.
.

2.
.
3.
.

? ?

Where? Towhom?

1.
.
2.
.
3. , !

.

Going away from


something

? ?
Fromwhere?
From whom?

1. !
2.
.

Reaching an object

? ?

Reached what?
Reached whom?

1.
.
2.
.
3. 2 .

()-

Motion to the inner part


of something forashort
while, movement round
thecorner of an object
orbuilding

Motion around something

? ?
? ?
Where?
Towhom?

1. !
2.
.

Behind what?
What for?

3. .

? ?

1.
.

What? Whom?

2. ,

.
3.
!

Motion past something,


parallel tosomething

?
?
? ?
Through what?
Along what?
What? Whom?

,
,

? ?
?

What? Whom?
Across what?

Motion from one object


to another

1. , ,
!
2.
.
3.
!

1.
!
2.
.
3.

.

Somebodys presence
inthe given place

? ?
Where? Towhom?

, ,

1.
.
2.
.
3. .

Somebodys absence
inthe given place

- + -

()+ -

Motion of two and more


persons/objects towards
each other

Motion of two and more


persons/objects
in the direction, opposite
to each other

? ?
From where?
From whom?

, ,

1. .

? ?

1.
.

From where? where to?

? ?
From whom? whom to?

2.
.

2.
.

To what? On what?

3.
.

? ?

1. .

, ,
From where? where to? ,
? ?
From whom? whom to?

2.
.
3.

.

Constructions of purpose
andreason
There are two popular Russian questions: ? (What did you do
itfor?) and ? (Why did you do it?).

Part 1.

Question ? and two ways to answer it


? means for what purpose. To answer a question with ? one can use

theconstruction + Infinitive (when there is just one person who is the only
active doer).

( ,)
.

(
,)
-.

( ,)

.

Another way to answer a question with ? is the construction + Past


(when there areseveral people each of whom is an active doer).

(
,)

(
,)

.

( ,)

.

Table: The word in the complex sentences,


denoting purposes
,
,
,

,
,
,
,

Table: Difference between constructions with the words


and

1.

2.

3.

,
22 .

,
22 .

The mother told her son to come back


home at 10 p.m.

The mother said that her son had come back


home at 10 p.m.

,
.

He told you many times not to buy


chocolate.

He said many times that you did not buy


chocolate.

,

.

,

.

My sister told me to go and see grandma


in hospital.

My sister said that I must go and see grandma


in hospital.

= desire, request, order

= reality, fact

Part 2.

Question ? and how to answer it


means for what reason. Questions introduced with ?

can be answered with the help of the construction .

( ).

Part 3.



?


.


?


.

Summary table

1.

? purpose

? reason

?
,
-.

?
,
.

,
.

,
.

,
.

,
.

?
+ Infinitive

?
+ attitude
tothesubject of conversation

2.
3.

(doing something for oneself)

Conditional sentences
with
, ,
-. ,
.
In the Russian language, constructions with are used to express real conditions.
Verbs in such constructions are usually used in the present and future tenses.

,
.

,
.

indicates that the action has not taken place and so the result differs from

the one weexpected. Verbs in such constructions are usually used in the past tense.

,

.


,
.

But you cannot drive so I will not let you take my car.

But she did not come so the conversation did not take
place.

Table: Meanings of and

1.

2.

= real condition

, = unreal condition

,
.

,
.
The student did not prepare for the exams
sohefailed them.

,
.

,
.
The weather was awful yesterday so we did not go
out, but we wanted to so much!

,
.

,
.
You are working slowly and so the work is behind
schedule.

= when

= request

, .

,
!
Meaning: Listen to me and everything will be fine!

,
!

,
!
Meaning: I ask you to point out any problems!

, .
.

3.

= already
, .
,
?
, .

Replacing constructions, containing


with question words ,
, ,
In complex sentences the word can be replaced with , , ,
. Itisdone to make the information contained in the sentence more specific
and also reduce the number ofwords in it. It should be noted that the meaning remains
unchanged.

, .

, .

, .
, .
, .

, .
, .

, .

Prepositions used to denote time


reference
In the Russian language, time reference can be expressed in various ways. One of them
iswith the help of the following prepositions: , , , , , ,
. These prepositions do not only differ grammatically, but also in their approach
to the process.

ase

Meaning

Example

Genitive

a) An action preceding the current


momentprocess.

1.
.

b) The amount of time left before


something.

2.
.
3. 5 .
4. 15 .

Instrumental

Accusative
+

(the preposition
goes after themain
word)

An action taking place immediately


before an important process;
thepreposition denotes a short period
oftime between these processes.

1.
.

An action that took place earlier;


thepreposition denotes the amount
of time that has passed after
anaccomplished action.

1. .

2. !
3.
!

2. .
3. ?

Genitive

A process immediately following


theaction being described.

1. .
2.
.
3. .

Accusative

The amount of time one should wait


before the next action can be taken.

1. !
2.
.
3. !
!

Accusative

a) a period of time.
b) the amount of time needed
to accomplish an action.

Accusative

1.
!
2. !

b) usually used with perfective verbs.

3.
!

A term, usually used with verbs


ofmotion (, etc).

1.
!
2. .
3. .

Prepositions to denote time frames:


... ..., ... ...,
... ...
To set time limits for a process or action, the following Russian constructions can be
used: ... , ... ... , ... ... . These constructions differ slightly in their
meaning. Thefollowing table explains the difference.

Table & examples: Meanings of prepositions denoting time


frames
Prepositions

Cases

... ...

+ Genitive
+ Accusative

Explanation

A date or a month,
a time limit
forsomething.

Examples

1. .
2.
.
3.
.

... ...

+ Genitive
+ Genitive

1. Time of day/
operating hours.

1.
.

2 Beginning
endofaprocess

2.
.
3. .
4. ,
.

... ...

+ Genitive

1. Idioms.

1. .

+ Genitive

2 An action recurring
during a period
oftime

2.
.
3.
.
4. .

Speaking about time. Conjugation


of some cardinal and ordinal numerals
Use cardinal numerals when you speak about time or age and ordinal numerals
when you speak about dates.

The Great Patriotic War in the USSR


lasted from June 22nd, 1941, 3:30 a.m.
until May 9th, 1945, 1:00 a.m. Moscow
time.




, .

Cardinal numeral + time/age

two oclock

three oclock

from three to five


(oclock)

from six to seven


(oclock)

Conjugation of the cardinal


, masculine and feminine
Masculine

Feminine

Nominative

Genitive

Dative

Conjugation of the cardinal


, masculine and feminine
Masculine

Feminine

Nominative

Genitive

Dative

Accusative

Accusative

Instrumental

Instrumental

Prepositional

Prepositional

Conjugation of cardinal numerals (520, 30)


5

13

20

30

Nominative

Genitive

Dative

Accusative

Instrumental

Prepositional

Remember
If you use complex cardinals like 21, 22, 23 etc., you should change
endings for both of the numerals.

Ordinal numeral + month

May 1st

February 16th

April 3rd-5th

September 20th-25th

Ordinal numerals change like adjectives.

Conjugation of ordinal numerals (neuter)


1

13

22

Nominative

Genitive

Dative

Accusative

Instrumental

Prepositional

Remember
If you use complex ordinals like 22, 34, 126 etc., you should change the ending
only of the last digit.
2

Constructions of time
/, /
, /
To explain time and a process taking place earlier, the following constructions
can beused intheRussian language: /.

We have not gone on vacation to the sea for many


years.

We had a meeting not long ago.

The duration of the process and the amount of time needed to accomplish
it are specified withthehelp of / / / .

He has not called me for a long time.

It took Grandmother just a short while to find


the keys.


.
Our father has gone on a long business trip
totheNorth.

?
,
.
Where is Pavel?
He has gone out for a short while and will be back
soon.

Table & examples: Different constructions of time


(a long time ago)

(not long ago)

.
.

,
.

(a lengthy process)

(a process going on for a short while)

, .


2.

(a long, drawn-out process)

(a process that takes just a little time)

, ,
!

,
10.

Difference between ,
and
Difference between , and
When we talk about identical professions or actions we use . Please note
that there are two subjects in one sentence.

,
( )!

My mother is a diplomat, and my younger brother


isalso a diplomat.

My father loves fishing, I love it too!

When talking about a number of processes or actions going on simultaneously


we use . Note that there is only one subject.


,

.

I like reading detective stories and watching action


movies and playing online games.

His apartment is his office at the same time.

When we talk about people being alike, about their similar actions, or about actions
taking place regularly, as always, we use .

,
.

He became construction worker like his father.

We went to the pub as we usually do on Fridays.

Table & examples: Meanings of the words ,


and and their place inasentence.

1.

2.

Two subjects, same profession

One subject, different


occupations

Alike, like another person,


identical

,
.

,
-.

,

.

Two subjects, same actions

One subject, different actions

As usual, as always

,
.

,

.

8 ,
.

Difference between
and -
When the situation is favorable for solving a problem or there is someone who helps
us solve aproblem, we use + , .

I became such a wonderful and successful person


thanks to my parents.

Due to excellent weather we had an opportunity


o walk in the park longer.

If there is something or someone a condition, a situation, a person standing


in the way ofourplans, we use the construction - + , .

-
!
!

-
,
.

This is because of you we are late for the


performance! You dressed up too long!

Planes could not take off because of the snowfall,


andwe had to stay in the airport for the night.

Table of difference between and -


+ Dative

- + Genitive

positive condition

negative condition

- .

- .

Comparative. The construction



omparative constructions are used to compare objects and phenomena.

,
.

,
.

,
.

This house is taller than that


one.

This bag is more expensive


thanthat one.

This wine is stronger


thanthatone.

In some cases, the construction , is used to show how one object


or phenomenon depends upon another.

,
.

,
.

The more a person works, the more tired


he or she gets.

The faster a car is, the more expensive it is.

Table: Types of comparative forms


Adjective/Adverb

1.

2.
3.

4.

Comparative

to form comparative use a stem +

/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/

- - - -

/
/
/

Other types

/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/

exceptions

/
/

Table: Use of comparative forms


+ Nominative

Genitive

, -.

-.

, .

, .

, .

.
2

Superlative forms
The superlative form of comparison is used to describe an object or phenomenon
and the speakers attitude to them. The form can be simple or complex.

This is the most wonderful day of my life!

This is the excellent present!

Table: Formation of superlative forms


c///

suffixes -/ -

+original adjective

Remember

Imperative forms
Russian verbs have a form which orders a person to do something. People use
it to ask, demand, order, instruct, or hint at a desirable action to be carried out by
someone else. The form can also beused to show an action which should not be carried
out here or now. Imperative forms can refer to one person or several people .
The form is also a polite form of address.

,
!

, !

Victor, dont smoke here!

Part I.

Friends, dont leave!

,
-!
Gentlemen, please enter
the conference-room.

Table: Formation of the Imperative


Infinitive

1st person

Imperative

Imperative

Verbs of Group I(--)

Verbs of Group II(-not -)

Remember

Part II. Table: Usage of Imperfective and Perfective Imperatives


1.

Imperfective Imperative

Perfective Imperative

process

result

, !

,
!
, ,
.

2.

, ,
!

should be done regularly

should be done this once

?
.

,
.

,

!

3.

,
?

+ Imperfective Imperative
(something should not be done) =
prohibition

+ Perfective Imperative
(a warning not to do something)

,
. !

!
,
!

!


!
?
,
!

Undesirable or Impossible actions:


+ Imperative forms
Imperative forms can be used with the particle thus describing an action
asundesirable or impossible. Occasionally the form is used to denote prohibition
(interchangeable with the construction + imperfective Infinitive).

.
Do not burn a fire in the woods.

Do not read this book!

Do not watch this movie!

Do not walk so late!

Table: Different situations when + Imperative


can be used:

1.

Imperfective Imperative

Perfective Imperative

+ Imperfective Imperative
(something should not be done) = prohibition

+ Perfective Imperative
(a warning not to do something)

, .
!

!
, !
!

2.

!
? ,
!

+ infinitive = + Imperative
. = !
. =
.
, . =
!

3.

in the meaning of if you do not want it,


do not do it
.
, .
, .
!
.
, .

Constructions of possibility
+ Infinitive
Depending on the situation, we can use the constructions + Imperfective
Infinitive and + Perfective Infinitive. As usual, the choice depends
on what you intend to say and what where your focus lies the process or the result.

.
I can write.

.
I cannot write.

,
.

He is still very sick and cannot walk

The teacher said that we may leave now.

,
,
!

Everyone may be mistaken.

Be careful, this is a hard task, you can make


amistake.

Table: Usage of + Infinitive constructions.


Imperfective Imperative

1.

+ /
.
, .
, .

2.

Perfective Imperative

+ /
(one is allowed not to do it).
,
.
, .
, .

,
.
, .
!
+ / (unable).
.
.
.

Particles -, -,
-, -
We cannot always say directly who we saw yesterday night or what present we have
bought for our mother. For such cases the Russian language has special particles which
express various degrees of indefiniteness. The particle - means I know who/what
this is, but I do not want to say it.

- !
?
!

-
! !

The particle - (-) means I do not care who/what this is. I only care
about the result of the action.

- ?
, , .

-
!
?
.

The particle - means I am not sure who/what that was. I have forgotten.

- ,
, !

- ,
.

Table: Meanings of the particles -, -,


-, - with question words
-

- (-)

I know, but I will not tell you.

It does not matter who, what,


where, from where, how many
or how much

I do not remember, I am not sure

- ?
, .
.

?
, - ,

-!
?
!

, ,

?
-,

,
-
, .
,
...
.

?
, - .
?
!

?
-, .

- !
,
?
, .

. .

, .

- .
?
. ,
..

?
-. ,

?
-,
?
.
. .

.
?
, .

-, .

-///

/// -

///-

?
-. ,

, ,

- = it does not
matter how
///-

- = I do not know how

- = badly, so-so
?
-, ,

. .

-.
.

- .
,
?
-,

? !
, - .

, .
?
. .

?
, ,
- .
.

Active and Passive verbs


In the Russian language, many processes can be expressed from the standpoint ofboth
the active subject and the passive object. Much depends on the situation. Active verbal
constructions are used in everyday speech. Passive constructions often occur in business
communication and formal styles of speech.

. = .
. = .
. = .

Sometimes active constructions occur in situations where the subject is absent.

, !
!

Table: Usage of + Infinitive constructions.

1.

2.

Active

Passive

subject + verb

object + reflective verb (+) + subject


(Instumental)

subject + reflective verb ( + )


, !
.
.
11 .
3 .

Active and Passive verbs in the


Past Tense
Active and passive constructions of Russian verbs may be used in the Past Tense
aswell. As in the Present Tense, these constructions differ in the presence or absence of
an active subject and the way past forms are built.

. = .
. = .
. = .

It should be noted that in a passive construction the active subject appears


intheInstrumental Case. The form of the verb and of the passive verb refer
tothe object the action is directed at.

. = .
. = .
. = .

How to form Passive constructions in the Past Tense

verb +

verb +

verb +

verb +

Table: Active and Passive verbal constructions inthePast


Tense
Active

Passive

I -.

- I.

..
.


.. .

. .

. .

. .

. .

Constructions with the particles


and
The Russian language has the negative particles and which differ in their
meaning. The particle with a verb, as you already know, is used to express denial
or reluctance:


?
, .

I do not want to eat!

I will not do this!

Did you watch this movie?


No, I didnt.

The particle with other parts of speech denotes indefiniteness and uncertainty

We came across each other a few times.

He told us about that a few times already.

The particle is used with both verbs and other parts of speech to express full denial
of an action, process, or subject.

?
, .

Never call me on the phone!

Where have you been?


Nowhere, I was at home.

?
.

?
,

Whom did you speak to?


To nobody.

What are you doing here?


Nothing, we are resting.

Table: Usage and meanings of the particles


and

1.
2.

(indefinite quantity, amount, place, direction)

(denial)

= several times, many times.

+ = never

= more than one, many

= zero, nothing; at all

.
.
. =
.

3.

+ = never

a) long ago (literary style)

.
b) no time, busy
, , .
, .

4.

+ = Youre welcome! No worries!

+ = never

! .

!
.

5.

+ Infinitive

, !

,
.

, !

, , ?

I will not do this!

We came across each other


a few times.

Never call me on the phone!

Constructions of time
with the words and
The Russian language has a lot of ways to express time. One of them is constructions
using the words and . These constructions are synonims if you can replace
both of them with the construction , .


,
.
When I was watching TV, my
mother was cooking supper.


,
.
When we were talking, the
director came.

,

When it was raining, I was
reading anewspaper.

,
,
.
When (while) I was watching
TV, my mother was cooking
supper.

,
,
.
While we were talking,
the director came.

,
,
.
While it was raining, I was
reading anewspaper.


,
.
While I was watching TV, my
mother was cooking supper


,
.
While we were talking, the
director came.

,
.
While it was raining, I was
reading anewspaper.

But in some cases they are used differently. can be used in complex sentences
with the following patterns: result + result, beginning of an action + another action.

,
.

,
.

We left the bar when it closed.


result +
result)

I will call you when I finish work.


result +
result

Constructions with are only used in situations process + process


or process + end of an action.

, .

, .

While you were sleeping, I was reading a book.


- process + - process

While you were sleeping, I finished reading


the book.
process +
end of an action

Summary table

1.

full simultaneity

full simultaneity

actions go on simultaneously

actions go on and end simultaneously

, 7.

,
.

, .

2.

3.

, .

partial simultaneity

full simultaneity

one action starts or ends while another one is going on

one action is completed while another one is going on

, .

, .

, .

,
.

,
.

,
.

result + result
,
.
,
.
2

But in some cases they are used differently. can be used in complex sentences
with the following patterns: result + result, beginning of an action + another action.

,
.

,
.

We left the bar when it closed.


result +
result)

I will call you when I finish work.


result +
result

Constructions with are only used in situations process + process


or process + end of an action.

, .

, .

While you were sleeping, I was reading a book.


- process + - process

While you were sleeping, I finished reading


the book.
process +
end of an action

Summary table

1.

full simultaneity

full simultaneity

actions go on simultaneously

actions go on and end simultaneously

, 7.

,
.

, .

2.

3.

, .

partial simultaneity

full simultaneity

one action starts or ends while another one is going on

one action is completed while another one is going on

, .

, .

, .

,
.

,
.

,
.

result + result
,
.
,
.
3

Forming passive present


and past participles
Part 1.

Passive present participle


Passive present participles can only be formed using imperfective verbs.The choice
of the correct ending for the participle depends on the group the verb belongs
to (see table). Passive participles can be replaced with the following constructions
with . Just like in all constructions with Passive, the subject is in
Instrumental Case.

,
.
, .
,
.
,
.

,
.

,
.

,
.

,
.

Constructions with passive participles are normally used in formal and business writing
and seldom occur in everyday speech.

Table: Forming passive present participles using


imperfective verbs
group 1
Infinitive

1rd person plural

Active participle

-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)

Remember

(-, -, -)
(-, -, -)

group 2

- (-, -, -)
- (-, -, -)

Part 2.

Passive past participle


Passive past participles can only be formed using perfective verbs, as they imply
result and completion. The choice of the correct ending for the participle depends
on the group the verb belongs to (see table). Passive participles can be replaced with
constructions using . Just like in all constructions with Passive, the subject is
in Instrumental Case.

,
,
.
,
, .
,
,
.

,
,
.

,
, .

,
,
.

Table: Forming passive past participles using perfective verbs


group 1
Perfective
infinitive

Past Tense,
singular

Passive past participle

-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)

-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)

group 2

Remember

-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, , -)
-- (-, , -)

Forming active present andpast


participles
The Russian verb has a number of forms. One of them is the participle.
It can be active, present or past.

Part 1.

Forming active present participles


The active present participle can only be formed using an imperfective verb, since,
as we know, verbs in the Present Tense can only express a process. A participle
can easily be replaced with the construction + verb.

, .
,
.
, .
,
.

,
.

,
.

,
.

,
.

As you can see from these examples, active participles can have gender and number
forms which depend on the main noun (the doer). As the participle is a mixed form
of the verb and the adjective, it can be active or passive, present or past as well as the
verb. Also it changes in persons, numbers, genders and cases as the adjective does.
The participle agrees in all these variables with a related noun.

Table: Forming active present participles using


imperfective verbs
Group 1
Infinitive

3rd person plural

Active participle

-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
--- (-, -, -)

Infinitive

3rd person plural

Active participle

-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
--- (-, -, -)

-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)

Group 2

Remember
Active present participles, formed from the verbs of motion

-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)

-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)

Part 2.

Forming active past participles


An active past participle can be formed using either an imperfective or perfective verb.
The choice depends on what you intend to say. An easy way to check whether
the choice is correct is to replace the participle with the construction + verb
in the Past Tense.

,
.

,
.

,
.

,
.

,
.

, .

, .

,
.

,
.

,
.

, .
,
.
,
.

,
.
,
.
,
.

There is no difference between forming participles derived from imperfective


or perfective verbs.

Table: Forming active past participles


Infinitive

3rd person plural

Active participle

-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)

-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)

-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)

-- (-, -, -)
-- (-, -, -)

--- (-, -, -)
--- (-, -, -)

Remember
Active present participles, formed from the verbs of motion

Forming adverbial participles using


perfective and imperfective verbs
Part 1.

What is an adverbial participle?


An adverbial participle is another form of the verb which is used to express
an additional action going on alongside the main action. An adverbial participle
can either denote a process or the result of a completed action. Thus it can be formed
using both imperfective and perfective verbs. Luckily, adverbial participles
are an unchangeable form of the verb.

Part 2.

Adverbial participles denoting process


An adverbial participle formed using an imperfective verb denotes a process,
an incomplete action.

, .
, .
, .

In order to check whether you are using an adverbial participle correctly, you can
replace it with an imperfective verb and add either the conjunction or which
in this case are used to imply simultaneity of actions.

,
.
,
.

,

.

,
.

Table: Forming adverbial participles using imperfective


verbs
Infinitive

Present Tense, 3rd


person plural

Verbs from groups

Adverbial participle
denoting process

and

-/-

-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-
-

Remember

-
-

Reflexive verbs

-
--
--
--
--

--
--
--
--

Remember
--/-

-
-
-
-

-
-
-

Part 3.

Adverbial participles denoting result


Adverbial participles formed using perfective verbs denote a result, a completed action.

, .
,
.
, .

In order to check whether you are using an adverbial participle correctly, you can
replace it with a perfective verb and add the constructions ,
or which imply that actions take place consecutively.


,
.

,
.

,
.

,
.



,
.


,
.


,
.


,
.

Table: Adverbial participles formed using perfective


verbs
Infinitive

Past Tense, 1st


person singular

Verbs from groups

Adverbial participle
denoting result

and

-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-
-

-
-
-
-
-

Reflexive verbs

--
--
--
--

--
--
--

Remember

Short form of adjectives


Russian adjectives have full and short forms. Adjectives are most often encountered
in the full form. The short form is derived from the full one and is used to add emotional
coloring to a phrase. Like the full form, the short one has gender and number forms but
rarely has forms for case.
In sentences, short forms usually occur alongside words such as , , ,
which highlight the speakers attitude to the subject being discussed.

! ?
- . !
,
!

Table: Forming of short forms of adjectives


Gender, number

Full form

Short form

masculine
feminine
neuter
plural

? -
? -
? -
? -

?
? -
? -
? -

Remember

Verbs of motion /,
/, /
The Russian language has many verbs of motion. Some of them can be called basic,
the others can be called dependent. You already know about the basic verbs
/, /, / etc. from Lesson 31. Now we will
concentrate on dependent verbs of motion. They are called dependent as they can
only be used together with the verbs / etc. Even if the actual basic verb
is not used in a sentence, its meaning is always implied by the context.

Part 1.

Verbs of motion /
These verbs go together with /. means to go on foot and hold
something.
The choice between the form (corresponds with ) and the form
(corresponds with ) depends on the direction (one way, outbound/round trip)
as well as regularity and repetition of action (one time/multiple times).

.
.
.
.
.

Personal, number and tense forms of the verbs


and

Present Tense


/


Past Tense


Part 2.

Verbs of Motion /
These verbs can only be used with /. means to go in a vehicle
with baggage.
The choice between the form (corresponds with ) and the form
(corresponds with ) depends on the direction (one way, outbound/round trip)
as well as regularity and repetition of action (one time/multiple times).

.
.

.
.
2

Personal, number and tense forms of the verbs


and

Present Tense


/


Past Tense


Part 3.

Verbs of Motion /
The verbs / can mean:
to drive a vehicle
to guide someone/a group of people to a place

to deliver a lecture, to host an event, to be an emcee, to chair a meeting


,

.
.
? ?
, .
.
.
!
.
.

.

Personal, number and tense forms of the verbs


and

Present Tense


/


Past Tense


Verbs of Motion /
, /
The Russian language has many verbs of motion. Some of them fall into the basic
category; the others can be called dependent. The verbs / and
/ belong to the second group.

Part 1.

Verbs of motion /
These verbs can only go together with /. means to go on foot
and carry something heavy with effort, to drag something heavy.
The choice between the form (corresponds with ) and the form
(corresponds with ) depends on the direction (one way, outbound/round trip) as
well as regularity and repetition of action (one time/multiple times).

.
?
,
!
, !
!

Table: Personal, number and tense forms of the verbs


and

Present Tense


/


Past Tense


Part 2.

Verbs of motion /
These verbs mean to roll a round object on the ground.
The choice between the forms and depends on the direction (one way,
outbound/round trip) as well as regularity and repetition of action (one time/multiple
times).

.
.
, ,
.
.

Table: Personal, number and tense forms of the verbs


and

Present Tense


/


Past Tense


Verbs of Motion: Figurative Meanings


In addition to their direct meanings ( . .
.), Russian verbs of motion can also have figurative meanings which reflect
the kind of attitude Russians have towards space-and-time relations.
Look at the table below and try to find equivalents in English.

Table: Figurative meaning of motion verbs


Verb

Figurative meaning

Examples

1. Time

1. .

2. Process

2. . .

3. Clothes

3. !

Time

Time

1. (hard life)

1. ,
.

2. //
(to say stupid things)

2. ! , , !
3. !

1. Clothes

1. , .

2. Accessories

2. .

3. Last name

3. .

(to have good luck


in something)

!
, !
.

(behavior)


.
,
.

()
(to go crazy)

! 30,
!
!

1. onversation, discussion
2. Automobile
3. Relationship ( ?)

1. ,
.
2. , ,
?
3.
.

1. Grief, difficulties
2. About a person, who is very
annoying
3. Conversation, meeting


.
.

!
,
.

1. Windows, doors, balcony

2. To marry (speaking about


a woman)

,
!
.
3 , !

(= deceive)

: ,
,
.

Constructions of Occurrence
Part 1.

General Constructions of Occurrence


If we want to say that someone has something, it can be expressed in different ways.
It all depends on the level of command of the Russian language as well as the situation.
The most popular construction is .

.
.
.
.
.

The construction / is used to speak about customs,


traditions, and rituals.

.

.

, , .

The construction / is used in business communication


and formal styles of speech. These constructions are usually used with such words as
, , , , .

.
.
.

A similar construction is also used officially and in academic styles


of speech. It differs from the previous one in that it expresses a more subjective
viewpoint. It is commonly used with such words as , .

, .
.

The construction is used officially and in print media.


The construction is commonly used to describe the character/appearance/properties
of a person or an object and collocates with such words as , ,
, , , , , .

!
.

The construction is used officially and is used with words


such as , , .

.
.
, .

Table & examples: Different constructions of time


() (, ?)
.
.
?

() () () + , ,
: .
.
.

(, ) / (, ) + , ,
, ,
.
.

(, ) () + ,
.
!

() () + , , ,
, ,
.
.

Part 2.

Other Constructions of Occurrence


If we want to say that someone has something it can be expressed in different ways.
It all depends on the level of command of the Russian language as well as the situation.
The construction / (,,) denotes that an object
or phenomenon is widely spread on the given territory.

.
.

The construction denotes that an object or phenomenon


dominates on the given territory.

, .
- ,
.

The construction / denotes that someone or something


is currently in some place.

.
.

The constructions and are synonymous


and denote the habitat of an animal.

.
.
.

The construction denotes that something stays somewhere


for a long period of time.

.
.
.

Table: Other Constructions of Occurrence


(-, -, -) + () =
.
.

+ () =
.
.

+ () =
.
.

+ () =
.
.

+ () =
.
.

+ ()
.
.

+ ()
.
.
.

Constructions of Creation
and Emergence
Constructions of this type commonly contain a verb in the past tense as they denote
a completed action and its result.
The constructions differ in usage.
The construction is used together with words such as ,
, , .

.
.

The construction is usually used together with words such


as , , .

I -.
.

The construction (, , ) is combined with an object and goes


together with words such as , , .

.
XXI .

The construction (, , ) is used to characterize an object or


phenomenon and is usually combined with an adjective as an attribute.

.

.

The construction (-, -, -) / is widely used


in speech and goes together with many words.

, !
.
.

Table: Constructions of Creation and Emergence


() / ()
.
.

() ()
I - .
.

() (-,-,-) ()
20- .
.

() (, )
.
10 , .
90- .

(, ) (-,-,-) (, )
.
.
.

Constructions of Sufficiency
Constructions of this type are used to show that someone has all he or she needs
or, on the contrary, lacks something.
The construction // the infinitives are
(Imperfective), and (Perfective)is used in the past, present, and
future tenses and denotes that the speaker has enough of something.
Please note the cases that go together with these verbs:
Dative + /, / + the object in the Genitive

100
,
.

The constructions ? // + ?/? are used


to denote something really expressive in the sentences like those below.

!
!

!
.

.
.


.
1

The construction is synonymous with /


/, but is more formal. The word is an adverb
and should be used as any other adverb. If it is used together with a verb, it means that
the action was complete or it was done to the required limit. Please note the cases
that go together with the adverb :
Dative + + the object in the Genitive.

?
, .
, , .
?
, .
. .

Table: Constructions of Sufficiency


///

///

/ / /

, ?

500 .

, .

, .

, .

= past, = present, = future


,
.

,
.

, , .

,
.

+ infinitive
(use to denote something expressive)

/ + + + past
(usually in idioms)

! !

, !

! !

, !
!

Remember
, ! = ; .

!
2

, , .

a , .

. .

+ Infinitive

+ Infinitive

! !

,
.

Nominative + +Adjective/Adverb/Verb

Nominative + +Adjective/Adverb/
Verb

, .

,
.

Constructions of Sufficiency
Constructions of this type are used to show that someone has all he or she needs
or, on the contrary, lacks something.
The construction // the infinitives are
(Imperfective), and (Perfective)is used in the past, present, and
future tenses and denotes that the speaker has enough of something.
Please note the cases that go together with these verbs:
Dative + /, / + the object in the Genitive

100
,
.

The constructions ? // + ?/? are used


to denote something really expressive in the sentences like those below.

!
!

!
.

.
.


.
1

The construction is synonymous with /


/, but is more formal. The word is an adverb
and should be used as any other adverb. If it is used together with a verb, it means that
the action was complete or it was done to the required limit. Please note the cases
that go together with the adverb :
Dative + + the object in the Genitive.

?
, .
, , .
?
, .
. .

Table: Constructions of Sufficiency


///

///

/ / /

, ?

500 .

, .

, .

, .

= past, = present, = future


,
.

,
.

, , .

,
.

+ infinitive
(use to denote something expressive)

/ + + + past
(usually in idioms)

! !

, !

! !

, !
!

Remember
, ! = ; .

!
2

, , .

a , .

. .

+ Infinitive

+ Infinitive

! !

,
.

Nominative + +Adjective/Adverb/Verb

Nominative + +Adjective/Adverb/
Verb

, .

,
.

Vebal Nouns
Part 1.

Verbal nouns + Genitive Case


Nouns with the ending -, - most often show a process and require a noun
in the Genitive Case.

.
.
.

Nouns with the ending -() are derived from verbs with the suffix --, most
often denote a developing action and require a noun in the Genitive Case.

.
.
.

Nouns without an ending are usually masculine. Such nouns are formed by dropping
the suffixes and endings of verbs. They usually denote an action and require a noun in
the Genitive Case.

.
.
.

Table: Formation of verbal nouns used with nouns in the Genitive


Case
word stem + - (-)

word stem + -

without postfixes

Part 2.

Verbal nouns + Dative, Accusative, Instrumental,


Prepositional Cases
Nouns with the ending -, - most often denote a process and a mental action
and may require a noun in the Dative, Accusative, Instrumental or Prepositional Case.

.
.
.
.
.
.

Nouns with the ending - most often denote a developing action and require a noun
in the Dative, Accusative, Instrumental or Prepositional Case.

.
.
.

Nouns without an ending are usually masculine. Such nouns are formed by dropping
the suffixes and endings of verbs. They most often denote a process and a mental action
and require a noun in the Dative, Accusative, Instrumental or Prepositional Case.

.
.

Table: Formation of verbal nouns used with nouns in the Dative,


Accusative, Instrumental, Prepositional Cases.
+ -/-

+ -

without postfixes

( ?)
( ?)
( ?)
( ?)
( ? ?)
( ?)
( ?)
(?)

( ?)
( ?)
( ?)
(? ?)

( ?)
( ?)

Constructions with the Verbs ,

Part 1.

Constructions with the verb


In the Russian language, the construction + Instrumental is used to show
what a person used to be in the past or speak about his ambitions and intentions.
That is why the construction is only used in the past and future tenses.

.
, .
, .
.

The construction + Infinitive is used to denote the Future Tense.


In this case the verb itself is never used in the Past Tense.

, .
?

Usually the verb is used in constructions denoting Future Tense together


with the Imperfective verbs to emphasize the importance of the process, not the result.

, .
.
.

Part 2.

Constructions with the verb


The construction + Instrumental is used to speak about a persons past or future
job, social status or ambitions. That is why the construction is only used in the past
and future tenses.

, .
.
.

Sometimes the verbs is used together with the infinitive form of a verb.
In this case the verb is synonymic to the verbs / or /
.

( )
!

The constructions ( ) + Instrumental are synonymic


to the verbs () or ().

, ! , ?
, .

Table: The Constructions with the Verbs and

Past Tense



/?

/?


.
Future Tense


/


/?

/?

, .

,
.

+ Infinitive = Future Tense

+ Infinitive = /,
/ + Infinitive

.
(= ( )
.)

Pa[t 1.

Rssia lagage

( Tl1e
l1as
tegiste!'s, styles, and eacl1 of
cl!atac.tetistic \'IO!'ds d syntactic cosh<Ictios.

tl1e eploys

Tl1e consttctios give l\ typical oflitetaty atld acadeic \'II'itig. 11 at'e


alnst neve!' sed in covet'Satio, \'lll<'J'<' tl1ey !' teplaced \ith siplel' cons!J'ttctios.

Lite[a[y d Academic W[itig.


Without Specific Cases

Costructios

used

Tl1e consttctio ... , . t> is s of ..., .


, .

Tl1e consttctio '"ith is sed at tl1e begiig of st d s "snig


soethig ttp".
, .

CostJctios

\vitll - ,
ptocesses, objects, etc..

-, -

etc. !' sed fol' tec.itig

- .
-?
- -, , -, ,
, -, .

Tl1e consttctio '"ith is s of , bttt isliited to


sc.ietific \Vt'itig.

, ,
.

Tl1e consttctio '"ith is also s of ,


, t again is liited to scietific \Vl'iting.

,
.

Tl1e consttctio '"ith

is synony of

Tl1e consttctio '"ith I>


styles.

eatlS

tl1e s as bttt is typical oflitety

,
.

l: Lite1y

and Academic Wl'iting.


any specific cases

..., t> ... = ...,

Constctions

used \Vit.hot

...

n. , . t.:.
, R-.

-, -, -

...

-, , -, , , -,

.11 .
-, , , -, .11 .

, - r?
, i ~>.

Ct'liOBaT eJJHO

~f)'

, , .

, , .

~f =,
)1, R- t..' , )1 20 .
.

t..yne

. )1 ~m

.aJJIO'It'HHe

t'

. .

.1I t..)' .

, .11 .
n..11 .11 , .1I ..

Pa[t 2.

Lite[a[y d Academic W[itig. Cost[uctios used


Togethe[ witl1 the Dative, Geitive, Ist[umetal Cases
The coas!J'tlction i>
somethiag".

+ , ..

1 Dative means "tl1a11ks to soebody/

,
.

The coas!J'tlction + ,
soethiag, as I'eslt of soethiag".

...

1 Genitive

" follo\viag

.
,
.

The coas!J<Jction + ,

... 1 Geiti,e s " 1easoa of soethig".

, .
,
.

The coas!J'tlction 11 + , ... 1 Inst1umeatal means "s of


soethiag, 1easoa of soethig".
.
, ,
.

The coas!J<Jction
p1ocess" .

+ , ... 1 Geitive s "ia

the

...
, ,

The coas!J'tlction + ,
1easoa of soetlliag".

... 1 Geaitive s "s

...

of soetlliag,


.
, .

Lite1y

and Academic Wiiting. Constctions used Togethei \vit.h


t.h e Dative, Genitive, Inst.nental Cases
;J

~t, ...

1 Dative =

.11 .11 :r .
.11 TO)ty, )1 , .

.11 .

+ , ... 1 Geitive

. -, ;1 -

)1 .

+ , ... 1 Geitive = -JJ


n .
, , r .

+ , ... 1 Istletal = - -, -

. ..
. . .

+ , ...

1 Geitive =

.
.

CJJY +, ... 1 Geitive = , -


ar.m.
. . .. r .

Part 3.

Literary and Acadeic Wiitig. Costt11ctios sed


Togetl1er with tl1e Dative, Geitive, Istruetal Cases
The consb:uction + GenitiYe 1 + Ptepositional explains \vhich paits
or elements consltlttte the S\tbject.
~ ~Q~_r. .

.

The co11structton . +
to the costructton , .

, ... 1 Prepositional corresponds

, .
.

The consll"Uction

AccsatiYe c01espods

to

( The constructton

100 .

+ Genitive correspods to the constt1tction

l 1 ___._ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___
l\t .

l:

Litei"aty a11d Acadeic WI"iti11g. Co11stctio11s used Togetl1e1


with tl1e P1epo sitioal , Accsat.ive, Ge11itive Cases
+

Gettiti"e 1 + Ptepositioal =

, .

: , , . .

t.::t + ~, ... 1 P1epositioal = ~t,


:1 ~<. .
.11 r .

n:1 + Accusati,e

r:uu.

t.:at.:

.,.1.11 >.~1 I .
.'UI~ >.'"I)' .
.II n.'Ui ~m, .

+ Ge11iti,e =

/)//)

: JI JI m.
.~ .II , , .

Declension of Cardinal Numbers


Cardinal numbers are used to show the quantity of something. In most cases the form
of a cardinal number coincides with the word used to represent the number. All cardinal
numbers have case forms.

.
,
.
.
.

The numbers and have gender and case. Below are the forms of the cardinal
number

used with masculine nouns

used with neuter nouns

used with feminine nouns

, ,

, ,

,
,

.
, .
.

Table: Declension of the Cardinal Number


Masculine

Neuter

Feminine

Nominative

Genitive

Dative

person and animate


noun

Accusative

object and
inanimate noun

Instrumental

Prepositional

The cardinal number also has gender and case, but has only two form.

used with masculine and neuter nouns in the plural

used with feminine nouns in the plural

, ,

, ,

, .
.
.

Table: Declension of the cardinal number


Masculine
and neuter

Feminine

Nominative

Genitive

Dative

Accusative

person and animate noun = Nominative /


object and inanimate noun = Genitive

Instrumental

Prepositional

Now lets have a look at the case forms of other cardinal numbers. The cardinal
numbers and :

.
.
.

Table: Declension of the Cardinal Numbers and

Nominative

Genitive

Dative

person and animate noun

Accusative

object and inanimate noun

Instrumental

Prepositional

Cardinal numbers from 5 to 20 and 30 are declined in the same way as nouns ending
in (, ).

.
.
.

Table: Declension of Cardinal Numbers 520, 30

Nominative

Genitive

Dative

Accusative

Instrumental

Prepositional

In compound cardinal numbers both parts are changed.

.
.
.
.
.

Table: Declension of Compound Cardinal Numbers 2039

Nominative

Genitive

Dative

Accusative

Instrumental

Prepositional

Declension of Compound Cardinal


Numbers
Some cardinal numbers such as 40 (), 90 () and 100 () have
the following forms:

Table: Declension of the Cardinal Numbers 40, 90 and 100

Nominative =
Accusative
Genitive = Dative =
Instrumental =
Prepositional

In compound cardinal numbers both parts are changed.

.
.

Table: Declension of Compound Cardinal Numbers 5080

Nominative

Genitive

Dative

Accusative

Instrumental

Prepositional

In compound cardinal numbers from 200 to 400 both parts are also changed.

.
.

Table: Declension of Compound Cardinal Numbers 200400

Nominative

Genitive

Dative

Accusative

Instrumental

Prepositional

Telling the Time


There are 24 hours in a day. But in conversation Russians use a 12-hour system.
Whether it is afternoon or night can be told from the context or the situation.

. ( = 13.00)
. ( = 20.00)
. ( = 19.00)

In a formal setting, precise time is usually specified with hours and minutes. In informal
styles, constructions with the words , are more widespread.

. (formal)
. (informal)

. (formal)
() . (informal)

Table: Time of the Day


Formal

Informal

30

6 30 .

.
.

30 .

.
15

6 15 .

15 .

45

6 45 .

45 .

.
.

When telling the time we use constructions with Nominative and Genitive, depending
on the time.
All constructions of time with minutes from 1 to 30 are formed using the following
pattern: minutes in the Nominative Case + the next hour in the Genitive Case.

(8.05, 20.05) = .
(3.20, 15.20) = .
(6.15, 18.15) =
.

All constructions of time with minutes from 30 to 59 are formed using the following
pattern: + minutes (remaining before the next hour begins) in the Genitive
Case + the next hour in the Nominative Case.

(1.40, 13.40) = .
(7.45, 19.45) = .
(10.55, 22.55) = .

Remember that in an informal setting the words , may be dropped.

Table: Time of the Day


minutes (Nominative) +
next hour (Genitive)

hour (Nominative) +
minutes (Nominative)

+ minutes (Genitive) +
next hour (Nominative)

10.05 =

15.25 =

14.40 =

12.10 =

18.15 =

15.15 =
()

22.20 =

16.50 =

13.45 =
18.55 =

18.23 =

22.15 =

9.30 =
16.35 =

Ordinal Numbers
Ordinal numbers are used to speak about objects which are placed in order, and dates.

Part 1.

Ordinal numbers, their formation and declension


To make things easier, lets agree that ordinal numbers are very similar to adjectives in
their form. They also have gender, number, and case and answer the questions ?
? ? ?

.
.
.
.
.
.

Table: Ordinal Numbers


(1)

(11)

(20)

(100)

(2)

(12)

(30)

(1000)

(3)

(13)

(40)

(4)

(14)

(50)

(5)

(15)

(60)

(6)

(16)

(70)

(7)

(17)

(80)

(8)

(18)

(90)

(9)

(19)

(10)

, .
.
. (= The matter is not that important.)

The table below will give you the general rule to form and conjugate the Ordinals.
Remember that there are also neuter and plural forms as well as the special thing with
the Accusative Case for the Ordinals that go together with the animate and inanimate
nouns.

Table: Declension of Ordinal Numbers

Part 2.

First

Tenth

Hundredth

Nominative

Genitive

Dative

Accusative

Instrumental

Prepositional

Speaking about dates and time. Constructions of time


with ordinal numbers in the Genitive Case
In constructions of time, ordinal numbers are used to specify dates. These are usually
precise dates consisting of day, month, and year (in biographies, schedules). Russians
start with the day, then add the month, and at the end is the year.

. .
(06.06.1799).
(01.05).

Table: Time
? + day, month (Genitive)
5 () .
26 ( ) .
17 () .
29 ( ) .
3 () .
31 ( ) .
1 () .

+ day, month, year (Genitive)


4 () 1982 ( ) .
12 () 1961 ( )
.
20 () 2009 ( ) .
8 () 2008 ( ) .

Complex Constructions of Time


with the Genitive and Prepositional
Cases
In constructions of time, ordinal numbers are used to specify dates. If a date consists
of only a month or a year, constructions with the Prepositional Case are normally used.

.
2014 .

Table: Complex Constructions of Time with the Genitive


and Prepositional Cases
When? + month (Prepositional) + year (Genitive)
2005 ( ) .
2009 ( ) .
.

When? + year (Prepositional)


.
.
2008 ( ) .
2014 ( ) .

When? + century (Prepositional)


-.
.
.

Constructions of Permission,
Prohibition, Recommendation,
Obligation, and Ability
Permission and prohibition can be expressed with the words and .

.
.

The words and are used to express recommendation and obligation.

.
.
.

The words and can also be used to indicate recommendation


and obligation.

.
.

To express ability, one can use and .

, .
, - .

Table: Various ways of expressing permission, prohibition,


recommendation, obligation, and ability

+
()

()

-.

-.

, .

, .

,
.

,
.

()

()

, .

()

()

()

, .

, .

,
.

,
.

,
.

,
.

Constructions of Ability,
Recommendation, and Various
Degrees of Certainty
Constructions of ability can contain the words (able) or
(unable).

.
,
.

The words (probably) and (improbably) can be used


as synonyms of and to express various degrees
of certainty. The words and are more often used in formal
styles of speech.

,

,

!

, .

,
.

Other ways to express ability and various degrees of certainty are with the constructions
and . These constructions are more often used in
informal styles of speech and in the spoken language.

.
.

.

,
.


()
.
1

The constructions and are also used to


express ability.


, , ,
.

,
.

, .


-
.

The words and are used to express ability as well, but occur less
often than those mentioned above.


.
.

,
.


.
.

To express recommendation, one can use the words and .

Table: Ways of expressing ability, recommendation, and various


degrees of certainty

, .

, .

, - !

, , .

, !

Remember the idiom:


, !

,
?

,
!

, .

, !
!

Remember the idiom:


! = ,
.

,
.

, .

, ,
.

, ?

,
. , .

, ,
.

, .

, , ?

Types of Modality in Russian:


Ways of Expressing Obligation
and Necessity
Constructions of obligation and necessity can contain the words
and .

.
.

Modal constructions with (-, -, -)/ and


(-, -, -)/ can also be used in such situations.

.
.
.

and are also used to express obligation

and necessity.

.
!

Other ways to express obligation and necessity are with the constructions
, , () and () .

!
!
,
.
1

(-,-,-) are also used in the meaning of obligation and necessity.

.
.

Table: Ways of Expressing Obligation and Necessity

,
.

,
.

-, .

()

, !

, ()
,
.
,
.
(//)

.

, .
2

Types of Modality in Russian:


Ways of Expressing Desirability
Sentences describing actions that are desirable or undesirable can contain the modal
constructions , / + Infinitive or
+ Infinitive.

, .
9 11 .
.

/ , and / can also

be used in such situations.

.
, .
.

Other ways to describe actions as desirable or undesirable are with the constructions
, and ,

, ,
.
, .

The construction with ? is used to express the desirability of an action


or an offer.

?
, ! .

Table: Ways of Expressing Desirability

, / + Infinitive

+ Infinitive

, .

,
.

,
.

/,

,
.

,
.

, .

,
.

, .

, ,
.

,
, .

,
.

?
?
?
, ?

Transport
Every kind of transportation has its own specific stopping or parking place.

Table: Transport

Verbs and verbal nouns related to the topic Transport are


(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? to stop + where?
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? to drive up + to smth.
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? to reach, arrive at smth.
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? ? ? to arrive, come
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? to leave, depart (about a train)
departure of the train
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? ? to arrive (about a train)
train arrival
( ) to come (about a train, coll.)
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? ? leave, depart (about a plane)
, departure of the plane
(Imp.) (Perf.) to arrive (about a plane)
arrival of a plane
(Imp.) (Perf.) to land

Words, related to the topic Transport:

. . . .


.

.


.
.

.

,
.

. .

. .

. .

!
-

, ,
c
.

0722
-
.

933
.

.

?
,
.

Transport
Every kind of transportation has its own specific stopping or parking place.

Table: Transport

Verbs and verbal nouns related to the topic Transport are


(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? to stop + where?
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? to drive up + to smth.
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? to reach, arrive at smth.
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? ? ? to arrive, come
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? to leave, depart (about a train)
departure of the train
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? ? to arrive (about a train)
train arrival
( ) to come (about a train, coll.)
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? ? leave, depart (about a plane)
, departure of the plane
(Imp.) (Perf.) to arrive (about a plane)
arrival of a plane
(Imp.) (Perf.) to land

Words, related to the topic Transport:

. . . .


.

.


.
.

.

,
.

. .

. .

. .

!
-

, ,
c
.

0722
-
.

933
.

.

?
,
.

Home. Flat. Rental.


If you are going to stay in Russia for a long while you definitely need to rent a room
or an apartment. We recommend you hire a good and reliable agency for that.
But if you are short of money and feel like you can do it yourself, this topic is for you.
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? to rent out
owner, landlord
lease, rent
lessor

.
.

(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? to rent


renter
lessee

.
, .
.

Home. Flat. Renovation and Repair


Some observers who have been living in Russia for a while say:
. Indeed, Russians love repairing things themselves. However
sometimes you just have no time or qualifications for some tasks. Thats when
we need specialists to come and do their job. Lets learn some useful words
and phrases on the topic.
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? to repair
(Imp.) (Perf.) to break
(Imp.) (Perf.) to rennovate
(Imp.) (Perf.) become clogged
(Imp.) (Perf.) to blow out
the pipe is broken
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? to call for somebody
/ ( . .) to be electrocuted (a little bit)
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? to place, arrange something
(Imp.) (Perf.) to hire a specialist

C locksmith,
metalworker

1. key; 2. wrench
door
(door) lock
tap
pipe
.
, ,
.

C sanitary technician

sink, washbowl
shower
sewage
toilet bowl
clog
bathroom
equipment

,
.

electician

electricity
wires
light
current (n.)
electric bulb
socket
wiring
insulation
cable

,
.
,

.

designer

wallpaper
interior
furniture
- design
project

apartment layout

,

.

-
.

Remember the idioms

Do-it-yourself man, a person


who can repair almost
everything.

Literary golden hands, a very


talented master, a handy person.

Home. Flat. Rental.


If you are going to stay in Russia for a long while you definitely need to rent a room
or an apartment. We recommend you hire a good and reliable agency for that.
But if you are short of money and feel like you can do it yourself, this topic is for you.
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? to rent out
owner, landlord
lease, rent
lessor

.
.

(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? to rent


renter
lessee

.
, .
.

Home. Flat. Renovation and Repair


Some observers who have been living in Russia for a while say:
. Indeed, Russians love repairing things themselves. However
sometimes you just have no time or qualifications for some tasks. Thats when
we need specialists to come and do their job. Lets learn some useful words
and phrases on the topic.
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? to repair
(Imp.) (Perf.) to break
(Imp.) (Perf.) to rennovate
(Imp.) (Perf.) become clogged
(Imp.) (Perf.) to blow out
the pipe is broken
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? to call for somebody
/ ( . .) to be electrocuted (a little bit)
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? to place, arrange something
(Imp.) (Perf.) to hire a specialist

C locksmith,
metalworker

1. key; 2. wrench
door
(door) lock
tap
pipe
.
, ,
.

C sanitary technician

sink, washbowl
shower
sewage
toilet bowl
clog
bathroom
equipment

,
.

electician

electricity
wires
light
current (n.)
electric bulb
socket
wiring
insulation
cable

,
.
,

.

designer

wallpaper
interior
furniture
- design
project

apartment layout

,

.

-
.

Remember the idioms

Do-it-yourself man, a person


who can repair almost
everything.

Literary golden hands, a very


talented master, a handy person.

Seeing a Doctor
No one likes to be sick. When we do not feel well we often go see a doctor.
And if you are talking to a Russian doctor it is really important to know how to explain
what is wrong. Lets learn some words and phrases to help you get a diagnosis.
pain, ache
illness, sickness, disease
to ache ( .); to be sick ( .)
(Imp.) (Perf.) to beome sick
sick person; diseased organ; (also) patient
health
healthy
(Imp.) (Perf.) to get better, to recover
nausea
inflammation
hemorrhagic disease
tears
( ) fever, high body temperature
dermatitis
edema
cough
to cough
sneezing
to sneeze
= (coll.) bruise
rhinitis
shivering
blocked nose
swelling
conjunctivitis

Some words related to human body.


body
organ
head
eyes
mouth
, tooth, teeth
nose
throat
chest, breast
stomach
belly
back
arm
shoulder
leg
blood
, muscles

Some types of diseases and their main symptoms

stomatitis

appendicitis

allergy

flu

injury

Ways to use the word and its derivatives


+ ? , , , , (, ).
.
.
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? ?
.
.
? + + ? ? = (, )
, .
.
(?) , ,
, .
, !
, !
(? +)
! ! !
, .
(? +) (+ ?)
.
.

Ways to use the word and its derivatives


(Imp.) (Perf.) = (Imp.) (Perf.)
, !
.

!
, .
=
!
(? +)
. = .
, .

Pharmacy and Isurance Company


In Russia pharmacies sell almost all types of medicinefrom herbs and vitamins
to strong drugs that can be sold only with a prescription from a physician. Lets look
at some words and phrases related to the topic.
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? ? to take (medicine)
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? ? to dissolve, dilute
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? ? to rub
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? ? to inject
(Imp.) (Perf.) + ? ? to drop (liquid)
to swallow
medicine, drug
tablet, pill
ointment
powder
spray
drops
pill
nasal (adv.)
oral (adv.)

Here are some types of medicine and ways to use them

()
/
/ .

,
()
.
.


//

()

Insurance Company
Medical insurance is something new to Russia. However today many companies
provide health insurance to their employees. Lets see words and phrases related
to the topic.
, insurance policy
medical insurance
insurance company
insurance
() (Imp.) () (Perf.) insure (onself)
insured event
safety
(Perf.) + ? ? secure

Appearance. Face.
Imagine this situation: you have met a very good-looking person and youd like
to share your admiration with your friends. Lets learn some words and phrases that will
help you describe someones face and appearance.
appearance
(, ) pretty
(, ) beautiful
(, ) handsome, attractive

Phrases on the topic.


/ (?) ,
/ (?) ,
/ (?)

Some words to describe a persons face

: , , ,

: , , , , ,

face

eyes

hair

: , , , , , ; -, ; -; : (), (), (), ; ,


: , ,
: , , ,

eyelashes

eyebrows

nose

: , , , ,
: ,
: ,
: , , .
: , ,
: , , , ,

: , ,

: , ,

: ,

mouth
lips

chin

beard

moustache

: ,
, , , ,

Appearance. Figure.
We continue studying words and phrases related to the topic Appearance. This time
well learn vocabulary to describe someones figure.
figure
height
weight
constitution, the condition of a persons body
(Imp.) (Perf.) put on weight
(Imp.) (Perf.) lose weight

Phrases on the topic.


/ (?)
/ (?) ? ? ?
/ (?) , ?

Some words to describe a persons figure

, ,

, , /

: , , , , ,

, , , ,

, , , , , , , , ,

, , ,

Personality
Russian is rich with the words describing personality. Every time you open a fiction
book you will find picturesque phrases full of adjectives related to the topic. Lets learn
some of them.
personality
(?) to have (some sort of) personality

Phrases on the topic.


/ (?)
? ?

Here are some words to describe personality


positive features

negative features

Personality. Temperament.
We continue studying words and phrases that describe personality. This time well
speak about a persons temperamentways people react in different situations in life.
The ancient Greek physician Hyppocrates developed a medical theory about human
behavior.
He believed certain human moods, emotions, and behaviors were caused by certain
bodily fluids. Modern psychology moved further, but even today you can hear about
the four types of temperament. In Russia this theory has lots of admirers. Lets learn
some new words on the topic along with some new adjectives that describe the four
temperaments.
sanguine person
choleric person
melancholic person
phlegmatic person

Phrases on the topic.


/ (?)
? ?

Some words to describe a persons temperament


,
,
,
,
,

,
,

,
,
,

,
,
,

,
,
,
,