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OBJECTIVE 1.1 To examine a statically determine frame and to analyze the frame using simple pin joint theory.

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LEARNING OUTCOME 2.1 The application the engineering knowledge in practical application. 2.2 To enhance technical competency in structural engineering through laboratory application. 2.3 To communicate effectively in group. 2.4 To identify problem, solving and finding out appropriate solution through laboratory application.

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THEORY A truss is a structure composed of slender member joined together at their end points to form one or more triangles. The joint connections are considered as pinned joint without friction. In order to determine the forces developed in the individual members at s truss, the following assumptions should be make : 1. The members are connected to each other at their ends by frictionless pins, that is only a force and no moment can be transferred from one member to another. 2. External loads are applied to the truss only at its joints. One of the methods to calculate the forces in the member of a truss is using Method of Joint. Method of Joint Suitable to use in calculating all of the member forces for a truss. This method entails the use of a free body diagram of joints with the equilibrium equations and . Calculation only can be started for joint where the numbers of unknowns are two or less.

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EQUIPMENT

Figure 1: Frame Of Truss

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PROCEDURES 1. Unscrew the thumwheel on the ''redundant'' member. Note that it is effectively no longer part of the structure as the idealised diagram illustrates. 2. Apply the pre-load of 100N download, re-zero the load cell and carefully apply a load of 250N and check that the frame is stable and secure. 3. Return the load to zero (leaving the 100N preload), recheck and re-zero the digital indicator. Never apply loads greater than those specified on the equipment. 4. Apply load in the increment shown in Table 1 recording the strain reading and the digital indicator reading. Complete Table 2 by subtracing the initial (zero) strain reading. (be careful with your sign)

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RESULT 1.0 Tables

Load (N) 0 50 100 150 200 250

Strain Reading 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

124 183 -56 -120 83 0 30 53 133 174 -65 -138 83 0 42 66 144 164 -75 -158 82 0 57 81 150 157 -82 -173 82 0 67 92 159 147 -92 -192 82 0 81 107 169 137 -102 -211 81 0 94 120 Table 1 : Strain Readings and Frame Deflection for Experiment 1

Digital indicator reading (mm) 0.001 0.036 0.068 0.096 0.135 0.164

Load (N) 0 50 100 150 200 250

1 0 9 20 26 35 45

7 0 12 27 37 51 64

8 0 13 28 39 54 67

0 0 0 0 0 -9 -9 -18 0 0 -19 -19 -38 -1 0 -26 -26 -53 -1 0 -36 -36 -72 -2 0 -46 -46 -91 -3 0 Table 2 : True Strain Reading for Experiment 1

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Graphs Choose a member (except member 6), and on the same axis plot a graph of Recorded Strain against load (N) and True Strain against Load (N). On another graph, do the same for a different member (non member 6). Plot a separate graph of deflection (mm) against Load (N). Comment on your graph.

The graph at member that tension of strain recorded graph is liner but the true strain is directly proportional while at members that compression is inversely proportional. The graph for deflection is directly proportional graph.

Using the Young's modulus relationship, calculate the equivalent member force. Complete the experimental force in Table 3. (ignore member 6 at this stage) E= Where; E = Young's Modulus (Nm) = Stress in the member (Nm) = Displayed strain = F/A Where; F = Force in member (N) A = cross section area of the member (m) Rod diameter = 6.0 mm and Esteel = 2.10 x 10 N/mm Member 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Experimental Force (N) 207.78 -213.72 -213.72 -427.44 -11.87 0 302.77 320.58 Theoretical Force (N) 200 -200 -200 -400 0 0 282.84 282.84

Table 3 : Measured and Theoretical Force in the Cantilever Truss

Calculate the theoretical force using method of joint and write it down in Table 3 above