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HYDRAULIC MACHINES: | TURBINES AND PUMPS | Second Edition Grigori Krivchenko qn LEWIS PUBLISHERS Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Krivchenko, G. I. 2 Q 5 Hydraulic machines: turbines and pumps/G. I. Krivchenko.—[2nd ed] - Pn g Includes bibliographical references and index.{ ISBN 1-56670-001-9 . 1. Hydrualic machinery. I. Title. pete pe 1 9 9 6 0 0 379 93-8853, LN79%99 cP This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. CRC Press Inc.’s consent does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. Specific permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press, Inc., 2000 Corporate Blvd., N.W., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. © 1994 by CRC Press, Inc. Lewis Publishers is an imprint of CRC Press No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 1-56670-001-9 Library of Congress Card Number 93-8853 Printed in the United States of America 1234567890 Printed on acid-free paper Contents BICIACO eee ee ey eee ix About the Author... ... 2.0.0.0... 0.02 cee eee xi SECTION 1 MAIN DEFINITIONS : Chapter 1 Hydraulic Machines and Hydraulic Energy. 1.1. Hydraulic Machines . 1.2. Energy of Fluid (Water) SECTION 2 HYDRAULIC TURBINES Chapter 2 Parameters and Kinds of Turbines . 17 2.41. Turbine Head pei) 2.2. Turbine Capacity (Power) .. . . 21 2.3. Principal Turbine Types . . .. . 22 24. Applications of Turbines of Various Clas and Kinds eee . 28 Chapter 3 Turbine Design .31 ee ‘Axial-Flow, Adjustable Blade (Kaplan) Turbines .. | 31 . Horizontal Axial-Flow Turbines............ . 39 }.. Mixed-Flow (Diagonal) Adjustable Blade Turbines . 43 . Radial-Axial-Flow (Francis) Turbines . 145 iePolton| Turbines ee eeeer penne . 50 . Small Hydroelectric Power Plant Turbines . 54 3.7. Shafts and Bearings . 55 _ 38. Development of Turbine Designs... . . 59 Chapter 4 Turbine Power Regulating Mechanisms - 61 4.1. Guide Vane Operating Gear ....... - OL 4.2. Runner Blade Operating Gear of Adjustable Blade Turbines ........ 0000.2. 0 000s eee 63 4.3. Operating Gear of the Pelton Turbine Regulating Needle... 0.2... cece eee e eee eeee teenies 66 Chapter 5 Theoretical Fundamentals of the Turbine Working Process . : 5.1. Water Flow Created Reaction Turbines 5.2. Kinematics of Water Flow in Reaction Turbine Runner ... /T 5.3. Operating Conditions (Regime) of the Turbine... . 77