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The Dcvelopmcn~of PrajfiO in Buddhism System: From Early Buddhism lo the Praj~iBpU'ranmirO With Special Reference to the Sarv&tivada Tradition

Fa Qing



0 Fa Qing 2001

1 , +1

Ac uisitions and ~ibqio~raphii Setvices

Bibliolhequenationale du Canada Acquisitions el services bibliogmphiques

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In the early a g m a s and nikayas, prajfili is integrated with the practice of i i l a and
sumlidhi. Primarily. it is the true undcrstanding of the Four Noble Truths.

In Sanq%tivada. prujtid is explained along with itidnu, d s i and other technical terms related to the mental function of understanding. In panicular, it is defined as the In the context of the spiritual reali7~tionof discerment of dharma (dl~arn~u-pra~~icayu). the Four Noble Truths. it is also defined as likdru (aspect or mode of mental comprehension). Thus, compared to the other Buddhist traditions-preceding. SarvStivada assigned the widest scope of

contemporaneous and subsequent-the

and clrs~i (excepting the eye). In meaning to prujtiti. Prajtiti comprises all kinds of ifidt~a terms of function and nature, it may be pure or impure. correct or erroneous. However. notably. the Peli abhidhamma tradition is in alignment with the standpoint of the Early Buddhism in confining putitili to the positive aspects alone. Vasubandhu's criticisms concerning the Vibh$a were answered by Sanghabhadra: in many cases these criticisms were rejected on the ground that Vasubandhu did not properly understand the VibhX:a. In the Early Buddhism (at least as evidenced by the egama texts). sunfujtiurli is attributed to the Buddha. For the SarvStivadins, sanujfiarli is the Buddha's knowledge only. It was probably later on, that the Prujtitipdrumitd literature came to speak of three
n~tirgujtiurti and s a n ~ l i ~ r a j t i u r l iand ) . then attributed kinds of tinowledge (sun~ujtiurli, san~ujfiardto the ~Wvakas and pratyckabuddhas.

In thc Prujtitipliru~t~ilB Stirrus, prujtidplironlirli is a designation for the highest purpon. In practicing prajtili. a practitioner concentrates on observing everything as


SI~IU~U. PrujGIi in the highest sense or prujribpcirunritu' is that which enables one to be not

attached to anything. and to accept reality-just-as-it-is without conceptual bifurcation. This is a common theme in all Mahayana Buddhist slltns. Whercas prujGb has various connotations in the Sarvnstivada abhidharma, it is distinguished from pruj~ibpbrun~itIi in the Upadeia: Only buddhas and advanced arhats as well as pntyekabuddhas have only prujfifi. bodhisattvas possesspruj~bpliranritb: The notion of prujGdpbrunritd in the Pruj~ibpbranrirciSIilrus and the Upadcia clearly represents a further stage of development in the notion of the perfect spiritual insight of a buddha. replacing the earlier notion of prujri5 as found in thc early sOtm and in the abhidharma.

The successful completion of this dissertation would not havc been possible without the kind guidance. assistance and criticism of the following individuals and organizations. Vcn. Zhen Dun


of Thailand. Ms. Chen IRiWTi; of Hong Kong, The

Yin-shun Foundation. the Department of Religious Studies and Asian Studies Group of the University of Calgary. and the Vedanta Society of Calgary have been supportive financially. In particular. I must herc record my deep gratitude to the following Venerables for their spiritual encouragement and suppon: Chuan Kin {ff PfP, Sheng Yi '\'!
-, K. L. Dhammajoti

Hong Xun Z I Y J J . Wei Che iilihill. Shin-je i"&.

I would like to thank Dr. A. N ' . Barber \r*ho in the early stages sewed a s my
interim supervisor. Dr. Ronald Neufeldt. Dr. Eliezer Segal. and Dr. Wayne McCready in the department helped me through many courses. I thank Dr. X. J. Yang and Ms. Toyo Kawamum. who taught and helped me to read Japanese texts. A special thanks goes to Ven. Dr. K. L. Dhammajoti, Postgraduate Institute for Pnli and Buddhist Studies, the University of Kelaniya. Sri Lanka. for guiding me in the reading of abhidharma texts. I am also grateful to him for reading through the whole thesis and offering constructive criticism and suggestions. First and last. all praise and thanks are due to Dr. Leslie Kawamura. my supervisor, for guiding me in my research. His encouragement. suggestions. ideas; his compassion for accepting and understanding others; his warm personality for caring for others: his scrupulous aaitudc for taking things seriously-all me as a student of Buddhist Studies as well as a human being. v continuc to havc impact on

Table of Contents
Approval P a p ....................................................................................... Abstmct .............................................................................................................................. Acknowledgements ............................................................................................................. Table of Contents ............................................................................................................... Abbreviations .................................................................................................................... ii ...


vi is

Chapter 1: Introduction ..................................................................................................... I 1 . The Centrality of the Concept of Prajfia in Buddhism .......................................... 1 Scope. Methodology and che Sources of the Present Study.................................. 3 2 10 Chapter 2: The Deveiopment of Prajaa in Early Buddhism ........................................... 10 1. Geneml Comments .............................................................................................. 2 . PrajllUparlRa in Early Buddhism ........................................................................ I I PrujtZ and *la ........................................................................................... I I 2 . 1 2.2 Pruj~iZis the Fulfillment of one's Pnctice ................................................. 13 2 . 3 PrujId as the Spiritual Insight into the Four Noble Truths ......................... 14 3. Prajfi3 in Theravada Abhidhamma ...................................................................... 16 4 . Prajaapararnita .................................................................................................... I8 PrujIBpdran~irdand Pdrun~itiis in the Early Agamas and Nikaya ............. 20 4 . 1 4.2 Piirurrrirds in the Abhidharma Tradition ..................................................... 23 5. ~ a n y a t ~ ~ u i i i iin a tEarly a Buddhism and Abhidhanna ....................................... 25 5.1 ~ ~ i n y a r relates ii to Meditational Practice ..................................................... 27 ...................... 28 5.2 ~ 1 7 1 1 ~is a rCoterminous d with Aniryu Drr!~klru and Andrnlut~ 5.3 Stiryatii and Nairdtn~yu ............................................................................... 29 5 . ~ t i n ~ a rExplained ii as Dependent Co-arising .............................................. 30 5.5 ~ t i ~ ~and a r the d Three Sunrddlris ................................................................ 31 Explained in Ekorrardganra and in the Pruj~idpdrantildSritrus: Their 5.6 ~r711yarii Doctrinal Identity .................................................................................................... 33 5.7 Sli~tyariiin the Sarvbtivadin A b h i d h m a .................................................. 34 5.8 St~~itiutd in Thcravadin Abhidamma ........................................................... 35 6 . Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 37 Chapter 3: The Definition and Function of PrajId ......................................................... 39 1. Descriptive Delinitions of Prajila........................................................................ 39 2 . The Functions of Pnjila ...................................................................................... 41 PrajId as One of the Ten Universal Mental Concomitants (nrahdbhlimiku 2.I mirru) 4 1 2.2 PrujId as the Means for Liberation ............................................................ 42 2.3 PrajId as Abhidharma ................................................................................ 44 2.4 Praj~id in the Thirty-seven Factors of A\v&ening (budl~ipuksyd dlrurnrd!1)47 2.5 PrujIii related to the Four Noble Truths ..................................................... 49 .................................................................... 50 2.6 Defiled Pruj~id (kligu-praj~id) 3. Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 51 Chapter 4: The Scope and Nature of Prajfid ................................................................... 53 vi

Prajila in the JPS and Vibh3$l ............................................................................. 53 I.I Drui Jtifinu and Prajtid .............................................................................. 54 1.1.1 Dtgi ..................................................................................................... 54 . I . 1.2 Jtidna ................................................................................................... 55 1.1.3 Projtid ................................................................................................. 58 l .2 The Eight Knowledges ................................................................................ 59 1.3 The Relationships among Prajtid, Drgi J Z n a in terms of Three Le\'cls of Practice .................................................................................................................... 62 1.4 Inter-relationship among Dg!i, Jtidtra. and Prajtid .................................... 65 1.4.1 Relationship between Jtidtia and Prajtid ............................................ 65 1.4.2 Relationship between D[m!i and Projrid .............................................. 66 1.4.3 Relationship between Dp!i and Jtidtra ........................................ G 7 2. Prajila. Drn!i and Jilana in the Later Abhidharma Tcxts ..................................... 68 3. Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 72 Chapter 5: Some Controversies Between Vasubandhu (and Dars!antikalSautrantika) and Sanghabhadra Related to Prajtid ................................................................................ 73 1. General Comments.............................................................................................. 73 2 . The Controversy Between Vasubandhu and Sanghabhadra................................ 75 Prajrid as a Real Dharma ............................................................................ 76 2.1 2.2 The Three Kinds of Prajtid in Prepantory Stage ....................................... 78 The Four Abodes of Mindfulness .......................................................... 80 2.3 2.4 Prajtid and the 16 dkdra ............................................................................. 83 3. Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 84 Chapter 6: Prajtid of the Two Ymas and the Buddha .................................................... 86 I . General Comments.............................................................................................. 86 2. Aklis!a-ajilma and VBsana in connection with the Arhats ................................. 88 3. Sawajilata-the Buddha's Knowledge ............................................................... 92 4 . Conclusion .......................................................................................................... 95 Chapter 7: The Development of PrajtiE in Mahayana Buddhism .................................. 96 I . General Comments.............................................................................................. 96 2 . The Developmcnl of Prajila in the Prajaapanmita Statras ................................. 96 2.1 Projtid in the A g a (8.000 lines) ................................................................ 98 2.1. I Prajtid and Non-attachment ................................................................ 98 2.1.2 ~ r a j t i d~ritr~vard . and Empty Space...................................................... 99 How to Practice ................................................................................ 101 2.1.3 Projtid in the Large Prajtidpdramird Stirras ........................................... 102 2.2 2.2.1 Stinyard .............................................................................................. 104 2.2.2 Positive Expression ......................................................................... 106 2.2.3 The True Characteristic of Dharmas (Dharntard)............................. 107 2.3 Conclusion ................................................................................................ 108 3. The Development oiPrajila in the Other Mahayana Satras ............................. 109 3.1 The SaddharmapundarlkasoIn .................................................................. 109 3.2 The Buddha-avatamsaka-satm .................................................................. I I I 3.3 The RatnakLl!a-satra .................................................................................. 114 3.4 Prajtid in Pure Land Buddhism ................................................................ 116 1.


3.5 Thc Mahaparinirv@a-soma ....................................................................... 1 17 3.6 Conclusion ................................................................................................ 121 Chapter 8: A Summary of Prajfiiri in the Upadcia ...................................................... 122 I .' General Comments............................................................................................ 122 2 . "The True Chancteristic of Dl~armas"............................................................ 123 "The TNC Characteristic of Dharmas" is PrujfiBpBruntilB for Both the 2.1 Buddha and Bodhisaavas......................................................................................124 2.2 "The True Chancteristic o f Dharmas" and ~1i?tva18 ................................ 128 3. PnjhZpZramita .................................................................................................. 131 3.1 Definition of Prujribpuranlirci................................................................... 131 3.2 Non-disputation D h m a (ara!la-dl~arnla) ................................................ 133 Thc Practice of PrajIdpBranlild ............................................................... 135 3.3 Prajil2paramita in the Vibhag and Upadeia .................................................... 137 4. 139 5. Conclusion ........................................................................................................ Chapter 9: Conclusion ................................................................................................... 141 145 Bibliography ................................................................................................................ 1. Primmy Sources ................................................................................................ 145 2. Secondary Sources ............................................................................................ 149 3. Chinese and Japanese ........................................................................................ 157


Arigrtttara Nika'pa. cd. R. Morris and E. Hardy, 5 vols. PTS. 1885-1900. (e.g. A. i. 22 means Arigrtttara Niktiya. vol. 1, page 72) The Ablridharnradipa u d t Prabltii~:rrti. ed. Padmanabh S. Jaini. Pama: K. P. ADV Jayaswal Research Institute. 1977. Ahlridlrarnrakoahl~iiyaed. P. Pndhan. Patna: K. P. Jayaswal Research AKB Institute. 1967. Buddlrist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary. ed. Franklin Edgenon. BHSD Brrddlrist Dictionan. Nyanatiloka. BD The Chinese Buddlrist Encj~clopedia, ed. Lan Jifu. Tainan: The SBE CBE Foundation. 1994. Chinese Ch. Digha Nika'pa, ed. T. W. Rhy Davids and J. E. Carpenter. 3 vols. PTS. 1890D. 191 1. Jortrnal of Indian and Brtdd/~ist Sttidies. JIBS Jortrnal of the Inrernariotral Association o f Brtddlri.~t Strtrlifs. JlABS J~iittaprastlriino.T1 544. JPS Majjl~itna Nika'pa. ed. V. Trenchncr and R. Chalmers. 3 vols. PTS. 1887-1899. M. /Mlila-/Mudlrpattrakaka'rikri (e.g. "MMK VI, 6" means chapter 6. verse 8.) MMK Sanskrit Ettglislt Dictiotrcrq+. ed. Monier Williams. Monier T I 545. Vibhea rlbhidharnra-nroha'1~ihIriip6-iiistra *Nyiiya'trrisa'rajiistra. T1562. Ny Piili and English Dicriorrary. T . W. Rhys Davids and William Stedc. PED Ahlridl~arnraprakaro~~apa'da-iiistra. TI 542. Pr S PHli Test Society. London. PTS Sat!ryrttta Nika'ya, cd. L. Feer, 5 vols. PTS, 1884- 1904. S. E m k B l j l ; Sanskrit and Japanese Dictionary, ed. Unmi Wogihara @K:Lf?# SJD Sanskrit Skt. T T a i s h B ; r l r i n s l r - a the Chinese Tripikaka (c.g. "T1509, 10a 20-15." means number 1509. page 10, column a. line 20 to line 25). T 1509. UpadeSa ~~alriipraj,ia'pa'rantitopadeja I'iblratiga, ed. Mrs. Rhys Davids. PTS. 1978. Vibh. I'isuddl~inagga ed. C. A. F. Rhys Davids. PTS. 1975. (c.g. Vis. X. Par. 20, p. Vis. 336. means Visuddhimagga Chapter 10. paragraph 20, page 336). Splrrt~rthii-ahlridl~arnrakoia-y'a'klryii: The Work of Yaiomitra. ed. by Unni Wogihara. Tokyo: The Publishing Association of Abhidhma-koSa-vyakhyS, 1932-1936.

Chapter 1: Introduction


Tlre Cetrtralifyof tlre Cottcept of Prajtiti in Brrddlrism

There would have been no "Buddhism" had it not bccn for the profound spiritual experience known as somyokrut~rbodlti (Perfect Awakening) of ~nkyamuni, the Buddha.' However. what is this all-imponant spiritual experience-revolutionary of its kind-according and profoundest

to the Buddhists? It is Per!'cct Insight or Wisdom. projtri (PBli:

putitB). on account of which the Buddha was able to see reality face to facc. a s it truly is O.otltrihlrrirum). With this prajGB. the Buddha thoroughly and totally realized (sBk,rdrkrira!tu) the root-cause of the human predicament and the way of its tnnscendence. When this Perfect Insight arose. the Buddha could not find any ready-made words to describe it. Consequently. he had to express it by newly coining words and imageries and compared this insight to an eye (cokklrrr) and light (riloku) as follows: idot!r dttkklrot!r or~osuccotr ti nre bhikkltoee prtbbc r~tru~tt~ssttrestr dlronrnrest~ cokkltut~ttrdopridi tici!ray trdapddi poItiB ttdopridi v i ~ p ttrlapBdi BIoko t11lu~8di.' (This is the Truth of Unsatisfactoriness-to me 0 bhikkhus. arose the eye, knowledgc. undcrstanding. wisdom. light with regard to dhammas unheard of before.) The above description clearly suggests. among other things. that from the very beginning. p r u j t i is of paramount imponance for Buddhism. From the Buddhist standpoint. transcendence of the human existentia! predicament of dt:!rkhu

(unsatisfactoriness)' and the perfection of humanity are possible through the liberating
The word "buddha" or "buddhas" (without caps) rcfcrs to any awakencd bcmg. but Buddha (with caps) rcfcrs to thc historical ~ ~ k ~ r n u n i .


' S. v. 422.

' 011!1kli(1 (or PBli JIII~IIU) is one o f the Four Noble Truths (rurrilrt i~r~yi~~u~cdlirn) generally tnnslated by

insight. pruj1i2 only. It is for this reason that Buddhism has rightly been called a religion of Wisdom. instead of one of Faith and Re\*elation. It is no exaggeration to state that the historical development of Buddhism into the various schools-Hitiayana Mahayana-is and

in a way the result of the continuous doctrinal ramifications of the

Buddhist concept ofpruj176. whatever the pre-Buddhistic connotation of the term might have been. There are various impetuses for buddhological developments within the Mahayana. Howcvcr. among them. the most imponant may be said to be intricately intenvuv~n with the doctrinal development of prujA8: The Buddha is said to have various attributes-various powers (Eulu) and various unique qualities

(ii~,e!~iku-btrddita-diiurn~u). because his prajiii is uniquely perfected.

It would be nayve, however, to assume that buddological developments took place only with the emergence o f the Mahayana. Such developments. in which the struggle to understand. to investigate. and to define the Buddha's prujriii is conspicuous. can be tnced to the canonical texts of Early Buddhism, now extant in Pali and in Chinese translations. This investigation continued to be pursued actively in the a b h i d h m a schools, particularly those of the nonhem tradition. Eventually, the Mahayma came to

most scholars as "suffering." and 11is ~ntcrprcted to mean that lifc according to Buddhism is nothing but suffcrtng and pan. Both mnslatton and intcrpretatlon arc misleading. Dr. b h u l a says: "It is because oflhts translation that many people havc been misled into regarding Buddhism as pessimistic. A INC Buddhist is the happiest o f h c i n p . He has no fears or anxictics. He is always calm and screnu, and cannot be upset or dismayed by changes or calamitics. because he sces things-as-they-arc." He gocs as far as suggcsttng that this word would be bcttcr Icn untnnslatcd. The term dul~kha.whlch rcprcsenls the Buddha's view o f life and the world. has a deep philosophical meaning and connotes an enormously wider sense. I t contains the ordinary meaning o f "suffcr~ng", but in addttion it also tncludcs dccpcr tdcas such as "imperfection." "lmpemnence." "cmptincss." "insubstant~nl~ty." I t IS dimcult therefore to find one word lo embmcc LC uhule conception ofthc term du!tkitu as the First Noble Truth. and so it is bctter to leave il unlmnslated. than to give an inadequate or wrong idea o f i t b y convcnicntly translating it as "sufiring" or "pa~n." See. Walpola Rahuta. Il'lrar rlre Duddlru Tuughr (New York: Grove Press. 1974) 16-17; 27.

emphasize distinctively that buddhahood is radically difirent from arhathood because tl buddha'spraj~ii is completely different from that of an arhat. This difference is said to be owing to a buddha's overcoming the two-fold hindrances-hindrance of dclilemcnt

(kleSirvaru!ro) and hindrance of the knowable ~~ic.~vir~ara!tcr). When both are completely removed. prajriB is perfected, and by this perfeclion of prujIB-known as


is seen as-it-is and one achieves true liberation. As K. L.

~harnmajoti'has shown, this central Mahayana doctrine of the two-fold hindrances had already been well articulated in the northern abhidharma tradition. most probably in the pre-Mahaywa era. After the emergence of the Mahayana, however, there must have been mutual doctrinal influences on the further articulation of the Buddhist concept o f p r o j G bet;vcen the abhidharma tradition on the one hand and the Mahayana on the other.


Scope, Metl~odology ottd tire Sources of tlre Presettt Study

The foregoing remsrks suggest that for a proper understanding and a proper perspective of development in Buddhist thought, an in-depth study of the doctrinal qrtu non. The a b h i d h m a development of prujIB in the a b h i d h m a period is a si~re constitutes an important link between early Buddhist doctrines on the one hand and Mahayma development on the other. To date. however. thc few studies which focus directly o n or have rele\fance to the development ofprajIB in the abhidharma period have mainly been based on the Pali sources. Thus. in his Brtdd/risr Insight: The Nururrtre ond Frorctio,r in tire PBli ~ i k d ~ aE . ' Underwood discusses p a I I d as found in the Pnli sutta

' D h n m j o t ~ .K. L. "The Dcfccls in thc nrhat's Enlighlenmcnt-His oklt?la-a~~iIlno wd vdsanll." Buddlr~sr Srudres (Bu&o Kenkyu) Vol. XXVll (1998):65-98. ' F. Underwood. Buddlrrsr Inrrgirr: Tile h'oorure und Functton of Pofifiuet rite PIlb N~kIlyus(Michigan:

only. T . Endo's

T h e Btrddhu bt ~ l r e r u v r i d u is ~a

buddhological study based on the Pali

commentaries. K. Mizuno's

Pruj~iH bt t h e P r i m i r i w Btrddltisnr undS~iecturiurt~trddhisrn.7

in spite of its title, is basically a discussion on the P5li sources with only brief comparative remarks, here and therc. on the nonhem abhidharma mdition. Accordingly.

an in-depth critical study o n the doctrinal development of the Buddhist concept o f p r u j d B ,

with special reference to the nonhem abhidhanna tradition. still remains a desideratum. To respond to this lacuna constitutes the aim of our present study. In our study, we have contined ourselves primarily to the material pertaining to the SarvLtivada school, because fortunately we havc an abundance of resources on the doctrines of this school presented in Chinese mnslation. which have yet to be properly tapped. With a couple of honorable esceptions-mainly those of Louis de La VallCe

~oussin.' E. ~nuwallner?and more recently C. ~ o x ~ ~ - m o Westem st and Indian studies on Sarvnstivada doctrines have tended to be based on Vasubandhu's


(AKB). with some reference to Yaiomitra's

Ablti~/lturt~tukoiu-tydkltyB (Vy). This is understandable. panicularly for those scholars

who do not read Classical Chinese. as these two imponant abhidharma tests are preserved intact in Sanskrit.
T h e A b h i ~ / l t r n t u da,rrlt I.ibhB~BprubhBv~rri (ADV).

though an important Vaibh%ika polemic. suffers from the loss of a large number of folios
University Microlilms. 1973). " T. Endo. The Buddlrir m Trr~-ravddn (Colombo: Buddhist Culmre Center. 1998). 'Kogen. Mizuno rk5'f'Z.R. " Y ! ~ i l L B J j 1 C RlliXfLRc nit &*I: 7 7 . " f3#@HfVf92 & AIL RfFiBX12. (Tokyo: l ~ Z R i t B I k R & f f 1997). % 's i : de L . Vallde Poussln, mns. L' Abhrdharmakoia d'. Ibsshondlrrr. 6 vols. (Paris: Libmirie Orientalisto Paul Geuthner. 1913-1931). Erich Fmuwallncr. S1urirr.sm Abhdlrarnru Lircrururcund rllc Origrru.o/fJriddI~btPhilosophrculSj~rems. trans. Sophie Francis Kidd (New York: State University Press o f New York. 1995). Collcn Cox. Disputcd Dbarras-Early Buddhut Tlrcorrrs opt Erurence--At1 annorated Trotrl~!:;:: ' q rlre Sccrron on Factors Dmocratcd/rom Tlrou~l~r /rant Sungbbhadrai nil.d?iTnrr>rlnr (Tokyo: Studia Philologica Buddhica. 1995).


and thus. many scholars are inconvenienced in their attempt to make a full-scale critical study. Consequently, the only Indo-European scholar who has studied it substantially so far is its editor, P. S. ~aini." The Arllra-vir~iicuj~u-sri~ru. edited by N. H. Snmtati," docs not offer much by way of doctrinal clarification. Another reason for the scholarly focus on the AKB is that this text is comparatively well-organized and has served for ccnturics as the fundamental text in Far Eastern Buddhist tradi~ionsfor thc study of the SarvStivadin and Sautrantika doctrines. However. the author of the AKB is well-kno\\n to bc biased to\\*ards the Sautmntika, so that we must be cautious not to rely exclusively or too heavily on it for our investigation into the doctrinal categories of the Sarv3stivada.
.. -

The samc remark applies also to the Vy. whose author openly professes to be a Sautrantika.
111 the

present study. while taking the full advantage of the Sanskrit originals ofthe

AKB. Vy and ADV. we shall ex~ensi\~elg utilize the data in the Abhidhurmu-n~uIrri~~ibI~ri:cri (Vibhxp) and Saighabhadra's

two very important a b h i d h m a


texts extant only in their Chinese tnnslations. There is yet another text.
s o m n y ~ ~ r u d , i by ,i~ Sanghabhadn ~~

of less importance for this study. Needless to say, a require a study of all the abhidharma tesls

full-scale investigation of

prujCd \\,auld

" P. S. Jaini, ed. The Ahlrrdhnrmad@n with Mbhd?dprnhhdb,rtti (Palna: K. P. Jayaswal Rescarch Inslitule. 1977). N. H. Samlali. cd. Artlrn%miicu~nsrirrn nnd rhr. Comnrct~nrfyINrbnnriI~snn/(Patnu: M. P. Jay~swal Research Instilute. 1971). " T1562. AWieBl(REiY:A. On the brs~s ofUigur fmgmcna. Kudnm K8g1 suppons the Sansknuzed lille. .Nrdsdnrrsdruidsrru, suggcstcd by Nanj~o.Scc. Collco Cox. "KdmIm: Varbh3pda Onhodoxy." Sarv~lxnvddn Brrddhtss Scholrrrrrcrsnr Ed. Charles Willcmcn. Ban Dcssein and Collcn Cox (Brill; Lcidm; New Yorli: Luln: Brill, 1998) 24546. Scc also. B. Nanjio. A cucnlo~uc o f rhu C1:mesc Trnmlarron o f rlre Buddlrrsr Triprgkn (Oxford: Clarcndon Press 1883) p. 178. K. Kudan. "Ulguru yaku Abidntsunujunsh8riron sh8hon." BukA?ognku trnhyi 38 (1987): 20. T1563. WLEifRf;W;L%li:;<. Regarding !he Sanskrit litle. Ablrrdlrnrmap11uku-snmn~nprn~lfp11d-i~1rn. sce Collcn Cox's explamlion: Cox. Knioin~Irn 24243n308.



beginning at least with the seven Sarvastivada abhidharrna tests. Ho\rever. we have opted to base our study primarily on the Vibhea, AKB (along with its commentaries where appropriate) and Ny. for the following reasons. Firstly. this will make our study more specific in scope. Secondly. in the period afier the Vibhwa, abhidharma doctrines became much more articulated, which in fact. in an important way. should facilitate a study of this nature. Thirdly. although the Vibhaca and Ny contain an abundance of extremely imponant material for the understanding of Sarv3stivBdaNaibhZcika doctrines. because they are extant only in Chinese. these resources have so far been very l k l c tapped. The Vibh$a. purporting to be a commentary on the J~idnaprasllrdna ( J P S + o n e of the seven canonical Sarv%tivada abhidharrna texts which the Kaimlrian compilers of the Vibhqa held as the highest authority-consists of 200 fascicles (Ch. ittan). It is in fact an

encyclopedia of northern abhidharrna doctrines. The main aim for its compilation, which probably had taken a couple of centuries for its completion. was to purge what the KBimTrian SarvUtivadins regarded as non-orthodox views within their school. In addition, it also offers a critique of all prevalent a b h i d h m a views found incompatible with those of the JPS. Subsequent to this compilation, the Sarv~stivadins who upheld the Vibhasa as the central authority. came to assume t l ~ e position of orthodoxy and were known as the Vaibhwikas. Sanghabhadn's Ny, in SO fascicles-which times the size of Xuan Zang's translation c f the AKB-is is two and half

a polemic in defense of the

Vaibhwika orthodoxy. Throughout this work. the author complains that the onhodox views of the Sarv2stivada have often been distorted and misrepresented by Vasubandhu in the AKB. which he vows to rectify. Salighabhadn proved to bc a rigorous theoretician. and in many cases significantly fine-tuned the Vaibhzyika doctrine. while remaining faithful to Sarvilscivada orthodoxy. We must therefore take heed o f what these two

or~hodos works have to say regarding the Sarvastivadin doctrines and use them as a kind of marker to check the explanations given in the 'KB and Vy.

Following an investigatiort of the abhidharma views, the development in the concept of prujn'd in Early Mahayana sOtras and in the Upadefa is examined. This is in consideration of the fact that the Upadefa. which is extant only in Chinese, represents a The major doctrinal finalization of the early Mahayana concept ofprujn'd and Stit~yuro'. finalization of these early Mahayana concepts can serve as a useful contrastive reference to the development we have found in the period of abhidharma Buddhism. It may be mentioned here that E. ~ a m o t t e "has given us a translation of only the first 34 fascicles of this work. By way of a methodological remark. we would like here to add a critical note on the English renderings o f the term prujn'dlpon'tio'. As a technical term. prujtio' has been translated into English commonly by the word "wisdom." Alex Wayman has pointed out that the English term "wisdom" is cognate with the Sanskrit vidy~i.the Latin rvideo, and the German u~isse,~. l6 Wisdom is not an Indo-European cognate of jtio'; Wayman, therefore. prefers to reserve the translation "wisdom" for vidyd. Though Edward Conze tnnslatcdprujn'd as "wisdom". he admitted that "wisdom" was only a very approximate equivalent of projtid.'7 Underwood comments: In agreement with the judgment that the Buddhist usage of putiriri is "more precise." a different term from "wisdom" might be suggested as more closely approaching the "precision" ofpatiriri in English. In this respect. the English word itz.~iglirseems far more suitable than "wisdom" as a translation forpurbio'. and has been used as such by
" E. Lamone. LC Trniolri. h lu grnnL k r u rle Sngcsse rlr, NilgPr/rna, vol. 1-5. (Louualn: Universttc de Louvain. 1944. 1949, 1970.1976and 1980). "Alex Waynun. "Notcs on the Sanskrit Tcrm Jfidna." Journnl o f rhe Americun OrrenrnlSocrc~y. LXXV. No. 4 (Oclobcr-Dcccmbcr. 1955): 253. l7 Edward Conzc. Buddhrsr Thuughr In I n l a (London: Gcorge Allcn and U n w ~ n Ltd.. 1962) 53.

a number of scholars.lR Underwood has given various reasons for translating pafifid by the term "insight": a) both words are associated with seeing. vision and eyes. b) This vision of insight (putifid) goes beyond the normal visual faculty of sight and opentes in a super-sensory mental or are said to penetrate the surface ofthings to spiritual capacity. c) Both blsighr andpruj~id reach their "inner character" or "hidden nature." He also states that "insight" has an advantage over "wisdom" due to its currency in psychological, psychiatric, and psychoanalytic terminology.


Probably, Undenvood

was influenced



contemporary scholars who were seeking psychological terminology for Buddhism. Prcrj,ci. as the culminating supreme insight derived from the whole process of Buddhist spiritual training. has a very profound meaning that neither "wisdom" nor "insight" can fully convey. Moreover. in the SarvZstivHdaa b h i d h m a mdition. prajfici has a very wide scope: It subsumes all mental functions of understanding-pure or impure. right or \\Tong.

deep or shallow. In such contexts. we shall occasionally render it as 'understanding'. a more generic term. The above consideration leads us to the decision that. in general. it is preferable to use thc Sanskrit term untranslated. In any case, this term "pruj~iB" already exists as an entry in the English dictionarie~.'~ Another remark penains to the usage of the term "Vaibhisika." We generally feel it justiliable to use it interchangeably with "SarvZstivZda." since our sources are those of the onhodox SarvZstivldins who came to be known as Vaibhisikas. However, where there is a reference made to an opinion of a non-onhodox (those not basing themselves on


Undenvood 35-35.
Op. crr. 36.

'O E.g: "Prajm." in Tllc Ratrdonr Hour U~rahrrdjied D,crrorra~.Second Edition. 1987: "Pnjna." Webster's Third New lnternat~onal Dtct~onary of the English Language. 1961 ed. ctc.

theVibh~5a as the supreme authority) master or group of Sarvlstivada. we shall use the term "Sarv%tivZda/SmPsti\fPdin"specifically.

. Chapter 2: The Development of PrajAH in Early Buddhism

Early Buddhism in the context ofthis thcsis refcn to doctrines preserved in thc Pali suttas and in the four Chincsc agamas. Since this period immediately precedes that of the abhidharma tradition. rw consider it desirable to provide on outline of the dcvelopmcm of

concept of this period. In addition to the discussion of Pali suttils, some of the

aspects explained in Theravada abhidhamma will be examined. In the early discourses. the doctrine no-self
( r t a i r i ~ r t y u l u n a r r i ) . Things orprujriB/p(zIrili

is closely related to that of

are said to be no-self because they arc depcndently

co-arising @rariryc~su~~~er~~clo).?' "One who sees dependent co-arising sees the dhamrna: one who sees the dhamma sees dependent co-arising (yo p u ~ i c c u s u r ~ t t ~ p pussuri. p~du~~ so ~
d l ~ a m m c r pus.~uri: ~t yo d/tur~tmcrr!t passuri. so p u ~ i c c u s u n t t ~ p p l i c I pussuri.)." u~~t

Seeing the

with prujtiB, which is dhamrna is seeing things truly as-they-are [~nrhlihlttiror~r)-seeing thc realization that all things are depcndently co-arising. without any fixed. essential nature-the
ili~ty srrri,ia-though ~~ realization that all dhamma are n a i ~ i t ~ ~ ~ . s u / (Pali:


notion may not have exactly the same connotation a s i l i r t y a r i in the ~ahaynna)." Since
='The Pali tcrm is pu!rccusunruppdilu. In the Vis. (Chap. XVII. Pass. 8. p. 16-18). Buddhaghosa has analyzed this term gnmmatically and thcorctically: pa!rcc~~surnrrppd~Iu consistso f two terms: pa!tcco(adj.. "be arrived at" or "dependent") and sumlg,pdrla (co-arising): or pqrcca (having dcpcndcd) and ~ a n r u p p a ~ l i ~ (co-arising). Sumtrppddu mcans "co-arrslng." not surnnrtl (right) 1tppJL (arising), so thc bcst English Innslation is dcpendcnt co-arising. M. i. 190-91. "The lcrm itinvuld i s translaled by most scholars as "cn~punrss." .$onyard has a profoundly doctrinal meaning. especially for Nigirjuna. It does not mean that things do not exist at all: nlhcr irinyurd signilics only the abscncc of unchanging substancc. Things an. dcpcndcntly cc-arising (prirIi~yu.~u~:tntpddu). thus they me ili,!vu. Medhyamaka idcntilics thc depcndcnt co-arising with .iir#yurd. (hlMK X X l V 18: y u ! r prur~lyasarnu~pdcla!r ilinyortlqr r d y pmcu&~nrahc. Dcpcndcnt co-arising. we claim lo be .iiinvalJ. Tl561.



is related to projridpdronlird and Sfirpurd in the development of p r a j j d . we will

discuss the term p r a j r i d p d r a m i r d and Sdn.vard as well.


PrajtirZ/paAAHin Early B~iddliism

The Pali S o ~ i u d o ! ~ ~ o - s r rof r r athe Dig11nnikd.v~has the following statement in its explanation o f p o r i f i d : For poririd. oh G o m e . is purified by s i l o (moral virtue). and s i l o is purified by p o i h i d : where one is, the other is. the moral man has parifid and the wise man has s i l o , and the combination of s i l o a n d p r a r i r i d is called the highest thing in the world. Just.

oh Gotama. as one hand washes the other, or one foot the other. so. oh Gotama. is purified by s i l a ... and the combination of s i l a and p a A ~ i dis called the highest thing in the world."
DD Jirtg ~ The corresponding Chinese version oithis slitra is the Z / I U I I ~


Slitra of Cultivating Vinuc). which is contextually the same." Both the Peli and Chinese versions of this early text show that pufifid is very closely associated with s i l o (Skt. R l u . moral vinueh

33b:IIXllY?kit ~ i ! t ! ! I I f i d [ : ~All ] . dharmas that are dependent to-arising. u c stale that they are i f i t n a ~ .B ) t~~u isr no1 ~ i simply nothingness. For detail explmation. see Gadjin M. Nagao. hfadhyamrka and Yafitictira, tmns. 8; cd. L. S. Kawamum (New York: Stale University of New York. 1991) 21 1 . Cf. Gadjin Nagao. Thc Faundarianal Sranrlpotnr o f hlddha?ant:ka Pl:ilosapl:y, tmns. John P . Kcenan (Nca York: State University. 1989) 4. D. i. 124: Silaparidltorc? hi 6110garanta patitid Patititipariditora,!: silar!: k r r h a silaf!: rarrha patititi Yurrlta patitid rarrha srlar!: SIlavaro patitid. paritia~wro srlat!:. Sllapatifirlnatica pano lor(a~nt~t!t oggumakk/:d?ari. S r ~ ~ a l h dbha p i golama harrhena \ d harrhrr,!t l o t ~ c ~ pdcietto ya t.d pddat!: d o ~ ~ c ~ ~ u . cvanroo kho bho garatno sr1apartrll:ard patitid patitidpurtdl:ara~!: sI1a1!1 yarrhrr sTlar!t rarda patitid. yarrha pad~idrarrha sIla?,t. Srlutwro pafirid patifidr,aro srlat!: Sllapatitidna~icu pena lukmm:r!t oggamrrUbdyurrrr Cf. Maurice Walshe. mns. Thus Hmr. I Huaru(London: Wisdom Publications. 1987) 131. " T I . 96b. 17: 8;:: ii&lWIiB iiBI11J.k~&. &fkiQB Hfl:iP&. 191. !nIhKT. ZZ434ll Xi ZfEiP4i 4iiEiPtl. dt9'~;$12 {i&Sl!dii&. ii&UllIi.3. &fEiQ,E E i E i Q d . v5Rb'l"J tdi.H#l; U l i Q % t t l i . .



The hfudl~.vanr~i~mo contains a passage that explains a person who possesses

prajrid a s one who follows the five precepts and accomplishes wholesome actions:

One with prajlid having suspended killing. is free from killing, [is free from] taking things not given. improper sexual behavior and false speech. [Helshc] even having suspended wrong views obtains the proper views, and accomplishes other immeasurable wholesome dharma~.'~
Praj,id is associated with Silo, but pruj~idis not iilu. Prajtici is Ihe outcome ofone's

practicc: it is something attained through the practicc of Silu and the study of the doctrine: Sincerely maintain the Silu. spiritually practice. study [and] have estensive knowledge. Become accomplished in ddtta (giving) and attain praj~d.'7 Although projriri and i i l a are closely associated. in the Ekuffnrr3gantu the Buddha explains that Silo is only a common practicc of the mundane world. while prq'rid is of the highest meaning. The world-honored one (luku~rdthu) claims, "the teaching of .iila is of the worldly method; the accomplishment of sumddlri is also of the worldly method. supernormal power (&hi-pddo) and those who can fly are also of the worldly method. The accomplishment of prujrid is of the highest meaning.. .



Worldly people can accomplish Silu and sunrddl~i and gain other supematuml powers. but not prujid. Silu and sunrddhi are the methods to gain prujtid. The accomplishment of
prujrid is the highest goal in Buddhism.
'"E6.762a.9: KHhXtPW1R4;RU#:j.?.P;i. PJfilRdUIIKRlL~C. XP%Ut.R F f i i Z . Also. T I . 6 0 5 ~ .I I : 4rf~!?kl$3'j!lWllid. T * l f EfiRlW g.... 2 7 ~ 6 . 6 0 5 c 11: . Cf~rkffJit3'~!lWllil. P18EifiWBB. Sr~tntldl~i. the utmost pcrfcction i n mental conccntmtion. lit. "puning togcthcr" (.%~n:+d+dlrlre), mcans "concentration o f thc thoughts, absmct mcdtwtion. ~nlcnsc abrorptton ctc." (Montcr 1159~). Su~ntldlrris one o f the Scvcn Factors o f Awakening (bodlr~un#u.P i l i br~jjl:urigcr),one of thc Five Spiritual Facullics (rtrdri?u) and Powers (huh). and the last link of the fighr-fold Path (nldrgu. Pili rtnrgpu). S u ~ f ~ t l d is l~r defined as the Four Mcditalivc Absorptions (dl~?d~rrr. P i l i ~htltm). Scc ED 156.lCum3njiva did not tmnslatc this term but mnslitcnted it as LR (or 8 1 l ) . 2q~125.759c.4:tU:W%l~l. #.il!LiL8. iU.lttiR'@i. <Wi~>t$hA.4:~L!ll.f;;%'62. f$,%fikirA. 41~JLIli:WRFl. %'.UT*.%k8.OtJi!Z-L&. lLlh~ll~@f!l!iQ~W.fLi: @fl<!+PZ ?Z.L4;3ik 4;ER Z>bX iQ% filir:rt> WEMal. R~EXfiki? AYll?+$L Ittit?!LEii


. 5 h is not just an instrument for the attainment of proj~id.The Pali tradition

distinguishes two types of silu: pudAorri silrr and poko!i silo. The former may be termed It is the silo of an ordinary being withoutpa~i~id. In this case one conventional mora~ity?~ struggles to restrain oneself--one will not to do this. nor to do that. or cultivate this or that (natural vinue. One here follows a prescriptive course of action. In the case ofpaku~isilu morality) one needs to struggle no more with cclond (will). This is the case of an awakened being whose actions are a natural expression of hislher p a d ~ i i .One's reason and emotion arc perfectly integrated, and one's actions are in perfect alignment with one's insight. The Buddha is thus known as one who is 1.0jci-coro!iu-suntpun~iu-fully accomplished in both kno\vIedge and conduct.


Prajtiii is the Fulfillment of one's Practice

At the end of So!iadu!t~o Sttrru, the Buddha answers a question concerning the

definition ofpuridci. The sutta says: He attains the four iltdnas (meditative absorption)... he attains various insights ... and the cessation of the corruption... Thus he develops wisdom @udAd). That. Brahmin. is wisdom (pod~i).3' Praj~idis the outcome of one's practice. The Chinese text gives a very clear definition penaining to proj~id: What is proj~ici?The Buddha said: "If. oh Bhiksus, through sunrcidlii the mind becomes pure. uncontaminated. yielding. trained. and dwells steadily, then the three kinds of wisdom (rri~lid~li)" will be attained. When U I ~ + (ignomcc/darkness) is
'O Sanghankshita. A Suntry o f Buddhisnt, 11s Docirme U I I ~ hferhadr rltrou~h rlrc Ages (Birmingham: Windhorse Publications. 7'edilion. 1997) 168. I ' Walshe. Tlttts flm+c I Heard 131. The PPli tcxt L s a grcai amount ofrcpetition. thus. I quote from the English tnnslolion by Maurice Walshe 1 : .,. rtt14.d means in Buddhism one who has realized three kinds o f knowledge: rcmembnnce o f formcr rebirths @uhhc-n~njsdnussoit). the divine eye (dtbhn-cuW~u), extinction o f a l l conkers (dsm~akkltmu). In p~n~a-nn~dsdnlrsrnyl~jn'dna-sak.~d~-rCr~yuL,I(L,~: Chinese. the Thrce kinds o f wisdom are: I ). 7iiii?tJ;Bfl)j

removed. the light of prajrici will arise. When darkness is destroyed. the light of Great Dharma " will arise. [Thus] knowledge freed of all cankers (cisruva-~uya-jricinu)is reached. How so? It is gained by training oneself in fonitudc. concentration. perseverance, and the cngyment of d\.elling alone. Oh Brahmin! This is called accomplishment o f p r u j ~ i c i . So projiiri is the final attainment of one's practice and it is gained through the proper process of practice. i.e. the constant practicc of wisdom are gained.

by which the three kinds of


Prajfil as the Spiritual Insight into the Four Noble Truths

In the
M ~ ~ ~ ~ f i n r u r ~ i kthe riyu Buddha ,

explained that one who has

p r a j ~ i f i has

understood the Four Noble Truths. It reads: Oh. Friend: In what respec1 is one called the wise (puritiuvri)? Because one knows clearly. one knows clearly, oh friend. therefore. one is called thc wise. What does one know clearly? One knows clearly. "This is cf~rkklru."'~One knows clearly, "This is the cause of d~rkklra." One knows clearly, "This is the cessation of drrkklro." One knows clearly, "This is the Path leading to cessation ofdrtkklru." Because one knows clearly. one knows clearly. oh friend. therefore. one is called the wise." The test also says that those who havc no pariIci

arc so called because

they do not understand (~rnppujri~rorlri) the Four Noble Truths. In the Chinese
A4ulrrika1r~!ltila S~irra o f M a d ~ n r i g u n r uprajfici ,

refers to the situation in which one sees

the human situation as-it-is, i.e. one tmly understands the Four Noble Truths:
3). ilii k . K W ;a Ifl qupupapdda-iCdna-sPk.~d~-t~ya-~~r&d a). ! sd4dr-krt?a-vih.d (For more explnnalion. see CBE 375 a-b).

i4i R

X I !Jl


" The word "dhmw" has many meanings and 11 is difficull to render it into English. In lhis thesis, usually Dhamu w t h a capital " D refers lo [caching. espccmlly Buddha's teaching: othcrw~sc 11 refers lo phenomena. Dharma is widely used ss an English term. s o il is bctler to be un~nnslated.

"T1.96~.7-12: -ZIqUB? W A. %-Ltli.l;lLDi;*Di:iiVW&. %%;YIttfi:diWJ!& A.tRfl)I;%PHnlI; . k f G ? n f f X ! ~ X i t ~ l l : ~ I i JYlUxfGJ? $i?~. JC~hf,;Ll$l;.t el&. !15Ul"l ! B7~f5'PffP.
" Sce

. 752BilnJI;.
. d4llMZLfi


fn. 3. M. i. 291: Kifrdt,ardnu kho d t u ~ ~ p a t i t i a v fia ~ruccuNfi-Pajd~ripaj~indrirr &haBvuso. fasmdpan'da~d

n trccari. kW ca paid~IJli: rdat!~ dukkl~an 11 pajtintirr, ql.af!l dukk/zasanrudqu 11 pajdndrr. warn Jukkltanrmdho rrpajljntifr, m a y dukkhanrradhagdm~nipa!~padS ripqdndrr. Pajdnrio pajdrljrilr &haPtwso. furnld patitiawl ri ~'uccafilr.

. knows

What is projfici? Venenble (u~~rrsnrar, srltariru) ~lahcikutr~~ltilu responds. "Because it thus. it is called prujfid." What is known? Know that this is dtr!tkltu just-as-it-is ~varlrdbhtirum). Know that this is the cause of the drr!rklro. Know that this is the cessation of du!tkho. Kno\t9that this is the Path to the cessation of drr!rkl,cr. Know just-as-it-is. thus, prajfid is expounded?' In the Ekorrurcigunto. the explanation on prajfid is connected also with the Four

Noble Truths: He asks. "What is the faculty of prq'fici?" [Answer:] To know drr!rkltu. To know the cause. To know the cessation. To know the Path. This is called the faculty of prujrii?8 Again. there is another passage: Oh Bhiksus. how is the emancipation [by] projrici? Oh. Bhiksus. it is to observe the Truths of drr!tklta, of the cessation. of the cause, of the ccssation and of the Path [leading to its cessationJ. To know just-as-it-is. Such. oh Bhiksus. is the emancipation [by] prujfici? In thcSut~tyttkrcigontcr. the term "U'llI rrrshl*' ("just-as-it-is") is repeated many times In ' ~the ~ in reference to prujfid. The wise observes the Five Aggregates as ' ~ u ~ t - a s - i t - i s . A~udlr~amrigonru.prajici is explained as the obscnmce of the nature of all dharmas-impermanent and changing:

How is the Path obtained from prujfid and not from ignorance (ntuhu)? Answer: Oh Bhiksus! Practice prujfid and observe the dharmas which are of the nature of arising and ceasing.'" The phnse, "practice prajfici and observe the d h m a s which are of the nature of arising and ceasing" is restated seven times."

From one aspect, prajti(7 is an awareness of the human conditions. i.e. one truly understands the Four Noble Truths. On the other hand. prujtiri is the final attainment that begins with the understanding of the Four Noble Truths. thc practicing of iiiu. dtitru, and explains: the studying of the doctrine. The Mad/~yurncigott~u Do not be deluded with regard to dt~!rkltu. its cause, its cessation. and the Path to its cessation. Attain confidence, observe the ii!~'. possess estensive learning. be charitable and accomplish prajfi~.f3 In brief. prujfiri is a process of practicing the Buddha-Dharma. One begins by understanding the human predicament or human condition just-as-it-is and the Four Noble Truths, and thus realizing the characteristic of all phenomena to be that which is always changing. Then. the practitioner practices Silo and all wholesome things and through the pmctice of.ra~rrrid/ri one finally obtains prujfi(7. In other words. prujfiri rcfers to proper understanding of the Buddha-Dharma and to means of spiritual practice. It is clear that in Early Buddhism thc practice ofiilu and sumridhi and the understanding of the Four Noble Truths are stressed.

In the I.ihhutigo. the second book of the Ahhid/runmrupi~uka,there is a Pali phrase which is repeated frequently sunrmrid&/ti-absence in referring to poti~iri: "untuho diran~n~u~~icayu

of delusion, investigation of doctrine and proper view.'JJ The test

esplains four kinds ofporitiO:

I . cinrrintayripoti~i~i-pufi~iri arising from reflection

" Vibh.

" R 6 . 4 9 9 b , J : I ~ b E % M i e . Pl{2~&idifdfi~%b%. I?i.?ik?':.k!. 325-326. This phrase is also repeated eleven times to describcpoIIrj. See Vibh. 327-328

2. srtrurnuyci pntirici-puAdd

arising from listening arising from giving arising from monl vinue.

3. dcinonru.vci pun'rici-paritid
4. .silunruyci putirici-puritid

In the D i g l t a t ~ i h i y u .the Buddha esplains that thcrc are three kinds of putirici:
cinlcirnuyi poririri, surunrayci puridd. hhdvuncintayci putiriri @utitici

arising from

cultivation)."~hough the Dig/rutrikciyu does not mention the other two kinds of

giving and of monl vinuc. the Buddha docs emphasize the intimate

relationship between monl vinue and p r a j t i c . It is noteworthy that giving and moral vinue are included in thesis p(3rumilci.v. In the same passage of the Dighutrik2)o. thcrc are three other kinds o f p a l i t i c i : paririci o f a Learner ( s e k k l ~ a ) o . f a non-Learner (usckklro. i.e. arhats). and of the one who is neither a Leamer nor a non-~camer."~ In another abhidharnma book of Thcmviida. the D / r u t t ~ n r u . ~ a t i ~ uthere ~ l i . is the foIlo\ving passage describing p o l t i c i : What on that occasion is the faculty of putitici? The putitici which therein is understanding @ajcitrattci). investigation ( v i c a y u ) , funher investigation ( p u a i c u ~ u ) . investigation of the doctrine (d/rurnn~aeicuyu). discernment (.sullakkl~u!~ri). discrimination (rrpulukklrunci), distinction (puccrrpulukkl~u!ro). erudition @u!rrliccat?r), proficiency (kosullut~r). subtlety (ncprtririut?~),criticism ( ~ * e h h o r f i ) . reflection (cinrci). analysis (rrpupmikkltri), breadth (hhfiri). sagacity (ntedltd). a "guide" ( p a r i ! t B y i k i ) . intuition (ripassunci), intelligencc (sonrpujutitiur~r). a "goad @urodo)"; patirid as a height, podriri as light, poritici as glory. puridri as splendor, patitici a s a precious stone; the absence o f delusion. investigation of the doctrine, proper views-this is the pati% that there then is."'

" D.

iii, 219.

46 Lac cit T i n a pa,id~i: sckkhd podAt1. llrekkhJ padtid, ncrllcdkhri ruisckki:B pu~iriti Apard )I rrsro putifid. cLrWmmQ patidd bbhliandnroyd paddri. " Dhamn:urongo!ri. cd. Edward MUller (London: PTS. 1978) 11: Kuronror!r rasmrr!r sarnayc podriri pujrittunri vicnya pmicayo dlronrmm~rcao sallokkha!:d rrpulukkha!rri poccupabkklra!~ri pq~<rccurn kasallar!~n~,pudn'nt!:vcblrmyi c~~rrri upaparrkklui hh~irimedlrdpurr!:rivkii rrparsanri slrmpajodrio!,lpatado poPG pa,in'indrryot,n paddrihola,!r paE~irirarrlrar!r ponnripiisdclo puddl4lako paddti-ablrriro paddlpuj)alo poridrirarano,!: amoha dlrummmicoya sonmn~ddr!~ltr-ido~!~ rllrmrr!: somay~spadd~n~Ir~yo~!~ lrorr Cf. Caroline A. F. and Rhys Davids. mns. A Buddlrrsr hlonual o/fs).cltological Er111c.s (Oxford: PTS 1993) 15-16,

. In this passage. the aspect pertaining to discernment o f dharnma is highlighted. l h e

explanation of putitici in this passage as the absence of delusion. investigation of the doctrine, proper views is the same as that in the ~ibhanga.'?his is also the general view

on putitid of the TheravQda abhidhamma. Thus, it may be understood that in Thcraviida abhidhamma stress is laid upon studying the doctrine and having proper views, while at the same time the discernment of dharma is highlighted as the means to the proper understanding of the Buddha's teaching and of ultimate salvation. This latter highlighted aspect agrccs with the SarvLstivada definition of prujtid as dlturmupruricu~u. highlighted as the only means of sa~vation.'~

The early Chinese translators translated pdruniili a s "crossed over

(Ig pdrunt

iru)" as exemplified by Sarighadcva who translated the Ekotrurcigur~tu in CE 397?' Later.

in the a b h i d h m a and Mahlyiina texts. pcirun~itciremained in its transliterated form. Traditionally. there are two kinds of explanation concerning the purpon of

1. Perfection of prujtid: 2. Prujtiri can help one cross over to the other shore. Recently. Shongo Watanabe has studied its terminology from the Sanskrit version of
PuAcuvit~~Sa~i.suhu.~rikci Prujticipdruniilci.In addition to these two meanings. he indicated

" Sce

on page 16.

'" Sce on page 40. Cf. AKB, p.2.

mT1?5.550a: bJ5b.

tha! there are two other meanings:s1

1. Which can not be conceived (~iopulahd/iu).The object of conceiving cannot be

recognized i.c. t h e p r a j ~ i cof i all huddhas cannot be conceived. 2. Which is subsumed (a~irargaru) From the phrase. praj,icipipliron~itciv~i~!~ rar/iurci '~irurgurfi, hhiirako!ir
dliarnrad/idrlir anrurgara!t renoc,uure prujriiplipciramiteti. unrargurci.

it is clear that the term ~harma-rca~m.~~

praj,iZpBramirci includes the domain of rarharci. bharaku!i?'

In a (Sthiramati's

later Mnhiyina abhidharma text, .~lbhidliurnru.~aniit~~avu-i:b,~ikIi~'cinu commentary on Asanga's rlh/iid/~urma.~aniiiccayu). there are also

mentioned six priraniirci.~. Sthinmati gives a long explanation on the meaning of


1. The Utmost

(&lB :ui

slieng): 12 kinds of Utmost

2. Perfection of the Buddha

yiiun nrun):

The perfection of bodhisattva and thc perfection

3. What the buddhas and bodhisattvas have done and reached (-kJJi$?$%!fi%~ffi

$11 )ti q i e fo pi1 s u siio ~ r eslio i dao)

3. One has reached the other shore which is to be known ($dljrr.X~1@/;! duu.situ:hi

5. I-Ielp oneself and others to cross the great ocean of the suffering of birth and death

( 4El it!!@I2~&A8if$ling z i ra jite

dii slleng si d o kit /iai)

" Shongo Watanabc, "Four K~nds of lnlcrprcotion on thc Temunology of Pru~ddpdramlld."JIDS Vol. XLVt No.2 March 1990: 132-137. ': Lil. real cnd. It is cqu~valcnlto PPli ko!,-gala, having reached Ihc end = perfcclion, salvation. the INC
goal. Cf. BIISDJIO. " Watanabe 136.
" TI606



PrajtEipliramitli and Piramitcis in the Early Agamas and N i E y a

In the Ekorrurr3ganra. the six pcirunrircis are mentioned." In the Khrrddukurriku'.~~ of

the P5li tradition, the tenpu'runrircis are explained.'6 In the early SOtras, the sixpcirun~ircis arc discussed in the context of the previous life stories of the Gautama Buddha: The world-honored one speaks of six highest crossed over (perfection): giving. mom1 virtues, fortitude, effort. meditative absorption and prajfiz. Their strength is like the new moon. [through which] one swiftly crosses over to the ultimate and sees all dha~mas.~' With respect to the six pdronriru's. the Ekorroriiguntu states: The Buddha tells Maitreya bodhisattva: "If the bodhisattva-mahisattw practices the foundations of four dharmas:' he will accomplish the six pcirorniru's and quickly gain the supreme perfect awakening (anrirrura-sunr~~usur~~hodhi).~~ Here. the six pcirunrilcis are identified as the practice of foundational chanctcristics of dharmas. In the nikaya, there is mention of the Three Chamctcristics of Dharmas (rilukklro!to): arzicca. drikklra and onorrd: "Whether Pcrfect Ones appear in the \vorld. or whether Perfect Ones do not appear in the world. it still remains a firm condition, an immutable fact and fixed law: that all formations are impermanent. that all formations are subject to duhklro. that everything is without a self.'b0 The Pali nikayas do not mention the foundations of four d h m a s nor do they explain that pcirunlirfis are connected with

" 1'125,

550a; 645b.

and Carry~ipr!ako.ed. N. A. Jayawicknma (London: PTS. 1974) 16-20. " ~ 1 2 5 . 5 5 0 a .13: Ir4XitlllRW C!&I.f&ED& RPYHJJLIIII~IJWIt%dMUha)lU ... "Ekorrardguma lists the four as (T125. 639a. 3: 64Ob. 8): 1 . all dharmas arc impermancnl. 2. all are du/u!tklta. 3, all arc no-self. 4. nrn,~i!ruand permanent calmness. T125. 64Ob. 8-11: +i4l!!it?:7:. LIl!kl rfifi;Q. Zfq?-\lY. - t l j ; & t ~ m v . RJ'lfJJil.$X. ! l l l ~ ~ f i a % -t)JXfrE. . ~J!;$IZ .iL&%. $ILLrfilS!. -tJJ%iil.f!t. ::.:SlTlit$:X. tmd:LRiiQ. ;'ll%i?\~k:ljt.:::R?i!Plit4:X. In LLrfilW. E;Pl ;&rt. IYiLbf:. t m 1 L P f i X . ' * ~ 1 2 5 . 6 4 5 b . 2f$EaW. : fiE%W;,Fi674~PliL%. Ji5i?ki%#&. fkrXrn.l:J:l('$ IEW. A. iii. 134: also. Sur!lyulIa-N11.d?u. iv. 28.

" Baddlru IOI!LT~


the Three Characteristics o f Dharmas. In PBli nikBya, tenpdruniiare m c n t i ~ n e d : ~ ' Come. I will examine the things making a buddha. here and there, above. below. [in] the ten quarters. as far a s the ideational element. the great path Examining, I saw then the first perfection. that of Giving (diinapdrun~i) pursued by the great seers ofold. You. having made firm, undenake and go on to this first perfection, that of Giving, if you wish to attain Awakening. As a full jar ovenurned by whatever it may be discharged the water completely and does not retain it there. so. seeing supplicants, low. high or middling. give a gift completely like the ovenurned jar. But not these few only can be the buddha-things. I will examine other things too that me maturing for Awakening. Examining, I saw then the second perfection. that of Monlitv (silupdrunii). followed and pncticed by the p e a t seers of old ... Examine. I saw then the third perfection. that of Renunciation (~ickkliumniapdru~~~i). followed and practiced by the great seers ofold ... Examining, I saw then the founh pcrfection. that of Wisdom @ud~iiipdr~~nii). follo\ved and practiced by the great seers of old. You. having made firm, undenake and go on to this founh perfection. that of Wisdom, if you wish to attain Awakening. And as a monk. looking for alms. not avoiding low. high or middling families. acquires sustenance thus. so you. questioning discerning people and the time. going on to the perfection of Wisdom. will anain Self-Awakening. But not these few only can be the buddha-things. I will examine other things too that are maturing for Awakening. followed Examining, I saw then the firth oerfection. that of E n e r q (~.iriyoplirumi). and practiced by the great seers of old ... Examining. I saw then the sixth oerfection. that of Patience (klratiripdranii), followed and practiced by the great seers of old.. .
(succapdrumi). followed and pncticed by the great s e e n of old. ..

Examining, I saw then the seventh ~erfection. that of Truth [-speaking] Examining. I saw then the eichth oerfcction. that of Resolute Determination Examining, I saw then the ninth oerfection. that of Loving-kindness (~~icrrupdrun~i). followed and practiced by the great seers of old ... Examining. I saw then the tenth oerfection. that of Eauanimitv ~icpckkitiipdrunii),

(ud/~i!!k~nupdrunii). followed and practiced by the great seers of old.. .

followed and praciiced by the great seers of old ...

3- frw as thesc only are those ihings in the world maturing for Awakening. There is nothing elsewhere beyond these. Be established tirmly in thcm.6'
These ten pranris-dfrupcirunti. siluprun~i.nekkl~ofin~uprurf~i. puririprunri. udhi!!~~r~uprun~i~ nieituprumi and

i~iriyuprunii. kl~unriprunli. succuprumi.

irpekkl~prunii.explaincd in the B~rd~llroi~ur~~su (Chronicle of Buddhas). can lcad peoplc to buddhahood. Apan from the Birdrllrui~u~~~sa. there are IWO other canonical works that mention these ten p r a n ~ i r ~ r u nthe ~ i : Curiyripi!uku (Basket of Conduct) and Jruku (the Birh ~iories).~' The Curiypipku is a small collection of storics conccrning the prunrir. It does no1 use the t e m prami. which is used in the B~iddhai~uqisu. but the r e m praniir is used. Though there are only seven prumits named. the other thrce prun~irs (pari~i.vieiyu and k11u11ti)are implied.@ The ten prorr~iswerc developcd and brought to maturity by the Bodhisattva Gautama in his former livcs. and his way of pncticing ihem is illustmted in one of the Birth ~tories.6'A long and methodical exposition ofprumit is given in the concluding Miscellaneous Section (puki!t!~ukakurh) of the Commentary to ~uriyu~i!oku.6"n the I~s~rdd/~in~aggu (The Path of ~urification).~' it is said that through developing the four Sublime States of loving-kindness, compassion. altmistic joy. and equanimity, one may perfcct thesrpron~irs. In brief, the agamas explain the six prun~itsin relation 10 the foundaiional

' :Tlic Ifinor Anrltologicsof rlir Pdli Canon. Pur1111. Climnicleof Ri~rldlios und Rusker o f Conr/ucr.Inns. 1. B. Horncr (London: PTS. 1975) 19-23 " Jtoko. 1. (London 1877):73 1. B. Horncr. "PrcTacc(Buskef ufConducr)." Tlic hhnor Anrl~ologr~~s uflhc P O L Cunon. Pan I I I (London: PTS. 1975): VI. "Jraku. 1. 73 * BD 125. "' Vis. IX. Par. 124. p. 325.

characteristics of four dharmas. but nikayas explain the ten prircrn~itis.


PCramitCs in the Abhidharmn Tradition

In the VibhPyB, traditionally ascribed to KStyByaniputn (I" century BCE).~'only

f o u r p i r a n ~ i t iare s mcnti~ncd:~~ As explained. the bodhisattva practices for three "World-period" ( k ~ l ~of a an ) ~ ~ un-measurable time ( u . ~ u r ! ~ k l ~ the ),~ four ~ piranrirris and gains perfections, i.e. drirrapiruntiti, Silopirrmtili. vinup8rrtn1iti and prajriripirumili.. . The VibhBsa also mentioned traditions othcr than the Kajmirian and in making reference to them, the text states, "...Foreign ~ a s t e r s "say.. ." and then an explanation of the six pirumitis follo\\.s: Foreign Masters say that there are six piranlitis. i.e. adding krri11!i (fonitude) and rllr-v8nu (meditative absorption) to the former four piran~iris.All S L t n masters in KaJmIra say, the later twopirutr~itris arc includcd in the fomer four [p8ranlircis]. i.e. k i n t i is includcd in the iila (monl virtue); cl/~yrina is included in prujiiri. because when either Sila or prajfiri is completed the othcr is completed. Further. thcre is another cxplanation on six pdrumir8s, i.e. "listening" and W n r i are added to the former four pirantitZs. When the bodhisattva can fully receive and remember (dlriyuyuri) the twelve divisions of the Buddhist canon (dt~riduSci~~gu-htrJJi~ucuno) esplaincd by the TathSgata. the "listening"pirunrird is said to be fulfilled. Whcn thc bodhisattva claimed krinti. the king. Koliligarjja (Kalif ja) cut o r a n d dismembered his body. but he had no sense of hatred; on the convary he used a compassionate speech making vows to benefit others. Up to here, kdnri-paran~itiis said to be fulfilled. These two arc also included in the former four [pliron~itis].K ~ f i t a i as explained before is includcd in prajcd. Although it is possible to call all merits "prirantird." however. accordizg to clear enhanced meaning. thcre are only four.7' Sec. Hajimc Nakamun. Indian Duddl~rsnr (1987; Dclhi: Motilal Banarsidms. 1989) 107nn42-43. The Ahlrrdlrarmo-n~oh~i~ibl~~d-.iBs~ro. by Klly5yanipulra (1" century BCE) Inns. Xuan Zang (CE 656-659)T1545,892a-24:P I t ~ Q ~ ~ & ~ ~ i j l P 7 1 I II)l!q&W&%fiP4WP: LUII! :A&&#i"d:Y. r d i s K&*, r;i&&&$gs, &j:.xu'&%.,. A'alpa is an inconccivablc long space of linlc, an eon. It hm 4 divisions: World-dissolution. continuation of the chaos. World-formation. continuation ofthe fonncd world. SCC. B D 76. " Cf.Tt509.86~-19c. SJD 165b. ' :CBE 2216b. Foreign Msars (4CRIDb).also called Wcstcrn Mastcn (nrinfibpa.+cii+?!r). refers to abhidhanna lcachers from Nonhcrn India Gwdhln, rest of Kalmin. "TI5.85. 892b. 23: 9N3lbI1iQ. iiXGSi'ili%: ~ ~ / 6 ? ~ l i ~ ~ l i IBiM' : ~ .# h MkU:&;AIDb,:, ~&. !C . l#ilf%liEil~ffilII: ; W B M h l T . OiLHIiiM2?. & 8 I R B U l J % E % & . Itliih'd;K. Mil
+ A h "

The AKB (Paramartha's tnnslation) gives the following delinition that pertains to


Why are these six named pZranrirrS? It is because one reaches the perfection of virtue's limits." Sarighabhadra defines: Each one rcaches the other shore of prefect virtue. thus. the six are called

Thus. the word p r i r a n ~ i r Zclearly denotes the sense of perfection. The Chinese rendering of "crossed ovei' (la dn)agreeing with the Tibetan tradition. follows the derivation: p r i r a n l (other shore) + iru ("gone" from di, "go"). The other derivation ofthe term is: p a r a m a (highest)



p Z r a m i + rri.

It is c l e v that whichever

derivation we adopt. the sense is clearly the perfection of spiritual In the San'BstivBda abhidhmas. there are two csplanations regarding the number of pZruntirris: I). pdranrirrSs are explained as four in the VibhBsl. and 2). p r i r a w i r i s arc said to six according to those from Western KaSrnTra. In either case. f o u r p d r a n t i r i s or six

they are all explained in reference to Gautama Buddha's former life.

3%:~~lfr?ii5~hnr;B~PPP E-%kS3fCP2&fPn!Wi3t+ :*R. fi&.l:iliElL% %%>Wf. Xi R k f f W f ~ i C : ~ . . C ~ I h ; P l T X ~ l p ]'i?JR-2?$lNL.L. i~W~ &U.%z:;?!?llA42. fi1KZir2#ifi%% nHl%. II~: :n;rt.nal*U. Z?Pn1i;lSl:i1B&B. ~lillli!fiV%%>irfiSh'ii:5:. i61KBT1C)LS
i!l; MNt4iEI.
T1559.249~-23: 1tit2H8iOliti1:. dl!~!tlWUW.&li. Cf. Louis de La Vallcc Pouss~n.Litbhirllrurmukoin C I'ar~tbunill~u. Quarrr;mc chnprrn. (Paris: Paul Gcnthncr. 1924) 23 1. Also scc the English Tmns. by Leo M. Prudcn. AblridI1arn1uko~~ublui~1'am (Bcrkclcy: Asian HumanitiesPress. 1988) 694: Thcpdrurni~rls receive the name ofpornmird because they have arrived kumumir) at the other shorc @ u r n ) r l of thc othcr shorc ofthe totality o f the perfections proper to each of them. "T1563.889a-25;andNy. T1562.591~-21: )ill)illfEfllWUEi4!A~. dtj';XiGR$:Y. For a discussion ofthe derivationof the term. cf. BHSD 34la-342a.


5 .

~ i i n ~ a t t V ~ r ~ itt 1 it Early i a t ~Br~ddliisni arrd A b l i i d l r a r t t t a

In the Mahayana Prujticipdrurrtilti S ~ i l r u s .prujtici is explained principally by the term

One should know that all dharmas-conditioned (sur!tskrm) dharrnas and unconditioned ( u . ~ u ~ ~ r s k ~ dharmas-are tu) in accord with i i i n y r t i . One should know that fundamental nature also is in accord with itinyurti. This is in concordance with

In conformity with i ~ i n y u r d .one acccpts reality just-as-it-is: there is no attachment.

no argument. no conceptual proliferation

There is no diffcrcnce among

"T22I.5~23-25: iC~l-UJXi2:fi?->~L%i>ihfi:%2<:. .;?;bI%?&d:!N?i!*. 22.>EN+> .EM%:. Also T223 222~25-26. "The original Sanskrit for the Chinese is prupaticil (Pili: pupuActr) according to Kumiraj1ra.s tnnslation o f dfudl~?~r~r~ukukdriW, w,hcre he translated prupuicu as UWWA ( T I 5 6 4 Ib: 24n: 31a. M M K Dedicatory Verse; X V l l l 9; X X l l IS). I t is dilticult to define its meaning. Thcre are three tnnslations for pruputicu i n the Chinese Scriptures: & k 3 (frivolous discoursing). (falsehood). E I (fallacious thought) (SJD 859a). According to the Pd11E n ~ l l r l r Dicn,rncr~. the word puputicu Iltcnlly means "sprcadtng out, cxpansron. dt~uscncss"(PED: 4 12b). Thc Trbct r p m , (nu). also mcans "spreading out" (BHSD3EOb). I n the Brcddlrrsr D~crronun.Ven. Nyanlliloka Mahithen suggcsls the following meanings for pupnEco: '"expansion. conccptul prolifcntton. 'diITwcness' or 'nuntfoldncss' o f the world." Hc further dnws attention to the hludIrrtpr!~~ikc~ formula o f scnsc perception, a portion o f which hc quotes and mslatcs: "...'yur!r vrraMcrr rar!~ popuicer. U . ) I ! I pupaiceri raronrddnunr prrri.Tu!,r pupa,icasu,lEIIsu~klIJ samuddcar anrr: 'whlch I vcnrurc to mnslate thus: 'whtcvcr hc diffcrcntiatcs. by reason thereof. ideas and considcntions of differentiation (pupurlcu~uA68.~utiM1d) arise in him"' ( B T 123) Ven. ~ i n a m o lT i h c n has the following commcnt on"pupuBcu" i n 71tc Purlr o/Purijicurion(Colombo. A. Semgc. 1961: p. 5781117): "The sense i n which the word is used i n the Sunas is that o f diversifying and is best cxcmplificd at M. I .Ill:'Fncnds, due to cyc and to a vis~blc objcct eye-consciousness arises. The coincidence o f the three is conwct. With contact as condition thcrc is feeling. What a man feels that he perceives. What he pcrccivcs he thinks about. What hc thinks about he divcrsifics (puputiwri). Owingto his having diversified. the evaluation o f diversifying perceptionsbcscls a man with respect to past. future. and prcscnt visible objects, and so on...."So, here hc rcndcrcd pupuicu as "dtvcrslfying." A. I ( .Warder rcndcrs i t as "diKcrentiation": "Happiness consbu i n thc calnung of thcsc d~fl'crcntlat~on [prupaicu]." Scc A. K. Wardcr. lndrun Buddhism (Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 1970) 384. S. K a o u n anslatcd i t as "mull~pl~city" (Manuscripts o f tnnslat~on o f h f ~ i l u - ~ ~ w d l r ? u r n u h .1996). ~ri~, Gndjin Nagao commcnu: "Thc b r m fabrtcation (prupufica) refers to the mental production and verbal communication of phcnomcnal beings. based on thc discriminative and construc~ive activities of conccprualiwtion and judgment." Scc. Nagao. F~lundurrunul 10. Bhikkhu Ihnamnda discussed l h ~ s term cxlcns~vcly from Early Buddhism Mah3yam to Vcdanta. Although hc did not give a fixed tnnslalion for the term. hc su~gcsted that the tcrm primarily denotes

@ a ; .

things. All things have significance only as concepts. As long as we have a sense of an "I", there will be differentiation or conceptual proliferation. One needs to practice
prujticipcirunlifci but one cannot have a sense of an

"I" who is practicing. In the case of

reality-just-as-it-is. there is no diffcrcntiating of things. Do not think that one practices prujticipcirumirci; do not think that one does not practice; do not think that one both practices and does not practice: also do not think that one neither practices nor not practices. This is called the prac~icc of

If a bodhisattva does not course in form (rtipu) nor become auached to [its] characteristics, then one practices prujticipdrunrirci. [If a bodhisattva] docs not course in feeling, perception, formations. and consciousness. not become attached to [their] characteristics. then one practices prujiicipirumir8.80
This statement is somcwhat similar to the following found in the M ~ j ~ / t i n l ~ f I i k B ~ ~ : Whatever exists thcrein of form. feeling, perception. formations. and consciousness. one sees those states as impcrmanem, as unsatisfactory ... as void. as not self. ...*I
~17n.vurfiis the focus of Buddhism although Early Buddhism docs not emphasize


least in terms of terminology. The focus of abhidharma texts is mainly on dharmas

and concepls. In MahPySna. ilinyulci surely is a salient feature. Venerable Yin Shun has
i its development and relationship among the agmas. abhidharma and studied i ~ i n y u t f and

conccprual prol~fcmt~on. "Bcing dcrlvcd from 'pru*dporic' it conveys such mcanlngs as 'sprcadmp out.' 'expansion.' 'dilfuscnscss' and 'mnifoldncss.' The tcndcncy touzrds prol~fcmllonIn l c real of conccpts m y bc dcscnbcd In any onc of thosc t e r n , and this is probably thc p n m r y meaning of 'pnparicr~."' Bhikkhu Ranananda, Conc6,pr a n d Rcu11n: m Eur/,r Buddltnr Tltauglrr (Kandy: Buddhist I'ublication Socicly. 1976) 4. In bncf. it 1s very dificult lo rcnder it as onc English t c m : "canccpmal prolifcmuon" m y bc a bcncr manslatton for thc Sanskr~t tcm"prapuricn." ' " ~ 2 7 .53825: 4 ; 2 i i b - & l M a . 4;%4;h. 4 ; g i i l l ; i i . Ai/l;%-ll:if:lt4;+f. ::%irlfl1>&#

M E 2 7 . 5 5 ? ~ .I::.RVi4;iiE4;AlII. . HPf lflI1LU)'ifi. 4;iiZ!L!iiP4;KII4. Cllli@ti.# & # I " M. i. 436: S o ),udt%.a r u r r k lrorr n2pufiurur!1 \~rdundfiurur!r . ~ u ) i ) i B ~ .*ur~IIrBrr~gurr~t!~ u~~q~ ~.~)i)iri!~u~a~a~!t dlramrnr uniccara dukkJrura raguro gu!~durosullara aghuro Bhridlruhi parnra pulakuro ruBAalo unarrara satnan~rpussuri .... C f . Bhikkhu Aiinnrnoki and Bhikkhu Bodhi tmns. Tlrc Ilrddlc Let1~r11 Dtscourses afrltc Buddha (Boston: Wisdom Pub. 1995) 540.

Prajficipdranrild Stilra.~. He states:

in shon: ~ti~iyard in the Bgamas emphasizes the practical path of liberation. .?iinyatd in the Sectarian Buddhism is a gradual inclination towards doctrinal discussion. ~tin)ordin the Prajfidpdramirci Stirras is personally realized profound meanings. NBgajCina's Sfitiyard unifies concepts (prajfiapri) and iti~iyarci in the PrajIicipdranrird Stirra, with dependent co-arising @rariga-sanrurpdda) and the Middle Path (madl~yumdpra~ipar) in the agamas!' The notion that all dharmas are icinyu in MahByBna Buddhism does not deviate from the fundamental principles of Early Buddhism--dependent co-arising and Middle Path. 'There is no doubt that the motif of the PrajfidpdrunrirZ Stirras is Sfinyarri, but is there a difference in what iti~iyarfi means among Early Buddhism. abhidharma Buddhism, and Mahayma Buddhism? Is itinjorci thematically only for Mahiiy;inists? In the
Ekorrardganra. the Buddha taught that iiinyard is the doctrine of all buddhas:


If one wishes to pay respect to the buddhas in the past and future. [I] say that one should observe the D h m a of i1i11yatd in the presmt.83 In the following discussion. irityarci in the rigamas and the nikayas will be examined.


~ f i t ~ relates ~ a t to ~ Meditational Practice

The teaching of ifitryafci appears in diverse ways. In the rMq~Iiinicigunru. iti~iyardis explained as a means for meditation or a place for meditation. Ananda, if a bhiksu wishes to pnctice Sii~ryardmore. this bhiksu should not have a thought of a village. should not have a chought of a person. He should repeatedly have a thought of nothing. In this way, he understands irirrya~ciwith regard to a village. ititryurd with regard to a pcrson. But [for him] there is something not void: the thought of nothingness!'

':Yin Shun. Preface, ha.csrigarrorzo,rS"n.r~ard>E;.:LP%!Hby Yin Shun (Taipei: Zhcng\ven Pub.. 1992): 2. "T125.707~24: I:ZkIflMA . Z4Z&D* : :;KG?N&'P . iB!fi?'i!iL. AlsoTI25.708a18: WZklfl
{%A.$ ! k h t l t ; t:;U2Wi.?.. Ok%tflHG&.
A f r 1 t o r S u ~ r o O t t ~ n ) ~ a ( ~ ~ ~ ~ % ) T ? 6 .P 7 I ! 3 % . 7 a 1ttt?..638t%i~??i. 2:

iBtLEfi2&.l!L!. 2 3

. Here SrinyurE is a means for meditation wherein there is nothing existent but one
thing o r one thought in one's mind,

i.e. the perception of~ritryurci.

The Lurger Srirru on Srirtyu ( A 2 3 D u kongjing) explains three kinds ofirirlyorci as

three methods o f meditation: internal irinyufri, external irin.volci and intemal-extemal Srir~yutd.

*'~ i i n ~ u l cas i

a method

for concentration

is well illustrated in the

Muj~/rinlarrik<va: And what. friend, is the d e l i v e m c e of mind through voidness? Here a bhikkhu. gone to the forest or to the root o f a tree or to an empty hut, reflects thus: "This i s voidncss o f a self o r ofwhat belongs t o a se16" This is called the deli\'emce o f mind through voidn~ss.'~ In order to achieve the deliverance of mind, one goes to a certain place, the reflection on which gives rise to the knowledge of the voidncss of perception. Thus. irin.vurci stated in reference to rneditational pnctice.



~1711~atci is Coterminous with Anitya, Du!lk/ta and AncTrman

In the early srirrus, the term s'rinyurci is always found with the words unsatisfactory. Srirtyurd and a~tcifnton-no-Self ':



A,%!. ?:;B2-,RfliY.. Ebn3!Q12G?tjX!. '2h?A!J!. t%ij+2W-,R!Ii!L!. Also. C~!aruAtiara Sufla. M. iii. 106.: So .~afitiurnidum ~uti~idgilunr ptimasariidv~ili pujdnrln. Pi~itiumrdur!i soriii#ura~!rnurnarsu~uild~dlipajdruili.Allhicn,rdaq uuritiora~!~yadidani araiiasai~ianipo!iccu chrru~rri. I N 'g u r ! i hi Uro rarrlra rta Iiorr, rrna r a t ! , raitiunr saniunupassari h r ! r pona rarrha m*asr!!hat,n hart f a r ! ! sanrantidam arrhlrr pajdndri. Et.anipusa rsd dtrauada. yaddbhrrccd at~ipallaflhd sun'tiar~lvakkanfr hha~,arr. H e understands: 'This field of perccptron a void (ruBriu) of the pcrccption of village: this licld of perception is void of the perception of people. There is prcscnl only this non-voidness. namely. the slnglencssdependent on the pcrccption of forcst."Thus he regards rt as vord ofwhnt is not there. bur as to wht rcnulns !here he understands hat whlch is present thus: "Th~s is prcsent."Thus. Ananda. this is his genuine. undistoned, pure descent into voidness. See. Bhikkhu Ninamoki: Bhikkhu Bodhi. hlrddle Lcnprli 965-66. " TZ6.738~.M. iii. 1 101. M. i. 297-298: Karamd cdrusa sutifiardcerovimutri:' Idlr~in~ro hhikkhu aradiiapara va rukklsamdla~aro v d suriidpdragalo mi ui palba~icrkkhan: sir~iiamidamarlena 1.d afrattyma 1.8ri. Ayw ~~uccardruso suriAard cerovimurri. Cf. Bhikkhu R~namoki: Bhikkhu Bodhi, hlrddle Lrtrgrh 394.


drrlrk/ru, Srinyu


a r r d m n ~ a ~thus. ~,

I exhon you to remember and

. r~member.~' '
drr!rklra. S l i ~ r y u ,mfu'mton."

he thinks thus, deliberates thus, delicately

r r ~ ~ i t ySenyu u. c~c.'~ Slinyu,

observes and discriminates thus.'" Here. during practice, one reflects upon dharmas as being Not only material forms clc. are

but even mental perceptions are

because they are only concepts: all attachments should be eliminated. Whatever esisls therein of form. feeling. perception, formations. and consciousness, he sees those states as impermanent. as dttkkhu. a s a disease. as a tumor. as a barb. as a calamity, a s an amiction. as alien. a s disintegrating. as slrfifiutu'. as n o - ~ e l f . ~ ~

By an arahant, friend Ko!!hita, these five aggregates should be pondered with mcthod as being impermanent. dtrkklro. ... srrABurd and no-Self?'
Thus. impermanence. and immaterial subjects.
dukkiro, srrAdard

and no-Self together penain to both material

5 . 3

~tir~~a and t t iNaircitmya

In the early


the statement that all d h m a s are Srinqu is an explanation of

states: no-Self. The Sut~r.vrrkrdgun~u All conditioned d h m a s are S i n y o and unattainable. end of passion, beyona desire. trin,u'!ru. Herein. how can thcre be "I"?" The same kind of description can bc found in the Sum),~rkt(igunruand E k o r r a r ~ i g u m a :

" ~ 9 9 . 1 5 3 a l l :!%s;tOYd&!. X&BaR*V%. "~26.565~4 RWE'3!lL&!. : E$~PL!~~$~~~~B%PII~ITI:LI~*~;~. Also. T26,672b6:678aJ. " A l s o scc note 8 I . YO M . i. 435-36: Te dltamnrc onrccaro dukkharo raRaro ganGaro sallaro aglraro Bh12dl:oro poraro palokar~ sudrioro anarraro sarnanupavsari. so r e b d1:an:mehi c;rra~!t pa!rwiperi So rchr dltarnmelri crrror!l pa!n.dpen.d arnurA).o d1:UruyA nrraqr upava,!:/:arari. Cf. Bhikkhu R~nsmoki:Bhikkhu Bodhi. Ahddle Ler~grh 540 S. iii. 168, aralrar pikho dvuro ko!!ltrra :me poAcupdddnakkhande anrccara dukkbaro.. .vuri~iaru at~arroroyonaornnsas: karrabtni Also. S. iii. 167: A. ii. 128. Y'T99.66c10: -tlJ;4iiY&/f~Wi!1~&Wi~iFFR. Jk'I'-Zflil'.lk. Also.T99.66b-17.


. countenance, teaching, nor instructor," means that all dharmas are ili~qm. So what is
this "I"? The "I" does not have any essence." Here, "no teaching, no instructof'just as NPgGuna's statement: "nuh~acir kasyacir
kaicid d/rarmo brrddl~ena deiiru!r"-"No

Herein [the statement:] "no I, no Self, no person.


creator, also no shape.

Dharma whatever was taught by the Buddha

anywhere about anything" (MMK, XXV, 24). All d h m a s are Stinya. thus. there is no-Self. The difference between Early Buddhism and MahPyZna is that the former lays stress on no-Self while the latter on i ~ i ~ g ~ u r i .


~ f i ~ r ~ Explained atii as Dependent Co-arising

NHgPj u n a in his 1Cfadhyamoku~rikri explains ilinyari as dependent co-arising

@rarifyasuntitrpridu).O" that in actuality is a restatement of the expression found in early

srirras. In the Ekorrarigania. iiityalri is explained as dependent co-arising:

The world-honored one said, "How is it called the Dharma of ullimate ilin}~ar8? When eyes arise. then it ariscs. do not view where it came from. When it is estinguished. then it is extinguished. do not view where it became extinguished. Provisional names of dharmas and dependent co-arising dharmas arc cxceplions. What is provisional names and dependent co-arising? Answer: This exists. that exists. This arises, that ariscs. Avidyi (ignorance/darkncss) is the condition for formations. formations arc condition for consciousness... This is not. that is not. This is extinguished, that is extinguished. .41,idyi is extinguished. then the formation is extinguished.. . 95 In addition to the two stirras titled suIiiurci/Stinyard in the Pali hfaj~hlrinra~ri~.vu and Chinese Madltyanrigania as mentioned bef0re.9~there are two other srirras found only in

" Scc fn. 23.

''~125. 713cIS: lll.Gi';I.t. llfZfu78 %\Z-lrl~i!LiL. ~~-UN&ll+l!lll. fi;l;bCd:Q.i&li.kll4N. 464;4L#rB. RffiAeit. F l P i t . ZGJffliAe. IxlP. rfi~CIE4illll41'. &%l!lI?k. .91141?Cii. i i P a. 3 I P a f i . 8fkPkh. kA%!l!%. E I P S C . 4PQ. PgCX. X P i i . {is!&. 19 &. &!.XB.kBIYd. 7;iiliWCt. ~~BF?LI~I*IS. 6!21!11.49. kWIIlJW.,%n~li\brl!llfiH.iii&l!lj


*See on page 27.

the. Su~n)~~rkrigunra: Tlre Siirru on ~ o r c m r d r ~ / ~ u - ~ i i n (y Z ur i B 9% Di yi yi kong

iit~g),~ and ' Tlre Stitru on Greol Siin.vurci Dlrurmu (%22cfk# Du kong/u jing)?' These

two slirras are very shon and explain ilitryari as dependent co-arising. The former is contextually the same as the Ekorwrciguma mentioned above. The latter explains jrinyurri in terms of dependent co-arising and the Middle Path freed from the two extreme views: the view that body is different from Self and the view that body is identical with


~ i n ~ a and t C the Three SamCdl~is

In the Prujtidpdrun~ird Slirra.v.pruj~iipdrumi~i is also explained in the context of tile

pncticc of the three sunridl~is. The Buddha says, "To dwell in the sanrddlri means to be in conformity with iinyura. signlcss (ini?trirru). desireless (upru!tiltiru). All sentient beings arc attached to iiinyari. attached to sign and desire. A bodhisattva-mahisattva settles down sentient beings with the D h m a of iiinyurd. signless and desireless. and practices pr~jtiipdrunliri.'~~ In the Chinese ~ i ~ l ~ i ~ u m and a sPrajiiiprirunrirli '~' ~iitras.'~' the three sumddl~is refcr to jiitzyuri, signless and non-action ( I f i o t o . .at$). This non-action is used in the same sense as desireless above. Thc ~~ful~ripraj,iriprSrutt~i~i Siirru states, "Non-action is called 'no desire acting among all dharmas.""03 In the Ekorrurr3ganru.threesonridliis are mentioned but the same meaning as explained in the Prujiiipcirunriri Stirrus:

'' T 9 9 . 9 2 ~ . '' T99. 84c.

WT99.84c9:tfu7cl-)A2iLcl:(. rfi:wk4i&fifl'. lk&&l&. :rj%!!klll?~. & $ T t.P . 7SEtk)i.E X & . %%$24EX. %4il3l!lX. E,.SECX. t 3 E A I . El!llEA. 4tOlJ24E. + 2 4 E b J k . 2% XWYi. A C U l J P B . t,i. 6i1LR)t. &IIll-R. ii71iQfiU!fB. - ~ ~ L A C ; l t l ! l E 5 f .EPifelidTJi Wfi. % l Y 5 t , ; C h X R X . t C ? i f i f i l f i . L&-:S. .bfi4;1. EhrfiZ. ~ 9 ? U i l l ! b l U .
'"7221. 9 1 ~ 1 8 :t% J l i ; li L . P L f K 4 . R L R l l l l R i t 4 k l E . - l " J ~ ! k k + A G ? 2 W E 4 l l ~ . AWZ?J E. f &i!Z%l%%fRhlRBULit. fillZfiiLMl'E. "' L;1$7%8.TI.53cl3: 2f"ieiL. :YlLX.. 'i%LR1;.4hllILQkWII%LfK.

7223. 254cl-l: 346~12-27. ' O ' T X ~ .2 5 4 ~ 1 7881% : %x>A~P4;bift:.

AISO. 7223. 3 9 4 ~ 2 6 .

. which are the three? ~tinJ'ardsumridlti. desireless . w m d d l ~ i .signless s u n ~ d d h i . 'How ~

At that time, the World-honored One told the bhiksus, "[As for] the three sumddlti.~,

is it called Sti~t~~ord-sontddl,i? The so-called Stittvurd means that all dharmas are observed as empty. This is called Sri~t~~ard-sanrddhi. How is it called signless sontddl~i? The so-called siynless means that all dharmas are neither thought [about] nor perceived. This is called signless sanrridlti. How is it called desireless s o n ~ d d l t i ?The so-called desireless means that all dharmas are not sought after. This is called desireless s a n t d d l ~ i . ' ~ ' These three sunrddltis are referred to as samddhi based on S r i ~ ~ y o r on d . being signless and on being desireless. In the Pali nikayas: "Moreover. three other santddl~is:concentration on signless, concentration on d c s i r e ~ e s s . " ~ ~ Funhermore. in the
sontddltis striiord.

concentration on the

Santvt~rraaikri~ (SttiiurusantridI~i.~~~rru~~t). o these three

kinds of

are explained as the path to emancipation:

And what. oh bhikkhus. is the path that goes to the uncompounded? Concentration on stoiiold, signless and desireless. This. oh bhikkhus. is called "the path that goes to the uncompounded."'07 And. Oh bhikkhus. for a full insight into lust three condirions must be culrivatcd. Which three? Oh bhikkhus. for a full insight into lust s r o i i a l h sumddlti. signless somadhi. desireless santddlti must be c u ~ t i v a t e d . ' ~ ~ In the nikayas and agamas,

leading to ninpdga are cultivated and this


cultivation is considered to be equal to the practice of


in the

Chinese text has ? J ! , but should be read 4 1 1 . SeeT125. p. 630 nore IS. See also. 726.792~123. Also. TI, 57613: TI. 59c5:T26.519b24. '''j03!WA# T115.630M: MllBIU.4Piltt.E. k 2 L Q C . ZWhL. Y L l G . . R @ i i i L 4 N . .W ! L ! -P. EEl.7%fi3!1%. fiiPILX.. W.--t)J;A;L. '&.%Yh.E,J7%%\YLP. iEZl~Jl%%\R ti!-QC. IJi;S1.4R!J!X. G?-tI1;XiL. LX!J!2. . I l . + q b C . IC;Vl%d>dX!EQC. E(.7%AlWiL nk. rfi:nfiBlil;. G?--t)JliZ. 4;4;m;K. E:w%%\nmlP. I" 0. iii. 119: Apan, 'pi Iaya samd~lhr: sun'ialosamddhi anrmim samd~lhr. oppa!rrbrrosanrddhr. lo' S. iv. 360: karamo ca blrrkkbavu asmkharagdmr maggo: sstiriaro samddhr anrn~n~o sawrdiilrr appa!rrbrrasamddhr. Ayaq~ vuccarr hhikk6m.c ura~ikltatagdn~rmugga. Also. S. iv. 361. "'A. i. 199: Rdgassa hhikkhavc abhiBAnya rmc tayo ~ihammdbhd~z.rebhd,h'arnnc rayo: Suifiaro
somdd/rt. animilto sarnddlr~.appo!rrhrra sontddlrr. rdgassa hhikkhatv ohhiriinya :mu ra?o rlhemmd bhdverabbd.

5 . 6

~ t ~ ~Explained at in Ekonargama and in the Praj~iprarnit Stras: Their Doctrinal Identity

In the
Prujfipruniir Sirrus, prujfid



are ofien explained in terms of


neither existence nor non-existence. There is one passage in the Chinese which has a similar idea as that in the P r a j ~ ~ p r a n l i r Srras.

Matcrial form is impcrmanent; what is i m p e r m ~ n is t dir!tkliu. what is dir!iklio is \vithout Self, What is without Self is s'n)a. Sin.i'ur is neither existence nor non-existence. and also is without a Self. Such is that to which the wise is a~akened.'~

II may be noticed that in this passagc. the explanation of


is somewhat

differcnt in that hcre it includes an esplanation on no-Selt thus. gencnlly. Early Buddhism emphasizes the aspect of no-Self. In the projfipruniir literature. prajN is explained in terms ofSiinyurd and of"thc tme chriracteristic of dharmas"
Ekorrargamu: (dliurnia~)~ This ~~.

idea can be found also in the

If this bhiwu hears this teaching of i i i ~ ~ y u and r understands that there is no existent [things]. then he gains the understanding of al1 d h a r m a and knows them as j~st-as-the~-arc."~

'WT125.67Uc27: CXR17;. RZti);BIIS?!. EXEIUt. FiaiULXIII232. 321;'Ilti.1I.11~4i.4;



"'The fini perron who providcd h c icrm "XitU4ll :/tu fa shr xiang" is KurtLlnjlva in his Chinese riru and ihc ~liilu,rrudli~u,ri~1kukrt1. innslalions of PrajEdpdranrlid Sirur. the Suddl~urniu-pupluriku Hajimc Nakamum h u sysiemalically studicd ihis term. According 10 hirn. ihcrc are six Sanskrit icrms 1 1 " :dharmui. san*a-dliarma-IUIII~I, blrru. dharn~a-svabliva which Kum5njlva uanslaicd into "%?A ll< 4 Buddl~~.~r Eitqrlo~pdiucd. h n Jifu (Tainan: The Chincsc prukrri. rarrvasya labunu. Sec nie Cltinr~r k Buddhisi Encyclopcdia Litcniurc Foundation. 1994) 4998a-b. Also sec. Kino Kazuyoshi (&?!PI -3). , & O :' O b <Hi&> EICW na lnocbi "Nichimti." Btikbo noSliua W $ ! L *!Y!?$ 12. cd. K$#R (Tokyo: Kadokawa Shoicn 1969) Chap. 3. scciion 2. n. pag. :-StLfi.liak%~tWWrfiIi. Il~l%lk?T-t~~:txt. InUBiL. "'~1~5.593~ 18:

. Thus. in the Ekorrurciganto. all d h m a s are Slinyu in the manner that it is explained

in the Prujtidpciruntiri Stirros.


~ i i t p in ~ the t ~SarvHstividin


In the abhidharma literature. certain doctrinal issues are expanded while some other issues are stressed less, such as the notion of Sti~t~~arci. In Early Buddhism, irinjufci is discussed in the contcxt of the method of practice and the idea that all dharmas are itinyo which appears in early srirras is not so visible in the a b h i d h m a . ~ l i ~ t y u r is d explained in relation to dtr!tkltu. one of the Four Noble Truths: The highest truth @aromcirfltu-sug~u)in the contcxt of the truth of unsatisfactoriness (dtr!tkltu-sag~u)purports to unsatisfactoriness (dtr!tk/tu). impermanence (aniryu). itittyurci. and non-self (a~rcimtan).'" In the /I bhid/tur~~tu-sumfli-pur).dyu-pdJa; (FU7 iESlf3?&>Xf"J

Zbh A pi do nto

i i y i nten :re Itin). Stinjarti is explained as one of the four characteristics of d t i ! t k l t ~ - s o r ~ ~ ' ~

and, just as in the early stirrus. as a method for practice and a process of meditation: All conditioning forces (sa~!lskura)are impermanent. Conditioning forces with outflow (scisravu) are unsatisfactory (dtr!tklru). All dharmas are slinvu and without a Self. Having pondered thus. one then diligently observes [them].".'What is new in SarvastivPdin abhidharma is that the functions of undrntun and
ilinyarci are distinguished. Andrmuft is an antidote to the view that the ptrdyrrl~e or cirmon

exists. while jti~yufciis antidote to the view of the attachment to the Self (U/fi!JL u80stio
iiu~t.drnt[vudr:!i or

W ! 4 1 1 R

sa jia ye jiun, s u r k d y n d ~ i ) :

~ t i ~ ~ ~ a ~ c i - s u is n testablished ~d/ti as an antidote, i.e. no-Self is an antidote to the vie\v of Self ( a 4 2IVOjion, cirmud~gi/pudgulu-d3i); the chnncteristic of iri~t)lutlrii is an
"'The Vibh*l. TI545.399~23:bZ'18iilM&32;: ~ME?~1;F'rL'-II_lI!lY. " ' ~ 1 5 3 6 . 3 9 3 ~ 2 7 : b W - Z f U 7 .FP?ti4M. !fl111-:1L8621E~rfi&1&1Fe. V'CIBR. "'T1536.435b29: ;4iiXi7;tfiiGitr3:. -tIJiLYR19. H:lL2LiYEl~etltY.);?'. AlsoTl536.377b24; 377~20: 452-a-19. T1537.494a15. T1543.778~17.

35 antidote to the view of what pertains to the


In Buddhavaman's translation of Vibhlsl. ten kinds of itinyurci are mentioncd as antidotc to the view of the attachment to the Seli(surkriyud~:ri lit. the view on real body): Again, [for] sulkri),udrgi, these ten kinds of itinj~urZ are antidotes. thus they are explained extensively. The ten kinds of itif1yald are. internal itinyard. external irit~yarci,internal and external s'tifr.vurii. conditional S~inyurri. unconditional .ttinyuld. decay Stinvurci. self-nature Jirinprci. limitless Slinyarci, surpassing itin~old.siit~yurci jttr~~urci."' Here. the ten kinds ofStifiyu~ciare mentioncd. In early stirrus. there are mentioned only three kinds o f i t i ~ ~ r c i . " ' In the early sOtras three san~dd/ris are explained. The three sanrcid/iis arc mentioned based on the once in the JPS;"' while in its commentary. the Vibhlsi. the three suntcid/~is Prujriup~iScisrru(&?&$I S l ~shc i litn TI 538) are explained as a threefold suntcictl~i (-3

xl%it!i sun rhotrg sun nto di). and iti~~yurri-itifiyurrrci sumcidlri is explained as a technical
rn~ditation."~ The threefold s u n d d / ~is i frequently explained else


Srrtitiatci in Theraviidin Abhidamma

According to W. S. Karunaratne. Thenvida abhidhamrna discusses three aspects

wi~h regard to strririarti: I) sttririurci as an equivalent for the dependent co-arising. 7)

" ' ~ h cVibhfql. TI545. 172nll: UPj%&!iUYY2B&: B~l-U(fi4llft~lifiXk~t. Y+f4llY4i'n'#krfi Also. T1545.45b4: 538b5. TI546. 3 5 s . ""1545. 37a12: IYfiAIYIIH. E+lhY5fiFj%i. fil%(CiiQ.-1-ffi'i;i'&: ;,P1142. YbY. 1 4 9b?:'liQZ?. R A Y . NMY. M'i.2. ,RbTY. mid??. 2 Y . T1546.27a17.'~1545.54OaZO. 1,: Src on page 3 1 . TI544 923~79. ""TI545. 5430: tii!T?LR&: i\7YY24N?. IFXITIIU~~~IBIC. ItU4G4ULIZIL. P;8;3;1(.



-Z;-l;J??i:'i%Ll*WBfiLaS. !Sftii;lii4illl;Ali'Er.5ZzYY tVdtii;kliilll:JlrY%7;t7;t tk4+!2MiS. amkrfi. ~ ! I I ~ ~ ~ +tuG.txrfi~L. RIIII. !MI.I~IY~V~~; ~~v IA w~~ . ~ : Y R t ~4 x4. ; ~ ~ LLdkhtBRi. l o l h i f i ! K B 8 % ~ 9 k X L . POhl;TlhlP&lS). R + b G L h l f a . RiUI.i?C4.4!! Carnrncnranr*~ and Contmrnrurors A'!'. ?4Ql~li4I. Cf.Yin Shun. Research on rhc Maln San*dsrrt.ffdtn
;1(--.IlJlifIUZ>ZWJ,~ff RXiP1126Jf'il(Taipei: Zhengwcn pub.. 1992) 145.

TI545. 174a: 172a: 400c: 494c: S77b: 538a-c.

wrfiriafri as not only an cqui\~alentfor the nature o f the phenomenal world but also an equivalent for nibbririu, 3) the Madhyamika conception ofsirririurri a s representing a more detailed statement o n the logical consequences o f the ThenvZda theory o f causality and

In the Dhonimapada (verse 92193). sioiriorri is equated to r,iniokklia, which is another term for nibbdno: "SuriAafo anintifro ca. vinlokkho
~ C . Y U I Igocaru"-"Whose ~

goal is

emancipation. i.e.. s~ririofriand the unconditioned." In thc ,lbl;;dIi,inrniarrlro Su~igaha. srrririarci is designated as one o f the three characteristics o f nibhdria: A'ihbdno is onefold according t o its intrinsic nature. According to the way (it is experienced) it is twofold namely, the element of ~iibbrinawith the substrata remaining and the element o f nibbdna without the substrata remaining. It is threefold according to its different aspects namely. void, signless. and longing-free."' With regard t o truths and suririarri Buddhaghosa states: Firstly as to void (sirtiria): In the ultimate sense all the truths should be understood as void because o f the absence o f (i) experiencer. (ii) doer. (iii) one who is extinguished. and (iv) goer. Hence this is said, "For there is sufiring. but no one who s u l k s . There is action but no doer. There is extinction but no one extinguishes. There is path but no goer.""'

"' W. S. Kamnanlnc. Duddhrsnt: 11sRelrjyon ondPhilosplty (Singapore: The Buddhist Rcscarch Society, 1988)45. : ' Ahlridhmmur~lro Sunfiohu,by Bhadanw Anumddhacariya. Inns. Barada MahS Then. A ~funuol o/ Ahhrdlrumma (1956: 1968: 1975: Kuala Lumpur: Buddhist Missionary Society. 1979) 315. The Pall text rcadr (p. 3 1-21:Tud'cfu~n suhhdroro rkm*rdlrom pr: so-u@drsrsa-nrbknudIGru unup~idrscsu-~rrhIxi~rudhdf~r ciifr du~~rdlrot!rhorr htiru!rupurr.uiyeno Tufhd sr~AAnfu,!r on~mrrruqruppo!trhrrur!r c'u'lr rrndhor!~ Irolr tikiruhhcdrrra. I : ) I'rsvddhrnrofijio u/ Buddlrughosdcur~yu.cd.. Hcnry Clarkc Warrcn (Cambridge: Haward U. Press. 1950) Chap. XVI. Paragraph 90. p. 436 (PTS. p. 513): Sun'n'ur' cliovidl~drlilrr rr crfho sudAufo rdvu. paronrofrhcno hr sobinin'e,n saccdnr vedoka-htiroko-tribblrru-gamoMhIG~~oru suAAtini rr vedrfobbtinr. W n era^!^ vuccali: Dukklranr cru h:. nu kocr dukkhiro. htirako nu, krrryd vo vyjori. ofrhrnibbrrr. no nibburo puma. ntoggam ouhr. & ! a m u k o no vwari rr. Bltikkhu flyinamoki,trans. Tlrr Per11o/Purrjicarro~r(Colombo: A. Scmagc Pub. 1964) 587.

. In the nikiyas. dhammas are analyzed in terms of khandlrrrs, dlrorus and uyurunas. In

Thcraviida abhidhamma. dhammas are funher analyzed into 82 elements. E\ferything is analyzed in terms ofdhammas, which shows that there is no cntity a s such. However. the dhammas merely reflect a means to understand the nature of human conditions or the nature of reality. Everything is srrrifiu. therefore nothing is absolute and this means that nothing has independent existence. This is why Buddhaghosa states that all truths
(succritti) are s~rrifiu.

In conclusion. in the early agamas and nikayas. prajrici is principally esplaincd a s praxis. PrajtiB is also explained as an outcome or attainment through praxis. In order to auain prujrid. a practitioner should understand the Four Noble Truths and realize that changelimpermanence chancterizes all phenomena. Also. the practitioner should practice iila, son~cidiii. and all wholesome things. In other words. prajrici is the propcr understanding of the Buddha Dharma and the practice of it. In Early Buddhism. it is stressed that prajtiri is the practicing of i i l a and sanrcidlri and the understanding of the Four Noble Truths. The absence of delusion, the investigation of the doctrine, and propcr views summarize the general view on pa~i,iliwithin the Thcnvida. In the agamas, the six pirumiris are explained in relation to the Four Principles of Dharma. In the nikayas. ten pBramirBs are explained. In either case, thosc prirantirris are explained in terms of Gautama Buddha's former life.
sot~ptta is the salient feature of Buddhism. Early Buddhism emphasizes no-Self on

the basis of i i n y a dharmas. Abhidharma focuses mainly on dharmas and does not stress

the,notion ofdt711yarZ. In the early s 0 t m and in the abhidharma, SlinyarZ is n means for meditation and one should reflecl on things as being anityu, du!rklto, Sfinyarci and
a~tirnta~r. What is new in SarvPsdviidin abhidharma is that the functions of as8rnrrrn and irilt~ord arc distinguished. In Mahaynna. Stiryara is a dominant theme. That all dhnrmas

are Stinya does not deviate from Early Buddhism: but the difTcrcnce between Early Buddhism and Mahiylna is that the former lays stress on no-Self while the la~ter lays strcss on itinyarfi.

Chapter 3: The Definition and Function of Prajtiz

P r a j Z in the Sarvativada tradition. unlike that in early Buddhism. is not conlined

to the supreme spiritual insight obtained in perfect enlightenment (san~kranrhodhi). It is not confined to just the wholesome or pure mental state either. Even wrong views are of the nature (svublrrit~u) of prujrici. In this chapter. we shall discuss the definitions and functions of prujrici in the SarvBstivlda.


Descriptive Dejirritiorrs of PrajtiH

Skandhila. who by tradition is said to be the teacher of Sanghabhadra. in his

/Ibhidhurmrivalcira (TI 554) gives the Sanflstivlda description of prujriri as followvs: Prajriri is the discernment (prut~icuyu) of d h m a s . It is the examination (rrpulu~u!ru). as the case may be. of the following eight kinds of dharma: inclusion or subsumption (sutrgrulru). conjunction ( s u ~ ~ r p r o y o ~ ~ cndow\ment r). (sonro~r~~dgunru). causes (Irenr). conditions (prurnvuyu). fruitions (phulu). specific-characteristic ( s ~ ~ a l u ~ u ~ r a ) . and common-characteris~ic (s~nrci~~ulu~a~ra)."'

This description succinctly gives us both a definition as well as a description of the nature of prujrici. The definition of prujriri as being the disccrnment or examination of dharmas is in fact a standard one. found in all SmHstivHda texts in geneml."' The
TISSJ.982a22-24: OnfiiLfEiiml?. IIEt?HL4IIEr&.%:dPlPJI!. t l l I l J k 4 l l ) \ i f i i t ~ ' . &IF Sce also. Dhammajoti. K. L. Entrance Qrro rhc Suprcmc Dacrrme tSkandlrrlai Ahhi~llrurmdvardra) (Colombo: Pos!gnduatc Institute of Pali 8: Buddhist Studies. University o f Kclaniya. 1988) 93. Abhidl~arrnma~!rgtrrpand~apddni~lslr 1$7 RSlff; & X 1'1X A : T I 536. J23b11- 13: &!Zb1. E f i fb ILlR#UfflR3i&i". fi;XiZ4llfEfliltlEw!flilTT. lh?,Q75%[D%%flIE%2.~.g. Also.TI536.4JOb20-12. Abhi~lhamadl~armasPan~lI~apd~Iaidsrra W RitIff?LjjiZ;,a: T I 537. J92b7- 12: &I & A;&if;. lif,37552i$!I:iLR.'~. rfiii,Ri%tl:,??4u@. E~&~~ITT#@TT. M#@t?. M 7 Y T C T . IR%:ii7iif. %l%?EtE. fnM.GCSii. R W % X . ? 3 % 2 1 9 . h Z P I f 1 . ~ ; % . G J J 8.: 8 t V i t t X . fi;%iE)L. Ahlrrdlrarmaprakara!~opdd~Psrra WIL~iflf$t%fli~,& T15J2. : 69991-23: G?itbiltlE#ltlt?. Mw!m

Ni $2 tK U 93jt


G. W T ~ T B T Z T .~ z : a i t . r m a . YL~)IBWLU~~R~I. 2;.8c?39.

.4b!1idl1urmodi~o"~ explains: dl~i!~ as a synonym ofpraj~ici. as follows: dlti!~prujtid dl~urmusu~~tgrul~cid~~~ipo/u~o~tasvubhii-dl is projtici which has. as its essential nature. the examination of the subsumption of dharmas etc. Sin~ilarly, the AKB states: ntari!~ prajtili d/~urntapru~~icuya!t-nroli!~ (another synonym ofprojtid) is prajrici. the discernment of dharmas."' Likewise, in the Vibhag. praj,iri is consistently defined in various places in a similar manner. Thus, "the discernment of dharmas is none other than projfici."128Again: .4rc all jkinu pruj~ici? Answer: All i,7a'11a are prujtici: for whatever that can ascertain is the discernment of dharmas."' Sanghabhadra also offers similar definitions or descriptions: "


there is

only one nature which has the function of being aware. Being aware is [the function] of .- - ..I30 Elsewhere. he defines prujtid as "that which discriminates the chamcteristics prujnct. of being true. false. etc. with regard to an object of perception (dlambonu)"13' Further. he explains: l'he characteristic and nature of all dharmas arc very profound. Prujtici is strong and bright. and can illuminate thoroughly [the chmcteristic of all dharmas]. Thus, it is called the most excellent. Or. projtici surpasses all dharmas: thus. it is called the most excellent. "Excellent" has the meaning of "a surpassing." "Surpassing" in the worldly convcnlion is called "excellent." Herein, the meaning is: It is only prujtici. which can extensively illuminate what is to be known."' In brief, these descriptive definitions make it clear that the abhidhamikas have a

'"ADV. p. 70. ':' AKB. p. 54. Xuan-wng's mnslalion reads: ",lbfr is prqrili. which is idcniical with dltarma-prmicaya." TI 559. 178b. 13: .K:iWllZB.N1213it. Also see. fn 134. '~'TI545.726b23:!Xi.tBI19. Alsb.TI545. 161~12: R8lA.E. '~~1545.491~16-17: XW:L8411. BXWk'iEIJ. P1SLIIX kYlTitU. ""~1562.396a14 Ik#i-IIL fiaNt-a. t!li-:VlE. "'T1562.384b6-7: 113ffiP117~?9411.;Vt?hB. Alro.Tl563. 799clj-16. "'~1562. 389n. 6-11: aiLn4u. rYli#Rf.i~. R 8 4 ! 1 1 . %lkibl.W. I A l r t B . litllf7fiCBX 2 . . UZUMI. MIEa&. lW&G?i4. 348riU. dt:tl.E;K. NL{i&l+. %!KIrfiRI.

very articulate notion ofprujtici:It is that mental faculty which discriminates. or discerns or examines the object in a perceptual process. It is in fact the sine quu non for our mind to be able to have such functions at all. In addition. it should be noted that there are places when the Sanmtivadins emphasize pruj,iri in the sense of a buddha's perfect insight into the true nature of Reality. In such a context. Xuan Zang seems to prefer to transliterate rather than translate prujt7a. as the preceding quotation from the Ny shows.


Prajtid as One o f the Ten Universal Mental Concomitants (malrdblrrimika caitta)

All the above descriptive delinitions also serve to indicate the functions of projtili.

The fact of the indispensability of prujrici in any mental act of perceiving is doctrinally expressed in making prujtici one of the ten universal mental concomitants (nrahcihl~ri~triko
cuirro) in the SarvLtivada abhidharma. In the VaibhX5il;a theory of mental functioning.

thought (cittu) cannot arise by itself. Whcnever it does arise-whether

as a wholesome

(kdula). unwholesome (akrrsulu). or neutnl (urycikrra) mental state-it

arises concomitantly with ten mental factors called maltciblrrittrika cuitro."' In other words, whenever there is a mind there is always the function of kno\\*ledge. The perceptual process is considered to be always associated with prujtid that is a cuirtcr. because every instance of knowing functions regardless of whether it is strong or weak. wholesome or unwholesome. with or without outflow. These ten universal mental concomitants arc: feeling (rteduni).concept (sotnitid).volition ( c a o t l i ) .contact (sparia).








mindfulness (snryfi), concentntion (surrtiid/ti). and understanding (projrici)."'

In the

Vaibhiyika conception. each of these is a real entity ( d r a l y a ) because each uniquely contributes as a real force to the process o f perception. The role o f p r a j r i i i . as mentioned above, is to make possible the aspect of understanding. This understanding. of course. may be a clear or feeble, right or wrong. pure or impure. etc.


Prajlid as the Means for Liberation

From the point of view of the abhidharma. p r a j E i i is the only means for liberation.

This is consistent with Sarvastivadin viewpoint that a b h i d h m a represents the ultimate teaching of the Buddha. However, as we will show below, for the abhidharmikas, a b h i d h m a in the highest sense isprojrici free of outflo\\f. The salvational significance of the abhidharma is made clear a s follows:
kimorrhar!~p r r n a r a b l t i d l t u r m o p o d e i a ~k c n o cii)to!,r prurhonturo trpodi:r!o yufu d c f i n o 'hhidirarntuko~or~ t~okfrtnr r i i d r w u r o iri/ dhut

k l e i a i i c o h h r u m o r i b l t o l ~ c i r ! t o ~'~ f re o lokos ruddhcror u r o u d i r o ! ~ k i l u i p o icisrrci


No\\r. for what purpose is the esposition of the a b h i d h m a . and by whom chis was lirst discoursed? ... Apan from the discernment of dharmas. there is no

"'Inn vcrse of AKB, it lists marr!: instead ofprajtid. however AKB uses the term prqrid to explain malr!~ that is prajrid and discernment o f dhnna. AKB. p. 54: Ik~ianrlcrland saf!qtifi cchanda!~sporjo n#acr!r snrrtr!~/ nlanaskdm 'dfrrmak;rdca samddhr!~sanrtcnpri. ...mar,!: prajrill dhamnpramcaya!:. In Xuan Zang's translation. we sce only Ihc term hur H,see Tl558. 19a. In Ihis passage. P a n W h a m ~ l a t c d nratr!r as hur 8 ,but only tnnslitcmtrd prajtid as k2%. T1559. 178b9-14. AKB. p. 2-3.


excellent means for the appeasement of defilements. And it is on account of the defilements that the world wanders in the ocean of existence. For that rcason. so they said. this [ a b h i d h m a ] has been spoken by the Teacher. The importance ofpruj~ici is further stated explicitly in the prose as follows: IVU lii r-inci uhhidliurmupuduSenu Si$y!i iukru dlrorniliti pra~'icerlrf!r-without expositions in the abhidhmo. a pupil is unable to discern the dharma."' the

This discerning of the d h m a obviously is none other than the San91stivZda definition of prujiici. We may contrast this viewpoint with that of the Sautr.?ntika, expressed by the author of the tlrrhu~dniScu~~u-slirru-nibu~idIianu: "flu hi rinci sritropudeienu iisvu!r iukto dItc~rn~ut!i prut,icerrmy-Wi~hout the expositions in the s 0 t s . the pupil is unable to discern the dharma.'" In a b h i d h m a . the term pruj~iri-~.in,lrkru refers to a practitioner who is libentcd through prujiid, by "coursing in accordance with Dharma"(rlliurt~rd~ii~sliri~i)-that is. through the undelstanding of the Buddha's Doctrines. In contrast to this the term Sruddlid-vimrrkru refers to one who is libcntcd through faith, by "coursing in accordancc with faith" (SruddItcitircscirin). However. this does not mean that one can completely rely on faith as a means for liberation. Rather. it means only that there are certain pnctitioncrs on account of whose tempenmcnt. faith is an easy point of entry-as it were-into the

to achieve final libcmtion. Indeed. spiritual path. Ultimately. they too must dcveloppruj~ici prujfili as the indispensable means for attaining the Buddhist goal is frequently stressed in the Vibhqn, invoking the authority of the sntm. Thus, it quotes a verse ofthe Buddha as

"" AKB. p. 3

Kcscarch Instilutc.

ArrhuwnPcu~usrltrou und rhe Commeniury lN~blbnnrfhunu). Ed. 1971) 1404 1.

Samtai. N. H. (I'atna: K. P. Jayaswal

follows: As it has been said in the sotn. When one observes by means ofprujfid, That all d h m a s are without the Self: At that time one loathes unsatisfactoriness (dir!ikl~u) -This is the path ~ f ~ u r i f i c a t i o n . ' ~ ' Again. it says: With regard to the Four Noble Truths. One constantly examines with prujfid: One [thereby] knows unsatisfactoriness (d~i!tklta). The arising of unsatisfactoriness (susirtdu~~u). The complete transcendence of unsatisfactoriness (tiirodhu). And the eight-limb Noble Path (mdrgu) That leads to security (&emu) which is nirci!tuU9


Prajtii as Abhidharma
In the Vibhaa, numerous explanations are given as to why abhidharma is so called.

Among them. several concur that a b h i d h m a is the direct discernment or realization of dharmns. One of Vasumitn's explanations is that "abhidhma is so-called because it can the D h m a of the Four Noble Truths."'" Actually. all directly realize (~bhi-sum-'li)"'~ a b h i d h m a masters explain that abhidharma is so called because it can discern the
TI545.44~27-29: OIIE~!tIt&n~LlEtw. -tJJit:lL?t. 184111~8. :Lit3PlidiV. "'Tl545. 177a9-11: b?lClT!Xi~1~.(eClOtKH. bIiYbld%. Bl~kUlXE. bIJ\XIiE.BZWiS!d. "O AKB explains that ubhi.rcraru.vu signilies ubhrsnr!~hodlru (direct. profound understanding or comprehcns~onl. The roo1 I r~gnlfics "lo understand" AKB. p. 328. T15.58. 114a19-20 "' TI545.4a28-29: i!l%E;JlI1Wlbll'9 B:%ltdk.

characteristics ~ f d h a m n s . ~This " discernment o f d h m a is consistently given as one of the definitions for prujtii. The Vibha.;a explains that the purpose of writing the commentary is to break the darkness of ignorance and develop the light of wisdom."' Prujtid has various meanings. but the Vibhwa refers to the positive aspects ofpruj% as abhidharma: Venerable ParSva says: This is ultimate prujdd; this is prujrrili as judgment; this is prajfic in the highest sense; this is infallible prujdd: thus. it is called abhidhma.IJ4 The MahTSasakas says: Because of being able to illuminate dharmas. prajid is called a b h i d h m a . as the sotra says: "Among all illuminations. I claim that the illumination of p r c d is the highcs~.~"' In the abhidharma, the discussion on the Path based on abl~iprujtid (higherprujfii) is called a b h i d h a ~ ~ n a . ' ~ ~ The AKB states explicitly that a b h i d h m a in the highesllreal sense is none other than the pure prujtii defined as dlrort~rupra~~icuyu: KO 'yan~ahhidlrurnro ndnra/ projfii 'ffrold sdrrrtcurd 'hlridlror~r~a!~ / (1-21) rarru prujrid dl~arntupraaicayu / a ~ ~ ~ o l ofrdsru~vi cri / ... eFu rdvur pdrunrdrrltiko 'bhidl~urnra!~ / (What is this so called abhidharma? The pure prajdi togetllcr with its retinue is abhidharma. Therein, "praitii" is the discclnmcnt of d h m a s . "Pure" means without outflow.rJ7 ... This, firstly. is abhidharma in the highest sense.)14' It must. however. be nored that the dl~arn~upru~~icayu (discernment of d h m a ) is not to be understood as an intellectual exercise. It is the direct. intuitive comprchcnsion ofthe true characteristics of d h m a s . Thus the prefix "abhi' (in uhl~i-dhurfrru), is explained as "facing directly."'JP Sabghabhadra's explanation of this brings out the significance more

'4'T1545.4b5-7: @a); -&~$.cIEB. JEZI~C~!: ~ J L A T I B B dtQ4;3Lf&8PJLEibM. . '4'~~5~5.4b16-17: f t & f l U I W . ,~fi2X!il;&.8 A l E i t l f f . BIXfJi!~. -t~~l*fk;WPR"ldt~LTi. "" TI545. Icl6:IZJ RitB'l'fK~I,G;AZI;:AWieW. For dcrail discussion. sce TI545. Ic5-16. "' Sce In: 182. 0s. AKB. p . 2 c f . . T1558. lbl-5.


'" Lac, cif, fad mfaq~ paran~drfhadlrurnrar~t~~d nrnvl!ror!r

dhurmalo~~a~~u~~r vd pray uhhrmukha dlrurmu

clearly: Why is it that only the prujiid free of outflow is said to be abhidharma? Because having directly realized/intuited (ublti-sanr-di) the characteristics of dharmas. one will no more be deluded ... The retinue (arirtmro) comprises all that co-exist (on,-dear) with prajiid-nipa caittcs such as. ~tedomd, sai!Qiid, ectc: [t~ipraytrkta-sa!,~~kcira] like jdti. etc; and the eitrci. The description here speaks generally of the pure prajiid together with five pure skuitdhas as abhidharma ... Feeling (vudand) etc. [in themselves], are like the blind-how can they be called abhidhama, since they cannot discern @ru-vi-hi) the Four Noble ~ r u t h s . ' ~ ~ The Vaibhzsikas favor the explanation that prajdd free of outflow is called proj~id.'5' Their opponents argue: Question: If abhidharma has only the faculty of pruj~id free of outflo\v as its self-nature. then why is this SLtra also named a b h i d h m a ? Answer: [it is] the instruments for abhidharma. so it also is named a b h i d h m a . Just as, everywhere in the sotras, panicular names are given corresponding to particular instruments. It is the same here: It is like giving the name "happiness" to that which is an instrument for happiness.'s2 The AKB comments: "Prujiid" is the discernment of dhamas. "Pure" means to be free of outflow (oirdsrovu). That which accompanies pure prujiid ( s d i ~ ~ ~ c u is ru called ) retinue. Thus. in summary, the fiveskuirdlru.s free ofoutflow are called abhidharma (facing dharma). This conslitutes the absolute abhidharma (pnranrdrtlrlko 'hliidl~arnrai~). If one considers abhidharma from the worldly or conventional standpoint. it comprises those prujiia and SLtras through which this [abhidharma in the highest sense] is obtained. "[Those] prajiid" refer to prajfid with outflowv. derived from cultivation. from reflection and from listening. as well as prujdd derived from binh. the retinue. "[Those] s%tra" refer to those teachings which can generate projiifi free of outflo\e As these prajiid and s L t n serve as the nourishment of that [pure prajiid], they also


come to be called abhidhma."'s3 The AKB generally discusses the term prq'dri in the context of the meaning of abhidharma. The t e m a b h i d h m a can be understood from two perspectives: 1. from the view point of the highest sense. nbhidharma represents the highest prajriii. and 2. from the view point of conventional sense. abhidharma refers to doctrinal texts thnt represent prajriri as media for transmitting thc teaching ofthc Buddha. Ultimatcly, "pure prujriri" is called abhidhama-face-to-face with d h m a . l S "


PrajfiE in the Thirty-seven Factors of Awakening (bodltipa&~yci

Prujrid is counted as one of the three praxes: Silo. sun~ridl~i and prujrid of early

or nin.ci!m. Buddhist texts. The state in which prujtiri is utilized freely is called hodl~i Therefore. thisprujtiri is always included in the topics on the practice of Buddhism. If we discuss this in the context ofthe thirty-seven Factors of A\vakening.prujdd is designated differently according to its functions. In the AKB and Ny, prujriri is designated as these terms in the thirty-seven Factors of A\'akcning: (snwy-~rpasrhri,IB,~i), Is' prujr,7ri-indriyu!l the four Abodes of Mindfulness

in the five Spiritual Faculties (ir~driyd!li).

"'~l558. Ib3-8: Hirlflil.. iPI;PIAt.Jil. iPBf.tRJZI.I%h. $I:W!;VWlrl fiB%cl\fl.li!.. Jtllfl Rn&I;.llEie@. &t!4l~tBP?RiFtR.BlJfI&CldtX.Uht;;;t. B~YlZldt~iO~H!~IIU%CIBI~M1i. :,&tY/':Y!kilil?~k Jt;&k!b& ~EPil41~Vi4;Zl ZWiaieIff..P a m r ~ l h a tnnslaled prujtidas %': TI559. 192al-11.
AKB. p. 2: [wrsr.]. "'pruj~iU holU sdnucurtl 'bhtdlturtttu!1"/1-2~) Zrrru prajtid dharmu pruvrcuyu. omulerr undrruvd, sdnucnnrr ruporndrd, e~~omu~ldsrir~~ulr pu,icoskoadltulo 'hhidhor,nu quk!u,!r blrwurr q n rutar pdruntdrrhrko 'bhrdltornra!r. sdr!rkcrrkasru "furprdpftry~ydpi co yucca idsfrunt. "(1-21) Ydpr co inrrucr~rrdblrd\~aadnrdy~sdsrob~U projtid upoparrrprufilumbhrkd cu sdnacord. yaccu insrronrasydlt prupyonhomondsruvd~U!r prajidyU!r fudupr ru~su~~rhbdrubhUb~d~Iublrrr/lrurnro m.ri~rrrcnrn~acimat!rru n~olok~o!rodlrdra!rUd dlrornro!~. Tud qu!!r puramdrrlrodlrurmo!,, vd nrn.d!tor!r d l r u r m u l u ~ ~ u vd ~ r pray u ~ ~ ~rrkro 'hlrsilrornm!~

"'See fn. 269.

T1558. tb?: TI560.310~;T1562.319~27: T1563. 779a19: i P X P i ~ $ P . t i t NlitC/dt;X.E;A

prq'dd-hula!t in the five mental powers (baldrti). dlturmupruvicuyu (discernment of dharma) in the seven Factors of A\vakening (hodlty-u~igdni).sutnyug-drgi in the Eight Noblc Paths (d?yd~~~driguntdrgu!~) are of the nature of pruj~id."6 In the various occasions. the VibhZ5a claims thatprujriri is the four Abodes ofMindfulness. since [prujrid] takes the prujrid of the four Abodes of Mindfulness as its nature."' of Mindfulness are subsumed

It is also said the four Abodes prujrid-hulu!t.


dlturmupro~~icuyuhodlty~~~igu!t. and surnyugdr~~i. Further. it is also said cllrurntupru~~icu)abodhyuriga!tsubsumes others.'" or suntyugdr:!i subsumes the r e ~ 1 . Thus. l~~


from the viewpoint of ail Sarv~tivadins.prujrid is very closely connected with prujrid-Ctdriyu!~, prq'rid-hulu!t. dlturntupru~~icuyubodhyu~igu!t. and suntyug-drgi. The definition on these four Abodes of Mindfulness given in thc Vibhx5a also indicates that these terms are very closely related or that they are synonymous: The four Abodes of Mindfulness are: I) contemplation of body, 2) contemplation of feeling. 3) contemplation of mind. and 4) contemplation of dharma. However. these Abodes of Mindfulness collectively are said to be one. viz.. the self nsture ofprujrid. one of the cuittus, or prujtid-indriyu!~ in the [five] Spiritual Faculties (irtdr[~'d!~i). prujrid-hulu!t in the [five] mental powers (huldni), darnlupruvicuyu in the [seven] Factors of Awakenin (hodl?y-u!tgdrri). suntyug-d?!i in the [Eight] Noblc Paths (drJa:~!dtiguntcirga!~). 8 1 The AKB quotes the Vaibhasika Masters: Why is the name of Abode of Mindfulness established in prujrid? The Vaibh*ika masters said thus: because the strength of mindfulness maintains and makes pruj~id


dwell. Actually. it is prujiid that makes the mindfulness dwell on the objects.16' Prajrid-indriyu!~is the foremost among the five indr(tdni.'6' and functions to give rise to the wholesome d h m a s : while prqoJAd- bola!^ funcdons to crush unwholesome

Dhurn~upru~.icu~o is prajiid. as we discussed above. However. d/turmuprur~icu~~u in the seven Factors of Awakening refers to prujiili free of outflow. since these seven Factors of Awakening are of the nature free of outflow.'6J In thc Noble Eightfold Path. "proper view is prajddd"'66 thc VibhQa explains: "What is Proper Vicw? This is: oh noble disciples. with regard to the unsa!isfactorincss (du!ik/tu). its cause. its cessation and thc Path. contemplate on thc unsatisfactoriness (dir!~k/~u). its cause. its cessation and the Path. and give rise to the discernment of dharma. .."I6'

2 . 5

Prajtiii related to the Four Noble Truths

In Early Buddhism. one of the definitions attributed to prajiid is that through which

one truly o b s e n ~ sthe Four Noble Truths.'" Early San-&tivBda abhidharma also followed this explanation.'69 The Vibh+3 comments that one does not understand the Four Noble Truths. because one's proj,ii8 is covered by avidyri (ignonnce/darkness): Question: [If] prujtiri is possessed completely by all minds. [then] what is the reason
'"TTI558. 132b29-c2: Writ?G.:iX.lkZ. LK.Lri.JQlftln.2;&.

&a... Sueon page 80f.

. g a . % J ~ i d 4 & U .t ' l ! l ! f ~ E ~ 2

'"TISJS.~O~CI~ X%S. - ? O : G?fiitiltlXttlMM. "~15~5.726b15-16 I:1lU7PBt : f i 8 t t t . b J J . ??fE!kBitA!d%N. tEoli:ZitU%J~. I" Cf. Mizuno. 58-59. "T1545.726cl: L$CBIIH.
'b'T~S~S.499i122-23:ZIY7E#.>8\7S1104b?.>;&a6riE!BIftE&a6rit!. Scc foomotes: 36; 37; 38; 39.
Ib'Abhidlrarm1xar~1gir1pandyapd~Iai~1~:ra W LKiL!?&Y( liYS;A: TI536. 388b9-1 1: 0 1 l?l i- )illlk:ZX I : 1 . lkPbll.'%.ltX-Z.36rS11l. t P @ E L P S ? I .SZ/.tK.



for asserting here that [one who has] "an unique ignorance" can not discern the [Four Noble] Truths? is neither clear nor Answer: Because a prujriri that has been obscured by an u~*i<b~ci. pure; it is also unable to discern the Four Noble ~ r u t h s . ' ~ ~ Here. prajriri is discussed as something always dwelling in one's mind. This is the same a s saying that it is one ofthe ntultrihh~inriku. In this context. it may make sense for Undenvood, who has studied pudAri from Pali source, to comment that prujrid is not attained by reaching out and adding to one's self something that one did not have before. Rather. it is revealed as the depth of being by clearing away the dross which normally obscures it.I7'


Defiled Praj~il (klisfa-prajtici)

In Mahayana, pruj~,iripdromirfiis the last among the six prirunlitris. In the ten

priru~rrirris. jdfi~ro~rirur~~ is it also r i ' ~included. ~ Pruj~iri is a kind of \visdom which is related to awakening. However, in Sarv%tivBda, the understanding of an ordinary person is also pruj~ifi.which includes that of both \vholesome and unwholesome dharmas. For example. the JPS explains false knowledge ( n ~ i r l ~ y ~ i a rs i~ the ~u defiled ) pruj,iri associated with the six consciousness~s.~~' The Vibh+a further comments: Herein. the deliled prujrifi associated with the five consciousnesses are prujcri associated with craving and hatred. The defiled prujiki associated with mental consciousness are the five views and uvidvri that are not shared with craving. hatred. conceit and hesitation ...I7'' ThoscprujAfi in the five consciousncsses associated with craving and hatred and the
""~1545. 197b. 16: 19-UJ.b:l~Mii&1;1~~JP+~R1;4k%filJE11~. 3.U%~.%l'MfiW#i~it.l;nll

4iP. fiI!!lV:$fi~l;fET.


Underwood 25.

five wrong views in the domain of mental consciousness arc defiled prujAd. Skandhila also explains defiled prujdd as five wrong views.'75 The AKB too implies that defiled prujdb includes the wrong v i e ~ s . " ~ Most of the above explanations ofprujdfi within the Sanrastivada can also be found in Pnli Buddhism; however, it is limited to those wholesome with outflow (sfisru~a). and those wholesome free of outflow (unfisravu). Wrong views arc not to be included in padtit. In Pali Buddhism, wrong view is established as kilcsu ccrusika to be separated from pu~dd.'77



The sbhidharmikas have a very aniculate notion ofprujtici: It is that mental faculty which discriminates. or discerns or esamines the object in a perceptual process. The definition ofprajrid as being the discernment or examination of dharmas is a standard one for SarvLtivHda in general. Pruj~iriis always included in the topic on the practice of Buddhism. and it is very closely connected with prujdd-Ltdriya!~, prujAd-bula!~, dliarniapruvicayu, and

sun~yug-drgi in the thirty-seven Factors of Awakening. Dliurn~apravicuyu is prujtjri. but

dl~urn~uprardcuya-hodIiyu~igu!t refers to prujdd free of outflow.

Abhidharma as pruj~irihas two aspects: I. abhidharma as the pure prujdb. 2. abhidharma comprising the impure pruj~ib-inrrfi muyipruj~id,etc.-and also the tests

which contain the Buddhist teaching. all capable of leading to the attainment of pure

"'T1554.983a15-18. For English Tnnslation. sce Dhammajo~i.Entrance 127-28

':6~~558.51~23-24:;r);%r5LI%h T11*t0LA!-ILRnJ1. ~B. I77 Mizuno. 68.


as one of the ten universal dharmas. has both positive and negative

meanings. thus it includes iIEtla. &dttfi, drfii. The notion o f defiled prujtii can also be found in Pali Buddhism. However. in Pali Buddhism, the wrong view is established to be separated from p a I I a as kilesu cerasika.

Chapter 4: The Scope and Nature of PrajtiH


Prajriii in the JPS and Viblrci~b

In the earlier chapters. we saw that in Early Buddhism the term prujCC generally was applied to the Perfect Insight of the Buddha. In abhidharma. pruj~idhas a much wider scope in meaning and refers to any type of understanding-wrong. right. clear, feeble.

pure. defiled etc; hence. the abhidharmikas understood prq'C0 in various ways and as having many meanings among which are jiiri~ru (knowledge). d q i (view). @~lri (receptivity), 1fid.1'6 (wisdom). and s o on. However. despite the fact that pruj~id appears in various forms and modalities bearing different names, the consistent notion of it being the faculty of understanding is maintained throughout. The Sarv3stivldin conception of both phenomenal existence and the domain of the unconditioned ( u s a i ! s k ~ ) is a pluralistic one in each of the cases. There arc innumerable real entities--dharmas--in either domain. The types uniquely characterized arc

designated by different names. often on account of the fact that the Buddha himself spoke of the same thing or phenomenon in differen1 terms. Thus. for the faculty of projtia. various synonymous terms are found in the sotra: dloku, pruhha, prujC3-indrj.0, pruj~id-hula. dl~arnru-pruvicuyu, elc. The Vibha~a declares: "All dharmas arc subsumed under s ~ f u h h d ~ this a : is subsumption (sur!rgrulro) in respect ~ f ~ u r u r n d r ~ h u .Su~!t.qrcrlru ""~ is an irnponant methodological device. used in conjunction with that of

s~ahhd~ols~olu~ inaarriving ! ~ ~ . at a finial list of unique d h m a s . This analysis may be between o n e single dharma and another dharma. or between one dharmn and several other

dha.mas. or between one category of dharmas and another category. or between one category and several other categories. Through the process of sut?tgraha. the abhidharmika can reduce r i l o k u and the rest to one unique dharma. prW,iri. In the
pr&iri is the svuhh8va of all these terms. technical terminology ofSarv%tv~dins,


Drnfi, JtiZna and Prajtici DF!~

According to the JPS and Vibhqa. d m ! i! (view) comprises visual faculty


the five views, the worldly right view ( l a r t k i k i srmqv~k-d?.~!i), view

related to a Learner ( i ~ i / q r r - d ~ n ! i ) " ~ and view related to n non-Learner ( u i ~ i k ~ o - + ~ ! i ) . " O The visual faculty. the five views and the worldly right view constitute the view of



ivorldly right view is prujfiri associated with because they arc speculative in

wholesome consciousnesses. These are called "+!7' nature. View related to Learner

is a Learner's




(artrisru\~u-prujtiri). 18'

View related to non-Learner is the right view related to because they are by nature

non-~carner.'~' These last two categories are called "d+i'

IN I n the conlcxt o f SalvnstivJda. i o r k w ~ (Learner) means those who nccd to be lnincd in relcrcncc l o lhosc i n thc slagc of Insight (durianu-ntdrgu) up lo Ihc stage non-return (undgnmn. d s u i ~ (non-Learner) u mcans those who nccd no more training i n rcfcrcncc l o an what. Ncifher-Lcamcr-nor-non.Lcarncrrefers l o ordinary peoplc. ~1544.95?a3:~1545.489b28-29:ZWt)JC. E O M W I l i l L . IU(iiE1L. : '??A':!JL. TISJS: 506~24-25:E~~IIL'I!4LIJPlC. EUNN IilLILtfGEJL. dsruva. 1 1 1 . "%,hat leaks out". "oulfluxes": PPIi: dsuru is mnslated as "cankcrs". "la~nts". "corruption". "intoxicants". "biscs", CIC. Thcrc 8 s a ltst of four: l c canker o f scnsc-dcsirc (l;rin~d.%uvu), of desiring elcrnal cxistcncr (hkut.d~u%,u). or o f wrong vicws (di!!hii~uvu), and o f ignorance (urijjd.%uvu).One who atwins arhatship has dcstroycd all four o f lhosc cankcrs. Scc B D 23. I n Buddhism. dsruvu is Ihc dcfilcmcnts that ccasclcssly flow out from internal organs (i.c.. five sense organs and the mind). Through the cffon o f ridding oncself o f d s r u t , ~ by undcfiled prujda. one can attain awakening or frccdorn from the bond of dcfilcmcnt. "'TIS45.490a14-17: I l t W K l L X i . ;SIB.@.L~411E8. 21Lf&&iQ8%\1C. ':!#?I. 3'/'?RiW.L%.




,;\~PX~:~Z~L. -:fi;(l~;~~-Lr~,azz~~~.

examination (suatiru~tdmaka). According to this discussion on dy:r!i found in the Vibhasa, they can be classified as follows:

I ) View related to neither-Learner-nor-non-Leame vicw

2) View related to Lcamer 3) View related to non-Learner--


I) Visual Faculty 2 ) Five Vicws 5 ) Worldly Right View-prajn'd of wholesome consciousness 4) prujn'd free o f outflow related to Lcamcr 5) Right View rclatcd to non-Learner

The JPS and Vibhva define j~ifinu(knowledge) as prajfid associated with five sensory consciousnesscs

@a~Tca-vij7Znakriy11-sampruy~tktu-pruj~ifi) and


associated with the other mental consciousness (mano-v~tidttu-suntpra~~ttkfu-prujtid) excepting receptivity free of outno\\. (~~rcirruvu-lqrdn~i)."~ The Vibhil:a explains "prajtifi associatcd with five sensory consciousnesses" to be of three kinds: Hcrcin. "projtid associated with five sensory consciousnesses" are of three kinds: (1 ) wholesome (kt&alu). (2) defiled (kliga). and ( 5 ) Not defiled and neutral (a~~ivyrciyvfikrru). Wholesome-wholesome (trpuparri-ldbhikn-kttSuIu). [prujrid] acquired through birth

Defiled--[praj~ifi] associated with craving. hatred and ignorance that are to be removed through cultivation (b11fivundheya-r~rgo-d1~e~a-n1oIt~-santpray1tk1Z praj,ili). Not defiled and neutral-(I) [praj~id] born of retribution (vipdkuiu); (2) and some [prujrici] that are bom together with proper deportment (uir).ciputAikn), the ;ms and
TIS44.952a4-5: T1545. 49OJ20-2: -ZPJW. A fi.9411E.E. FtWi@.E&.E..P411L%HH Dhammajoti tnnslatcd krdno as reccptlvlty. Hc explains: "K?(?dnrr may be regarded as a l o w dcgree of insight than in'dnu which is a thorough, drcisivc insight. I t investigates but is still not exempted doubt wllh regard to the object cognized; it catches the kleia. b u l cannot cut it. I t is by the iridna, cxempt from doubt. that the Pleia arc cut. Dhammajoti. Enrrance 223. For the rclationshio between bdnrr w d iridnu. scc on page 65.

5G cnfis (Suilpusrl~drrika). or a mind of higher knowledge (ohhprici-pl~alu-cirra).'8' The Vibhqa explains "'prujdd associated with mental consciousness" as follows:1w" "[Prujrid] associated with the other mental consciousness" also are of three kinds: ( I ) wholesome (kr~Sula). (2) defiled (kliga). and (3) not defined and neutnl (u~li~!rrd~dkrro). 1 Wholesome [pruje,iri] are of two kinds: (a) with outflow (sbsru~fu). (b) free of outflow (orrdsruva). (a) Wholesome [prajrid] with outflow is of three kinds: ( I ) [chat] obtained through pncticc (prfyugu-ldhhika). (2) [that] obtained through detachment (r,oirirgJ~u-lubhrku). and (3) [that] obtained through binh (lcpoporri ldhhika). ( I ) "[Prujdd] obtained through practice'' is projir3 which arises through listening (jrura-nruyi-prujdd), prujdd which arises through reflec~ion (ci~rrb-nrayi-prujdd). prujri0 which arises through cultivation (bhdt~urrb-nluj~i-prujcd). ~rrrru-n~oyi-prujdb-the proper discerning with regard to words and meaning.
Ci~rrd-mayi-prujrid-prajdd derived from I ) contemplation on thc impurities (uSlebho-bhdvurrd). 2 ) mindfulness of breathing (firdpdno-snryri), and 3) the abodes of mindfulness (sumyry~cpasrhd~ro).

Bhdt-urtd-nruyi-pruj~ib-prujddderived from cultivation: This refers to warmth (~t~muguru). peak (mridlrorr). receptivity (Mnri). the highest \vorldly dharma (luttkika agrudleurma), the worldly prujrid associated with by direct realization (ubhison~uydnrikuIurikikupruj~id),the immeasunbles (uprumdnu), libention ( v i n t o b ) . supreme place (abhibhvdyuruno), pervasive place (kyrsndv~ronu).~'

( 2 ) [Prq'dd] obtained through detachment (vuird~u-1ubhiku)-[prajdd derived from] dlrydno, upronrrinu, dnipya, vinto@a, obhibhvbyurona. kyrs~rd~orono.
" ' ~ 1 ~ 4 5 . 4 9 0 ; 1 2 1 - ? 4 : ~ ~ ' f i ~ l l l --I?. ~ . ~ 4 i :a%. ~ i ~ ~ .LdR.%,iZ. ~AA~lWYfiIfi. !4 134. LV;ln(tI,CfiltShBitlQ4IlE. dWR,;rlfi. tVW735k. Jfiiicb.'ffllliflh% I:J5&fi$iX~t~li!k. "T15~5.490;12S-b8:~.~.~4ll~.~ -% fi~i :?&CCKLBRRil. i~~. B i i :in. -ii'3i,. d 4 4 . - 1 r . .d*%I. L Y n . Imi~RI;iRrdlfiLB. MlfiLP. O1fiL.V.. PUlfifi88. : V E Z B ~ ~ I ~ ! ~ ! !EfirJtH4. L~F. fR4;i'FIY.ld.Bt. httik?T. %fisW&x. :VfH 1liZIIJ.B-it. DLIViBIll:(lB'. BK###Bn&iB&%. # I l % l R .: V t l i & W r t l d B W m t M Q i S 1 8 *.+.%$!I;. ilI?kEJtiiLWlfi%J@.. % W i ..if!. ->F ..R'P. '231J2A%'. .%J~~~~14!B',%ik?,'. RJ?E#?/. % % I ; . ~R#l3~IbifftlWI~1fdIUE. RRRCrl8. LV,PIYCIY&fiYXTTi&jB%L.* 1111. "' Those are the states of samdrlhi: there arc four apramd!la (rnalrri. kam!~J,nludtIJ. 11pelqL1) cight rima&,d,eight ahhibht.dyalana nnd ten kr.n!nayaranu.

(3) [Prq'dd] obtained through binh (rrpapatti 1cihhika)-the wholesome [prWd!] obuined spontaneously as a result of being born in a particular stage
(bhtinrr) (b). [Prajda] fret of outflow (a~rcisrava) is of two kinds: I). Learner. 2) non-Learner (I) Learner-the related ~ a to Learner. Eight i ~ i c i ~

(2) Non-Learner-knowledge of exhaustion (ksaya-i~izna), knowledge of non-arising (anrrpdda-i~icina). knowledge which is the proper view of non-Learner (sanryak-dmi-idd~ra). 2 Defiled-[praj,irij associated with the kleia and secondary kleia (artltkleia) that are to be removed through insight (daiana) and cultivation (hhdvand).

3 Not defiled and neutral-[prajici] born of retribution, and born together with proper deportment. the arts and cnfis, or a mind of higher knowledge
can be According to above explanation of the Vibh%& the whole structure of idd~ra diagrammed as follows:

I ) wholuomc

prjtid zquircd through binh prnjfid assochtcdwith dairc, hatred and ignomncc that YC to be removed through cultiv~tion

with five sensory consciousncues 3) not defined and ncutnl

bom ofrctribution some that YC born togcthrr wtth proper dcponmcnt. the anr and cnRs. or a mmd o f hagher kn~ulcdpc .I) prordd arocs through lutcnmc. the proper drrccming with regard to words

through pncticc

I ) obtrmcd

2) pm]tid ~rw~inted with mcntal ~on~~to~sn~ss 2) dcfilcd

3) not dclilcd and ncutnl

I) wholesome

( ..

through dctachmcnl 3) obtamcd the wholcsomc prajli;l obtamcd IhrouJl b ~ n h spontnncouslsas n rcsult o f being born in thc pmicujar stacc I ) Learner Eicht kinds ofbowlcdpc I ) knowlcdgc ofcxhsust~on 2) knowlcdgc ofnon-arismg 3) L;nowlcdgc wh~ch is the proper vim. ornon-lcmcr Prvjrid nssoculcd with the U c W C I u and secondary We(a which arc rcmovablc through inslght and cultivsllon I ) bom ofrctribution ')born togcthcr with p r o p r dc ponmcni. thc ons u l d cmfls. or a mind ofh~ghcr howledge

mtndfuines ofbrenthlng nbodcs of mindfulness 31nmifid arises throurh cullivnlion: \w.&nih. @.rcccptl~ily.the highest worldly dhiMla. the worldly projdd nssociatcdwith by dicct realintion. immcasunblc mind. libention, suprcmc phce. penmivc place. dlqLi,~o.oprnntdna. Lir~ipyu. rtn~okw. nbl~thhvdi~uronu. krrmrlvurunu

The JPSstates that prai17i is associated with six c o n s ~ i o u s n e s s e sThe .~~~ Vibhqa states: What isproj~iu? Answer: pro~dfi is that which is associated with six consciousnesses. This is of three kinds. vk., wholesome. defiled. not defined and neutral as explained

in detail previously. [However.] there is a difference: the eight reeeptivities free of outflow (u~tdsru~*a-kdnri) are also subsumed under prujriri because they have [the nature ofl discernment of dharmas. Prujrid can be found in all states of mind (eirr~)'~~ The cight receptivities free of outflow are subsumed under prujrid. Whatever is associated with mind and has the functions of discerning and understanding is prq'riri. Prujrid includes the contents ofjrid~ru and therefore. proj~id is more extensive in meaning than ifidnu.


The Eight Knowledges

The above discussions show that iriri~rais an irnponant modality of pruj~ih.The

Sanpastivada arrived at a list of eight knowledges (sometimes also enumerated as ten. see below). The cight knowledges are: I ) knowledge of dharma (dfrarnrajfidna). 2) inferential knowledge (an~'uyujfiidna).3) conventional knowledge (su~!r~:rrfiri~ra).4) knowledge of others' mind @aracirrqi,iri~ru).5) knowledge of dri!rklra (drr!rk/tujfidno), 6) knowledge of arising (samudayq~~icinu). 7) knowledge of cessation (~rirodlrujfiri~~a). and 8) knowledp of the Path (ntdrgaj~id~to). As regards the essential characteristic of knowledge. the Vibh$a explains: "For what reason is it called knowledge" It examines and judges an therefore, it is called k n ~ w l c d g e . " 'And. ~ ~ "for what reason is it called object (dlunrbo~ru): knowledge? What is the meaning of [the word] knowledge? Knowledge means \\'hatever that is judgrnen~al."'~~ The JPS discusses the right kinds of knowledge as


I . " TI545. J90b9-13: ZRl.3lS. B?GWUEB. JtiiLfB. ,~YIIVU~W.RIIIW~C!. lh!ul1iil;W(TI545. 490a20-b9)fixh'l].);. I%Il\:Z./1~QBIIi. TC.:tBP. -UJ,bll4RlliiH. '"~1545.727d9-b1: I::lfu7&%?:. ',t?NZit?&tllikP. &ZZ.\B. "' TI545.647bl5-16:rgfq&!L%%'.WRfu78. BikZitE%'&. Also. TI545. 549~14-IS. 'P2T1544.957b19-c2:iil\R. :lIlitPI'73%~%'. 5tRiLT:. Ft?iikil;X;&lr. ;&ii[xlXliiWI. X i i I k t P . TJi<ilRPEiD. nfiXWb!ita&. niiiRiliiW. 2;YIiLr:. t f l : f i W . 5fiE,RE%;& i i . XRFIXiiii&. l i i l l : ~ j e .TfiiiRO?,'. Rt?Zfit.l'kZfiW&. T f i ~ i l S % ' .RNtFcW. t

There are eight knowledges (i,ici~tu): viz.. knowledge of dhanna (dl~urnto-itd~tu) up to knowledge of the Path (nrdtgu-jAB~ta). What is knowledge of dharma (dlltorta-j1i6na)? Answcr: It is knowledge free of outflow in the sphere of desire (kdntadl~drt~) with regard to all conditioning forces (sur.tukdra). the cause for all conditioning forces, the extinction of all conditioning forces. and the path that leads to destruction ofall conditioning forces. Again, it is the knowledge free of outflow with regard to the knowledgc o f dharma and the stage penaining to the knowledge of dhanna. These constitute the knowledge o f dharma. What is inferential knowledge (unvayu-j,id~ra)? Answer: It is knowledge free of and the sphere of no form (dnipyudlthnc) outflow in the sphere of form (nipadl~drrc) with regard to ail conditioning forces (so~.tukdro). the cause for all conditioning forces. the extinction of all conditioning forces. and the path that leads to destruction of all conditioning forces. Again. it is the knowledgc free of outflow with regard to inferential knowledge and the stagc penaining to inferential knowledge. Thesc constitute inferential knowledgc. What is knowledge of others' mind (parucirru-jIdno)? Answer: It is knowledge that is the result of cultivation: it knows the present mind and thought-concomitant (cirra-coirro) dharmas of others. What is conventional knowledge (sa1~r~~~ri-jd611o)? Answer: It is prujAd with outflow in the three spheres. What is knowledge of rltr!~k/~u (dtc!tk/~u-jAd~to)? Answer: It is knowledge that operates ( d v f l ) the conditioning forces in their aspects (dkara) a s unsatisfactory (dt~!!k/~aru!l). impermanent (uniryara!~). empty (Stinyard) and without a Self

What is knowledge of arising (santlcdaya-jd~~o)? Answer: It is knowledgc that operates the causes of the conditioning forces in their [four] aspects (dkdro) of being cause (Iteruro!~).arising (sunttcdayuro!~).successive causation (prubhovctra!~)and condition @raryoyora!~). What is knowledge of cessation (nirodl~u+~to)?Answer: It is knowledge that operates the extinction of the conditioning forces in their [four] aspects as cessation (nirodltara!~). calm (idnrura!~), excellence @ro!ritora!t) and escape (ni!lsuru!tura!t). What is knowledge of the Path (mErgajEtta)? Answcr: It is knowledge that operates the path of counteragents against the conditioning forces in their [four] aspccts as a path (ntdrgora!~),right method (nyd),oru!t), course of practice @ruriparriru!~). conducive to exit (~toiryd!~ikura!t).

. These eight knowledges have prujia. which is one of cairru dharmas. as their


There is also the classification of knowledgc into ten-the

above eight.

together with knowledge of exhaustion (kqvujirhu) and knowledgc of non-arising (unrtrpCdujtiZ~ia). The Vibhq$ in quoting the Abhid/~urmuprukoru!~up~du-Sdstru (PrS). defines and differenliates the last two howledges as follows:'" PrS [states]: ...What is knowledge of cxhaustion? It is to know truly that I have known unsatisfactoriness; I have abandoned the arising [of unsatisfactorincss]; I have realized the cessation [of unsatisfactorincss]; I have cultivated the Path. What is knowledge of non-arising? It is to know auly that I have known unsatisfactoriness. and there is no more to be known up to I have cultivated the Path. and there is no more to be cultivated. The Vibh&?a furlher distinguishes these last two knowledges in the following manner: What distinguishes knowledge of exhaustion from knowlcdge of non-arising? .4nsurer: To begin with. they differ in name only. That is. this is called knowledge of exhaustion: this is called knowledge of non-arising. The cause is called knowledge of exhaustion. the effect is called knowledge of non-arising; what has been done is called knowledge of exhaustion and that which is fostered by the cause is called knowledge of non-arising. To acquire what has not been acquired o r what has already been acquired is knowledge of exhaustion. and only to acquire what has not been acquired is knowledge of non-arising. Both the tC11rkti-ndrgu as well as tviic?u-mcirgu are subsumed under knowledge of cxhaustion but only the viic:u-nlOrgu is subsumed under knowledge of non-arising. The five types of arhats are established as the basis of knowledge of cxhaustion, and the establishment of (only) one type of arhat on the basis ofthat is knowledge of non-arising. That which is common to both the sharp (tiku) and blunt (mydri) faculties is knowledge of exhaustion but that which penains only to the sharp faculty is knowledgc of non-arising. These are the distinctions."' " ' ~ 1 5 4 s727.28: . ~l\LbU~Dljriitrt1.lAY.> C1c.l. 'WT1545.I5OaJ-16: 8nTliX8~3...tl.71t3'. 3llnC(BlXklBlbdRll9MdGii!. tI.7W!kB. CUlilDl$lilll$l~Z4;i11Ri. 7!1ii%!l(lfi%ie.f;?!lY). Cf.Tl558. 13523-18. lo' ~ 1 5 4 5 527~06-14: . 191%'%4%'iilqP)fi? En$t!l~KI;~l. iY11kt%i8fWk%d!k%'. iyi~liil:: I W . RLWPB. il)kllrR&%'.f~ll&~S.!!A%%'. IYfiRKIEW. 1dEliliiirlE&t. nlE PBlifiC).ZRYP:'. il%r;d#l#flir%M%jeXlE&%'. I3EW)LirWQ%5k%'. iYkPLtll.Lfi. I;.7P%RI%'. ~IFLdP-MHi.'dk%Y%'. I U f i X 1 F l l t k l t i A A l J 2 & % ' . nKWIfi11k.RfirP~. i 2inx );'I

Both the A K B " ~and the ~bhid/1ar11r61~016ru~~~ enumerate ten kinds of knowledge. On the other hand the Vibha!a follows the JPS and enumerates only the first cight. Regarding this difference. the Vibhqn explains !hni although in the sUtns the Buddha sometimes expounded two knowledges, sometimes four and sometimes ten, the JPS enumerates eight as the middle, because these cight completely subsume all knowledgcs-the two-fold and four-fold enumeration etc. are abbreviations and the

ten-fold enumeration is an elaboration. Further. the eight are found among the Learners. the non-Learners, as well as those with or without defilements. In contrast, the last two knowledges are found only among those who are non-Learners and those without The last two arc excluded in the group of eight because they are limited to certain stage.'" Various other explanations and classifications are also given in this same


T h e R e l a t i o n s h i p s a m o n g Prajlih, Dr$i, Jiir7rra i n t e r m s o f T h r e e Levels o f P r a c t i c e The VibhX5P explains prqal,i6, drm!i and jlidnu with respect to a Learncr and a












What is drgi related to Learner? Answer: Projli6 related to Learner. That is. the
'*AKB, p. 394; ADV p. 373. TI558. 134~07-10.

AM WiLfi;& TI554. Dhammajoti. Efirrancu 118-21. 1PsT1545.546~l-9: 14ffU?_k:!*diQ 1 6 .d i Q P 9 N ' . &%l\WP;W-l.W. f~JIOLY.X.Jt~l~fOf~i/\%' ft;31. 'GW~l\?:lrl.P+iQ. lU:X%'&i&Kil,;A. 9 :W1.?kY2L.sXi!4MB4;1.-i-%'Xi'f%M?i1 &ifiEN4;R. nlEkI\W1II:XIR&P&+&&fCfKL. IlliklullL/\N"t~14'FA. ltii4k.%JltA4rI'.
f l k i i & & f l i t &iR%?:':gR'$!);; ltWl4kfiB~1'iilCl. XL-ti-i~fk, Cl'.ThrVibha?a:TI545,546b9& IW Tl545. 727d6-27:l\KI; ...lLiBtW!I:.LXf%Rr&. E . ~ . TI545. : 547b5-9: 1 : 8 8 B Z B ' : g 4 i - i 3 ~ :?Xli-. -Zt.7Jt+Lii/\%'. B W fi.l&4:4il\ -P.l%EtcdYLlTtA. ~.f~l'LEtcAtll.fi?:. 2hntf&.G:f&~-%'. lQi~4llEtcL;5ili%'. 1~3r4IUFi p&&t&pty.


'" r:.

receptivity free of outflow (artbsrat~u-~srir~ri!r) and the eight knowledges of Learner. . That is. all prujdri free of outflow from the receptivity on the knowledge of dharma up rif~ to ~i~ the ~) with respect to unsatisfactoriness ( d u ! ~ k l ~ e - d l ~ u r t ~ r u j d B n u - ~ diamond-like concentration (i~ujmpunrusomridlri) are called drm!i relatcd to the Lemers. What is itidnu rclatcd to Learner? Answer: ?hey are the eight knowledges related to Learner. viz. the four knowledges of dharma ( ~ i l t u r n ~ u j ~ c i n u and )'~~ the four inferential knowledges ( u n ~ o ~ u j d ~ r What tu).~ is~ prujdri ~ related to Learner? DMi rclated to Learner and i,icitru of L e m e r together are called prujtid rclated to Learner. because both drm!i and idriftu have disccrnmcnt of dharmas as their

character is ti^.'^^
In brief.

related to Learner refers to the eight knowlcdges: drm!i related to


Learner refers to the eight knowledges and the eight receptivities:

related to

Learner is the combinations of both jkitru relatcd to Learner and drgi related to Learner. In the stage of a Learner. receptivities. What is d s i related to non-Learner? Answer: Prujfiu' relatcd to non-Learner that are not subsumed by knowledge of exhaustion and knowledge of non-arising arc the right views related to non-Learner. What is iticinu related to non-Learner? Answer: The eight knowledges of non-Learner. viz. the four knowledges of dharma (rlltartnujddnu) and the four inferential knowlcdges ( u t ~ i ~ u ~ ~ u j I c iWhat t t u ) . is prujtici related to non-Learner? Answer: Drgi rclated to non-Learner and itirinu related to Non-Lemer together are called prujdri related to non-Learner because both their dr?!i and idcitru have discerning of dharma as their chancleristic [which is prujtiri].'LU What is dp!i related to neither-Learner-nor-non-Lemcr? Answer: Visl~alfaculty. What is iriZitu related to the five views and the worldly right view neither-Learner-nor-non-Lemcr? Answer: Prujfid associated with the five sensory consciousnesses, and prujtid with outflow associated with mental consciousness penetrates through the three, viz., wholesome. impure, and neutral . What is prujfici related to neither-Learner-nor-non-Lemer? Pruj17B associated with the five sensory

is equal to drs!i which contains


and eight



The four Pdtlu relntcd to the four Noble Truths: du!lWtr. dhurnlujn'flnonl. ~rmrr~r/u.sc rlhnrmi~n'dnunr. du!rkhnnimd/ler/l~urnlujn'dnnm, r/u!~kIrupru~~pnk t/lror~nu~ldnom. ~un~ '"The four un~~uyujEdno of the Four Noblc Truths: du!rkltr* hvu.sujn'dnam. sonludnyc ~ ~ u ~ ' u J ~ ' ~ I ~ u I I z . du!rkhonrmdhc n~~nyuj~dtlum. d u ! t k I ~ u p r u f r p u ~ ~ u m.uyuj~dnnm. t~~d~e '"T1545: 506b10-14: W ' P ) L . ? ? ' : ! & I .X I d P C I . ' : : ) \ % ' . P3:itWP.. 7'lftikW~l%?ZXRPH :+%';!1!,. -Zfu73%'. EJ>!/\?:. , % / l % t W f i ~ % & % . [Also.T545.5?9cOS~tf~I':!.~. L f l ' ; s ! L 1 ; ! ? ; %%J?8$!,B(lliirPtL4U&!z. '"TIS45.506~4-8: tnRJ?b!,. E8RYWffi4;BW'>!.B1MR1FL$LSWW'2W. F R ' : ! l \ t 3 ' . ;~lLYit%'&@Jtrt?S. [ A l s o . T I 5 4 5 . 5 ? 9 c 7 ] - t - f ~ R ' ~ ! ~ Fdl:!ICd':!WI%d':!H$-LW. . tRiiR>L


consciousnesses, and p r u j d d with outflow associated with mental consciousness. .J ~ i r i t r u with outflow and prujtrili with outflow are both found in all mental states with outflo\v, because they all have judging and discerning of d h m a s as their charact~ristic.'~' In brief. for ordinary person or those in the stage of neither-Learner-nor-non-Learner.

and p r o j d d are identical: both refer to p r o j f i f i associated with the live sensory

consciousnesses, and p r u j t i f i with outflow associated with mental consciousness. It must be understood that there is a special case ofdfli which is not subsumed underprajt7d: the visual faculty.'06 The relationships among p r a j j f i , i t i f i ~ r u and d r m ! i in terms of the three classes of beings may bc illustrated by the following table: a) In relation to dr~!i: Learner Non Learner Neither-Lemcrnor-non-Learner

receptivity free of outflow

I jt7d11o

Prajila that are not subsumed by kno\\~ledge of exhaustion and knowledge of non-arising visual faculty five views worldly proper view

b) In relation to ifidno: Learner

Pruj17d associated with the five sensory consciousnesses Neither-Learnernor-non-learner (And p r u j i i d with outflo\v associated with mental consciousness

C) In relation lo p r u j t k i : Learner

'"'T I 545. 506~24-507nl:??lu7:ll:31L,%'i!)L.

Xi4lllU. . ! i f3nlUEii37XIIi1JL(.n.

BOfiIfi !~.)Lllf(ti A:#. .. ?,YfSlz;- W-IL';?-II:,%l;~N'. E 11. ~S'II%WGRRLX',~... SRILJPILI1i!.E. B liP4lIE.E.

Ltftl4llE{iMi;B. 4i.SW.Gflll%-tJJ$i;lii~C-d;t. * + i f iltRit4llll. '"For more discussion on this mttcr. scc Dhamm~oli. K. L. "Thc Abhldhamv Connovcrsy on Vlsual Pcrccption." Recent Reseurcl~cr in Budd/tlrt Studies: &sup Hunour u f Profissur ): hbrunudusu. Ed. I ( . L. Dl~ammajori ctc. Colombo: Y. Kamnadsa Fcliciwtion Commirtcc. 1997): 8 I:92-93.

; , I

Non Learner Neither-LearnerPrujriu' associated with the five sensory consciousnesses nor-non-Learner (And prujriri with outflow associated with mental consciousness


Inter-relationship among Drs!i, Jrifia, and Prajtiti


Relationship between Jticitra and Prajtici.

The JPS explains that every case of jtilina isprajtili. but some cases ofprojtiri are not j,7rirra, viz. the receptivities free ofoutflow (onri~rovo-&ri~rti).~~~ The Vibhs~a comments: Are all cases of jtirha prajtili? All cases of iGrino are proj,iO, because every case of judgment discems d h m a (dlrornru-pra~vicaya).Some cases of projtiri are not jtilinu, viz. the reccptivities free of outflow. because it initially comprehends the [Four Noble] Truths for the first time without judgment.208 "Why is the receptivity free of outflo\r. not knowledge? Answer: Because, when comprehending the Truths by means of receptivity free ofoutflow. there is receptivity bul no deciding; comprehending but no disceming; conjecture (vi-fork) but no concluding; investigating but no knowing; direc~ly realizing (oblri-sunz-di) but no repeatedly discerning. They merely exercise their functions incessantly-hence they are not called


know~ed~e." Altcmative '~ explanations are also given by Vasumitn, D h m a l r i t a . and others: The venerable Vasumitra explains thus: "Receptivity (&rirlli). with regard to the Noble Truths. is receptive at this stage. but it has not yet understood decisively. hence


it is not called know~edge.""~ The Bhadanta ( ~ h a r m a t r ~ t a ) " explains: ' "When thc seeing o f a thing is complete, it is called prajtid. It is not the case that at the initial stage ofreceptivity. the seeing o f a Lhing becomes complete. Thus. though one docs not speak ofthe reccptivity free of outflow as knowledge, but they are actually knowledge.""'


Relationship b e t w e e n

Dp!i a n d PraiZc7.

The JPS and Vibhea explains: Are all drm!iprajIi? It has to be explained in terms o f a tetra-lemma: [i] There is a drp!i that is not prajtid. viz.. visual faculty. [ii] There arc some prujtiri that arc not d*i, viz., prajtid associated with the five groups of consciousness. knowledge of exhaustion (&aya-jtidna) and knowledge of non-arising (uttrrtp6d~-jtii,la).and those prujtiri with outflow associated with mental consciousness but with exception ofthc five views ( d ~ g i and ) worldly proper vicw (lattkiki-suntyug-drp!i). [iii] There are some d~p!i that are also prajtiri. viz.. those prujtiri free of outflow with the exception of knowledge of exhaustion and knowledge of non-arising. and the five vie\vs and worldly proper view. [iv] Some are neither d r g i norprojdri. viz.. [all] except those explained before."' The Vibh&a further comments that the visual faculty is not called knowledge. because visual faculty is matter (rtipa). but the kno\rrledge is not matter."" "Why is it that prq'tiri associated with the group of five consciousncsses is not drpri? Answer: That whose mode ofactivity (rikriru) is sharp (tib!tu) and enters deeply into objects (Jlunrbatro) is called &!i. I'rujtiri associated with the group of five consciousnesses is not sharp and docs not enter deeply into objects: thus, it is not called drgi. Again. it is because dr;!i can discriminate. but this prujtii cannot. It is because drs!i can have specific characteristic and common characteristic as objects. but this prajtid can have only specific characteristic a s object. It is because drs!i can have [ d h m a ofl the three periods of time and unconditioned (asut~tsk~tu) [dhma] as objects, but thisprajti6can have only the present [dharma] as objects. It is because
:'oTIS45.490b?3-Z4:LT&I~Mft:~~;V. .Zfi?%fHftiEaI:2..1fiiQ%BlI4;%?;. 'I' The Bhadmta ( A & ) refers lo The Bhadnnta DharmatrPla, one of thc four San~PsttvPda great

a 1 lhat time. Sce Yin Shun. R~.seurcl: ut: the Alum Sundsrn'dr/rttComnte,narres und Cot~:mentators 246. '"TlS45,49Ob?S-26~~~~ bLfll3'CR7?C?'Yz. I~l. ~ ~ f l J ~ . l l ~ ~ h!i,ftRi%l.%?.8!&4~%?'ifil8 ~?.~l~~&. J&W. '"T15JJ.952n10-IS:X1L2.CSYII.F-Eft~f~J. b iL I L & .! . ~WIIltfl. 4i.FSILH.. ;iVfiB&tlllSP. &I%W. R1i.IL. fill!fTiL4L. LPP1IIEiiN.N. k'#fi;B. PF2&R%T:. W I P B . I 1 li.lLIII.1Fh4L.. {I-11:bL-IlH.,?dPIWIIU. Also. T1544.952a22-26. See. the VibhPgP. T1545.491~8-16. '"TIS45.490b15-16: I:IlR&ON)N;li%%>W. EUN#!JLE. ? / I C b I ....

drs!i can apprehend objects repeatedly, but this pruj~icican apprehend objects for only a moment (kvu!i? [In short.] d ~ rdelibentcs i and examines objects (ciluniha~io), this prujtici docs not.' '


Relationship between D ~ r and i Jti611a.

The JPS and VibhXyB explain the relationship between d r g i and jtici~inin thc s m e manner: Are all drs!i ,%citio? It has to be explained in terms of a tetra-lemma: [i] There are somc drs!i that are not jtiitio. viz. the visual faculty (cukrtrindriyu) and the receptivity free of outflow (a~irisrava-kci~rri)."~ [ii] Therc are somc jtici~iuthat are not drgi; viz. prujfici associated with thc five groups of consciousness (putica-samprayltkru-jficina). knowledge of exhaustion (kuyu-jridrta). knowledge of non-arising (unlrfpcidu-jfiir~lu). and prujtici with outflow associated with mental samprayrtkro-proiici) but with exception of consciousnesses (scisruvci rnu~ioeijricinathe five views. worldly right view (~uirkiki s o n i ~ ~ u k - d ~ ~ i[iii] )."~ There are somc dp!i that are also jticinu: viz. the five views and worldly right view: pruj,iri frcc ofoutflo\v but with exception of receptivity with outflow (a~icisruvu-kci~iri), of knowledge of exhaustion and of knowledge of non-arising."' [iv] Some are neither drgi nor itici~io. viz. those excluding what have been mentioned aboveT9 The Vibhwe repeats JPS's explanation and gives further reasons how they are related or not re~ated."~ Why are the knowledge of exhaustion (&u.vo-jricina) and knowledge of non-arising (miitrpddu-jfidna) not drn!i? Answer: "Because the mode of activities (rikciru) of these two j~ici~ia is not sharp and can not enter deeply into objects.'" Venerable Ghosaka said: "The knowledge of exhaustion and knowledge of non-arising have accomplished what should be done: there is nothing more to pursue;
2"T1545. 490cS-13: I:81u7&fi.B94llEB4I:I.L4ii. FelUll&'liPArfiP;&8Z\bi. iiB9IllEfrt ?rtll44&@1. 4:fEiPAfikX. tk4cgI.L. iY?kkLfE~~S~J. EE4;fik5~Ji~ltk. ~LflEL%I2tUJJ:tll. E BNtlElI2tUL. #IitiII!&EJL.9R%>. EOl%fi:kXEi&A!i. JLPIE(BUk5- IBnltfE-B'lR:Uk5 LSL. # E f i l W Re%. EXf4;ffl. Cf. Dharmajoti. Enrrancr.219. ""The same passage in the VibhJsa: T1545. J90b13-15. 'I' Also. T1545, p490c4-5 "'Also. T1545.491b27-c19. " " T I ~ U952~5-10: . X4LJLWUI{. F E R i ! q i ~ j .fiI.L3I:tB. ,X7SIOM&!lfdM:CJ.

fi%lL#. il7li.a 9411EB. a%%%. WiiHlflU-ME#. W.G.XJ4uEfiU.E. fiJ-Lh;W. 3liiI.L. lif.lCiT.)L. RW.Jii:G. X l l r B . W.dU.U. +i4l:ILlC?:. 37PIDiIJtlI. Thc~meexplanntion:T1544.952a16-21.
2:"T1545.490b13-491c7. 2"TlS45.490c14-15: l ~ ~ l l ~ ' ~ 3 ~ ? ~ ~ u 7 & -'??Ilk ll:~L '.2Y+rtll4:@&lJkt. Uli. +iXAE%&.

thus, they are not called drs!i."'*' Comment: it should be explained as thus: the knowledge of exhaustion and knowledge ofnon-arising are iEZnu but not drgi. because what needs to be done is nccomplished; with regard to the four Noble Truths there is no more searching, because the prepantory [effon] has ceased."'
Dc!i and i,icinu share in scope with following items: eight jn'btru, worldly proper

view of non-Lemer. five views, \\*orldly proper \~ic\v."' According to VibhGB's explanations above. the inter-relationship of these three maybe dingnmed as follow:




I Pm@ asrocatd w
lhe b e ~ o u p of s

non.leama. five wcws. worldly propa

COnsCIouSnaS. 2 knowldgc of c&aUNon. 3 knowledge of non.ansmg. 4 pm~an untb outnow associa!cd

unhm &


consclousnas but w!h the olccplron of lhe five news and h e worldly propa wcw


Prajtir?,Dcfi and Jfitina in tlte Later Ablridlrarma TMs

Here. later abhidharma texts refer to those texts after the Vibhwa, viz. Vasubandhu's




*Ahkid/iarnia-soniayupru~Iti,ikd. " " h e



'Ahhidliurnlu- san~ayapradipika are extant only in Xuan-zang's Chinese translation. Like the Vibha!a, thc AKB explains pruj~ici as one of the ten universal d h m a s that

has the ability to discern the dharma~."~ Sanghabhadra adds: "to discem the wrong or
right characteristic of an object is praj~ifi.""7 As a universal dharma. pruj~ifi has various meanings. Not only does it have a positive sense but also it has a negative connotation. It usually is discussed in comparison with dr.~i between prajI6, c&!i and i,ici~iu.With respect to the relationship

and iiici,la. Vasubandhu's explanation is not essentially ditTercnt

from that of the Vibha!a, but it is more concise: Proj~ifi is of two kinds: with outflow and frce ofoutflow. Only pruj~iii free of outflo\v is called the noble [praj~id]. Thc eight reeeptivities among the noble prujrii are not of the nature of jlifiilu because the doubt to be abandoned by them has not been abandoned. Thcy are subsumed by the nature of d z i because they are of the nature and a ) knowledge of of conjecture. The knowledge of exhaustion ( ~ u ~ ~ a j i i f i n non-arising (unrrtpadujii6nu) do not possess the nature of ~lrs!i becausc they have stoppcd thc searching mind and do not conjecture.'" The remaining (knowledpes) are of the naturc of both i~iriiraand d r : ! i becausc they have completely removed doubt and arc of the nature of conjecture. All pruj~ifiwith outflow are subsumcd in the nature of itifinu. Among these. only sis viz.. the five defiled drs!i and worldly proper view ( l o i ~ k i k i s u n i y u g d are ~ ) of the nature ofdym!i. Because the noblepruj~ifi with outflow explained thus are all of the nature of the discernment of dharmas. they are subsumcd in the nature of proj~i6."9 Accordingly, the relation among the three can be diagramed as follow:

"'See fn. 15. ':" T1558. 19aZO: E;;PlEiLliBiilU R. AKB, p. 55: moii!~prajn'l] d a r t n o p r a ~ ~ ~ c a yAlso. u ! ~ . T1558. 35b28. "'T1562.385b6-7: TmlVffiP%AIE'.S4U. ;S%Z)H. "'AKB. p. 391: manrira~Uparimd~niayan.df/ ""TI558. 13Jb24-c2:;,ll.I. H i i :fch. liilddild. nlLW%l.2.YUE8. dtl?H~I1J\2.:!.:lLZZ?L. C 1 RABAC~A& iTtL?AHI. . ar!xr&&. ~ P ~ ( W :w. Y 3l:xrk. CL.Q.~,L.+HLIQ&. rfitwa +A'\!, .?l. e U ' iflU%lE?A&. XiiildL? 8%'?!U. E~t*nlLi'<4l~X~L~L. i 7 +I.W%~LIU.~E!!,?>~.


hr delikd vic\vs
\vorLlly proper \ic\v

The Vibhqa explained that prqqAd includes all knowledges and all dcri with the exception of eye.230Vasubandhu and Sanghabhadm go into this detail a s to why seeing is done by the eye in conjunction with v ~ x I ~ u . " ' Sanghabhadra follows the AKB but adds more explanation regarding the difference
(@ci~tri) are between jrilirlo and drgi. Saighabhadra explains why the eight reccptivi~ies

not knowledge and the knowledge of exhaustion and knowledge of non-arising are not

How is it that the eight receptivitics are not able to be decisive? Because the doubts 10 be abandoned by them can continue to arise. or because the desire which seeks to perceive the object has ceased. \\'hat is named irid~rais slack in preparatory effon 0,rayoga). When the receptivitics are arising. there is a desire for conjecture: the effort [therein] being strong. they are included as i~Td~ra. However they are called drgi on account of their nature of conjecture. The knowledge of exhaustion and knowledge of non-arising are not of the nature of drm!i. because the desire for conjecture therein has ceased completely. and because the preparatory effort generated therein is extremely slack. However they are callcd itr7na on account of

Sce on page 66. See. Dhnrnrnajoti. TIr'lrcAbhidlrormo Conrrovcrn92K

their being decisive in nature."' The eight receptivities are the stages of understanding prior to the stage of knowledge. They are called receptivities. for they have the nature of conjecture. and they still remain in the stage of d.r;!i. Besides. there is still an element of doubt. Saighabhadn

adds that receptivitics are not knowledgcs, for they are still in the stage of preparatory practice, while knowledgc is the state afier prepantory practice. In the VibhX?a. the eight knowlcdges are explained separately from the other two know~edges.'~~ The eight knowlcdges are explained in detail. while the two knowledges are not. The AKB and Ny explain thcse ten knowledges collectively:"' These ten knowledges are summarized into two kinds, because of the distinction in their either with or without outflow. When the two kinds of knowledge are differentiated by their defining-characteristics they become three: viz., conventional knowlcdgc (su~!rr:rrii,idnu). the knowledge of dharma (dharnruitirinu). and inferential knowledge (unryaj~irina). The former. i.e.. knowledges with outflo\\' are collectively called "conventional". because they mostly take worldly objects such as a vase ctc. The latter. i.e., knowledges free of outflow. are divided as [knowledge of] dharma and inferential [knowledge]. Among thcse three, the conventional [i~irinu] has all conditioned and unconditioned things as its objects. The knowledge of dharma and inferential knowledge respectively have the Four Noble Truths of the Sphere of desire (krinradlrdrrr) and those of the higher Spheres as their objects."' The explanation of the AKB is very simple in comparison to the Vibh$g; Samgabhadn follows the AKB, but he adds more e ~ ~ l a n a t i o n . " ~

":Tl561.735M-9: ~liulJ\.C.l;fEiAB. bRAURlht4lliA41&. P:klLtrZP%tI'.E!. h l i i % l l Q % a d . ;X:EEJMJ~.~XB. ~ A I ~ , W J & ~ L I iY i i M z. i ~ & a ~ ~ ai ~m m*. :wniri. f l ~ IP.@.%-~II:.E.&~.f i U m i i M % l & . fi8R8Fl'l;iAltii?L&. Also.Tl563.946~13-a16. "'Scc on pagc 59. ''' TI.558. 134~7: T1561.735~8. '"TI558. 134~9 hlzf TJ:SnlE:I!%. <i%(Rt%lCLX)id&.$ 1 2 :?Y411~illfiL.tl'lllt(t;?:iL?:Zild. tVJfii%P:181&1A. 3UXtiYll!lilP. tL(Rt~&G%"S~iZZic~i~l. -~I~~I!fiPu-l~~fjAW%~nrfiS I. %rR ~ . 1 f i ! n 1 l l ' k T i U L i k L W I Y ~ I ~ ~ I . 2J'T1562.735c10-24: also. T1563.9472ITT.



Prujdri has the function of discerning dharma (dltar~rtu-pruvico,a). Thus, it has the

widest scope among the three-pruj~id subsumes all ific71taand drgi exccpt the visual faculty. Visual faculty can only be subsumed under dr:!i. because it does not have the

and drari, but not j~icina. function of discernment. The receptivity free of outflow is pruj~iri
because it initiates the comprehending of the Four Noble Truths but it does not have the nature of being decisive. The highest and perfect knowledge. or prq'dii of an awakened The one. is prujdd free of outfloic which sees things as-they-are (varl~dhllhronl). knowledge of exhaustion and kno\vledge of non-arising belonging to prujtiii are not dr:v!i.

Chapter 5: Some Controversies Between Vasubandhu (and

Dir$fHntika/SautrHntika) and Sanghabhadra Related to


General Cotnnrenfs

Sanghabhadn's two works. the Ny and *Ahhidlrarnruso1~typradpik6 are intended to uphold Vaibhqika orthodoxy by demonstrating that Vasubandhu's auto-commentary contains errors in interprelation. In terms of swcture. they follow the contents of Vasubandhu's AKB with minimal emendations; however. Siuighabhadra substitutes his own commentary in place of Vasubandhu's. The Ny exhaustively refutes Vasubandhu's position, while the *Ahhidlrar~ttasunruyapradri,ikB serves a s a direct exposition on Sanghabhadn's own views."' Funher, contextually. it consisls of selections from various

pans of Ny to show the correct theory of Vibhx>a. Sanghabhadn's introduclion to the *Ahlridlrarrtrusu1t1~yuprudipik6 documents his o\rrn intentions"' and thcrcin he states that he will accept Vasubandhu's statements when they conform to reasonable argument and scriptural authority, but that. he will reject them if they contndicl abhidharmaorthodoxy as set down by the Vibhqa. As pointed out by C. Cox. in the Ny, Vasubandhu is called Jingzhrr # i l k . literally. "Sntra master", and this has been taken to mean that Sanghabhadra identifies Vasubandhu as a Sautrantika."'

"'Cox. D~spurcd56. ''' Tl563.777alOrT.

=IP Cox. Koirnlra 244. Sce also. La VaIICe Poussin. "Docurncnts d'Abhidhrnu-Ln Conrrovene du Temps: Ics dcux. les quam. Ics lrois Vdrirts". Alr'langcs Cltrnors e ! Douddi~iqucs, V. p.34.

However, a quotation from the Ny found in Sthiramati's commentary on the AKB suggests that the Sanskrit equtvalent of /ins-zhrc is actually s~irrakdra."'~ According to Cox, it could simply refer to Vasubandhu as author o f the sotra. that is, the kiirikli of the Abhidlrornrakoia, or it may be a sarcasm. suggesting Vasubandhu's lack of familiarity with Buddhist scripture."' However. Cox also notices that Vasubandhu together with other Sautrantikas are defended by Sanghabhadra."' Yuan Hui on AKB (f:1&',%L%T,i

(mm) in his commcntary

she Irot song shrr) claims that Vasubandhu originally studied Vasubandhu himself admitted that he relied on the

Sarvastivada and later Sautrantika.'" VibhX$I mostly."'

This indicates that Vasubandhu was not completely faithful to the

Vaibhwika tradition. Traditionally, there are four standpoints regarding the vie\\, of Vasubandhu's position. I) Pu Guang (&%) in his commentary on AKB (fl!$:,%l;C! Jttsltc lunji)'" says:

Although he clarified the meaning of Sarvastivada. oflen he rectified it with the Sautrilntika's view. Vasubandhu was aligned with what is logical. and not with any partisan view. 2) Fa Bao ($A@)in his commentary on AKB ( f i & 2 . 'i % Jrrshe lr1ns11u)"l~

says: The ~ l s t r a ' sverses were created mostly on the basis of the VibhX?a, but its esplanarory prose were based only on superior logical validity and were not inclined to\vards any panicularschool; howcvcr. therein it mostly adopted the Sautrantika view. 3) Yuan ~ u i ' ~ comments: ' Vasubandhu's standpoints are two-fold: (i) the explicit and



Op. crr 244-245. Op. clr. 139. Op. crr. 24849.

"'TI823.24: IltBKVI;. EiX4i;;:. fBJFPEBU. : U ~ t s s sI, S Z ~ I I i??i.eaKnfiiwdi I ~ S ~ ~ ~ E B F I L L : " T1821. IatJ-16: PftS-tJJ4iB. IL5UEBEL. ~Q:QDbb65Y%\;i:. 4P?fi-RI]~!iII. ?'" ~1822.458a29-br: dt;lYbGB?$'Uly2(W)LXi. tZTi9MEUJ!i!k5?-~51. .ll:&-l. t4h?rlll:ll%1 1

general standpoint of the Sarvativada. (ii) the implicit and "secret" standpoint of the Sautritntika. 4) Kuai Dao (tkiii)24ssays: It is SanCbtivilda. Pu Guang and Fa Bao both have similar opinions that Vasubandhu was based on logical reasoning. not on any school. Yin Shun has discussed extensively this maner: for him. the views of the Chinese masters appear to be the more credible one. He concludes. Vasubandhu was principally inclined to logical validity.249 In view o f doctrine. Vasubandhu tends to be a Sautratika but in terms of spiritual praxis, he follows the theory of abhidharma. He details: he agreed to some extent with thc Sautratika. "With rcspcct to circa-coirr(~-dl~arma, [at the same time] he still followed thc abhidharmikas. With rcspcct to nipa-dlrurnm. cirra-viprayrdkru-su~!~skdra dlrurrna (elements not concomitant with mind), and asa~nskyra-dl~armo (uncondi~ioned dharma), he followed the D&s!antika and Sautritntika. With rcspcct to cultivation and attainment, he completely took the notion of the ~aibh@ika.""' Although Sanghabhadra was a great commentator, the salient time of Sanp%tivBda abhidharma had gone, never to return. At the time of Vasubandhu. Sautr'htika flourished and fused with Mahayana Yogacara to become one. Whatever effon Sanghabhadn made. it was insuflicient to resurrect ~arvastivada."'


TIte Controversy Between Vasubarrdltuand Sariglrabltailra

The abhidharma texts by Vasubandhu and Sanghabhadn inform us about the expositions of Sarvastivada and Sautratika. However, scholars in the past. influenced by

' i i 1 Y r S . .

ik%rtiE!#?Y.liljt. ~ A ~ R l ~ ~ PRldt;,l. l i ~ ~ ii8Uta;;r. & .

.R#:;;c. rJi:F1I4!@.

T V t . %ilURiiQ. '"fllfiiht: E25I. 7b-c.

'"Op or. 684. '"Op. 01. 7 10.

Yin-Shun. Researrh on du blatn San,dsltvdr/mComn~cnlart~~s and Con~mcnrarors 659.

Vasubandhu's prestige, were inclined towards Vasubandhu whose position was supposed to have represented the orthodox Vaibhqika and called Sanghabhadn a neo-vaibhX:ika. Venerable Yin-Shun does not agree with this viewpoint.'5' because he disagrees that the Vibhqn commented on every doctrinal theory; sometimes. it commentcd on cenain views; sometimes, it merely listed opinions without comments. Vasubandhu usually gave an explanation for the first one or the most popular one. and thus. Sanghabhadra objected to him. The main controversy between Sanghabhzdn and Vasubandhu was that they did not agree upon which of the excerpts found in the AKB were from the VibhL>a. In what follows, some of the examples pertaining to the notion of prajriri explained by Vasubandhu and Sanghabhadn will be discussed."'


PrajfiE as a Real Dharma

For the SarvBtivada, each unique force having a unique function is a real entity

(dravya). PrajiB is one such real entity. and is to be found in each and every mental state that arises. For the Darstnntikas and the Sautrnntikas following Buddhadeva. only cirru (mind) exists. apart from which there is no caitra."" The latter is merely a name denoting a specific state of cirru exercising a specific function. Thus a hostile mind is simply a mind that is hostile; there is no any real entity called "hostility (prarigha)" which exists separately from the mind. The AKB expresses a view-presumably that of the

D~st~tika/Sautfintika-that a cairra is a specific state of the mind."'

Sanghabhadn defends the SarvBtivada position that cairras are real entities and are

"'Op. cir. 697ff.

: " Vencnble Yin Shun has discussed the conlroversy between Vasubandhu nnd Sanghabhadn in delail. See Yin-Shun. Rc-searrb an rhc Abrn San.dsmdrlin Camnr~~n~aries and Commc~nrarars70 1-706. " ' ~ 1 5 4 5 . 661~14-15: tXffiiQEIBkI8. *LfiUll~ll: elc. Also ADV, p. 76: ndrrhfinrarabhlrai calrnsikd ilr b h a ~ l a n ~ u b u i l d l r a d ~ /~ a ~ r : " AKO, p. 440: a%*aslhdviiqo hr ndnlo ccrasaicairasrka hhovcli.


distinct from cicru by invoking scriptural authority and logical arguments: "[The Satra] says that prujtii is foremost: Although the essential chanctcristics of dharmas arc extremely profound, pruj,ii being strong and bright is capable of illuminating them all. Hence it is said to be forcmost. Or. projtid surpasses all dharmas. hence "foremost". the word "foremost" means "surpass~ng." In conventional usage, that which surpasses is said to be "foremost." The meaning in this [scriptural context is that it is only prujfii which extensively illumines what is to be known. ...'j6
Prujtii exists as a distinct entity, because it is so said in the various satras. Whenever

the mind perceives an object. there is always the function of discerning

(pro-~~i-dcur)-[the function proper to praj,ici]. In a case where this function is feeble. it is not detected. Hence decidedly prq'tid should be a universal mental concomitant (IIIU/IZ-~~I~~III~~U).~~'

Sthavira ~rilata, the leading Sautrmtika master of the time, denies that prujtifi is a real n~ohd-bhfinlikudharma because there cannot be a mental state wherein prujtifi can co-exist with uvid?.d and doubt (~*icikirsd):"~ "Knowledge ( i t i i t ~ u ) and non-knowledge (uj~idtto).hesitation and decisiveness. logically cannot co-ex is^.""^ Sanghabhadn replies: It is universally accepted that a mental state which is one of false view (n~irl~vii-drsri). co-exists with avid\d. Without a deluded mind there cannot be a false view. Thus u v i & 5 definitely exists in a mental state of false Still. there is the problem of the possibility of having praj,ici co-existent in a mental state conjoined with a unique ignorance (ivenikd o~idvd). On this. Sanghabhadra argues: Let it be conceded that logically ujtidna and j~iZtlacan be conjoinud (sunrpru~~ttkru).

Once this is conceded. it follows that there should also be prajt7d in the mental states conjoined with a unique ignorance. It is only because of it being feeble that its nature does not show u p clearly.
A similar reasoning shows that [prajric] also co-exists with doubt. If in [a mental state] conjoined with doubt, prajdci is completely absent. how can there be an investigation of the [two] altematives-[true. untrue: real. unreal, elc.]. This is because, with regard to the two alternatives, there must be a discriminative discernment and investigation, for a doubt to be f~rmed.''~


The Three Kinds of PrajiiH in Preparatory stagez6'

The Sanfastivada holds that the process of gaining spiritual insight (uhhisanruyu)

into h e Four Noble Truths is a gradual one. The preparatory stage leading to this insight too is likewise a gradual one. It is explained that firs1 one must be established in vinues (I-~ttusrlto). and next, one must study the sotra or listen to the proper teachings. Having studied and listened. one then should reflect on the meaning. Finally. one must devote oneself to cultivation. This briefly outlines the gradual development on the basis of observing 511~. during one's practice from i n r t a - n ~ a - p a and then to

The AKB distinguishcs three kinds of prujcd and criticizes the Vibh$a as follows: The Vaibhqikas said that the characteristics of the three prujii are distinguished accordingly as whether they take as object-referents. only the name [of their object]. o r both [the name and the thing], or only the thing (orthu).They are distinguished as follows: I. Projr7d arising from listening has only name as its objective-referent. because it is not able to contemplate the thing without having abandoned the words.
: "TlS62.389b7-12:

B.'tBWDilW4IIE. I(.fflXL. JtRli!lk. I ~ J b d n J l . 4ll@*tz~8. hS4i.g.

fL!Kt%&k. 4Ll;l;nllT. dl&Z[ifS. ,fiN6(Eftll. fiCt4UEf W S Z ; . rf.78141' .n%HI.t+. W .I::,I'. x:H~lmR.P114rxi3. TrrnUP.
"'Thesc three kinds oCpraj5d in thc Vibh3g arc in rcrcrcncc withprqriJ with outflow or conventional prqdd. Ou~flow 1s conventional. See. TISS8. 134M: it ilrli6lU (ii. :L'T1558. 116~4-5: ;A{I ? % * O X @ blX. EXZtLin'iYr W ib'?ilCil~fil:dfiP%.Also. T1563. 915b13-14. "All beings who posscss a nund [dircctcd tonnrds annbning] are tcndrng 1on;lrds rlainra-n~drga. Thcy should tint dwcll in pure irla, then practice [prnjfid]csmblishcd by lrstcning ctc."

2. Prujdli arising from reflection has both name and the thing as its objective-referent. because sometimes it draws out the thing on the basis of words. sometimes it draws out words on the basis of the thing. This is becausc it cannot contemplate on the thing without the words.
3 . Praj~ili arising from cultivation has only the thing as its objective-referent; because

it is capable of contemplating on the thing without the \ v ~ r d s . ' ~ Vasubandhu holds that the three prujdli should arise on the basis of listening to perfect doctrine. of reflecting on proper theory. and of cultivating sanridlri: If it is so [i.e., if it is as claimed by Vaibhqika], then prajdi arising from reflection could not be established. That is to sa): if [prujiii arising from reflection] followvs on the basis of name and on the basis of the thing, then it would be the same as [prujk?] arising from listening and cultivation. Now\-, in detailing the characteristics of the three [kinds of pruj~ili] without error. [it should be known that] a practitioner by listening to perfect doctrine comes to supreme pruj,iri. [then this] is called prujdli arising from listening. If one comes to supreme pruj,iu' by reflecting on proper theory, [then this] is called prujdi arising from reflection. Ifone comes to supreme prujP(3 by cultivating sunrlidl~i.[then this] is called prujrili arising from cultivation. The terms "arising from" expressed above means that the occurrence of the threc kinds of supreme pruj~ili arises on the basis of having listening. reflection [and cultivation] as the three [kinds ofl causes.'6s Aside from the Vibh&@ explanation of the three kinds of praj1i6 given above criticized by Vasubandhu. it also explains the three kinds of p r u j ~ i jin the manner of Vasubandhu's "corre~tion."'~~ Thus. Vasubandhu's explanation is not diffcrcnt from that of the VibhX5n. Smighabhadn criticized Vasubandhu as not having understood the VibhXy correctly:


Us&. !i!flifi+21SP&td. ii&kdlfi;l8.

1 1 6 ~ 9 - ~ 1 7 : ~ i e T J R1 ~8 ~R 4U . . , ~ % U & ~ . O l ~ C i IBTfiPB#t%%U. ~;~l. k-fiEfiZm {iR.+rhi?9lf. k2RZfitVlitll. B f i I t i l Q ( E 1 IR#2XQlnl&&. Cf. Leo M. P ~ d c nInns. . Abh~d/~nrmakoiabbdn.ani, by Louis dc La Vallee

Poussin. Vol. Ill (Berkeley: Asian Humanities Press. 1989) 912. The Skl in AKB (p. 334) is more concise.

;Wrfil% X%LM.SPll~!!L!?9S.-IKl~fiItifi. Also Sanghabhsdrn quoted this passage: TI562.669a12-316.


He (Vasubandhu) without having understood the meaning of [the three chancteristics] in the VibhX?3, made those sta~ements.'~' However, the meaning of the three characteristics expounded in the VibX5a is not like that. If there is prq'fia at the rime o f the preparatory stage. which is an understanding induced by vinue of taking namc as its object. that prujtii so induced is called [prujtia] arising from listening. Ifat the time of the preparatory stage. the name is understood a s through the strength ofreflection, then that "decisive prujtii" following after it is called [prujf;d] arising from reflection. If, without relying on namc. only the thing is contemplated on. and there occurs prujtia in the form of internal realization. [this] is called prujfici arising from cultivation. According to the postulate of their school regarding the three [kinds of1 prujfid. although the characteristics [ofthe three kinds ofpruj~iiri] are determined. there is no difference [among them]; but on the proper basis of scriptural authority (ipuru-iguma) and logic ~ukri/r~yiyu), the causes [for their occurrences] are not the same [and therefore] three characteristics are differentiated. Thus, according to the way our school explains these three prujIiB: at the time when they arc induced. there is no differentiation as regards their characteristic of taking the thing (urrhu) as object-referent; the three nevertheless have distinct chancteristics o n account ofthc fact that at the prcparatory stage there is a difference as to whether they take object-referent. the name, or both [the name and the thing] or the thing.'68 Thus. Sanghabhadra stresses that the three prujtiri are distinguished in the stage of prepantory practice.

2 . 3

The Four Abodes of Mindfulness

The VibhX53. AKB and Ny explain the Four Abodes of Mindfulness

( s ~ ~ ~ r ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ o as s t prujfia. h a n u sThe ) ' ~ Four ~ Abodes of Mindfulness, faculty of prujtid

:''1558. 116~17-23.
'"T1562. 669516-b15:Ilfl.);iLtK&'rl..F:Ift:I;,';. I l ~ & ? ~ G i i 4 1 1 ~ i ~ I . ~ . 1 :fl*{i~I??lJll ~lol~. lhl%J~.il?kWW.IkE3lB%fidrfiJ?i. ~ f n l ~ ~ l C l ! l ! $ . ~ ~ ~ ' ; l % % hlkf??@?k?)t;tP W~. Z!$r;liJ?i.~E..l;l:r%ltB!t?r)fI.&14nIXDfiJ?i. lo~Erfi;;:iSWLH. PL&i?tZlURXh"I.fi R~$~~EJYS Z~ ~ ,~ ~+ ~ .I Z I L ~ I IQ ~ I~I ~ I ;; W I I ,.; : ~ ~ + Ifitn+cwii. ~ ~ , ~ . ~W.RSII.fiv&%rif~& mi. !JlltYXll&241l~ih'll. Alsosec.Tl563.915~6-12. "'The Chinese I'll*& (the Four Abodes of Mindfulness) is a lilcnl Innslalion for rr~r.n?i~purrhdnrr. which derives from rtrr.ni+rrpurr/rdnu. S I I I , means ~ ~ "thlnkmg upon. rcmcmbnncc" (Monlcr 1272~): upnsrlrdno from rtpti+ ulhd means "a placc of abiding, approach (hlonlcr. Zllb). Monlcr rcndcrcd

(indrip). prujrd power (balu), the investigation of dharmas (dl~arn~upra~~ica.~.a). and Right views (samyak-d:s!i) have prujdd a s their essential nature.'70 The AKB explains

right view, right thought (suni.vuk-saptkulpu) and right effort (.saniyag-w@vdnia).as the aggregate of prajtiri: Right vie\v, right thought. right effort are called the aggregate of projdfi. Although "thought" and "effort" are not pruj~iE.bccause their nature is in accord with prujtid. they are also called pruj~~d.'71 Regarding the definition ofthe Four Abodes of Mindfulncss. Vasubandhu criticizes the Vaibhwika view as follows: The Vaibhwikas make the statement: pruj~idis made to dwell by the retaining strength of mindfulness. In reality, it is by prajtid that mindfulness is made to dwell on an object, becausc one who sees truly can remember Vasubandhu's criticism seems to be harsh, bccause the vibh$a2" actually gives a similar statement Prujdfi can dwell on the objcct because of the strength of mindfulness. thus it is called Abode of Mindfulness. Or the strength ofprujdd makes mindfulness dwell on object, thus it is called Abode of ~indfulness." In another place of the AKB. Vasubandhu stales:'75
st!trg.upusrltdnu as "earnest thought" (Monicr !273a). cf. BHSD 614b. The Four Abodes of Mindfulncss arc Mindfulness of Body (Uyu). Feeling (vrdund). Mind (ctrfu) and Mind-objects ( l t u r ~ n t ~see ) , BD 165. For the relationship between rmrriandprajfid in Sarvasttvld~n abh~dharnu, sec C. Cox. "Mrndfulncss and Memory: The Scope of Snyrr from Early Buddhism lo the S a r v s s l ~ v l d ~ Abhidiwmu." n i n rhc hhrror o f d l c n ~ o vcd. . Janet Gyaeo (Delhi: Sri Salgutu Pub. 1993): 75-77. ""T1558. 132b13-14: : F I P ~ % K . W P H ) J I V ~ ~ ~ X ~ I L ~T1562.726~21-22; ? ~ . B ~ > ~ W . AKB. p. 383. '"T1558. 19b13-15: h ) L % ! % ! lt h L 8 0 C d . !~llt/kEI~B:l~BCk%IIIi~b'1fi~i!IY%. "T1558.132b29-c2: F?!.B?YBII~B~P~~. P ~ I $ J J I . Y + K & . iY!JIrllH+%t!~1. DIB)LXfiE IA2P. That the VihhDsD givcs various explsmItonr is well-known: somctimes. it criticizes ccnain expositions: somctimcs. it comments on cenain ideas. However, in morl of thc c x c s . it simply enumcntes difircnt definitions without making any remarlis. '"TI545.724rt19-21 : . X r h % J J R B f ? ? S ~ 2 $ 1 L . B~kBJ~/u%lftll&b%tk.. " ' ~ 1 5 5 8 . 1 1 8 ~ 2 7 - I I ~fu~?l.%z.)m%tkW. ~S: &D%II.:imXii-.. OrLlUr#rfiS)id&. nf&%tli UP?-\tB. kP1iLH. :PIIB%Ril. Ulllk.ll;ZLf~f!$tk. 4llOflLtkUBRIIR4i%>1W. rfi3.3

'" '"

What are the essential nature of the Four Abodes of Mindfulness (srnyty~cpusr/~d~~as)? . The essential nature of each of the Abodes of Mindfulness is threefold because of the distinctions as regards self-nature, combination. and object. (1) The Abode of Mindfulness with respect to self-nature has prajfid a s its essential nature. This prajfid is of three kinds. viz.. [prujfid] arising from listening, etc. These arc also named three varieties of Abodes of Mindfulness.

(2) The Abode of Mindfulness with respect to combination has prajdd and other (cairra) with [prajn;u'] as its essential nature.
(3) The Abode of Mindfulness with respect to an object has those dharmas,
which praj~id takes as object. a s its essential nature. How do [we] know that [the Abodes of Mindfulness] have as their self-nature prajdd. not something else? A Sotra states, "To dwell on one's body and to observe one's body are called the Abode of Mindfulness on body." The other three [Abodes of Mindfulness] are the same. These observations refer only to the essential nature of prujdd. because where there is no prq'dd there is no function of obsen'ation. Vasubandhu. quoting the Vaibhvika. goes on to comment and argue as follows: Why is the name of the Abode of Mindfulness given to prajdd? The VaibhZ.ikas state: Because in this stage. Mindfulness is strong. This means that. dependingon the strength of mindfulness. prujdd can operate. just as an ax splits wood due to the support of the strength of a wedge.'76 Actually, it should be said that prajdd causes Mindfulness to abide; therefore. the name of Abode of Mindfulness is given to ptwJtid. because what is observed by prujdd is accordingly remembered with clarity.From the discussion above. it can be understood that according to Vasubandhu. the functioning of the Four Abodes of Mindfulness is caused by prujt7d;'7s thus, prujrid is the essential nature of the Four Abodes of Mindfulness.

:"TIS~B. 119a8-9:18l!t,%~.u+$Zt!i.

"'Cf. Cox.

E&EEA2tkZ. PBrfitKtE?Jl;,l&. Alsosee.fn.272.




PrajtiiH and the 16 i k i r a

Another controversy between Vasubandhu and Sanghabhadra is the explanation on

the relationship between the 16 dkira (aspects) and prajtiri. Vasubandhu states:

... Thus, dkiru has prq'tid as its substance, because if prajtid did not possess an dko'ra ( s i i - t k r a ) , prajtih could not be conjoined (sanrpra)~ukta) with prajEi itself. However. it would be proper to state that dkdra is a distinct modc of grasping object by mind and mental statcs (citta-caittas).
But is it that prajriri alone perceives an aspect (rjkdrayati) [of an object]? No. How then? Prajtid all other mind and mental states. which are of the nature o f having an object (so-danrbanu) perceive an aspect: Everything that exists is perceived with an aspect (dkrjryate).Thus [there is this threefold distinction:]
(1) prajtiz is rikdro, that which perceives an dkdra. and that which is perceived with an dkdra;

(2) other [mind and mental state] which take object (sdlan~bund) perceive an d f i r a . and are perceived with an dkdru;

(3) all [other] objects of perception (dlabana)are perceived with an d k d r ~ . " ~

Sanghabhadn remarks: Here, the sotra master (Vasubandhu) submitting [to the claim of] another school. composed the [following] statement: "...dkdra is a distinct modc of grasping object by the mind and mental states." [but] this is not reasonable. The explanation given by my (Sanghabhadraj school is correct. That is. only the prajtid that operates by discerning the characteristics of an object is called an dko'ro. Praj~,iriand all other mind and mental states take objects, hence, they are [the subject i.e..] "that which perceives.'' for this so-called "[subject o f ] perceiving with an dkdra" should refer to prajdo' as dkira. The other mind and mental states, not bcing dkdra. ho\v can they

: " AKB. P. 401 -2 ... "Prajriakdru!t." Evat!~larlti prajdd sdkdrd no bhuvl\.t*ari,prt~n'dnlurdsa?,tyogdf. Eva!,~ ru yukraqt sjdf, sun.qdt!t ctffucatlldndmdlamhanagruIta!taprukdra 'lkura IN. Alha ktt!t pruj.irtt~~dldrayuri neyuhu. E;I~!I farht "Tuyd saba. dkdrat'anlt sdlarnbdttu!~. " Prajdd c d n y ca s a w rdhmhand dharmd dkdrayunlr. "San.amdkdryarr. lu sol. " yadtt!tct~Iasnsannntdkdryare ladcwat!t k r n d ~rddlru,!t bhavari prajtid dMraicdkdrayart cUkdparr- ca. anyr sdlamhand dkdrayanndkdnunr cu. dlunthund dkdyunlu rveri. ara!~ purume.laf~ljn'dndnd~~t kuialddihhe~la~!~ l1inne.ttydnta!t.

TI.558.137~2-8: ...~Ph'4llUk!&n?lE!Sk!E:lLiiiitll. U.EO~(B.~~~IIEL'I!~. IbIItE,';XGG filLi%,Z[ili~l2i8~4ll. .EB;&L~L~OfiiLiifiPhJc'CiEfBii.-WiiiLLCiErhlr. hIIt.il'lnn{i 1IWtBiiIii4UfiCL~rfih:. t&.L-l~filYEfBfie. Xt&iiitNEXrhii.


perceive an c i k d r ~ ? ' ~ ~ So what Sanghabhadra emphasized is that only prujtid is dkdru per se. The other mind and mental states may also be said to perceive with an d b r o by vinue of being conjoined with projtid whose function is to discern the characteristic of an object. It is in fact on account of this latter function that prujtid is said to be dkdru.



Vasubandhu's comments on the VibhX$i are based on the viewpoints of the Sautrantika, but Sahghabhadra's t\vo works. the Ny and Abl~idlturtt~usun~u~'uprud,i,ib, follow the structure of the AKB but maintain a Vaibhqika onhodox view. Some of Vasubandhu's criticism of the VibhqB, are found unacceptable by Sanghabhadra. because according to him. Vasubandhu did not understand the Vibhvl. With regard to the three kinds of prujtid, Sanghabhadra stresses the three prujtid in the stage of preparatory practice. The Vibha>a, AKB and Ny explain the Four Abodes of Mindfulness as prujtid. The AKB adds right thought (sumjok-sut~tkulpu).right effon
(santyug-lydydnla) to its discussion on pr'rid.

For Vasubandhu. prujtid can lead one to

thc Four Abodes of Mindfulness; thus, thc Four Abodes of Mindfulness are of the nature o f pruj!id. In the controversy between Vasubandhu (and Dars!antikdSautCintika) and Sanghabhadra. the Vaibhqika strives to establish thc reality. nature. and function. of
prujdd. It is to be noted that projtifi is defined as dkdru. thc discerning function ofprujtid.

It is this function ofprujtid that basically makes possible the function of vedattd. san~tid.


in the perceptual process.

Chapter 6: Prajtia of the Two YHnas and the Buddha


General Comments

The abhidharmikas follow the traditional distinction o f the Sravaka-yana,

pntyekabuddha-y~a-collectivelycalled the two yanas-in

is decisively superior.

contrast to the Buddha who

K. Dhammajoti has discussed okligu-uj,ici,ra (non-defiled

ignorance) in c o ~ e c t i o nwith arhat/arahant and indicated that arhats are inferior in comparison to the level o f the Buddha's awakening."' In the early discourses. the

arahants arc said to be liberated like the Buddha. For them a s well a s for the Buddha. "accomplished is the spiritual life; done is what had t o be done" (vrcsiruy b r u h m u c a r ~ ~ ~ u r ~ ~ : kurunr kuru!r[vur!r).


the early suttas also indicate that the Buddha's

kno\vledge is higher than that of arahants. For example. in the Sui,i,rpusri~lun~o Srrrra. the Buddha dcclares that Sariputta. though having attained arahanthood, cannot fully fathom In the Mlilupariydyu-srrrr, both a n arahant and the mind o f even the present ~ u d d h a . " ~ the Buddha are said to know each object o f cognilion truly as-it-is. and therefore entirely free from any wrong conception. However, arahants are described a s "knowing perfectly @uri~iricirui,").'~~ while the Buddha is described a s "knowing pcrfectly to the end @urii,iCdrui,rrur~~).~ Here, the difference between an arahant and the Buddha is indicated;

'"D h m j o t i . K. L. "The Defects in the arhat's Enl~ghtcnmmt-His oklrgo-uj3dnu and vdsonu. " Buddhrsr Srudres (Bukkyo h'cnkyu) Vol. XXVll(1998):65-98. '"D.i.82. 100. 124. 158. 159.203;D.ii.66. 153:M.i.22.67. 117. 139. 184.252. '" D. iii. 99-1 16. This instance is also mcntioncd in the V1bhSs3and the Upadcia, see note 3 13. : u M. i. 4. "'M. i. 6. PTS edition reads as poririn'Pm~!t. howcvcr. the Burncsc-script BuddhasPsam Sam111edrtron and the Sinhala-script Buddha Jayanti Tripitaka cdition read aspan,in'dronror!r. See. Bhikkhu bnamoli and Bhikkhu Bodhi. Tlrr AhrWlc Lrngrlr Drscourses o f rbe Buddlto (Boston: Wisdom Publications. 1995): p. 1 167n28; also see. p. 88-89: For orolrur's knowledge. he mnslatcd as has fully understood: for TaWgata1

this difference becomes clearer when we approach the abhidharma texts. Different schools have different theories concerning the Buddha's perfect knowledge. The Vibhea lists all arguments suggesting that many early Buddhists, the Sarv&tivBdins included, must have had various well-formed notions on the subject of the Buddha's perfect awakening in contmt to the awakening of Sravaka and pratyekabuddha: Question:

...why is it that the Bhagavant alone is called buddha?

Answer: Because he was able to attain awakening for the first time. because he is awakened with regard to the universal. and because he is awakened with regard to the panicular. he is called a buddha. Because Sravaka and pratyekabuddha cannot atrain awakening for the first time, because they cannot be awakened with regard to the universal, and because they cannot be awakened with regard to the particular. they are not called buddhas. Some say: With regard to j~ieva((what is to be known). one who is awakened by oneself. awakened to the universal. and awakened without any error. is called a buddha. Although a pntyekabuddha can be atyakened by himself, he does not have the other two kinds of awakening; a Sravaka has none [of the three]. Hence they are not called b~ddhas.''~

...Some say: One who has absolutely overcome all irrational habitual force (vcsand). is called a buddha. The twoyEnas have not done so.
Some say: One who can go to the very bottom of the profoundly deep river of the The two .vdnas dependent co-arising @rarityasanturpEda) is called a buddha:" cannot do so. Thus the sOtn gives the simile of three animals. a hare. a horse and an elephant, crossing a river: A hare swims across on the surface only. A horse swims across at times on the surface, at timcs touching the bottom. An elephant crosses over always by walking on the bottom ofthe river. The ways Sravaka, pratyekabuddha and buddha crossed over the river ofthe dependent co-arising is respectively likewise. Some say: One who has abandoned both kinds ofoj,icita (ignorance)-defiled (kli$a) and non-defiled (akliga), is called a buddha. Sravaka and pratyekabuddha can

knowledge, hc mnslalcd as "has fully undcniood 11lo the end." '"T1545.735M-12: lu7btllU,t!LB%YA18.EfZillf btl. EiSXSr. liZ);~l%L.1118tAlff;. BOUWt 4;IZWt. 4;Oigf. 4;fE!idW. btl;l;%I$. {ia.*T.m#iLIW%W. RS83W. 8Z74N;. BfefEfrW. %L.:@. ZUIIIW. btl4;%f%. ii;W. &TXk2Ir",flt!it. -tJJ!+t;lt%%If9i?. B t B i i f l t ! i t . fiR-anw. Zfiunln. &!i+%ne. ' " C f . TISJb. 277015: i- :MPiu7.

abandon only the kli~!aone, not the okligo one; hence they are not called b~ddhas.'~'

... Some say: One who, at the time of attaining the knowledge of exhaustion [of defilements] (~oyu-jn'dr~o). abandons both kleia-8r.oruna (the obstruction of what is to be known) and mo&p-dvora!~u (the obstruction of libention) and acquires libemtion of the mind. is called a buddha. In the case ofiravaka and pratyekabuddha. they either first abandon kleio-dvora!ro and later moe-8voruna. or first abandon moba-8vorono. later kldo-rivuron; but not both [at once]. Hence they are not called b ~ d d h a s ? ' ~'
In the above passage, a total of some 21 theories are m ~ n t i o n e d . 2 of ~ which ~ we have translated only those which are of more interest for our present discussion. In particular.
we may note the following: awaking to the universal as well as the particular: awakening

in all manners: complete and non-erroneous awakening to jn'qto: the absolute conquest of all visor18 (habitual force). the complete comprehension of the dependent co-arising: the abandoning of both kliiu and akliiu-ujn'811u; the removal of both kleiu-8varo!1 and mobo-dvora!~. All of these are actually entertained by the Vaibh@ikas themselves. As a matter of fact, since there is no objection niscd by the VibhX7l compilcn to any of them. it is likely that they represent the opinions of various Sarvilstivldins including the VaibhX5ikas. and of other abhidharmikas tolerated by them.

As shown above. there are various opinions on the subject of the Buddha's knowledge; however. the Vaibhqikas emphasize the aspect that Grlvakas and

pratyekabuddhas. although awakened, still have some habitual forces (visorti) and possess the non-defiled ignorance (akli:s!a-ajEirta). The Vibhwa asserts: ra) Defiled : (kliga), 2. There are two kinds of false knowledge ( w i t l ~ ~ d ~ ~ i B rI. non-defiled (akliga). The defiled one is associated with avidvd (ignomnceldarkness). the non-defiled one is not associated with ar8idyB like when one [sees] a bare tree a thought of a person arises etc. As for the defiled one, both sravakas and pratyekabuddhas can completely abandon it, as well as render it incapable of manifesting (sant-ud-i-dcur). As for the non-defiled one. though Sravakas and pratyekabuddhas can completely abandon it. they still manifest it. It is only the Tathagata who absolutely (aryantum) does not manifcst [it] any more. as he has permanenlly abandoned defilements (kleia) a s well a s habitual force (visand). It is for this reason that he alone is called a perfectly awakened one (santyuk santb~iddlta). The defiled n~itlt)ti-jriina is a false knowledge from standpoint of the highest sense (parantirtlta). The non-defiled false knowledge is a false knowledge from the conventional (sarnv.rii) standpoint. not from the highest standpoint. since it is not associated with the defiled wrong dhar~nas.'~' ~ravakas and pntyekabuddhas still reveal non-defiled ignomncc, while the Buddha does not because he has permanently (atyaraam) abandoned defilements (kleia) and habitual force (visa~tfi).It also indicates that Savakas and pratyckabuddhas still have some defilements and habitual force remaining. This kind of explanation can be also found in the laler Pali abhidhamma literature. and represents a kind of feeling for the superiority of the Buddha's wi~dom.'~' In the Vibhqa. one of the definitions regarding the Buddha is given: If one permanently abandoned t\vo kinds of aj!iina, viz., defiled (kliga) and non-defiled (akliga), one is called a buddha. Sravakas and pratyckabuddhas. although having abandoned kligu ajtiir~a. have not abandoned akliga one.'q3

Such a delinition can also be found in other Sarv2stivada abhidharma texts.2qJ ~ r a v a k a s and pratyekabuddhas still remain in imperfection since they have

The Vibha?n also explains habitual forces (vrisanri) which still take effects within the arhats: Question: Why do Sravakas and pntyekabuddhas have habitual forces remaining even though they have removed defilements while the Buddha does not? Answer: Projtii of ir3vakas and pntyekabuddhas are not sharp; although they have removed defilements, they still have habitual forces.'Y5 The Buddha's wisdom is sharp, has immediately removed defilements and the remaining habitual forces: not the two y r i t ~ a s . ~ ~ ' For Vaibheikas. the \visdoms or knowledges of the two y r i ~ ~ a s Sravakas , and pntyekabuddhas. are inferior to the Buddha, because they still possess habitual force and non-defiled ignorance. The AKB gives basically similar descriptions and explains that the Buddha alone is called the one who has destroyed all darkness in every way.'97 The Buddha has absolutely destroyed ajCrinu with regard to all j t i q o (what is to be known) in everyway, so that ujtirinu cannot arise anymore.298Pntyekabuddhas and Sravakas have destroyed darkness with regard to all things (sanorra), as they have removed kliga-aj,ictra, but not in everyway (sorva~lrd).because they have not removed ukligu-ajtifina. Accordingly. they still have this akliga-ajtiritlo with regard to things far remote in time and space, to the

2W Dhamtrata In h ~ Sa~~~juk~abh~rll~armaI~!drr).a s gives Ihc same cxplanalion. T1552.92 lb28-29: %fit1 .'CE&RI%. I;P%I;Ii?. '"T1545. 77c4-6: I:Vfu7Ci~tlf;ABl:8. Slt&S#ttt;ifii4'Gf~iJC4~~4II. %%ffiUai$gI;%4j. 8g tlfi#ttt;ifi4it&W. *~1545. ISSa5-6: WZ?,*l$lJ&W#iitdkU~W. It. :&/A.


AKB, p. I : sanarhdsason.ahardndl~o~ra

Loc. cir. mc



ajtidnam) ca bhagavaro buddlrasja p r a t i p a ~ ~ a l d b h e n i l ~ ~ ~ ~arvarhil n r a ~ ! ~ san.arra

pi~ye punaranurparr~dhama~dddha~am.

infinite categories of things. and to the unique spiritual qualities of the ~ u d d h a . The '~~

AKB docs not give any new information. The distinction between the Buddha and the
twoyd~la is entirely based on whether or not the akliga-ajfifi~luis absolutely (aryanrar.n)

abandoned. However.

the AKB does not mention ~Zsanri. The Sphr~!drrlrci

Abhid/~arnlakoiu~~dkI~.r~ri. a commentary on the AKB, states explicitly that "abandoning

aj1iZ11aabsolutely" means that there is no morc manifestation (usan~~tdZcrira) of it. This

means that ajC31lu that can still manifest as in the cases of pntyckabuddha and Savaka is
aklis!u-ajridna. Like the Buddha. they have already absolutely abandoned the kligu

This vcisand and akligu-ojririno are explained as a synonym by sanghabhadra?" He defines these two as follows: If [pruj~id]cannot understand the chancteristics of taste, force. maturity. virtue. quantity, place, time. similarity, difference etc. truly as they are with regard to all d h m a s , this is aklis!a-ajAZno. This ukliga-ujAdna is called ~visanri.
[PrajCZ] docs not strive diligently to understand taste. iorce, maturity. ctc. Prujfici and different dhannas together serve as the causes for the arising of a subsequent similar prqa/AZ. This pruj~ici again does not strive diligently to understand. becoming the cause for the arising o f another prajAci that does not strive diligently to understnnd. To this way. from beginningless time, causes and effects in succession become habits. Thus. it is this inferior knowledge (itidno) induced [through a succession] by previous knowledges which repeatedly gets used to being incapable of understanding the objects' taste. ctc.; that is called akligu-a.~ici~ici,la. Those very cirru-cairra co-nascent with it are known collectively as wisatrd?'

According to S a g h a b h a d n , uklis!u-ajCZmu and vcisanci are the same thing.

:w Luc.

crr, e?Jt!~buddl~adltarme~~~ ar~~~rprak~!adt~iakdlc:vv arrhqu crf,ranraprabhedc~uhhavay



Dhammajoti. The Deficrs 85-86. 'o'T1562.5?nI-3: fifiXiAu~39W1&tr;l&RQPlXD.8411. 4;fklnRQ. B4;KcWQl. Ik.l;j(tWbI. Also. T1563. 844~24-25. '0'T1562. 50221-26: fiDk%' ??!94:%Jl:kW. %%Xtllitfllfim. ';l2dBr4%&O. dt.B$?(94. R4;
'm Vy. p. 4. Also see.

YJ%. iQil.)M';lY. 4;WSW.B. lalOlll#.dkklY*.

Irl!$!4UU3. %Ur*?l:. &UllfiEu~:%4StB'l'. IG(XRM. Wtltlk%'. Ikrfi+l%W. Z4;&RbI. EIIJtlll!k.b~C~J?iit. %!%EX.

Rep~esentingthe orthodox Vaibhbika. Sanghabhadm also maintains that vcisorrci is a mere designation for a particular mental disposition. Akligu-ajdcino is a blunt p r r t j Z , one ofthe ten universal mental associates. As the practitioner progresses on the path, hisher
prajdci is continuously being polished, a s it were, until finally on the attainment of

buddhahood, this same projtici is transformed into complete k n ~ \ \ ~ l e d g (sun-uj~iurci). e

In Sarvbtivada abhidharma, the arhats' knowledge is imperfect because it retains some non-defiled ignorance (akligu-ajtirit~a). as discussed above. How then about the perfection of the Buddha's knowledge? The perfection of knowlcdgc is describcd as
sun~ujtiurci (complete

For Sarvastivadins. sun~ujriurci is the Buddha's

knowledge that is free from ~ k l i ~ ~ u - a j ~ c i r r o . ' ~ In Early Buddhism. son~ojdard refers to the knowledge of the Buddha. The
Sut!~yttkrciga~r~a describes the Buddha: "As such. having attained awakening. [the

Tathagata] is endowed with complete knowledges (s~rvujtiarci)."'~~ The Ekorrurcigunra says. "Having attained sorvujdarci. [the Tathagata] reached [the state of] unobstructed

.- ..3w p r u j ~ t u . The Buddha. aner being awakened. is describcd by the expression, "At that
'O' Thcrc arc two Sanskrit terms that Xuan-wng Imnslates as W e . I. Sun.urrujrinnu.2. San,ojtiuId. The former is only mentioned oncc in AKB: jn'dnarat!tpor pundcolun~ir/ltd unttpudr:l!ajfidr~u~!~ snn~urrujAdnorun~url~dj,i~nuau~uInaj~id~~ur!t cu curu~t(/ha pwhd!t~~u~~ (AKB. t p u ~ p. 415416). The comsponding Chincsc translation by Xuan-wng: WHb!jiiP18. -1(DlrB. tJJW. 2- tlJiG%'. liY,~lfiNWmiWlUiiM (Tl.558. I4lb18-19). The Inter is appcarcd sevcml times in thc Inst chapter of AKB. AKB. p. 467: 471;474-75. T1558. l55a6-9. 156b. l57c. Scc, lllk$GZ. t l J N ! $ ! , % ! a Wf'R (Tokyo: 7Mktt. I 'C P 4 +) 93. Also see. Dl~ammajoti.Tlte Dcfeccs 79. '"'T99. 168~23: W E L I L t . Jkz-tlJPP. '*7125.618b26: UB-tAW i&.mrfiRfk!


time. the Tathagata by means of san,aj~iarc?knows thus."307 The PrujIupriSristro distinguishes plainly Sravakas and the Buddha: "Sravakas are not so; they do not share snrvojtiard with the ~ u d d h a . ' ' ~ ~ ~ In the Vibhaca, sorvoj~iarfiis explained as the knowledge only attributed to the Buddha: Comment: Only the Buddha knows the limit of names; others [cannot] because they have no s a r v ~ j C u r d ? ~ The Buddha is so called because he is endowed with s a r v u j ~ i u r ~ ? ' ~ "[The Buddha] attains supreme perfect awakening (a~lururdson~yak-su~~bodllti), possesses sorvuj~iardand realizes truly the nature of dharmas.""' Thus, for the

Vaibhkyikas. sanajriurd is the complete knowledge representing the Buddha's pruj~ifi. Sarvujriurd, complete knowledge. means knowledges regarding the '~\velve Loci (fiyuta~ro),i.c. knowing the common chmcteristics and specific characteristic of the Twelve ~ o c i ? " The Vibhva, frequently explains that only the Buddha has sun~aj~iord. while an arhat does not. However. there is one apparently contradictory statement in the Vibhqa where it explains that the Buddha has two kinds of knowledge: sun.oj~iurdand sunvikdruj~iard(the knowledge of all modes). while Sariputn has only sun~uj~iurd."~ This one occurrence may be influenced by the Mahayana movement at that time. For

'"'~120.512~23: I(jR'rllt@LZI-VJW. !U,?bl. '0'T1538. 526al5: t C U B l l 1 ; 1 . 4;WIII:VJI-UJJW. 'm~1545.74a8-9:;fI.I. ...Nlff;PBIZLiaW.GkkYWli-tlJ%'&. Also.TI5.15. 743.5: UfJCfIEfll biaWUI-tlJW. Also. T1546.6~23-24; T1546.277aB. ""TI545. 177b7: Jl--08I&%%>M. Also. inNy:T1562. 747~11. "'T1545. 59b7-8: ;ItWRII?'i'fWi. Il-tIJB~l9;a#;&it:C+:4U... "'~t546.343St-26: I!likltl\W. 4 ; E R f k . fi;Q$Lrk. &%"dbI-tIJk2;ll-tlJa'. --tlJB. -t :A. G?llriMtldl;&I-tN.%Ql. "'T1545.383S-I: Illikld;G?-t .&. JI-~IJ%'-W~~IP:.Y R*?IJ-TE-I- :&4Eii-tIJ8. %-tlJ lfia'.

example. Nagajuna in the UpadeSa defines sorvaj,iord as the knowledge of Twel\,e Loci, while the knowledgc of knowing the common characteristics and specific characteristics is sarvcikdrajfiarci (the knowledgc of all modes). The former is said to be the knowledge of arhals; the latter is the knowledge of the ~ u d d h a . ~ " The notion ofsarvajtiarci in the Prajridpdran~ird-sri~ras is further fine-tuned as three kinds of knowledge: sorvajriord. nlcirgajfiard (the knowledge of Path) and sorvdkcirajfiarci. representing the knowledge of the two yrhas, the knowledge of bodhisattvas and the knowledge of the Buddha respectively. The UpadeSa comments: In the later chapten [of the Prujtidpdranlirdsrirrol. the Buddha said himself: "'Sar~*ojtiard is the matter of srivakas and pratyekabuddhas. ibfdrgajtiard is the mauer of all bodhisattvas. Sarvcikdrajriurd is the matter of buddhas. Srivakas and pratyekabuddhas only have general sarwaj,iord. but not s u n ~ d k d r a j , i a r h ~ ~ ' There is a very interesting argument in the AKB pertaining to whether the Buddha knows all things in one moment or a series of moments. The arguments between the Vatsrputfiyas and Vasubandhu are as follows:

... We d o not say [as do the ~ a h % ~ g h i k a s ]that " ~ the Buddha is called sarvoj,iorci because he can completely know all [ d h m a s ] immediately. Only in the sense of series. has he the ability [to know]. therefore he obtains the name of a buddha. In the continuation of all skandhas, he accomplishes such unique ability. At the time of applying his mind, knowledge without error nriscs with regard to the object he desires to know. Thus [this] is called sarvajfiard. It is not that in one moment of thought everything is known. Thus. regarding this. it is as stated in a verse: "As fire. by the capacity of its series. bums all, in the same manner. sanqjriurd, does not know all things abruptly."'"
"'T1509.259a19-20: f#i&RIXit~tlIJilItU&!i 8 7 ~ - t l J f 1 8 . T1509.259i120: 646b20-24. Cf. hmoec. E. LC Traifr' ilc la grandc I.i.rnt dc Sagr~ssr. de hrdgdr/lma. vol. 1-5 (Louvain: Universilt dc Louvaln. 1944. 1949, 1970. 1976 nnd 1980) 1746. Ilb Leo M. Pruden. t m s . from French. Abhidham~akoiohhd~sant. by Louis de La Vallce Poussin. Vol. IV. (Berkeley:Asian Hummilies Press. 990) 1328. "'T1558. 1 5 5 a S - 1 3 : ~ ? 4 1 ~ ~ 8 ~ - t l J f I : C R i 4 b I & ! i 8 - t I E$'JtHlRiiY!P&!i. J~/~. ~W%IlS;Y.~X PIlIlA. P I P ~ B L B ~ U I ~ I : . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . &!i%-tIJ?J,":. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~Il:E-2fll+liElbl. R I ~ ~ Z , ~ ~tik? IPJ%~I. kitl$iPnPLXI:.'[btUa{itr: ImACr-tN $ I ~ - ~ I J ~ J 4l-rfi+ltBb1." / A m . p. 467: ... apdll~uern manna iaranna iarananl s.vd1. fasmdf prajtiaprisarpudgula rdi~dllrdrdvaf.


Whether the Buddha, endowed with sumajdafd, has the ability to know all d h m a s

in one moment or in a series of moments is the issue. Vasubandhu's position is that the Buddha has completc knowledg in a series of moments.

In the early slltras, son-ujtiard is ascribed to the knowledge of the Buddha. For SarvLtiv3dins. san,uj~iafdis the Buddha's knowledge only. while arhats do not have
sarvuj~iard.Later the Prujtidpdrumild literature explains that there are three kinds ~f

knowledges and sanrajtiard is ascribed to JHvakas and pratyekabuddhas. It is evident that the SarvLtivadin notions of vdsand and ukli;!u-ujtidnu. emerging fairly early in Buddhist history. must have gone through centuries of development before they came to be aniculately in the form formulated in such abhidharma works as the Ny. In the course of their development. various views. conflicting to varying degrees. were put forward. The Mahaymists, with their emphasis on the exclusive goal of Buddhahood, in contrast to the arhat ideal. had very good reasons to be especially interested in this development. One imponant theoretical fruition of the Mahayma effort in this enterprise is the theory that a buddha is distinguished from the other two ycnus in having both san~ajdurd and
son~dkZrujtiufd; an arhat has only the first, not the second.

Chapter 7: The Development of Prajiti in MahHyHna Buddhism


General Comments

The abhidharma period witnessed the flourishing of what we may term "Buddhist Philosophy." The doctrinal development of prujfiri was clearly discernible among the abhidharma schools. However. the period of the emergence of the Mahiylna and the subsequent development in Mahlylna doctrines. to some extent. overlapped with the period o f the abhidhama schools. The discussion below focuses on the relatively early Mahayma stltras because, without doubt, there must have been a mutual influence. during the doctrinal formulation and articulation of prujfici thought, between the abhidharma and Mahayana traditions. The purpose of discussion here. however, is not so much to determine this mutual influence. but to provide a comparative and contrastive perspective. As was the case in Early Buddhism. the two doctrines of prujtiri and ilit~yatriin Mahayma are closely related. As a matter of fact. it may be said that in Mah2y;lna-particularly in the earlier phase of Mahayana before the Yogacrsa-it is

explicit that pruj13B in the highest sense is prajAdpdranlirri which refers to the spiritual realization that all dhamas are itill-va.


Tlre Developmerrt o f Projriti irr r e Prajriiiptiramitti Staras

PrajZprirantitri Siitrus nre categorized as large. medium and small, and they refer to

the, P r a j I d p d r a m i in 100.000. 25.000 and 8,000 lines respectively. These three categories were already established by the time NagBjuna (ca. 150 CE) wrote the ~padeia?"The Upadcia refers to these three categories as high. middle, and low. and names them


Fang-girang Girang-.-an

(ak), and D a o S i n g ($37


According to the Taishb Tripi!akn.

(%,X T222). Fang-gitang (hk* n 2 1 )

are different tnnslations for the Prajtidpdrutitild in 25,000 lines. However, Ven. Yin-shun designates those named above as the PrajtTdpdraniild in 100.000.25,000 and 8.000 lines in that order. It is possible that when Kumarajiva translated the Upadeia, he used the sotra name.

which already existed at that time. to refer to the P r a j ~ i r i p r i r a n i i t rin i


100,000 lines?" In this thesis. reference to only

in 8,000 and 25,000

"'~1509.756a28-29: $11IkrtrlllfiZb?i8i1B1ii .h: If-ifi. %.llZC:Gii-tBib;. "'~1509.529b22-23: 2&SZMi"3;BEf %*. i i % i i 9 i i L r t r T . hi?ltlihii?ff. '20Tr;lnslations of Yin-shun's Thr Orrgin and D~vclapmcnr o f Bc P r m l r m ~ Alahdydna flJllOk?$2f94fiL &ittRI'!l11I(Taipei: Zhcng Wen Pub. 1990) 24-25: The Upadesa says: "hcre. Ihe rncdium Prajddpdramlrd has 22.000 g P t h . the large prajddpdramlrd has 100.000 g i h (T1509.756a28-29)." The Upadeia mcntioncd two cdltions of [the large] Prajridpdrantrrd Sdrras: I ) The one w i h 22.000 glthls is the book on which the Upadcia based. I t IS generally called "The Large Praj,idpdramitd SGrra" (*6A&E%!) which is equal to the second division (of six divisions) o f the Xuan-wng's tr~nslntion of "The h r g c Prajddpdronlrl Sdlra." 2) The one wtlh 100.000 gathas conesponds to "The L r g c PrajridpdramlrdStllra". h e first d~vtsion o f the Xuang.wng's mnslalion. The UpadeB again says: 'The fascicles of [diKcrent] cdit~ons of Prajddpdmmird S17rras have many or less [thus thcy can bc categorized ns] high, middle. low: Guang-:an. Fang-guang, and Dao-xrng (T1509. 529b22-23)." Nlglrjuna h s mentioned hcre dlv~sions o f h~gh.middle and low and also listed the s(lm names. Agatn. [the Upadch] says: "...the small. Fang-guang, Guang-=an (TIS09. 620a)"; and these constitute another three sections. Kun~3njIvo'stranslation o f "The Small Praj,iapdram#fdStirra" and Lokamk+'s mnslation o f "Duo-nng Proj,idpdmmrrd SGtra" arc the same book. which conesponds to the f t h i division o f Xuan-wng's tmnslation ol"The h r g e PrajtidpdramtmS~itra." The 20 fascicles Fang-gust#): ProjtidpdramrrdSGrra(T22I) Has tnnslated by Wu luo chu and the Guang-:anSGrra that remainsas incomplete edition of I 0 fascicles and that was tnnslatcd by Dharmamksa (239-316) correspond to the second division o f Xuan-wng's nnslatlon and thcy also belong to the category of " h ~ Prajiidpdmmrtd e SGrra." "Fang-guan" and "Gang-:an" or "Gang-:a,#" and "Fang-guu~~." plus "the Small Prajridpdramrl Sdrrrr"-Da+xrng ConSllNlc the high, mddle and low categories. Therefore. "Fang-guang" and "Guung-=an" mntioncd [m the Upadeia] consrllute prajridpdranlrfcl of 100.000 lines and the prajddpdramifd of 22.000 llncs (respect~vcly]. [The Upadeh] relers to "Fang-guang" and "Guang-ran" as the high. be middle. Hou~ever, it is the fact that the translator [of Upadcia KunOmjIua] bonowcd the soua namcs that existed at that time i n China. At the time when [the Upadch] as wrrten. the Projtidpdranrrrd


lines will be made. According to Edward Conze, all these Prujfidpdrunrifri Srifrus can be summed up in two sentences: 1. One should become a bodhisattva, i.e. someone content with nothing less than complete knowledge ( s a r ~ ~ q ' d a f rattained i) through praj17dpriruntild for the sake of all living beings. 2. There is no such thing as a bodhisattva, or complete knowledge. or

or an attainment. The solution of this dilemma lies in nothing else than

the fearless acceptance of both contradictory facts.'"


PrajtiZ in the Ago (8,000 lines)

The Pruj~idpdrunrifd i n 8.000 Lines (A:!usdhusrifi-praj1idp6run1i1ri-srirr.hereafier

Aga) is the oldest sDtra among the p r a j ~ i d p d r a w i f dliterature.'"

The earliest extant

version of this text is Lokak~ema'sChinese translation. the D u o Xing Bo Re Jing ($37

&E%, The SOtn of the Path Practicing ~rujfii)."'

Prajtic and Non-attachment

In the Prajfidpdru~~rifd Sfifrus, the foundational idea behind the wordpruj17i is that a Buddhist practitioner is beyond any kind of discrimination regarding objects or circums~ancesboth material and psychological. Any opinions on good or bad are considered as an attachment thus beyond praj1idpiranri18:

The Buddha said to Subhoti, "As regards the bodhisattva-mah%attva's practice of Not observing the defects of material forms (rripu) is the practice of

SOrra had the three editions (large. middle and small) and theprajn'dpnrarnlrd uith 100.000glth3s had becn established already. Edward Conzc. The L a g r Surroo~r Peficr Il'rsdon~(Dclhi: Motilal Banarsidass. 1979)5. Edward Conzc. The Praj1,i7pdramlrd Llrerarurc (Toityo: The Reiyukai. 1978) 1. '"Tomojir6 Hayashiya cla~mcd that this s 0 m is uanslatcd by Dharmnkga (%it:@ Zha-fu-11u) no1 Loliali~ema(X#LaZlri-lau-\la-clren). See. T.Haynshiya. BukA?d o.vobl Bukh?dshi no h'c*nh?d 8#2 'Vfl/Y/Y: (Tokyo: Kikup Shotcn. Nov. 1948): 519-569. Cf. Nakmun. Indian 1631132.

'" '"

pruj17dpcir01tiitd. Not observing the defects of feeling (vedund), perception (sanJjr7d). . formation (samshru) and consciousness (a~iidnu) is the practice of prujridpdrar~ird. Not observing the non-defects of material forms is the practice of prujfidpriramild.. ."3'J

In Kumarajiva's translation of the A ~ ! U ? ' this ~ idea is expressed in various ways: The Buddha says. "If a bodhisattva does not give rise to the material form, then he gives rise to praj~iripciraniird.. ."'Ib Do not think o f practicing praj,ipdruniifd. do not think o f not practicing. do not think of practicing or not practicing, also do not think of neither practicing nor not is called the practice of prujriripdrumird. Why? All dhnrmas are not Subhoti, if a bodhisattva does not coursc inX%aterial form (rtipu) nor become attached to [their] characteristics. he practices projtidpriramirri. [If a b~~dhisattva] docs not course in feeling. perccption, formation. and consciousness. nor become attached to [their] characteristics, he practices praj~dpdranii~d?2q Bodhisanvas cannot be atrached to anything including the supreme perfect awakening (anurruru-saniyuksa~~~hodl~i): The Buddha said to Subhoti. 'The niahri-prirunliru' is a bodhisattva'spruj~iu'pu'run~ifri. This is to say, [iT] one has no operation ( p r a - d ~ ~ t no ) , attachment on all d h m a s ; [even] in attaining the supreme perfect awakening, there is nothing attained?'u


Prajtiii, ~ t i t i ~ a and 1 6 Empty Space

There is nothing to which one can become attached because things are Slit~yu. Prujriri "'n24. J ~ ~ C I O &;tit%#. -CI~:

I ; N @ ~ Q ntf&~. . xi%$. .fi6f!!E;,q;lWif&t;:i%Ma&.

I ; I K W B ! J ! ~ ~ B P E ) I . I . ) l i & b i P * H i ' P I;C-!CRiQ. . M l i & % i r t l P . I ; t V r Z # ! t ! s l & n %B.Wtf&B%Piti.

':'The Chinese name for KunWrajIva's tnnshlion of A310 is. TheSmollSeclion of Prujddpdromild Sfirrn


' I : Edward Conzc. Thc Perficiron o f Il'rsdum rn Eighr Thourund Lincs & Ils lbrsc Summon. (Bolinas: Four Seasons Foundation. 1973) 145. 1 2 q ~ z5 75 , 1 ~ - 5?it%%. : $;:RiX+fffi+%ti~. El!i~&&+!ilg. 4 ; i ~ % . U ! l i 2 i i 4 ; % 4 l l UlJir .


J'0T227,553a18-10:BRXiE#. %>liLEl$i2EI&-E.IBih'. Tfiii?G?-Wit

I W R X . ?4M

Irt%HLESi-WE. .fl;dRRI.

requires the practitioner to stand on a higher level to observe all phenomena. This means one sees things-just-as-they-are: "All dharmas have Sfiyarri as their

defining-characteristic: [all d h m a s ] have non-characteristic. non-creating. non-arising. non-producing. non-ceasing, non-depending a s their defining-cl~aractcristics." ~ritt~vurd. non-characteristic. non-arising etc. arepruj17ipr7ranrird: ~tit{varddoes not operate, does not return; it is without characteristic. without activity. without creating, without arising. without producing. There being nothing, no operation. no returning-this way discoursing is the discoursin onprajfiriprirattrird. [This is to say] there is no one who listens. receives. or a t t a i n s 5 ~r;tr~~urri and all these negalive terms imply that there is no attachment when one praclices praj,iliprirantifrijust as one practices empty space: When one practices prajirripdranrird. one's mind neither increases nor decreases. neither retreats nor proceeds. Oh. World-honored One! Practice o f p r a j B B p ~ r a mis i just like practice of empty space."' The Sotra thus makes a direct statement that the practice of empty spacc is the practice of prajfidpdranrirri: Within this profound prajtidpriramirri. there is no definite dharma. To practice empty space is to practice pruj,Sirdramirri. Oh World-honored One! Not to pmctice all d h m a s is to practice pru~Aripriramifri.To practice limitlessness is to practice prujiiripdranrilri. To practice non-attachment is to practice prajfidpdrut~rird? The empty spacc contains and accepts e v e ~ h i n g without being contaminated by any thing. The characteristic of prujt;ripliramirri is just like the measurelessness and boundlessness of the space.



T227.558b28-cl:;4iLU??Q411. Wdlll%ff R&.Bt%%.9&ltftU4II. "'T227. 553n22-24: 3!4;M4;ill. !44lldft:!4&d!k. .ritEli;l;M.l;S. $J?;U%Wi!2 Ml;itXH

8i. Wn!!r;.RXt;W~llr;. "'~227. 552b18: + x i i m ~ s ~ % n. + o !.4 t d i x 4 . 4 : ~ 4 ; ~ . 1 1 1 ~ . C E I B A ~ H L " ~ r ;.n

2 . Also scc. 55Jcl6.

~ ~ r ~

"'P-27. 5621110: Bi?ME~H~l~t~.IiRP '#1fZ??.Znll2fiDtiH8;. iL. ltZfi&rb'it:. #llAtjGPcDM11LHiP. f l d X E M I f i I H P .




How to Practice

Non-attachment and Siinvatri are the principles for the practice of prajRdpfiranritB: however. how can one practice Stiir.vatfi? At that time, Subhiiti asked the Buddha, "Oh World-honored One! If a bodhisattva wishes to practice praj~ripriraniitd.in what manner should Stinyatri be practiced? In what manner should s'iinyatd-sanirid/ri be entered? The Buddha said to Subhtiti. "A bodhisattva who practices prajtiripfiranritfi should observe material forms as Slinyarfi, should observe Reling, perception, formation and consciousness as Sfinyaki. With an un-distracted mind, he should observe d h m a s as neither perceivable. nor obtainab~e."~~' In brief, in practicing prajfiri. practitioners concentrate on observing everything as
Stirrya. without a sense of what is being practiced and what is to be obtained. However,

this does not mean that one does nothing; on the contrary. one practices without abandoning and without being horrified by the idea that nothing is obtainable. and nothing is cultivatable: Oh World-honored One! If proj,iipfirumitfi is empty. how does a bodhisattva develop by means of praj~iripriramirii?Flow does he attain closeness to the supreme perfect awakening (anrtttaru-sanzyasa~!tbodhi)? Subhiiti. a bodhisattva practices prajtiripiranrirfi, there is neither increase nor decrease. Subhiiti, if a bodhisattva hears this explanation, he is not surprised. not horrified. does not despair. does not despond. It should be known that this is a bodhisattva's practice of

A bodhisattva practices prajrXpfiraniitri and is attached to nothing: nevertheless. this does not mean that there is nothing or that spiritual progress is impossible. The s0tn reads:

. prujidpdranrild is cmpty and nothing. he thereby relinquishes prujtilipdrumitd and is

far away from prujtiipriraniitd. proj,idp6ramitd?'7 Subhoti. this is called a bodhisattva's

The Buddha said to Subhati, "There is a rcason that if a bodhisattva claims that

Ifone claims thatpraj&piironrird is nothing in the literal and conceptual sense. then one misunderstands prajCdpdraniitd. A bodhisattva is attached to nothing. because all themselves are only provisional names. dharmas including prujtid and S~i~lyutd All dharmas arc only provisional names. One should know that prajtidp6runritd is also like this. All dharmas occur by reason of language and speech: one should know projtidpdrarnild is also like this. Also. language and spccch possess nothing and [dwell] nowhere: one should know prqjAdp8raniird is also like this?38 In conclusion.prujId is a means for practice and all attachments should bc abolished. and whatever isdesignated as a dharma ekists only conventionally. All dharmasareS~inyu A bodhisattva is not attached and is freed from any attachments in their minds; a bodhisattva concentrates on observing all dharmas as Sli~lyu. Arguments and opinions are considered to be attachmcnrs: accordingly. languagc and concepts ultimately should be abandoned inprujtki practice.


PrajriE in the Large PrajtkipErarnitti SCtras

Regarding the meaning of praj,7irp8raniitd. there arc many e?tplanations: however.

when Subhati asked a question concerning thc meaning ofprujI6pdron1itd. the very first answer that the Buddha gave Subhiiti was that prujtZpdranritd is so-called because one gains the highest meaning and crosses over saqrsdra to the other shore. This is in fact the meaning ofp6runiitd: pdruni (other shore) + ita (rcached): Subhati said to the Buddha "For what reason is the often stated projticipdrunlitd

called prujficipciranrirci?'The Buddha said, "[By pruj,ilipcirunrirci.] one obtains the . highest meaning, crosses over all dharmas to reach thc other shore. For this reason, it is called projfiirip~ronrirci?'9 Thc large Prajficipiiranririri Stirrus (in 25.000 lines and in 100.000 lines). add more items to explain the same doctrinal point. The impression that one gets in reading the satras is that one idea is illustrated by using as many examples as possible. However. the basic doctrinal issue is the same: there is no attachment to all dharmas inasmuch as all dharmas arc ili,r.vu. Again. Subhoti. a bodhisatt\,a who is not attached to the five aggregates, is said to practice prajfiipirirunririri. Not to be attachcd to the six sensory organs- eyes. ears. nose, tongue. body and consciousness is called the practice of prujficipirirunritci. Not to be attached to the sixpdranrircis is called the practice ofprujficipcirumirci. Not to be attached to complete knowledge (sur~~q'fiorci) is called the practice of pruj~kipdrumrr6?40 Why does one have attachments? The sOtra states: The Buddha says, "Because one thinks. one becomes attached to the scnsuous world. form world and formless world. Because one does not think of anything. one attains non-attachment. Thus. a bodhisattva racticing projfiiripiriruntirci. neither approaches anything nor is attachcd to anything.'' S o long as one has something in mind. one ha, ztachment. In order to overcome attachments. one must practiceprujfiiripdrunrirciwithout having any idea of practice. The Buddha says, "A hodhisattva who practices projfidpcirunrirci does not see proj,icipcironrirci. This is bodhisaava-mahlsattva's practice ~ f ~ r a j , i ~ i ~ i r i r u m i r i r i ? ~ ~

HiQIL9.2;-I%P.UfJ&&Z&fi'XgL.{&A. %IZ-&IS! thc Prnjn'dpdrnmnJ Sdtrn in 100.000 lines. T220. 872b20-21:!JIlErYtiEHP3:. M-tJJiL3?AEeili?&%ItI#if%. "OE21. 65~25-29:IY?AT!%#. %%?2fiFtl%K. %\lilYt.2;-LXlt'ifi. DHrFWB9.~. G?i;tS .R%K. %3tfMSIHifi. li?AE?X3ilfiK. 74ir&+:ZH8. 733iE-E2?4;X. %\t~!+Zta # &'. Also. P-21.65~4-9: E23.302c25f. '"T-~I.IIOPZ-IS:HE,':. UBA!dCKiitWWYfIWW. UWl?i2A!dPl~ldr?iK. QA!d.EItrI &&sb'ifi. fi:%fiiLifi;%rfiZ. Also. E 2 3 . 370518-25. " ' ~ 2 2 1 . l 7 i 1 l l - 1 3 : f $ ~ . %E?~!+Zff$!i#l"d:d;$L&.%i?i#"di. 2 h f f W l ? ! 3 1?TIfiEHil'&.


- tlJi t fll l W U I i 38 A!d 8 1fZ C;-a H 8 . Also


Also. E23.223~29-224aJ.

To emphasize the aspect of non-attachment. the Buddha has explained that even pracdce is non-practice, because any idea of practice is also considered as a conceplual proliferation (prapafica):3" "How does a bodhisattva-mahlsattva practice prajficipcirantirci?' The Buddha said, "No practice is called practice ofprq>iipcirantira." "World-honored One! How is no practice the practice of prajficipdrantir~i?" The Buddha answered, "Because prajfifipiramirri is not perceivable (an-ups-d1abh)-bodhisattva is not perceivable: practice is not perceivable. The practitioner. [he Dharma of pnctice, the place of practice also arc not perceivable; therefore, this is called bodhisattva-mahbaltva's pnctice of non-pnctice of pra'riZpdrantitZ. because any conceptual prolifenlion (prapafica) is non-perceivable."44 In the pncticc of prajn'ciprirontit6. there is no space for any fixaled concepts and ideas. Those bodhisattvas who wish to gain a higher level should take their stand on the highest position first where there is no conceptual proliferation or concept of "who is practicing," "what is pncliced," and "where the destination is." Non-attachment. as explained in the s0tras. also reflects a middle path in which, psychologically, one is neither angry nor happy in confronting any circumstances, because one experiences that there is not one who is agitated or abused or

In Early Buddhism. all dharmas are said to be Jfinya because there is no arman. The S a t n continues the line of explanation in Early Buddhism, Undcrsvanding j ~ i n .arZ through praj~iz,and not to reckon the "1" or "Self'-this prajtiapciranrird?J$ is

'"See fn 78.
1Un13.373~13: tlU7WEV;aWE+ibC;-$2#3i. #;i. 4;lrPLZllilllfii%#iii. !I)@. tlu7 4 : q ~ ~ ~ y 1 t ~ f i f i# ~ ; .x#~ Mfi$X&$8;4:ii~flf&. . EE4:iiIf!I. f~fi4:cTC!. lrAtT?LIr~J34; 4:i1TC1f&. E8giA13.,.,qlii.l;iibfiIi;B'&:. -tJJ1B,;i14:Tbl&k. "'1221. IOnl5-22: ...liill;.RiilldrX. d t i Z 3 R d l l . ,T9XWb,FIWiiMfii%i;IiL'. 1213. 296nll: M ~ & ~ ~ 3 i 1 I ' ~ ~ b ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ ~ . ""1222. 150b26-27: P;OW?24:l;tf-$4Y. V74lllGBBY.

One should know that all conditioned (siotskyfa) d h m a s and unconditioned dharmas conform to iin)~afi.One should know that "original nature" also conforms to itinyari. This coincides with prajidpiran~iri.)" All dharmas here include both conditioned and unconditioned dharmas. What is ncw in the large Prajridppdamiri Srirras is the statement that prajAdpdranriri is jtinvari, One should enter rajridpiranritd as one enters the contcmp~ation0fiiin)'alli. All things are nothing!' The sntra explains the practice of prq'riipbranrili a s the practice of seven kinds of

A bodhisnttva-mahhattva who cultivates prajtidpdranriri practices seven kinds of ifin)fard-i.e. Stinyard of nature, itittyard of characteristic. Sii~~yard of all dharmas. Srinyald of nothing perceivable, itin.vari of non-existent dharmas. Srinya~d ofexistent dharmas, i i n y a r i of both existent and non-existent dharmas. This is said to be in conformity with praj~ipriranri:i?4q As explained in the Aga, the large Prajtiriprirantiri Stitras compares praj~iipdranriti to an empty space: What is the chancteristic ofpraj~iipriramiri?The Buddha says. "'Prajriipdranrild is like the characteristic of empty space. It neither has any chanctcristic nor is chmcte~~ed.~~~ Prajriipiranri~d. Srirryari, empty space are parallel ideas and stress the idea of non-attachment in the process of a bodhisattva's spiritual cultivation.

1.7 T221.5c23-25:~ti;i'Al-tJJ;X;itii1.3it.IIIII>itficR'+t-. X;fJl;t;fIfi;M5!C'. X1.\E112&'&88:. Also T223.222~25-26. " ' ~ ~ 2 1112523-24: . hR%;-iPiUl'ih'. $ ! J l h ~ ~ ,?irfiii%i.Rfiii. . Also in 100.000 lines: W2O. 210526-27: Ss%ltKM. SitRrfiii;l;WflI~%3llltllltE&Eb"83:. Careful observation, i f dharmas have nothing, this is called projritipdranllld. "'T223. 222~28-22352: WZLTAliiJt2Zi&Ul'%. %E-I;Y.N i : l l f k 5 ! h l l l Y ; X ; i kTfillY .%jt'i;t.liitYditiiiL2. Q Z W112eLWf4UE. Xuan h g ' s tmnslation of prujrioparomrrd in 100.000 lines onen lists 20 kinds ofifinyofa. See. E Z O . 13bl2: 18x3: 1999: ?Oa6: 20b17: 2127: 29~24.


Positive Expression

Not every practitioner stands at the highest level: therefore. for the beginner. a more positivc description on prujtii is necessary. The Prujtiipirun~iti Stitru in 35.000 Lines has positive expressions pertaining the meritorious vinues: "World-honored One, does a bodhisattva practice proj,iipirunliti for the purpose of merit @rr!~ya)?" Thc Buddha says. "[A bodhisattva] practices neither for merit nor for non-merit. The bodhisattvas should honor all buddhas. should be accomplished in all wholesome merits. should be in the company of the True Friends, then. only one can attain supreme perfect awakening ( u ~ r u t t u r u - ~ u r n ~ a s u ~ ~ h o d ~ r i ) ? ~ ~ In the pnctice of prajti6piran1iri. although one should not approach it with a purpose in mind, all wholesome merits need to be accomplished. This rather positive esplanation can be applied specially to a novice bodhisattva: The Buddha said to Subhati. "A novice bodhisattva who wishes to leam about the six pirunlitis should be in the company of the True Friends. should always attend on thcm. and should follou~ closely to those who can explain prujtiipciru~t~iri..."'5' According to Kumarajlva's translation. a bcginner should learn jli~lyutci and practices six piranlitis: "World-honored One! If no practice is a bodhisattva-mahisattva's praclicc of prajriipirun~itri,how is a novice bodhisattva to practice prujriipirunrirui" "Subhiiti. a novice bodhisattva from the time of arousing hisher [bodlti] mind should leam the D h m a that nothing is perceivable. Because this bodhisauva. by virtue of the unperceivable d h m a , practices giving (dinu), moral virtue (iilu). fortitude (kinti). eFFor~ (vityu) and meditative absorption (dhyinu). In the same way. by virtue of the unperceivable dharma. he pncticesprujtii all the way to the knowledge of all modes (survukriruj~iit~uti)?~'



True Characteristic of Dharmas (Dlrart~zarii)

In Kum?uajTva's translation, prujfiipciranrird has been explained in terms of the notion of "the true characteristic of dhmas"'" as the reason why dharmas are Slin.va.

When a bodhisattva-mahlsatva practices prajficiprirunrird in this way. he knows only "the true characteristic of dharmas". "The lrue characteristic of dharmas" means that there is no contamination or purity. In this manner. Subhtiti. when a bodhisattva-mahisattva. practices prujficipciruntirci, he should h o w that names are concepts. Having known that names are conceptual and unreal ,he does not become attached to material forms. feeling. perception, formation and consciousness ...'5' To accept things-as-they-arc is one aspect of prujricipciranrild. The s 0 t n also explains that one perceives "the true characteristic of dharmas" as one becomes a buddha: The Buddha said to Subhtiti. "A buddha is so-called. because he knows the true meaning ofall d h m a s . " A ~ a i na . buddha is so-called because he perceives "the true characteristic of dharmas." In brief. in practicing prujficiprirumirci one must be free of any purpose; however. positively speaking. one needs to accomplish all wholesome merits. This positive explanation is meant as a prescriptive instruction for the novice practitioner. A bodhisattva can have no fixated concepts or ideas in the praclice ofprujficipdrunrirri and must be free of any conceptual proliferation or discrimination. A bodhisattva needs to abolish all attachments and view things just-as-they-are under any circumstances. just as the empty space can contain and accept everything.

:&iLl lll Zl~u-fa-shr-xlang, dharmara. see fn. 1 10. '"E23.231b12-16: WRM-4R$1Pii&l:.fisn'PRRt.tE2llXiLH1U. ;&itUtlUI;. I l l i P . fin!LflffB. WIB,;;1Bii!+2Bi&&jffILt. .j:;t'ltrPb~Z'i'rrbE;a.b l f i % ' i l . + X c l ; X 2 ! L ! ir a,.. AISO, E 2 I . 115~26.27. :&iZ3!,R4ll,Rt71i. :&~L$~$~Xf.t!mfi.F?? :&iAOntt?&. UUXiZrfiii kfWfiii8Y. ')" E23. 379a15-16: Nb if; 244 ff %. Rl;& f L S J 1 U Y %> CA; ill ik $1 & ; i t Y l 4 l l & % h I#. Cf. ...Dbarmard?a clad od/~nrrca~raqr. bh~irako!rrerad a d l ~ r ~ a c a ~Iarn~adl~Bror ~a~!~. r~ad adl~rvacanan~ See. P a , i c o ~ ~ i r ~ a i s h a s PrajriOpdramtld r~a V . cd. Tahyau Kimura (Tokyo: Sankibo Busshorin Pub. 1992) 140.


2 . 3 .

Prajtidprirunritd is a designation for the highest purport and can help a practitioner

cross over sat!tslira to the other shore of ttinfB!tu. In practicing prajdri, a practitioner concentrates on observing that everything is SEttyu. while not having a sense of what is practiced and what is to be obtained. That is. although prujtidpirantitii is practiced, it is not practiced to fulfill a goal or purpose. The large Prajriu'pliranrilB Siirras added more items to esplain the same doctrinal . means that inasmuch as all point which is the same in all prujdlipdramird ~ 0 1 sThis d h m a s are irin.va, there is no basis for attachment to any dharma. Consequently. when
prujdri is a means for pmctice all attachments will become abolished. A bodhisattva is

one who should not have any attachments and who should concentrate on observing all dharmas as i~itrya. Consequently. for a bodhisattva. all arguments and opinions are seen a s attachmenrs. In fact. for a bodhisattva. language and concepts should be abandoned in
onc'sprajdB pmctice.


TJre Dcvelopnrerrf of Prajrii it1 tJte Otl~er Malrijuit~a Srifras

The Saddharmapuqdarikasiitra
The SuddI~urntupu~r~urikusti~ru (Lotus Sotn), one of the few whose original

Sanskrit texts to survive, is one of the most influential Mahayana sOtns. It is said that there were six Chinese translations of the Lotus Sotn, but only the translations made by Dharmarakca and by Kumarajlva are ex tan^?^' The Lotus S01n follows in the footstep of the Prujrifipfirunrifii Stifra and expounds irinyaffi. The SOtra belongs to the Mahayana. the "great vehicle," and stresses the doctrine of One Vehicle (ekuyfinu). which is the Buddha Vehicle. It is only with the Buddha Vehicle that one attains the emancipation of cessation. There is no other vehicle. The exception is the Dharmas explained expediently by the ~ath~gata?~~ According to this sOtn, the doctrines of Four Noble Truths and dependent co-arising were taught by the Buddha for the purpose of promoting MahiyPna. The Buddha's real intention is to teach the Buddha Vehicle. Oh Sons of a good family. at the beginning, the Four Noble Truths were explained for those who sought to be Srivakas. and eight billion gods came down to listen to the D h m a and produced a mind bent on enlightenment (bod/ry~rfp(ido-cifm). In the middle, the profound twelve-link causation was expounded for those who sought to be pntyekabuddhas. and measureless sentient beings produced a mind bent on enlightenment or remained a s Srjvakas. Next. the Vaipulya (extensive and glorious) class or twelve kinds of sotras such as the 1CIu/tiprujfifip6rantifii. A~~a~arnsuku [soln that is deep as] sea and [expansive as] clouds were explained to illustrate the
Leon Hurviu Scrtprure o f rhr Lorus B/osson# o f rhr. Finc Dhnrmo (New York: Columbia University Press. 1976) ix. " ' ~ 2 6 2 , 2 5 c l 8 - 2 0 : W U l % f i B I . d ~ r P .2 % . F%.Z!I~l!k~f!i!;Vit.


110 bodhisattvas' practice in the distant past periods?59 This passage gives a chronology of the whole Buddha's teaching. First, the Buddha taught the Four Noble Truths. then. the doctrinc of dependent co-arising, and finally the Prajtidpdrun~ilfi and A~~aran~suka sntras. This chronology indicates that thc

Pruj66priron1ild and Ai~utar~rsuka sntras had been present before the Lotus SLltn was composed. The Sotra's references to jrirtyurd is not a s extensive as that in the Prujdripdrun~ird SOtm and its major conccm is with practice n t h e r than with theory. Its central theme is the One Vchicle; in short. to make buddhahood available to all living beings \\-as thc Buddha's sole purpose for coming into the world?60 The definition of the One Vehicle. is to be sought in the doctrine of hir~yurd: The Tathigata knows this one chamcteristic. one taste Dharma, i.e. the characteristic of emancipation. the chancteristic of dispersing, the characteristic of cessation, the characteristic of ultimatc ninvi!lu.constant calm and cessation. and finally a retum to hi,l."~lfi?~~ All dharmas are considered to be Shnyu by virtue of dependent co-arising, just as they have been explained in Early Buddhism. The S n t n follows in the line of Early Buddhism: Again. a bodhisattva observes that all dharmas are stinyu, as characteristics just-as-they-are, not perverted. not moving, not returning. not turning, just like the empty space. not possessing a nature. extinct of all language and speech. neither produced. accruing, nor arising. nameless, without characteristic. not existing, measureless. borderlcss. without hindrance and without obstruction. and existent by virtue of causes and condition^?^' " ' ~ 7 6 . 386b21: & X T . tlJ;Q@!lI. 2)lBr;lh. I~J\B:&-T;*TBE~L. ?%%&O.
iriiL3ldTiXf .IW. 8sGtZM;h. 1iiWl;lZ$?%A#,0. &ErSfIJ. 8%@.&!'2. Gi,;XSAEff~t%li. Also. ~ 6 2 . 3 ~ 2 2 f f .

qlG?10 Xi3lfiT-t :RUfit!t41

Hurvirz. Scrrprure xxiii.

111 ~ 6 2 19~01-5: . LII!+!BIE-IU-OL~L.Tfi:l'lW(mtlliMlliiisrll. F:JEi5!!.aW;ljl#lU. S+%JG??. 'b'E62. 37b12-16: iU&WAl%RAIK-tIJit5?. BltI4U. -i;Altffd+4j~+fl+M. i:E<i

In the ~eini~~urrar~~~a-cokra-s~irru?~~ which is rcgarded a s predecessor of the Lotus SQtra. wc find a clear definition ofprajIiZpiirua~i~Z: "Not to differentiate all dharmas is called pruj~dpdrarnird."3~ In conclusion. there are many doctrines taught by the Buddha: however. the Buddha's real intention is to teach the One Vehicle. which is explained as the doctrine of ifinyard. ~ f i r ~ ~ simply a l d is, because everything is dependently co-arising.

i fin yard is

chancterized as empty space. which contains everything but attached to nothing. In i1711)~u18. languages and concepts do not apply. Things occur but only as causes and conditions. Thus. the SOtra claims "dharmas neither arise nor cease ..." A bodhisattva practicespraj,iri, accepts things just-as-they-are. and does not differentiate things.

3 . 2

The Buddha-avatamsaka-siitra
The full name ofthis s a t n is called the Buddl1B1orar~1suku-n1aI16vuip11~1~u-srir (9;

XI& f& & hYt%

Do fang Strung fo hliu yun jing), in which the Sanskrit texts. now

arc included. separated as "Gu!l&t~~ril~u" and the "Daiabl~~imiku-s~ifra,"

'" The

development of awakening is described by means of a story of a pilgrimage in which the central character, a seeker of truth named Sudhana. is sent on a journey by MailjuirT. the personification of wisdom. The spiritual friends whom Sudhana encountered on the journey do not claim to hold the whole truth?" This indicates that there is no particular method of practice that is universally valid; pmctices are p a ? o f a coherent whole that needs all its pans to function

b. -tJJ;li;;ilM. 4;%;l;a4;&. .%%.%4UU.%rfiti.W~diS%Uf.RCA. i!lUWPli.

'"'l268 l%IWtk Wh%iiiP4;il(MU5h. See. Nakamun. Irrdran 192. Ibl 1268.285520-25: 4;ff);d-tJJiLZ@S&HP.
1(H Thomas Clcq. Introduclion. The Floa,cr Ornnmenr Scrrprure. A TIanrLtron ofthe Avaranrraka Surra, Vol. Ill. mns. Thomas (Boston: Shmbhala. 1987) 1.

''' Nakamun. lndran 195.

With respecl to the doctrine ofprajl;ii, ten piiranlirtis are explained together with the ten bodhisattva srages. Here. the aspect of great compassion (nraAiikanc!d) is emphasized: and the pnctice of the ten stages in This bodhisattva possesses the ten piiran~iriis each thought moment. Why? This bodhisattva, in each thought moment with grcat compassion (nrahiikantnu) as the starting point. pnctices the Buddha Dhanna and dedicates them to great prajdii.'68 In order to obtain the perfection of prujtid. one needs to help others with the grcat compassion: Oh. sons of buddha! Bodhisattva thus observes conditioned dhannas to have many arise nor cease, and always gives rise imperfections. to have no self-nature. to neitl~er to great compassion (nruhiikontnd) without discarding sentient beings. Then. prujfifipdranlirii appears face to face with him?6' What is prujdd? PrajdO in the ten piirunrirris is explained in two ways: first. prujfiiipiiratttird means that by which one sees all dharmas just-as-~hey-are?~'Secondly. in praj17iipdranlirfi one accepts all things and tolcntes any circumstances without becoming upset. "To endure all dharmas as neither arising nor ceasing. this is called praj,?itpiiran~irii.'"7' One views all things as-they-arc and thus accepts every one and every thing and endures any situation. Prajtiiipriranrild is what frees one from attachments or discriminations. The s a t n reads.


p. crr 6. "'T278.561b23:

!JciJivi. %Ef$iL. -1lJSl:~I A W

bPiW!??:'ZBrf. JLE-t%#iti. IA+l&ti. NU&. U A l . !??B:'Z'tl. k B& For the explanation on anprajridpdran~rrJ. sce funher on. T-78.

iL4lOllnlP. T279. I96c3-1: lk.C.%it. !#%dN. b%lllfi&#i'P. Also. P-86. 517~28-29:B:&itR*.l; !kIUl. , ! & f i % # l f f .And.T278. 563b03: Rh4rBF.$l.@t;:%#~~.T278.561~03: .C;tiiL4:!!il"l.



If a sentient being comes to my place. I will immediately explain prujtiripdranrild for him. Oh. sons of a good f m i l y ! I. seeing all sentient beings, do not discriminate thc chancteristic of all beings. because I see clearly with the prujiri-eyes. I, hearing all words, do not discriminatc the chancteristic of language. because the mind is not attached. I, seeing all Tathagala. do not discriminate the characteristic of TathJgata, because I undcrsrand the dharma-body. I, laking charge all dharma-wheels, do not discriminate the chancteristic of dharma-wheels. because I am awakened lo the self-nature of dharmas. In one thought. I knowing extcnsi\~cly all dharmas do not discriminate the characteristics of a11 dharmas. because I know dharmas as i~lusion?~'

gain, prujn'dpdramild entails that onc accepts things as-they-are, thus one does not
discriminate things or persons whether a sentient being or a Tathagala. In more positive terms. the A~~uru~~~.~uku-srirra acknowledges the karma effects: All dharmas have retribution based on their karma?13 A bodhisattva observes all d h m a s . [He obscrves that] the world is appeased. empty without remainder: there is neither creation nor crealor. and also yet all karmic retributions are not nullified.37' There is nothing existent but karmic effects: Know that all sentient beings are Srinyu-none-exis~cnts: however [know that] karmic effects are not de~troyed?~' The s o t n also explains that one necd not be pcssimistic. beca9se the "wholesome roots." wholesome merits are not cmpty: The Tathiigata's proper D h m a can not be nullified. Immeasurable wholesome roots arc all not e n ~ ~ t y . ' ~ ~ The AValurpku-s~ilra explains that when 42 foundational Sanskrit letters for

liberation are chanted, then the 42 prajtiiprirunritds are considered as primary; one enters measureless and countless prajtidpdrumitri The s o t n also discusses a hundred

t~~u time) prujdripdranlird gates.'78 million a s a ~ ~ W(unmcasumble

In conclusion,prujt,ili a s explained in the A~~ola~~rrukn S~itru is basically the same as that explained in the prujtidpdrumitd sOtns, i.e. prajdd is not something to which onc should be attached but is the acceptance of reality-just-as-it-is without discrimination.
s u konly u expands the six priranti~dsinto ten prirantitris but even claims The A ~ ~ a t a t ~ ~ not

therc are innumerable pruj,iitpdronritds. In more positive terms, the sotra emphasizes compassion (korlc!lo) or the act of helping other sentient beings as the main task of a bodhisattva.

A bodhisattva

pncticcs prujtid

and utilizes

appropriate actions

(tcpriyu-karciulyu)to help others. In short. the sotra gives positive comments on doctrinal

issues and spells out the effects of karma and wholesome merits.


The Ratnakfifa-siitra
The ~Clrrltrira~t~uk~i~u-d/~urntupar~~y~-~a~asri/~~~ri~-gr~n~I~u (k#'16% Du hao ji

iing. The Heap of Jewels Siltn) consists of 120 fascicles in 49 sections. The comple~ed

translation of the s n t n seems to be a compilation of translations done by direrent persons. This sotra contains a broad m g e of subjects. Garma C. C. Chang comments that this sOtn can be called a small encyclopedia of Mahayana Buddhism. The topics discussed n n g e from the monastic precepts (vinuya) to prujtrili, from good deportment to thc manifestation of the Tathagala's light, from illusion (mri.vri)and appropriate actions to the nature of consciousness and the Pure Land practice?79 " ' ~ 7 8 . 766Q7: &l'llkJlJ2A;R;MI1KNf 'FRQ. dtlg-1- :IEtfii%MTiKI"I*i'i. Ad8letGZlf &
iib'&l"l. AlsoT279.418cI.

"' fi,%G.71fiil~lYt~i%%~iI"l. E78.707515: 716al8: T279.354313: E79.364b77.

Garmn C. C.

Chang. Prologue. A

Trcnsu? o f

Aluhdjdnu S11rrus.Sc~I~~cl~ons fmm dc hfuhdmrnuklj!~

Among the various texts found in this satra, some are very close to the texts of Early Buddhism. The practice of pruj~icipirunrirciis explained as the practice of the Noble Eightfold Path, and prajtiipcirun~itciis explained as the understanding and knowledge of depcndent co-arising that had been represented as thc Twelve Links in the chain of causation. If a bodhisattva-mahHsattvn wishes to practice prajAdpEran~iti. he should diligently practice the Noble Eightfold ~ath."" I-low is a bodhisattva-mahbattva to accomplish prujti(ipciran~iw? Maitreya! If a bodhisattva-mahsattva is aware as follows: depended on this dharma there is that is, avidyci dharma; dependent on this dharma, that dharma arises-that (ignoranceldarkness) gives rise to karma-formation (sar~r~k5ra)'~'. karma-formation gives rise to consciousness (1,ijd6na)...38' Because the Raarokii!~ consists of a collection of dificrent texts. the explanations on
praj~icipdromirci are diverse. Most of the texts explain p r a j ~ i iin the context of the six piramitis: however, some texts, following the Avara!!uaku. expound ten pciramitcis in

relationship to the ten stages?83

Prujrici andpraj~icipriron~irri arc expounded as the same: there is no discrimination in prujGci. There is nothing to be grasped nor is there anything to be abandoned. As for rrin.Z!ta or sa~~~scira, the s a t n states: Prajficipiranritci does not see that there is a dharma to be grasped or to be abandoned. One who practices prajticipciran~irci in that manner does not see n i r v i ! ~ a as enjoyable, nor birth and death (so~psdru) as Stirrit (University Park: Thc Pcnnsylvania State Univmir). Press. 1983) xi. "~~10.312bZJ-26 BXWAIP-RE. : %>Bl;~li@.l;'lHE3 EWD,YJ\!E$. A. "' "Kamu-forrrut~on" used by Nyamtilob, for detail discuss~onon th~s t c m scc BD 162. 1a:~;to.627c~7fi: -Z~~~;AWA~.RI. P I N ~ ~ X I WJJ. ~ E K;A-SBM;~JA. . tnlews~. rrr JtitiidtiL. If<JtiL!!rJtil;. fi:VR91$li. liP1. 2liPZC. Z b 3 i t A . f;A%.M.



"' T3 10.649~2 1(r.

's'T310,651a21-22: @ ~ B # 8 i - + ~ L i i i L ~ ~ I ! i ifI~ l~ % ~. ~k?.fi%%% &4;bLi5!3? . qe%3EW

So long as one perceives beauty and ugliness. one discriminates: Do not see [things as] beautiful or ugly: do not produce a thought ot'high or low: do not accept or reject. Why? Dharmas are neither beautiful nor ugly because they are devoid of all chmcteristics. Dharmas are neither high nor low becausc the chanctcris~ics ofdharmas arc equal. Dharmas arc neither ro be accepted nor re'ected because they abide in Limit of Reality. This is the practice of prajRipirantiM.JB" One who pmcticcs praj~ifipiranrirfi. accepls reality-just-as-it-is. thus one does not diKerentiate things. This is the reason that thc Praj~iEpdranritfiSiirras often smtc. "Bodhisattvas help innumerable sentient beings. but there is not a single being to be hclped."'~ Bodhisattvas practice prajt;i but do not give rise to any conceptual proliferation (prapa~ca)?8' The satra also explains that sat~rsfira.~tirWinaand even the Buddha "...are convention (sar!lvyri) and dependent on concepts: the wise should not become attached to them."'88 ~ r i r r ~ a means tfi that one is far removed from grasping and attachment. and that there is no perception of from the perspective of the Highest Truth @aranrdrrlra-sa~~ar?~) just as the vast reality. Because the nature of all dharmas is ilirrya, it is called iri~ryurfi emptiness is called "empty space." The nature o f vast emptiness is inexpressible so as Stitryari is


Prajtil in Pure Land Buddhism

The idea that one can be bom in a pure land by chanting a buddha's name can be

S~irra(in 25000 line). but thc pure land therein found in the ,i4ahdprajAGp6rar11irfi

described is not specifically AmitPbha's ~uddha-land.3wIn the Srtkhrir.arirytiha-.sirru and An~irdyrtrdhyinu-.sfilra. the chanting of AmitZbha buddha's name and being born in the Buddha-land of AmitBbha arc e ~ ~ o u n d e d .These ~" sutras mainly promote the Purc Land of Amiabha. However. in order to be born in the Pure Land. an accumulation of merits is necessary. and this accumulation of merit is based on the practice of six pdrunritds. The S~tk/r~~~uri~yrihu-s~i~ru states: Practicing sixpdrantirds one exhorts others to practice: in many ku1pu.s merits will be accumulated and vinue will a c c r ~ e ? ~ ' The practice of the six pdranrircis is proclaimed as one of AmitPbha (Dharmakan) Buddha's vows in the Larger ~ r t k / r d r o r i ~ i / r u - s i ~ Even ru.~ though ~ ~ all kinds o f people can be born in the land of Amitabha. there are diff'crent levels. In thc

Srikltdt~uriryhha-srirra, there arc three levels of people born in Amitebha buddha's land.

The first level consists of those who renounce the world as iranla!zu (recluse) and Although the Pure Land slltras do not expound Stitryald per practice the six pdran~iris?94 se, the jitryuri of all dharmas and no-Self can be methods for seeking and attaining the pure buddha-land.39'


The MahHparinirvHqa-siitra
The Mu/~dparir~in~d~~a-sfilru was written some time between thc period following

'P"1223.375n15: eiih-iRiSiWM. 73$i1PEdfh14~&.T223.378blO-tl: PirYiLRiXIIZJ:!hl;tl: di%. d;lIZiPWWI I:J~JIPZ%. Nakamun. Indian 203. "I O3&WRRH!T360,269c?t: Cllrifi$&kl:. % A h i ~ .R9:sPIM~ifllflit:LY. It is the seventh vow in %;WWQBELIIXHCin'IZ1%WjgIffA$H$ T362. 301b29. And thc twenty-seventh vow in the B;3ik1$7QEflT364.329b22. 1W T362.309~25-29. T36J. 337a17-20. '"'~360.273a16-17:O Y % & ! A:)iWfA I: U..rJi&z?JI.

"' '"

Nagajuna and before Vasubandhu, around 300-350

AD?'^ The sntra is said to be the last

sermon before the Buddha passed away and contains the secret teaching which had not been discussed in other sntras. The new teaching in this sntra is basically the theory of Buddha-nature. However. by virtue of this theory. there arose other issues, related to such ideas as that the worst immordl men (iucuttriLrj


;LC Z Y ~ ~ ( i a - n ~ t u r e

and that there is another "Selr' beside the idea o f no-Self. Inasmuch as all Buddhist schools. both Northern and Southem. reject the idea of Self (cirmatr).the satra provoked many controversies among Chinese Buddhist scholars when it was inlroduced into ~hina?~' The connection between the Mahdparirrirvd!taStilra and the Prujfifipdranrild Strtra is evident. Not only does the sntra mention prujficipdramird.'9S but it also claims that il is derived from the Prajfidpdranrirri Stirras: From the Buddha, the twelve divisions of the teaching come: from the twelve divisions of the teaching, the Sntras come; from the SBtm. the Vaipulya comes; from the Vaipulya, the Prujfiiipcirantit comes; from the Proj?dpBrantild. the hfal~ciparitrirvcirra comes as surpirrrra!tdu(yogun). Sarpirntatrdu is an analogy of the ' ~ ' ~ Buddha-nature. Buddha-nature is precisely the ~ a t h a g a t a ? This passage indicates that Buddha-nature is the main doctrinal issue in the
rCIulrdparinirv@taStirra. The sBtn explains that to have confidence in Buddha's teaching

is Buddha-nature. Since one has confidence in the teaching. one can further practice the six pdrantilcis. Because a bodhisattva-mah3sattva is confident, hc is accomplished in perfection from dcinu-pdrarnirciup to prajtidpciranrirci. Because all sentient beings attain great

confidence. it is said that all sentient beings have the Buddha-nature. Great . confidence is the Buddha-nature. Buddha-nature is ~athBgata?~O The Buddha-nature that the sOtra promotes is one's confidence in the Buddha; it is TathBgata; it is also the great loving-kindness and compassion of the Buddha. Ever?. sentient being embodies this quality and hence possesses Buddha-nature: Oh, sons of a good family! Great loving-kindness and great compassion are called Buddha-nature. Why? The great loving-kindness and great compassion always follow a bodhisattva just as shado\v follows the figure. All sentient brings will without doubt attain great loving-kindness and great compassion; thus, it is said that all sentient beings have Buddha-nature. Great loving-kindness and great compassion are called Buddha-nature; Buddha-nature is called ~athBgata?" All sentient beings are embodied with Buddha-nature and thus are potential buddhas. As long as one has loving-kindness and compassion. one is considered to have Buddha-nature. Even the worst immoral person (iccliunrika) has Buddha-nature and is able to become Buddha: "Oh TathBgata! If it were said that an iccl~unrika has no wholesome d h m a s . would an icchonrika not have a loving mind towards schoolmates. teachers. parents. relatives and wives? But helshe does have such [a loving mind]. so isn't it good?" The Buddha says, "Good. Good! Sons of a good family, that is a good question.'40' This conversation between KaSyapa and the Buddha implies that even the worst immoral person such a s an icchonrika has the Buddha-nature. As regards how to develop the Buddha-nature, the satra suggests that one should study and follow the MahByana s0tras. mainly the rCfohdnirvri!ioSrifro. "All bodhisattvas who dwell in the I/aipulya and Mohd~iind!lo srirros see ~ u d d h a - n a ~ u r c .By '~~ practicing '

six pdrunrirris. one can attain the awakened state. The satm states, "Action (kurnra) is called six pcironrifrir: effect is called supreme perfect awakening

Another unique doctrine in this sQtrais the notion ofSclf. explained in its versions of iritr.vulfi and the Middle Path. ~litrvarri is sot!rsiru (birth and death), non-j~itryurri is the great nint?!ru (nmhcinirvinci). And, no-Self refers to birth and death; Self is the great nin.ii!lu. To see all a s j l i n ~ a but not to see them as non-ititryo. is not the Middle Path. And. to see all a s no-Self but not to see Self. is not the Middle Path. Middle Path is called the Buddha-nature. For this reason. the Buddha-nature is permanent without change. Because avi& obstructs, all sentient beings are not able to see [the Buddha-nature]. Sr3v;lkas and pntyekabuddhas see all as jritl.vu but do not see them as nonJ~itryu. They see all as having no-Self but do not see Sclf. For this reason. [they] can not ob&n the highcst puGon ofjri~ryurci. Because thcy cannot obtain the highest purpon ofiBfg~rci. thcy do not practice thc Middle Path. Bccausu they lack the Middle Path. they & n o t see the ~ u d d h a - n a t ~ r e . ' " ~ The great nirvci!ta is spoken about in reference to noniritryufrrrdand Sclf in a manner peculiar to this sQtra. Those who see only no-Self are considered to be Srjvaka and pmtyekabuddha; thus. they can not see Buddha-nature. Buddha-nature. the highest purport of Stitryofci, and prajfiri are id~ntical.'~~ Buddha-nature is the Middle Path where both no-Self and Selfare seen. That one sees a "Selr' is in conflict with all other Buddhist schools. No Buddhist school claims that there is a Self. because non-Self is one of the three principles of Buddhism. This idea that a Sclf exists is contrary to what the sntra itself also proclaims: A bodhisattva-mahaattva practices the great nirvci!ru. There is nothing viewable in

all dharmas. If there is something to be viewed, then one docs not see Buddha-mture. .If one cannot practice prujfidpdrumirri. then one neither obtains nor enters reat nirtP6!ru. Therefore. a bodhisattva sees all dharmas as non-existence of nature. 4& "Wthagata is also 3ii1rya. the great ninvi!lu is also iii~rvu.Thus a bodhisattva views .'~~ statement ~ contradicts the above statement that the great all dharmas as i r i ~ ~ y u r dThis fiir~~fi!tuis Self and non-itinyard. These contradictory statements suggest that the compilation of the s a t n was not from a single source. There are clear signs of patches?w

3 . 6

The SuddIturn~upu~~durikasri~ru in continuing the doctrine of i ~ i ~ i ~ o found t f i in the

Prujrirpiironrir6 Slirra stresses the doctrine of One Vehicle (ekuyfina). The Avaru~!lsuku expands the six pdrunritfis into tenpiruniirtis, and even claims that there are numberless pruj~iupdrunrirfis.Positively. it also emphasizes the aspect o f compassion (kurti!iu) and fully explains the notions of karmic effects and wholesome merits. The Ruorukriru-srirru covers all aspects of Mahayma doctrines. The Pure Land School does not emphasize Srinyurri. but explains that i i i ~ ~ ~ u and tfi no-Self can be methods for seeking and attaining the Pure Land. To practice the six prirunrirds is one of the Amitabha buddha's vows. To be born into the Pure Land. the bodhisattvas are encouraged to practice the six pdruniirds in order to accumulate merits. The hlulidpuri~~ind!ru-s~i~ru expounds the theory of Buddha-nature that gives rise to many controversial issues. Since the satra was developed at a later date. there are many elements that need to be studied before any conclusion can be made.

""T374.521blI-IS: Ak7%>Jk7f%b*i'1?.#?. G?-t/lit?S.RfibL. liiibLZ;I;tC1&l". 1 ; 1 1 &$%#It2

E,Eh?s:. I;Alhff*lYti'~!B. LL&!iRRbL-tlJiti"RF4j.


T374.521b19-20: ...Dl!4:4;2RBZiB#?rll:'3!. S ~ R ~ X ~ L - ~ I J Y ~ . ~ E ~ . % S ~ . Yin-Shun. Rcsr~arch on 1hc Ta~l~dgam-gahlro Ol&%L611'9'Z ( T a i p e i : Zhen Wen Pub. 1989)252.

Chapter 8: A Summary of PrajriiH in the UpadeSa

The Upadcia

General Comments
a commentary on the


P a , i c a v i r ! ! l S a r i s 6 h a s r i k c i a t i s u s r i k dPrajtidpdramild ~ f i t r o (Proj~?rSpdramird-.vrifra o f 25.000 lines) and in gneral it functions as compendium ofMahilyi!na thought. It has been attributed to Nagajuna by mditioc?I0 Although the Upadcia quotes offen from the IPS and VibhL:& it mostly takes a critical attitude to\vard them?" The Upadesa lists 23 reasons4" for why the Buddha spoke the Prajtidpdronritd Sritras. All of those reasons can be placed under one motif which is to explain the Path of bodhisattva: In the Tripi!aka, extensively quoting various similes (h!dnta), the Buddha explained the Dharma for the sake of tavakas. [but] he did not explain the bodhisattva path. The Buddha now wishes to explain in great detail the bodhisatwa path to Maitreya etc.'"' This bodhisattva path isprajtidpu'ronrifu'. Praj~idpdrunritu' is explained as that which subsumes everything but at the same time is nothing, because, as long as a prictitioner believes that there is a thing it is considered to be an attachmenl. In the UpadeSa, proj~iE@rajtidpdrunritd is explained as "the truc characteristic o f d h m a s . " In regard lo

"' There arc some arguments rcgardrng thc author of he Upadcia,a rcccnr book by Vcncmblc Yin-Shun. has showed that thc rcal author is NOgaqum. In his book, he specifically deals wlth some qucslions raised by Lamottc. -f-&JLldL~T. A k i n Himkawa ('I' Jll?>)andbUAi'lrt W. Yin-Shun. Thu Aurlrur and Tranrlurron o f rite D o Zlti Duo Lun ~N'Z,&2/l-'fiAt/CkYdTT (Taiwan: Dong Zong Publishing Housc. 1991 I;;:* rtitt. L<Ullt*). '"TI 509.91~: 273a: 255b. Sce Yin-Shun, The Aurltor and Translarron. 51.

"the true characteristic of dharmas," there is no dispute; one accepts reality as-it-is. What follows


a discussion on the terms related to projfiri-"the

true characteristic of

dharmas,"">roj~iripriraniirri,""non-disputation dharma (oro!ra-d/iurma ,&?fiik\ s ~=herig t

fa)" from the UpadeSa.

2 .

"The True Characteristic of Dharmas"

"The true characteristic o f d h a r m a ~ ' ~ is 'a~synonym ofprajfiri. It is the reality of all dharmas as seen by bodhisattvas. In that stage. a bodhisattva views things-as-they-arc wherein subjects and objccts arc removed; thus, a bodhisattva has no conceptual prolifera~ion @r~~aticu) or ~ disputation " (ar~!rrr)?'~ The UpadeSa claims that the Buddha. wishing to explain "the truc characteristic of SCrras: dharmas," delivered the PrajAdpdra~~iirri The Buddha wishes to reveal "the true characleristic of dharmas" in order to remove all sentient beings' doubts?" Also. All buddhas have two ways to teach Dharma: the first one is to observe people's minds in accordance with their capacity of being taught; the second one is to observe

see m. I 10. '"See fn. 78. "'Doctrinally. ru!tu is equal to klciu (emotional amiclions)and thus uro!zu means "free from dcpnvity. passion. ~mpunly"(BHSD 64b-6k). The Chinese translation "wlthout dlspute" 1s the l~tcml meaning for uru!to (\II). It also means "without lighting;" "mlhout clash." "forc~gn. distant." In the carly si~tm. uru!tu refers to the Buddha. e.g. hfudI~.vumli~u~nu I'C4$W! ((T26.44469)says: @I ! k fm 2E,tH#K??l filWY: .@litFal'PWilQW6f~ Thc Tathagala. being libcmted thus mentally. gains the five reputations: in accordance with Dhanna. undisputable(uru!ru), wonhy of love and wonhy of respect ... The VibhwP also user urunu in referring to the Buddha (TISJS. 25% 26): HC2#&1LiiI-LB$LRXR &!l,%bD . Iltl:ll I;f8&!liQlt.Ci3. Thc Buddha is the one who has seen the meaning, thc Dhma. wholesomeness and what is tmcd. Thus he is said to be "uithout-dispute." The worldly not bclng llkc thls IS wld to be one "having d~sputc." "'TlS09. S9bt7-19: f%iik'~O~;-tlJX~LU4U . ll-tJJ%%LfZ\.

[the true chancteristic ofl all dharmas. Here the Buddha wishes to explain "the true .characteristic of all dhiumas!t8 This "true characteristic of dharmas" is also explained as thc highest purport siddlrli~~ru:"~ It goes beyond all expressions. The practitioner's thought is extinct in the locus of hislher activity and dwells nowhere. It does not proclaim any dharmas. "The true characteristic of d h m a s " has no beginning, nor middle, nor end. neither exhaustion nor destruction. This is called the highcst purport sidd/~E,uu.j'~ "The true chancteristic of d h m a s " is the "original" nature of dharma. It is prujrili that sees reality as-it-is before it has been construed a s an entity or concept. Thc subject matter of the UpadeSa is prujfidpliruntirli. This prujfifiplirunritli is the perfect insight of a bodhisattva and is explained as "the true characteristic of dharmas."


"The True Characteristic of Dharmas" is PrujtiCpr7ramitC for Both the Buddha and Bodhisattvas
In the Upadeia the VaibhL!ikas arc criticized as those who do not know "the true

characteristic of dharmas"; thus. they are said to not pncticc the path of bodhisattvas.'" This indicates that "thc truc characleristic o f d h m a s " is known by the bodhisattvas only and not by the so-called Hinayana iravakas of whom the a b h i d h m i k a s are the representative: "'~1509. 62P9-62bZ: X P i i liB3tiL : -2;. IWh.bFitiOl2fi : :.#. tK,Xit~;WR3t,XiLE 1061. E20.604c:T221.77b: T223.32Sb. ""The Chinese . & is ! the ! I tnnslitcntion of lhe Sanskrit siddl12nro.StddI~dnrrr is composcd or~iddhu (from J.\id/~: accomplished. fullillcd) and unru (end): thus. it litcnlly means that which can accomplish one's end. It also means "senled opin~onor doctrine." "dogma." 'hxtonl." "received or admitted truth ..."(Monicr 12165).The Upadcia expounds four kinds orsiddhdnrr see TI509.59b-60c. ''0T1509.61b7-9: %-tlliri &* %*b$~&*a%@?fi. ~;,J:X<L. %iil!fdlj. % ? ~ l , m ~ ' , @ ? ~ 4 ; & 4%. JZZZ-&.%lU. ' " T l 5 0 9 . 9 I c s - I 2 : f ; P f l l P J d ~ O T ~frl%&h. . I;i%4;IRb;;.lb1H. 3Lrt;ffiX. 4;tllXitE 411: !2U4~lH%'U..h?t&iL~l'ttt3Z. ;A%. ii!. %'. 2. If+%. G?llltt&. ~ & & i i Y . . fqiE ~fl:PTW;~U?

The prujfid by which all bodhisattvas h o w "the truc characteristic of dharmas" during the period [of their pnctice] beginning with the first arousal of [a bodhi] mind in search of "the knowledge of all modes" (sarvdkdrajfiali) [-that prajfid-] is [called] praj~ricipiranlild.


"The true characteristic of dharmas" is what results from one's practice on a bodhisattva path. "The true characteristic of dharmas" is prujfidpdrontird.J" Both the Buddha and bodhisattvns possess knowledge regarding "the truc chancteristic of dharmas" evcn though the bodhisattvas may still have canker/outflow (sdsrava). The Upadeia states: Question: The Buddha, who has removed various defilements (kleks) and habitual forces (vdsond) and [gained] the pure prajrid-eye, should thus obtain "the true chanctcristic of dharmas." "The true characteristic of d h m a s " is prujridpa'ranlild. A bodhisattva has not removed all outflow (dsravo); his prajrid-eye is not pure. how can he gain "the true characteristic of dharmas"?"' Answer: This will be widely explained in later sections. Now. I just explain briefly. For example. people enter the sea: some people are just beginning to enter, while some people have reached the bottom. There is a distinction concerning depth and shallo\mrss. but both are said to have entered. The Buddha and a bodhisattva are just like this: the Buddha has reached the deep bottom, while a bodhisattva has not removed all defilements and habitual forces. Thus, his power is weak and he can not enter as explained by the simile in later sections. For example. a person in a dark room is lighting a lamp. which lights up all things. There is another big lamp which makes [the room] brighter. Thus. [we] know that darkness shattered by the latter lamp compounds together with the former lamp. Although the former lamp stays together with the darkness, it also can light up things. If there was no darkness [co-existing] with the former lamp. the latter lump has no [clarity] to add on to. The prajrid of all buddhas and bodhisattvas are just like this. The bodhisattva's prujrid conjoins with habitual forces of defilements. but [bodhisattva] can perceive "the true chancteristic of dharmas."just as the former lamp can light things up. The Buddha's projrid has none of the habitual forces of defilements; and he also perceives "the true chanctcristic of dharmas." in the manner that the latter lamp makes the room brighter?"

Thus it is clear that both the Buddha and bodhisattvas are those who possess the knowledge of "the truc characteristic ofdharmas" and are just like the light that functions to remove darkness. though there may be a diffcrence of being strong or feeble. The Upadeia also distinguishes "the truc characteristic of dharmas" with regard lo other traditions. Different traditions havc different notions regarding "the true characteristic of dharmas." Howevcr, it is only "the true characteristic of d h m a s " o f the Prajtidpdranrild Stirras that is equated to prajtidpdraniird. The UpadeSa explains: The worldly books are not true. because they are for the purpose of protecting a country and uniting a family. for personal welfare. longevity and [worldly] pleasure. Heretics fall into the doctrine of wrong view: their minds have attachment, so their [doctrines] too are not true. In the Dharma of SrZvakas, although there are the Four Truths. they observe "the true characteristic of dharmas" with "impermancncc (atriryard). drr!rklrare and no-Self (trairdrnrya). Their prajtid is not complete. not sharp enough for [helping] all sentient beings. They arc not considered as having acquired the Buddha Dharma. They have true prajfiiri. but it is notprajtidpdranrird. It is said, "when the Buddha enters and exiles all sanrGd11is. $iiriputra etc. can not even hear the names". not mention that they can know them. Why? Arhats. pntyekabuddhas. from the first moment of arousing the [hodhi] mind, do not make great vows (niakdpra!ridl~dna): have no great loving-kindness (nralrdnrairri); have no great compassion (nralrrikanc!rh): do not seek all merits (pr!ta); do not make offerings to all buddhas of the three times (the past, the present and the future) in the ten directions; do not attentively and concentratively seek to know "the true characteristic of dharmas": but seek only freedom from du!rklla, decay, illness and death. All bodhisattvas, from the moment of arousing the [badhi] mind, make great vows. have great loving-kindness. and compassion. seek all merits, make offering to all buddhas of the three times and in ten directions, have great and sharpprajiiri, seek "the true characteristic of dharmas." They abandon various contemplation. such as contemplation of purity. contemplation of impurity, contemplation of permanence. contemplation of impermanence. contemplation of happiness. contemplation of drr!rklra, contemplation of ilinya, contemplation of the Real. contemplation of Self. contemplation of no-Self. They abandon these conten~plationsderived from the mental strength of false views. They contemplate only thc true characteristic in the external conditions: not pure, not impure, not permanent, not impermanent. not happy, not drt!rkha. not Stinya, not real. not Self, not non-self. All such contemplations they neither become attached nor do thcy acquire, because they are dharmas of Worldly Convention. not the Highest Purpon. That which is pervasively

pure. non-breakable, non-destructible. wherein the Noble Ones move-this


is called

This passage also indicates the differences between a buddha. an arhat and a pntyekabuddha. An arhat seeks freedom from illness, decay. drr!lkha etc. while a buddha is compassionate to all beings and sees everything just-as-it-is: there is nothing to be attained: there is nothing to which one can be attached. Only prujtidpdrunri~d a s expressed in the Prujri6pdran1itC Stilrus comprises "the true characteristic of d h m a s . " ~ravakas attain prajtid only. not prujIapdromitri. Projticipimnrild penains to the Buddha and bodhisattva. The distinction between the projtid of a buddha and [hat of a bodhisattva is expounded in the Upadcia. Both the bodhisattva and buddha have prujtidprirun~ild,but they differ in that a buddha's prujt7dpdranrilfi is mufuris mrrrandis "the knowledge of all modes" (son~rikirujtiord).'"? The prajrirr' obtained by a buddha is true pdramira, because its cause is prirantild. What a bodhisattva is practicing is also called paramild because the result is spoken about with regard to a cause. This pruj~idpdranrildthat resides in a buddha's mind is alternately called "the knowledge of all modes." Because a bodhisattva practices prujrid in order to cross over [the ocean of sat?1s8ru] to the other shore it is called paramild. Because a buddha [is one who] has crossed [from sut!r~druto] the other shore already, he is called [one who possesses] "the knowledge o f m o d ~ s . ' ~ ' " ~

TISO^ SO^. 195c20.196a10: El -I: IIVtK%!H+. .QEI?j?X. R&ir5E%&II-1LW. 4k1U:Xc9ZI#it It1. .C.ZA&. P4;riLU. ZZM%rt1rlgii83. URR. Z . 2. dJYN:&il;U411. UWB4;JI X4;aJ. 4;lE%l-tJJ!?l!&. 4;Z$#!BiL&. &ii!A%'&S. 4;%&%iE&S. 3l: f9GAU:XZQ4.. C?dB;??PJ4~liU118. BiRfiLBI? fqUL? XA&$X. EIFf&UJB+6lhk. ,%AM. R A I * . ! ! . 4;X-UJXlhl. ;l;ittl-UJ2lB+fi[l96a]f$. 4;%Z?kBlXitWlU:fQ84SMZ. i&. RE. %E&LiIJ%0. OAPtBII. 4ikf g. 28-tJJXJhU. fJ!$f-tJJ~lU.i-li;&W. iiA4dtJ:. ?k ;XitU4ll. FkIBIIX1LV: E;SliQN. 4;iPN. %IN. W R I . I N . 2:N. 2Bl. BlN. JYN. IdZN. )99IIP?Pf~L,OJJX~JI. fQtrlSEPrt'YI411.II-1LiP. 4L4;iQ. Wit. II-1Ell:R.II-1W. $ 3 . -IL2. :ILW. I I J Y . :iI:RUL. !hlP3;AN. 4;W4;Pl: Iit(Cit&. Ill:!ll-fIB. IAliBiAiQ. 4;L 44n. I l h i i 9 . 28&-&B&fii. ' : 'In SarvPstivBL, son.ajrirrr6 is considered bc lhc Buddha's knowlcdgc. Sce on page 91. '"~1.509. 190a19-?I:l%E#%'HP~L&%;IxlRIMIL. WiZfilid;ZiEM~.PlqX!+!&. PL&-E.iElfi~. IkB*0~P881-t)JfW.WiiFh%'a.IIPIIi!. & l i @ M P :t&L1i!!i12. L8 -tJJi%%'.

"The true chancteristic of dharmas" is prujfidp6rumird. ~ r a v a k a s have p r u j f i d but not

p r a j ~ i d p d r u n i i l d ."The

truc characteristic of dharmas" and

p r u j r ~ d p d r u n t i r 6are


path of bodhisattva. Functionally, there is no difference in "the true characteristic of dharmas"of bodhisattvas and the Buddha. The differences are only in terms ofdegrees of awakening.

of a bodhisattva becomes


when one

becomes an awakened being (buddha).


"The True Characteristic of Dharmas" and siinyatti

The UpadeSa defines "the truc characteristic of dharmas" as "all dharmas and the

self-nature of all dharmas arc

Sii~iya refers


That "the true cl~anctcristicof dharmas" is

to the practice wherein a bodhisattva helps others without a sense of help.

without a sense of the dichotomy of subject and object. "The true characteristic of dharmas" means that [dharmas] are void of nature ... If [dharmas] are not [realized as being] void. then one will fall into the extreme of permanence and will produce defilements (klesa). [Dharma] being void of nature has no actual dwelling place; it neither comes from somewhere. nor goes to anywhere: this is called thc eternal characteristic of dharmas. The eternal characteristic of dharmas is a synonym of "[dharmas] being void of ihature"; it is also called "the true characteristic of dharmas." In this characteristic, there is neither production nor cessation, neither increase nor decrease, neither contamination nor purity. Bodhisattvas dwell therein. and see all dharmas being void of nature. They neither retreat, nor doubt. nor regret with regard to the anirrruru-saniyuha!,tbod/ii (supreme perfect awakening). Why? They do not see dharmas as obstruction: therefore. by vinuc of expedience (ttp6ya-kauia!va) they help sentient beings. It is by virtue of expedience. because [although] ultimately there is neither any dharma nor sentient being. yet [bodhisattvas] cross over sentient beings."30
I n elscwhcrc, thc Upadeja uscs sarvajtiarrl (ROE-&) l o indicatcthe pure prajria ofthc Buddha. TIS09.636bIS-19: iiF&-t;-IIlJK&'EX3;. i& #Bfi@!. A&Eitti#B$. IIllViiAiPQzE. &.& i?i iQ#iPf W& 9% I & % . Pk!i A%%& I!ll K A&-E. San.@ria is a difircnt nameofprajfid. As soon as the merilorious vinucs o f fivepdramtr& cntcr inlo prajfic7pdran111d.onc gains the pure prajAd. Because prqAJ is pure, one anains the Buddha Path, and Iprajddl changes as san*ajAaO. Thus. i t is said that one entcrs into san.ajria one cnlers prqtid. ' 2 q ~ ~ s o 9 . ~ t 3 ~ ~ a - t 9 :f.7dP;&itU41i:' I:~lr-~, E 1 . I : :&it. ;xi,!.OriY. "0T1509.697c12: Zitl?f4!l?i. 011A!rLY. ... 697~18-26: 1:4;YI; IlllE@WiS~%. fE!t:fflD:

One who obtains "the true characteristic of dharmas." knows i ~ i ~ y u r f thus i , one does not differentiate any thing. One helps others, but owing to the rcali7ation ofio~t,ura.one docs not become anached to the act of helping, to oneself a s the helper or to beings who arc to be helped: To obtain "the true characteristic of dhamas" means that one knows [dharmas] to be void of nature: This person knows that dharmas are void of nature. that there are neither dharmas nor sentient being. Worldly beings having not obtained "the true characteristic," have various ideas and differentiations. just as a mad person who falsely sees things thinking that they are real. In order to cross those mad worldlings over [to the other shore.] it is said [a bodhisattva] discourses for sentient beings. In the dharmas of the mad. there is the discrimination of these dharmas. but among the real dharmas there is no [such distinctions]. A bodhisattva desiring to fulfill his original vows is not attached to the [dharmas] that are void of naturc: hence. there is the crossing over of sentient beings [to the other shore]?" Pruj~iBpBruntirB, "the true characteristic ofdharmas." represent the highest wisdom: its opposite is conceptual proliferation @rupo,ica). In [expounding] prajtiripiiru~~lirci, [the Buddha] explains "the true characteristic of dharmas." In "the true characteristic o f dharmas," there is no contamination of conceptual proliferation @rupuAca): thus it is called ultimate purity. Being untimately pure. it can light up pervasively all five collections of dharmas. i.e.. the past, the future, the present. the unconditioned and the ineffab~e.'~' Due to these reasons, ordinary worldlings consider material form (nipa) as being either large or small. By virtue of being led by [their own] speculation and discrimination, they spoil all dharma-natures. [In contmt.] prujfiBpBramilB. in accord with the nature ofrtipa, views them as they truly arc, and does not make them to be large or small."33

Whether therc is buddha or no buddha. all dharma-natures always abide in the world. The characteristic of all dharmas is identical with "the true characteristic of dharmas." "The true characteristic of dharmas" is identical with praj>idpdrumild. If one seeks "the true characteristic of dharmas"as being permanence or impermanence, then this is completely wrong. If one enters into the dhanna-nature, then one commits no error. The dharma-nature is permanent, thus therc can be no fault?34 In prajiidpdrun~ird,there is no characteristic ofprujiiBpdramirc3. because all dharmas have no ckcncteristic. The same applies [to the otherp8run1ird]. up to ddnapdranrifd. The internal ithJord etc. up to "the knowledge of all modes" are likewise void of characteristic?" "The true characteristic of dharmas" is a universal nature of all dharmas. It is prujridp8ronrild. It abides regardless of whether there is the Buddha or not. It is also S~ir~)~urd to which the categories of existence and non-existence do not apply. Because all dhannas cannot be rescinded. in the Buddha-Dharma, all linguistic discourses are destroyed. the realm of mental function is extinguished. and being eternally non-arising non-ceasing, [they] are characterized as nirvd!ra. Why? If the characteristic of all dharmas truly existed. thcn it could not exist later. If all dharmas existed previously, but do not exist now, then this amounts to nihilism. Funher, all dharmas should not be permanent. Why? If they are permanent, then there would be no offense, nor merit. nor anything to hun or kill. nor the giving of one's life, nor benefits from practice. neither bondage, nor liberation; and the worldly would bc ~lin~ri!tu. Because of these reasons, dharmas ought not be permanent. If all dharmas arc impermanent. thcn it will amount to nihilism, and again. there would be no offense. nor merit, nor increase nor decrease in effects and results; and causes, conditions and fruit of rewards would be lost. Because of these reasons. dharmas ought not be impermanent?36 When "the true characteristic of dharmas" is observed by the bodhisattvas, there is no proliferation of concepts and conventional knowledge does not apply. Thus. there is no
"'T1509. 516~6-10:{if%%#. %it;Wn&II!ZI] (cf. S. ii, p.25. elc.: uppdi/d vd Iarhdgardnanr anuppddd vd IaIhdguldnu,!r. !hrrd va sd dhdru i/han~rncn(wnrardii/appaccayard). %iAi%.?i BBE;dit.W 4M: : , i E U o I I A . Ull2l+?l&Yl. ?;UW.R?Ff?9%:JitUI4Il~ 2 k ? % 3 f t f . E h A i t i k t P . lVl.% f i f 3 ; R . iLikXt#i.I;!k. "'T1509.517~5-7:MEiYiB%q. R M E E P E I I I . --tJJiidCllri2: 755iMiYibXilisll;@lE. 1 4 2 15%-tIJffiB14U2. h;@lE. 4'bT1509. 170b20-29: U;&if;l;W6!i#i, tP;i?;+-tiJ ;;;li9C. .tliQz&. W4;%4;i&. IIIi?'X?4U. ( c f . M M K . X V l l I , 7 ) 1 ' 7 U L ' -t;:%it4llPii. l 8 4 ; E R : 2?Xit;Eii+&. NlJL&ii&. i U X . !%it 4 ; ~ 2 % t .~;IUI? E R I I R I ~ ' :M . A . .Qrfiwi. f i ; ~ b e ; f i .s l l ; ~ n l i ~ ~h ~; l. g w.~ . R W . ~ll.l::lli~JPciP%. !n,Z?SWP#i. ;Xi.t4;tu,g. a X i L d 7 X . I1lJl:lVfirb. sll;RlE. d # C . 4fi/JCl!# ,fix. W P U L I I I ~ ~ ;!mrL%S.lrnlP,it. %. ;X~L+ERX~.


nor nirvrinu. This is the Middle Path. which does not refer to something between

permanence and impermanence, but is the observation of reality as i r i t l y a f d on the basis of the dependent co-arising to which the claims of permanence and impermanence are equally inapplicable?" The same expression can be seen in the statement of Nag&junass

MMK. where he explains Dependent co-arising?'' and dllrarnlord (the true characteristic


Definition of Prajtirip(7r(mitii
The Upadeia lists various arguments regarding the definition of proj17Zpiruntil8.

Some argue that "the faculty o f p r a j r i r i frec of outflow" is the highest; thus, the faculty of

frec of outflow is called prujtiriprirumird.J(O

Others argue that



the prujtiri with outflow (srjsra~~nprujtid)?4'Some claim that the wisdom from the time of the bodhisattva's first resolve to attain h o d h i up to the time when he became the Buddha.

"'~1~09.62?a10-14:-);h~B1~P& See%iPtiP: ~:'. f i L L W i i . P!@l;SjS. #I2 .S&. h!4f

$ , ; ' ? . fGJLj&?

2;-i,kL[Xl&$,&l~Y. P%.4i4i;zf': .I;:itf%Pf&. E I I ~ 1 P ~ Y ~ W IR I I :.iSA'l.


people only observe the ultimatc $ri~tt.ord, most will hll into the extreme o f annihilation: if they o b s e ~ e cxistcnce. most w i l l hll into the extreme o f permanence. I n order to depan from lhcse two extremes. the .<linyoId of "twelve causes and conditions" is cxpla~ncd. Why'? If dhamus arise from lhc coming togcthcr of causes and condilions, then thcsc dharmas would not have fixed naurcs. I f dharmas do no1havc fixed natures. then this is ultimaleit7,fyord. chanctcristic ofilinyord. I n order tocxlinguish the two exlrcmcs. ilis provisionally called the Middle Path. ' I s MMK. XXIV. 18: , *o!r prar~usamurpdilo!~ irinyorc31!1 rdqt procoktmahe S O projtioprir updildyo proripor salvo modhyomd-Dependent co-arising we declare to bc irinyard. That [irinynrdl is dependent conccpt. just that is thc Middle Path. See fn. 23. If" MhlK, XVIII. 7: ~ r h ~ ~ r r o m o b h r ~ l h d rnr,:rrrr n~yo~ crrragocorr ~~ / anurpoanrlnrm~l~ll~d hr nrn.O!romr%.a rlltorn~urd.Whakvcr is to be verbally expressed ceases tocxist when the sphere o f mind ceases to exist. For dhonnord like nln4!1o, is neither produced nor deslroycd. 440 TIS09. 13937-bl. ' ' I TI SO^. 1 3 9 4-7. ~

f i ' ib %\lt'S.-If

is called prajAdpdrantirri: thepraj~idpriranrirdat the time when he finally became Buddha came to be known as "complete knowledge" (sarvajriard).'"" Some people say:

Bodhisatwas have prajfiri which is both with outllow and without outflow. and this is culled prajriiripramird."i' Some people say: Prajdripdranrilri has an unattainable

characteristic and it is existent and non-existent, permanent and impermanent. Stinjo and real. It is neither conditioned (sar,rsk,na) nor unconditioned (asnr~rsk.na).neither dharma nor non-dharma. ncither grasped nor abandoned. neither produced nor ceased. It is beyond the tetra-lemma (cdrri~ko~ikn) of existence and non-existence. etc. It is nothing to The Upadeia concludes: which we can be a~tached.'~" Within this prajfid. existence is nonexistence: nonexistence is also nonexistence: neither existence nor nonexistence is again nonexistence. [Even] this son of description is nonexistent as \veil. This is called the appeasement of immeasurable d h m a s which are non-existence and [product] of conceptual prolifcration (prapa~ica). Thus, it is unbreakable and indestmclible. It is called true prajiiripriramirri. It is the most supreme and unsurpassed. Like a cakravarrin (wheel-:uming king) who conquers enemies but is not conceited. so is praj~iripdramild.It can destroy all discourses and conceptual proliferation. and yet there is nothing to be de~troyed."~' This tetra-lemma statement is similar to that found in the MMK. The Upadeia continues: "Thus. while abiding in praj~iiipriramilri.without abiding in d h m a s . one accomplishes the six pdrantirri.'"b It is explained:

In this way. a bodhisattva observes all dharmas to be neither permanent (nirya) nor impermanent (anirya). neither dri!rk/ra nor sriklra (happy), neither void nor real. ncither Self (rifman) nor non-Self (anrirnran). neither arising nor ceasing. neither non-arising nor non-ceasing. [A bodhisattva] in this manncr. abiding in the profound

. called

prujridprirumild also does not projrdpdranlirfi.

grasp the characteristic of prajfidpdrantilfi. and this is "not abiding in the abode of dharmas." If one grasps the characteristic of this is called "abiding in [he abode of dha~mas.'~''

To abide in p r a j ~ 7 d p ~ r o n twhile il~ not abiding in d h m a s means that one is not attached to dharmas. "Because one is not attached to all dharmas. one is accomplished in
pruj~dpdran~ild.driJR This

non-attachment is compared to empty space to which neither

dust nor water can adhere:

p r o j r i d p i r u m i l d is the same. because it is neither

Just as dust or water cannot adhere to empty space, the naturally pure arising nor ceasing, it is always pure. Just as empty space cannot be contaminated. p r q i i d p d r a n ~ i l dis the same. Even though there are wrong views and conceptual proliferation, they cannot conraminate it: sword, stick and evil things cannot dcsvoy it. It has neither color nor form. therefore it cannot be grasped. Because it cannot be gnspcd, it cannot be cont~minated.~~
P r u j I d p d r a n r i l d being

pure contains all. accepts all. but is not contaminated by any.


Non-disputation Dharma (ara!ta-dltarra)

A bodhisattva observes "the true characteristic oidhamas" and becomes freed from

all kinds of conceptual prolifera~ion;the UpadeSa explains praj,iri in that situation as


(non-disputation dharma)."" The UpadeGa indicates that the main purpon

of the P r a j r i d p d r u m i t d Stirras is to explain the situation of non-disputation


Disputation is caused by conceptual proliferdtion @rapaIca)?"

u7T1509. l4Oa7-11: Dll.!LR~~-t)JiL. -Jl:RlLR7Z. l!-ElL%. :ll:2:lLVI. .lL<k-ll:~<k. dF* :XlL4;?kirsr: ! ~ J Z & J P ~ X I I ~ ~ ~ Ik?~CIM~;~lIA;;1;IC(. MPI~I. BZ4;BZB. 2"NYltZBIM Lti4u. ZZ>@ir.tL. "~1509. 190a 14:I& ! [ it?-t?Jit4;x&. BfiEII2*Ii;b'%. J ~1509.514bZZ-27: !IIIJBY!E&A;X. flit"liP&. &+?IHP4;Pn2. 4;%4;;&&Ri;iiP. ! M a Y4;iilQif. &-E.IMPAfl;DiJL, Ygii%lC#~;G)I;fEUif.7ltLZi~t4;fEM..%ER%&4;iilU.

See fn. 416. : -fi. ;'PI& : ..a. 4;i1PhR. 3& . Dl&!&?d32 : +WIRiJP "'~1509.6Zb6-7:if:f~li?Q?i &&. There arc IWO ways to teach Dharma: the first one is. situation ofdispute (rona-s1hUr1a):the second is. situation without dispute The situation of dispute is us explained in the other sutns: therefore. here [the Buddha] wishes to explain the situation without dispue.

The so-called "sentient beings of the world" relying on their own views, relying on . their own d h m a s . and relying on their own dialectic positions. generate disputes. Conceptual proliferation is the root of disputes: conceptual prolifemtion arises on the basis ofall viewvs (drgi)?' This non-disputation is explained as the non-attachment or not holding on to any

The practitioner. who can understand thus truly, with regard to all conceptual proliferation on all dharmas. does not take hold of. does not grasp. and does not see. This is true non-dispulation. [Thus.] one can know the onrrfu-flavor of the Buddha ~hma?" All non-disputation d h m a s ( a r a ! ~ u d l ~ u r r arc ~~a without ) chancteristic (olukfo!~a); they arc always extinct and inexpressible. The doctrines of giving (dfina), impermanence (anirya), drr!lklra, iiinyatu etc., now explained are cessation because they are without conceptual proliferation. One with sharp faculties (ri/q!lerrdrip) knows the Buddha's intention and will not gencwe dispute. One with blunt faculties (nrydvindriyu) does not know the Buddha's intention, clings lo characteristics. becomes attached to one's thought, and gives rise to disputc-this is called dispute. This prajfidp6rumil8 has no locus for dispute (ra!msrhfir~n)'"~ because all d h m a s are ultimately Blinyu. If the ultimate Mnyafci can be acquired or disputed. then it cannot be called ultimate ifin.vuffi. Prujfifiplirantif8 is callcd "the locus of non-disputation"; because the two phenomena of exis~ence and non-existence are exting~ishcd.~~~ When one truly understands the nature of all phenomena one has no disputation. Non-disputation accurs in !he situation of the Buddha's prujdfi where all conceptual proliferations such as existence and non-exislence are transcended.

-" : See fn. 78.

"'T1509. 6la3-5: ~fi~Ylti~.l~l~!i?!!k. ~ K ! - L ~ f k i k ~ { ~ i ~ ~ ~ & l#;9~il'P~!i*. f i % i ' P ~ . &ka:9ti;Ah! *. 'Y~1509.61a9-ll: IjRfi&O~tlRllltB. P?-WiL-W&k;A4 ; s . I;.%. I;)!,. XI%I;IkU'PPR. 1ERl~fliL n'3iiW. See hrnortc 42112. "'See LarnolIe 52n3. Lb~rncchctfikdPrnjn'dpdmnltrd-sOrrn,cd. M. Miillcr (r\nscdota Oxonicnsia Alyan Serics. Vol. I.pm I . 1881)2?:
)dtar s~bblrc ln~vnyn-snn~pnr rdtlll m ~ d ydvnd . nlnkJa!tn-snmparrdvnn ne mncri hi bk%u!~dlnkJn!tnrpr


The Practice of Prajt'iiipEramiri

If prajficipliranrird constitutes the perfect knowledge of a buddha. why is there a

need for the Praj~icipliraniitdSiirras to explain the other five pdranrirci? It is because. as the Upadcia explains, at the beginning the other five pciranrit0 need to be practiced in order to enter to the gate ofpraj,iripliranritd: For the sake ofpraj~icipciranrirrj.[the Buddha] explains the fivepdranritds. If one can directly course in "the true characteristic ofdharmas" then [the Buddha] would not have expounded dci~ra etc. as the entry point into prajfici. Because people have blunt faculty and are burdened with offenses, various reasons are explained [by the Buddha]: "By dona miserliness is destroyed. M o n l vinues counteract and make defilements (kleia) less. Fortitude opens the portals of merit by which people are able to do difficult things. Effon. like the wind. blows out fire which is unceasingly ablaze. Dhydna can absorb one's mind in one-point-ness, because one observes "the true characteristic of dharmas." These five pcirantilci are all subservient to prajridpdramilci. and just as the minor kings arc all subjugated to the wheel-turning monarch and just a s all streams enter info the ocean. so too. wholesome dharmas like dcina etc.. being guarded by praj~icipcirantiiwill lead [all beings] to san~~jriarri?~' Thus. the Buddha explains the first five pdranlirci as the step for attaining praj1ilipr3ra111irci. If one can directly approach "the true characteristic of dharmas." one in principle does not need the other fiveplirantirli. Question: Having known the characteristic of prajrici which is an unattainable dharma without characteristic. how can a practitioner gain this dharma? Answer: The Buddha uses expedience to explain Dharma. If a pnctitioner practices in accordance with what [the Buddha] taught, then he orshe will gain [the D h m a ] . For example. a dangerous way on the cliff can be reached by aid of a ladder. Also, deep water can be crossed over by help of a boat. A bodhisattva from the first moment of arousing the [hadiii] mind hears from the Buddha. or from disciples ofthe Buddha. or from sOtm: "All dharmas are ultimately irinya. and there is n o definite characteristic to grasp or to be attached to. The highest true d h m a [is wherein] all conceptual proliferations arc extinct. The characteristic o f nirvZ!ia is the most secure (kema)." [He then reflects:] "I wish to help all sentient beings to be emancipated; how can I gain

nir~~i!iaalone? At present. my merit. wisdom. the spiritual pernetration are not .sutiicient, so I cannot guide sentient beings; therefore. I must accomplish these conditions. and practice the five piruniirci giving ~ t c . ' ~ ' ~ For a bodhisattva. pruj~ifiis that wisdom which sees all dharmas to be of one characteristic. With it. one views all as one and equal. or accepts things as-they-are. When a bodhisattva-mahsattva practices prujticiprirumitu, al~hough he knows all dharmas are of one characteristic. he also knows the particular characteristics of all dharmas. Although he knows the particular characteristics of all dharmas. he knows that all dharmas are of one characteristic. Such prujAi of a bodhisattva is called pr~ficip~run~irrr'?5v The above passage succinctly explains the naturc ofpruj~icipdrumirci as prqjAd in the true and highest sense. It is perfect prcrjici wherein both the universality and particularity of each and every dharrna is seen in their totalistic perspective. The ability of pruj~,irpcirunrircito know all the particularities of dharmas is oflen described as "the knowledge of all modes" (.surva-6k~ru~1iuri)?~ We have seen this kind of description by the gbhidharmika, distinguishing the prujtii of the Buddha from that of the two ymas. Only the Buddha's prujAci can fully discern at once both the general characteristic (si~rici~~.vu-lu~ru~u) and specific characteristic (svulu~u!ia)of dharmas?61 The application ofprujAipciruntirB in a bodhisattva's practice is for the purpose of viewing all dharmas as of one charasteristic-"the true characteristic ofdharmas." This is

to view reality as-it-really-is and not to view things as we want them to be. Thus, "A bodhisattva who docs not raise [any thing] with regard to all dharmas is said to be [one

w h is] ~ able to practice praj~iPirumifci.'462


Prajtilipiirarnitii it1 tire V7blr@H and Upadcia

In the Prajrr?ripiraniird Stifras, it is said that with the six piranlili and s a n ~ a j ~ i a f i , one will not fall into the stages of iravaka and pratyekabuddha?63 This indicates that the six piranri'i and sarvujriafi are crucial for bodhisattvas. This notion is further emphasized in the Upadesa: Without acquiring the Dharma of prajridpirumifi. if one enters into the gate of abhidharma, one will fall into "existence"; if one enters the gate ofirinyari, one will fall into "nihilism"; if one enters the gate of ~ a r a q d a ? one ~ will fall into "existence" and "nihi~ism."~" Here, the UpadeSa specially emphasizes praj~iipdrumiri.Actually. the Vibhqa defines prujRdpdranrifi as a positive prujriu'. In other words. prajriipirantirii is the perfection ofprujrii as in the case of the Buddha. The Vaibhasikas defineprajidpiran~ifi as that p r a j i i which is devoid of false prqrr/AZ (nrirlyZ-prajriC): When one pnctices prajIii without being perturbed by falseprajrii. it should be said that onc'sprajriipirunriri is It is possible that the VibhX52, to some degree. was influenced by the

'"'~1509.638a14-15: EElE-tJJiL4;4i. VZPlilYtfi. '"'E23.330b.i-9: &Y17Nkh?~Al%Mi'L65XE BfiCBiP,biE~bR#)2fI'iiK.%>lB%IP

i4:fjCI~TUibB. 4WZf8;till.Z@M?!l6%7'~f -1.IJf!T1?:~fi.711i?. ~:~;BlJLL.w6F~l#wW%h%L?ji . i f f # . 4;T'S!l!rSA;1BI1G18;M.

Lamoue uses ptlul*r for (ll!LA)*l (Lmottc. 1074). but Yin Shun suggests another possible Sanskrit tcrm, Aurundu. iiuru!ldu mcatts a basket or covered box o f bamboo wickcr-work. (Monier. 254b) According to Yin-shun, k a r a ~ ~ was ~ a a classic text prevailing in thc South India belonging to MaMsPrpghih o r TPmmiP!lya o f V~bhajvavJd~n. Yin-Shun. 7Ylr Aurllor und Tr~~n.duror 72.73. 4b'~1559, I94~128-bal:&4~CJlYtfiEMi'!JiiL. A ~ ~ ! t k I " I I ~ ~ J~~A~l"lll~J!!!R~P. !@ii~~. fjA[!k


$Ht!.E.Rb4:l.)~f LTfiLlR'2; :;'&#tI;-Iih'%LWiX.

In the VibhaSa. praj~id subsumes all iddtra and dr+i (except the visual organ.

In the UpadeSa, it is said prujfidpdrun~irdcontains all praj~itibut here prajfid is

do not include negative different from that in the Vibhasa. In particular, prajtid and i~idtru aspects: Question: What is prajfid? Answer: It is praj~idpdrunritci that contains all prujfid. Why? A bodhisattva who seeks the buddha path must study all dharmas and gain all prajdid, i.e. that of pratyekabuddha, of Sravaka and of the Buddha. These prujdid are of three types: Learner ( f a i b a ) . non-Learner ( a f a i b u ) . neither Learner nor non-Learner (~lai~~aSai&~r~r~Sai~~r). 1) Prajfici related to neither Learner nor non-Learner is like "the stage ofdry insight" (SukluvidarSund-bl~li~~ri), [meditation] on loathsomeness (airrbharu- lridvund). [mindfulness] on respintion ( Z t l d p r i ~ r a ~ s ~ ~ the r , ~Four i ) . Abodes of Mindfulness (s~i~,~yripusrhdna) related to the sensuous sphere (~nmdlridr~~avacura), the stage of warmth (u;rnagara), the stage of the summit (nl~irdhan), the stage of receptivity (k~dnri and ) the highest worldly dharma (luukikid~radlmrr~~a). elc.


?) Prajfid related to Learner is prajdci which is the receptivity of the knowledge of dharma regarding drc!lkha (du!rklre dlrurn~u-j~iidna-~dnli). up to vajra-like concentration (~~ajropar~msanrddIti) of arhat in the ninth irresistible path (Bna~rlar~'a-nrdrgu).

3) Proidd related to non-Learner is prajdd of an arhat on the ninth emancipatory path (vimukfi-nrdrga).After this stage. all are prajtiid related to non-Learner like: the knowledge of exhaustion ( h y a - j ~ i d n a ) and knowledge of non-arising (u~rrrrddu-jfidtra) clc. The prujrid for attaining pntyekabuddhahood is also like ' this? k
Here. the three stages arc diKerent from that in the Vibh$a. In the Vibhwa, the stage of neither Learner nor non-Learner refers to ordinary person.470 But. the Upadcia

"'The first ofthe 7 Sr~vaka'sstages.

'#T1509. 191a12-13: lu7);2?/.L5 ? f : EtilSb'iiiHI-tJJbbX. IJiUfiW? AI:K1U;ili. E'?2'~"':' -t)~i.t.. $I-~)J%%: rfi;nrSnn. ti-%!%. ~%wP BWOiiLW: . J:!. W ' P . 4LJ:!.1CIJ:!. :I):

See on page 66.

':!lllR.':!%'fi. !m+L.UJ@.. +i9. ZJllMR:. iikWPV9.AZ.LLi. g i t . Jitit. Z i t . Illllll~-it9. J:!R'l;. Z i t W C B . 15f[;ll;J?Xb'a. Z ~ L I U ~ I ~ ~ P & P ~ ~ II> J% PB Of.i . AB~XZhAfNW: &LL!~Q. -tlJRJ;!?;. bll%T/. .!K%R'?+. %b$Xf%ili%'X. fl:@lR.
See fn. 179.

explains this stage as those who have already begun their spiritual trainings. Thus. prajfidp6ramird in the UpadeSa does not include the wisdom of ordinary beings. It is clear that prq'rid in thc UpadeSa represents only the positive aspects of knowledge-supreme spiritual insight. unlike that in the Vibhag. The Upadcia also says that there are two kinds of prwrid: Then: are turo kinds of prajiii: one. the conditioned; two, the unconditioned. One who is trained in the conditioned prujtid can accomplish the six pfirut~iiriis and dwell within the ten srages (bhiinti). One who is trained in the unconditioned prajfiii can and accomplish destroy all dclilements (klcia) and habitual forces (~~usond), buddhahood."' Here. the unconditioned projria refers to prajrid of a buddha. while the unconditioned refcrs to prajdd ofthosc who dwell within the ten stages.



"The true characteristic ofdhannas" is the situation ofthc Buddha's perfect insight, prajfidpdrorfiird. In that sense. it is beyond the tetra-lemma or four possibilities: exist. non-exist. both exist and non-exist. neither exist nor non-exist. If it was the case that the Prujtidpfiraniird Stirras and the UpadeSa stressed exclusively the stage of the Buddha, then these texts would be useless from the point of view of spiritual pnxis. For ordinary beings, non-disputation. non-conceptual proliferation are orily guidelines or principles for practice. What the Prajridpfiraniird Siitras really intend for us is to just practice the six prajfidpdrontird without a thought of practice. In other words. prajfidpdraniild is for the purpose of removing our attachments in our daily practice. There are two levels in the



T 5 0 9 6 5 l b 5 - 7 I : - 4 . 3 : ' A . fffZ.3. 'Fii41YtE. P&JLZf;SSR'P.@ J;!fff%3\ttt:. iX-tlJff~lb!Rl~!Z~%i~.

pnctice of praj17dpdramird. The first is a level for the beginners or those with blunt faculty, who need to pnctice the live pdrantird in order to enter prajGpdrantird. The second is a level for those with sharp faculty. who can dircctly observe "the true characteristic of dharmas." In the Vibhass. prajrid is explained as any kind of understanding including false views (ntirlyT-drs!i), and prajkipdrantild is explained as that prajcd which is free from false underslanding. In the Upadeia, prajrkipirantird includes all prajtid, which correspond to all positive prq'riri in the Vibha~a. One who IacksprajCdpdrarnird will fall inlo the stage of iri\-&as: to possesspraj~idpdranlild is to bc o n the path of bodhisattva.

Chapter 9: Conclusion
In view of the early agamas and nikayas, we have discussed prajfiri in terms of properly understanding the Buddha Dharma and the practice of it. It was pointed out that
prajfiii comprises the pnctice of jila and samridlri and the understanding of the Four

Noble Truths. The absence of delusion. investigation o f the doctrine. and proper views were topics that summarized the general vie\v onpafid~i within ThenvBda. We found that in the Sarvastivada, prqalIriwas explained in conjunction with i~iri~lu and drgi, and it had the function of discerning dharma (dlrarma-prur~irqvo): thus, in this context. prajfiri had the widest range of concept. PrajEri pertained to all kinds of i~irina and d g i except the visual faculty. The visual faculty belongs to dy~!isince it has no function of discernment. Receptivity free of outflow was contextually related to projtifi and drn!i but not to idrina. because they initiate comprehending the Four Noble Truths but not real knowledge. The highest kno\vledge. or prajtia of an awakened one was the
pruj~iri free of outflow, among which the knowledge of exhauslion and knowledge of

non-arising were not contextually related to drgi. Vasubandhu criticized the Vibhwa views, unrlr irorll tile virwpuirl~ of tile Saulritntika. Sanghabhadn's two works. the Ny and *Abhidlrurn~usun~ayrrpradli,ikri. follow the structure of the AKB and endeavor to defend the orthodox Vaibh*ika views. Vasubandhu's criticism of the Vibha.a is sometimes rejected by Sarighabhadn on the grounds that Vasubandhu did not properly understand the Vibhwa. With regard to the three prajfi~-jn~fu-rna~~i, cintri-nluyi and blrdvutrd-nruyi-Sanghabhadn stressed that

the three prq'dri were functioned in the stage of preparatory practice. The Vibh&>a,AKB and Ny explained the Four Abodes of Mindfulness as praj~iri. The AKB also added right

tho.ught (sanryak-sa~?rkalpa). right effort (sanrj~ag-vydjdnrrr)to the domain ofpraj~id. For Vasubandhu, prajrici led one to the Four Abodes of Mindfulness; thus, the Four Abodes of Mindfulness were constituted ofprajdd in view o f their intrinsic nature. Salighabhadra argued against Vasubandhu and the Sautmtika-Dars!3ntika on the ontological reality of prajdd as a universal cairra (nralrd-hhrin~ika)~" He also argued against them to establish is d&ra. that praj~ici Abhidharma a s prajdd included two aspects: 1. abhidharma as the pure prujdii. 2. abhidharma as every incident o f p r a j ~ i d with outflow as well a s abhidharma as that which was capable of helping others to gain pure prq'dd. In the early satras. son~ajriutdwas discussed as an attribute o f the Buddha. For Sarvstivadins. sanfajriard referred to the Buddha's knowledge only: an arhat does not It is probably later on. that the prajddprirun~ird literature came to speak have san~ojtiard. of three kinds of kno\vledge. and attributed sarvajtiald to Sravakas and pratyckabuddhas. It is evident that the Sarv2stivadin notions of vcisund and okli:!a-ujddnu. emerging fairly

early in Buddhist history. must have gone through centuries of development before they came to be formulated in the form visible in such abhidharma works as the Ny. In the course of their development. various vie\vs that conflicted to varying degrees were put fonvard, some of which viewed the two as one. For the VaibhGika. this akfiga-ujdd~ro too was subsumed under prujdd. The Mah3yWists. with their emphasis on the exclusive goal o f buddhahood. in contrast to the mhat ideal, had very good reasons to be especially interested in this

472 This is a mental force that functions in all cases of perception. since any perception presupposes a certain degree of understanding-which strong or weak. good or bad. right or wrong. This proj,ill. subsuming both the positive and negative aspects of understandingas it does. includes ~iniarta and kw7nrr and


143 development. One important theoretical fruition of the Mahayanist effort in this enterprise was the theory that a buddha is distinguished from the other twoydna in having both sarvajtiard and sarvdkrirajfiatd, an arhat has only the firs^. not the second. The Upadeda further commented !hat sarvajfiard was identical topraj,iriprirantitd. the perfect referred to insight for both bodhisattva and the Buddha. in this context. son~dktirajriard the perfect knowledge of a buddha who knows universality and all particularities at once. This notion. however. was also discerned in a certain form in the abhidharmika doctrine. That is. it was only the Buddha-not the twoyi~ia-who could discern properly both the

gencnl characteristic (sdnid~tya-labna) and specific chancteristic (svalnk?.a!ta) of all dharmas. In the context of the Praj~iipdramiriSGrras, prajfidprira~~tird was seen to be a designation for the highest purport that served to help a practitioner cross over from satttsdra to the other shore of tiin~d!ia.In practicingprajfii. a practitioner concentrated on observing everything asSii~t.va, without having any notion of what is practiced m d what is is practiced. it is not practiced to fulfill a to be obtained. That is, althoughprajfiipdranii~i goal or purpose. It is a practice that is no-practice. We also found that the large Praj~idpdraniird Stitras explained the same doctrinal point which recurs all praj~idpdrantirdsOtras from several difircnt p~rspecti\~es. Praj~iO in the highest sense or praj~idpdraniitd was that which enabled one to be unattached to anything and to accept reality-just-as-it-is without conceptual bifurcation. This is also a common theme found in all Mahaynna Buddhist sOtras. Whereas prajfid had various connotations in the Sarvbtivada abhidhama; in the Upadcia it was distinguished from praj~idpdramird.According to the UpadeSa, only buddhas and advanced bodhisattvas possessed prajddpdrantitd: arhats as well as

pn!yekabuddhas had only prajid. The UpadeSa further stressed that if one takes up the abhidharma without havingprajridprirnntifa as one's base, one will fall into the extremes of existence and of non-existence. Accordingly, the notion of pra~~idpdrontifd in the PruJ~idpdrontitdSti~ras and the UpadeSa represented a further stage of development in the notion of the perfect spiritual insight of a buddha and replaced the earlier notion found in the early stltras and the abhidharma.



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