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Salt = sodium and chloride.

NaCL Sodium: regulate the amount of fluid in the body; too much sodium causes high blood pressure. 30% of High Blood Pressure is from high salt intake toxic effect on heart and blood vessels Left ventricular hypertrophy (thickens the heart muscle) Stiff arteries Beating at a higher pressure Atherosclerosis Damages blood vessel walls allows cholesterol and inflammatory cells to enter Osteoporosis (increases calcium losses in urine) Kidney diseases; Dementia NHMRC recommends:2.3 g of sodium/day 6g of salt/day Reduction via consumer education has failed! Labeling does not seem to matter! REDUCE PARTICLE/PORTION SIZE, GRADUALLY REDUCE FROM PRODUCTS "The worlds population is about 6.5 billion and is expected to grow to 9 billion by 2050. Nobel laureate Norman Borlaug said in an interview in 2000 that using only organic agriculture, we can at best feed 4 billion people." "UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said last year that food production must rise by 50 per cent by 2030 to meet increasing demand." Source: The Age, 30 September 2009, p. 12

What are mycotoxins? Are secondary metabolites of fungal origin, toxic to animals and humans, toxins produced by moulds
Chronic and acute disease in humans and animals. - Carcinogenic Mutagenic - Embryotoxic - Immunosuppressive Higher risk than any other food contamination eg. pesticides, food additives, phytotoxins. Fumonisin (Fusarium) Inhibits folic acid use, throat & liver cancer, birth defects Aflatoxin - Cancer, immunosuppression, liver damage, animal deaths

What is malnutrition? ..a broad range of clinical conditions in children and adults that result from deficiencies or excess in one or a number of nutrients. ..a state in which the physical function of an individual is impaired to the point where she/he can no longer maintain adequate performance in such processes as growth, pregnancy, lactation, physical work, resisting and recovering from disease. Undernutrition * Outcome of insufficient food * Caused primarily from inadequate intake of dietary or food energy. Chronic malnutrition - Stunting Dont grow properly. Chronic malnutrition (0-2yrs) poor nutrition since a baby, will always be small, have issues fighting disease, never being as strong as peers, poor cognitive development. Irreversible condition. Acute malnutrition - Wasting Acute malnutrition (low weight for their height). Emergency situations (e.g. Somalia, drought, war) can recover from this if over 2-3yrs old. Rapid loss of weight. Mortality rates high. Very at risk of infection and death. Underweight Low weight for age easier to measure Includes both stunting and wasting Affects 2 billion people Vitamin A is the main killer of children under 5 y.o eyesight, immune system, fighting infection Iron Iodinie Zinc (diarrhoea, immune system) 925 million people are malnourished (FAO, 2010) Poor nutrition plays a role in at least half of the 10.9 million child deaths each year5 million deaths/yr diarrhea (61%), malaria (57%), pneumonia (52%), and measles (45%)

Control of mycotoxins Management of the food chain, surveillance and regulation Suppression of the vectors Borers and grain weevils are the vectors Inhibition of fungal growth Destruction of toxins

Allergy -immune system causing a reaction against normally harmless substances-.The reaction creates an inflammation which, can lead to symptoms such as hay fever, eczema, asthma and other allergic conditions.Allergies appear to be increasing in prevalence number of causes ranging from children living in cleaner environments (the hygiene hypothesis) to better diagnoses. Vit D deficiency. Anaphylaxis is an overall allergic reaction that causes: Swelling of the airway Difficulty breathing Throat tightness Sense of doom Drop in blood pressure Variable expression of cutaneous, respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, and cardiovascular symptoms including hypotension, vascular collapse and cardiac dysrhythmias Describe the role of four of the following organizations in the evaluation and/or marketing of GM foods: (1) Office of the Gene Technology Regulator Assesses human health and environmental safety of GM crops (2) Food Standards Australia and New Zealand Assesses safety of food derived from GM crops (3) State Governments It was initially believed that approval for general release by the OGTR (i.e. Federal Government approval) was the final step in the approval process. However, State governments decided they had the right to ban GM production for other reasons e.g. marketing concerns GM production is currently banned in SA and Tasmania. (4) Institutional Biosafety Committee Each institution engaging in gene technology work must establish an Institutional Biosafety Committee (IBC) that oversees all such work within the institution and ensures that researchers comply with OGTR advice and guidelines. All proposals for work with GM crops must first be considered by the IBC. Information provided to OGTR includes details of: host and donor organisms properties and degree of characterisation of the introduced DNA vector carrying the DNA into the host stability and properties of the GMO site where the GMO will be released environmental safety (gene flow etc). 5)AustralianPesticidesandVeterinaryMedicinesAuthority:Assesses safety and efficacy of herbicides and pesticides.This includesbiological pesticidesegBtgene

What is resistant starch? Starch that we eat is digested at different rates. The starch in potatoes, cereals, and baked goods digests very rapidly. Beans, barley, or long grained brown rice, are digested more slowly, and cause a much slower and lower blood sugar rise. Resistant starch actually goes all the way through the small intestine without being digested at all. In this way, it is more like fiber, and in some cases is classified and labeled as fiber. What makes some starch resistant? There are four types of resistant starch: 1. Starch that is difficult for the digestive process to reach, often due to a fibrous "shell". Grains and legumes which are cooked intact are an example. Also, some altered starches, such as Hi-Maize corn starch, are in both this category and the next. 2. Some foods, such as unripe bananas, raw potatoes, and plantains, have a type of starch which our digestive enzymes can't break down. 3. Small amounts of resistant starch (about 5% of the total) are produced when some starchy cooked foods, such as potatoes and rice, are allowed to cool before eating. 4. Manufactured resistant starch, made by various chemical processes. It is not known whether these starches have the same benefits as those in the other three groups. Most starchy foods have at least a small amount of resistant starch in them. What are the benefits of resistant starch? It seems that the more it is studied, the more positive effects are being found. Many of these are common to oligosaccharides and fermentable fiber. We will discuss fermentable fiber more in Part 5 of this series. Here are some of the benefits of resistant starch: Resistant starch is especially associted with one type of SCFA, called butyrate, which is protective of colon cells and associated with less genetic damage (which can lead to cancer). Butyrate also protects the cells in other ways. This is one of the real strengths of resistant starch over oligosaccharides and soluble fiber. Their fermentation does produce butyrate, but not at the levels of resistant starch. As with other fermentable fiber, resistant starch is associated with more mineral absorption, especially calcium and magnesium. Perhaps most exciting for people with sugar issues, resistant starch seems to improve insulin sensitivity. In the so-called "second meal effect", fermentable fiber and resistant starch are associated with improved glucose tolerance the next day. There is evidence that this is caused by the presense of the short chain fatty acids, and by a peptide produced in the fermentation process. Resistant starch produces more satiety, possibly partly through the release of a different peptide (PYY). Resistant starch consumption is associated with lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Promotes "good" bacteria, and supresses "bad" bacteria and their toxic products. Promotes bowel regularity. Resistant starch in a meal is associated with less fat storage after that meal. What foods have resistant starch? Beans are the very best food source. Although the types of beans and preparation methods cause varying amounts of resistant starch (canned beans are more glycemic), in general, the starch in beans is about evenly divided between slowly-digested starch and resistant starch. Whole, intact grains are decent sources of resistant starch. The starch in pearl barley is about 12% resistant and 43% slowly-digesting. Bulgar wheat and long grain brown rice are similar.

Omega-6 Linoleic acid ----------- AA---------clotting Omega-3 Linolenic acid---------EPA----------bleeding EPA-----------DPA-----DHA------bleeding Need a balance between omega6 and omega3 We need to consume approximately 500mg per day of LC n-3 PUFA 2 oily fish meals per week Current intakes of LC n-3 PUFA (EPA & DHA) is far too low

Health benefits of LC n-3 PUFA Promoting fitness (physical, mental, reproductive) Counteracting disease (prevention, treatment) Cardiovascular disease lipids (TG, HDL) blood pressure platelet aggregation endothelial function arterial compliance heart rate variability atherosclerosis arrhythmias heart failure kidney damage stroke Cancer Diabetes insulin resistance obesity? Inflammatory disorders psoriasis/dermatitis rheumatoid arthritis immune renal disease inflammatory bowel disease asthma? Behavioural depression? Post-natal depression? ADHD? schizophrenia? dementia?

Phenolic compounds: Two main categories: 1. Flavonoids - color and mouthfeel e.g. Catechin, quercetin & anthocyanins 2. Non flavonoids e.g. Resveratrol & phelonic acids Benefits of phenolic compounds Inhibition of carcinogenic process Repairs and aids in apoptosis of cancerous cells and repairs initiative cells back to normal cells Increases good cholesterol & reduces bad cholesterol blood flow and oxygen supply arterial tone promotion of atherosclerotic plaque risk of clot formation

What are phenolic compounds? In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (OH) bonded directly to an aromatic hydrocarbon group.