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2012 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, 2013 1 Release 14.

5
14.5 Release
Lecture 5
Harmonic Analysis


ANSYS Mechanical
Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics
2012 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, 2013 2 Release 14.5
Harmonic Analysis
Topics Covered
A. What is Harmonic Analysis
B. Theory and Terminology
C. Contact in Harmonic Analysis
D. Full Harmonic Analysis
E. Damping in Full Harmonic Analysis
F. Loads and Boundary Conditions
G. Analysis settings Full Harmonic
2012 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, 2013 3 Release 14.5
Harmonic Analysis
Topics Covered
H. Mode-superposition Harmonic Analysis
I. Damping in Mode-superposition Harmonic Analysis
J. Analysis settings Mode Superposition anslysis
K. Workshop 5
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A. What is Harmonic Analysis
Input:
Harmonic loads (forces, pressures, and imposed displacements) of known
magnitude and frequency.
May be multiple loads all at the same frequency.
Forces and displacements can be in-phase or out-of phase.
Body loads can only be specified with a phase angle of zero.
Output:
Harmonic displacements at each DOF, usually out of phase with the applied
loads.
Other derived quantities, such as stresses and strains.
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... What is Harmonic Analysis
Assumptions and Restrictions:
The entire structure has constant or frequency-dependent stiffness, damping,
and mass effects.

No nonlinearities are permitted.

Transient effects are not calculated.

Acceleration, bearing, and moment loads are assumed to be real (in-phase)
only.

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... What is Harmonic Analysis
Assumptions and Restrictions:

All loads and displacements vary
sinusoidally at the same known
frequency (although not necessarily in
phase).

All loads and displacements, both input
and output, are assumed to occur at the
same frequency.

Calculated displacements are complex if:
damping is specified, or
applied load is complex.



( )
angle phase
freqency
amplitude where
sin
=
=
=
+ =
u
e
u e
F
i i i
t F F
---- F1
---- F2
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Governing equation for a mass-spring-
damper system, subject to a sinusoidal
force is













t f ku u c u m O = + + sin
2
1 , e e =
n d
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2
2 1
n n
k f
u
e e O + O
=
( )
( )
2
1
1
2
tan
n
n
e
e
|
O
O
=

B. Theory and Terminology



O/e
uk/f
O/e
|
u
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... Theory and Terminology

O/e
uk/f
O/e
|
u
When the imposed frequency
approaches a natural frequency in the
direction of excitation, resonance
occurs.
an increase in damping decreases the
amplitude of the response for all
imposed frequencies,
a small change in damping has a large
effect on the response near resonance,
and
the phase angle always passes through
90 at resonance for any amount of
damping.


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... Theory and Terminology

The governing equation for a linear structure is:


Assume {F} and {u} are harmonic with frequency O:




Note: The symbols O an e differentiate the input from the output:
O = input (imposed) circular frequency
e = output (natural) circular frequency


| |{ } | |{ } | |{ } { } F u K u C u M = + +

} { { }
} { { }
t i i
t i i
e e u u
e e F F
O
O
=
=

max
max
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... Theory and Terminology

Take two time derivatives:






Substitute and simplify:





This can then be solved using one of two methods.
} { } { } { ( )
} { } { } { ( )
} { } { } { ( )
t i
t i
t i
e u i u u
e u i u i u
e u i u u
O
O
O
+ O =
+ O =
+ =
2 1
2
2 1
2 1

| | | | | | ( ) } { } { ( ) } { } { ( )
2 1 2 1
2
F i F u i u K C i M + = + + O + O
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... Theory and Terminology
Solution Techniques:
Full Harmonic Response Analysis
solves a system of simultaneous equations directly using a static solver
designed for complex arithmetic:




Mode Superposition Response Analysis
expresses the displacements as a linear combination of mode shapes.



| | | | | | ( )
| |
} { } { ( )
{ }
} { } { ( )
{ }
| |{ } { }
c c c
F u
K
F u K
F i F u i u K C i M
c c
c
=
+ = + + O + O


2 1 2 1
2
| | | | | | ( ) } { } { ( ) } { } { ( )
( )
jc jc j j j
f y i
F i F u i u K C i M
= + O + O
+ = + + O + O
2 2
2 1 2 1
2
2 e , e

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Contact regions are available in harmonic analysis; however, since this
is a purely linear analysis, contact behavior will differ for the nonlinear
contact types, as shown below:







Contact behavior will reduce to its linear counterparts.
Contact Type Static Analysis
Linear Dynamic Analysis
Initially Touching
Inside Pinball
Region
Outside Pinball Region
Bonded Bonded Bonded Bonded Free
No Separation No Separation No Separation No Separation Free
Rough Rough Bonded Free Free
Frictionless Frictionless No Separation Free Free
Frictional Frictional
q = 0, No Separation
q > 0, Bonded
Free Free
C. Contact in Harmonic Analysis
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D. Full Harmonic Analysis
Exact solution.
Generally slower than MSUP.
Supports all types of loads and boundary conditions.
Solution points must be equally distributed across the frequency domain
Solves the full system of simultaneous equations using the Sparse matrix
solver for complex arithmetic.




| | | | | | ( )
| |
} { } { ( )
{ }
} { } { ( )
{ }
| |{ } { }
c c c
F u
K
F u K
F i F u i u K C i M
c c
c
=
+ = + + O + O


2 1 2 1
2
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E. Damping in Full Harmonic Analysis
1. Rayleigh Damping:

Alpha damping and Beta damping are used to define Rayleigh damping
constants and . The damping matrix [C] is calculated by using these
constants to multiply the mass matrix [M] and stiffness matrix [K]:
Equivalent damping
| | | | | | K M C | o + =
2 2
|e
e
o
+ =
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... Damping in Full Harmonic Analysis
1. Material Damping:
Material damping is inherently present in a material (energy is dissipated by
internal friction), so it is typically considered in a dynamic analysis.

Energy dissipated by internal friction in a real system does not depend on the
cyclic frequency.

The simplest device to represent it is to assume the damping force is
proportional to velocity and inversely proportional to frequency
g = constant structural damping ratio
| | | | K g C
O
=
2
g = Equivalent damping
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The complete expression for the structural damping matrix, [C], is








g is constant damping.








| | | | | |
| | | |
| | | | | |





damping
ic Viscoelast
1
damping
Gyroscopic
1
damping
Element
1
damping Structural
1
damping Mass
1
1
2 2

= = =
=
=
O
+ + +
|
.
|

\
|
O
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
O
+ +
+ =
v
g
e
mb
ma
N
l
m
N
l
l
N
k
k
N
j
j j
m
j
N
i
i
m
i
C G C
K g K g
M M C
| |
o o
... Structural Damping Matrix [C]

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The value of g, o and | can be input using the following:
[1] Material-dependent damping value
(Mass-Matrix Damping Multiplier, and k-Matrix Damping
Multiplier)


. Structural Damping Matrix [C]
| | | | | |

= =
|
.
|

\
|
O
+ + =
mb ma
N
j
j j
m
j
N
i
i
m
i
K g M C
1 1
2
| o
g
i
i
i
+ + =
2 2
|e
e
o

Equivalent damping
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[2] Directly as global damping value
(Details section of Analysis Settings)



. Structural Damping Matrix [C]
| | | | | | K g M C
|
.
|

\
|
O
+ + =
2
| o
g
i
i
i
+ + =
2 2
|e
e
o

Equivalent damping
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F. Loads and Boundary Conditions

Structural loads and supports may also be used in harmonic analyses
with the following exceptions:
Loads Not Supported:
Gravity Loads
Thermal Loads
Rotational Velocity
Pretension Bolt Load
Compression Only Support (if present, it behaves similar to a Frictionless Support)
Remember that all structural loads will vary sinusoidally at the same
excitation frequency
Loads can be out of phase with each other.
Transient effects are not calculated.
Remote Force, Moment, and Acceleration loads may be defined,
although these loads are assumed to act at a phase angle of zero.
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... Loads and Boundary Conditions

A list of supported loads are shown below:







Not all available loads support phase input. Accelerations, Bearing
Load, and Moment Load will have a phase angle of 0.
If other loads are present, shift the phase angle of other loads, such that
the Acceleration, Bearing, and Moment Loads will remain at a phase angle
of 0.
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... Loads and Boundary Conditions

Specifying harmonic loads requires:
1. Amplitude F
imax

2. phase angle u, and

3. Frequency e
( )
angle phase
freqency
amplitude
max
where
sin
max
=
=
=
+ =
u
e
u e
i
F
i i i
t F F
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... Loads and Boundary Conditions

Amplitude and phase angle
The load value (magnitude) represents the amplitude (F
1max
and F
2max
).
Phase angle u is the phase shift between two or more harmonic loads.
u is not required if only one load is present.
---- F
1
---- F
2
Amplitude
Phase Angle
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F. Analysis Settings Full Harmonic

Analysis Settings > Options
Frequency Range: Specified in cycles per second (Hertz)
Range Minimum >> Minimum Frequency
Range Maximum >> Maximum Frequency
Solution Intervals
Solution Method


A range of 0-500 Hz with 10
solution intervals gives solutions
at frequencies of 50, 100, 150, ,
450, and 500 Hz. Same range
with 1 substep gives one solution
at 500 Hz.

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F. Analysis Settings Full Harmonic

Analysis Settings > Options
Solution Intervals


Evenly-spaced
frequency points
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... Analysis Settings Full Harmonic

Analysis Settings > Output Controls





Analysis Settings > Damping Controls


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... Full Harmonic Analysis
Analysis Setting > Solution Method > Full
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... Results- Frequency Response

Frequency Response:
display how the response varies with frequency
Frequency (Hz)
Frequency (Hz)
A
m
p
l
i
t
u
d
e

(
m
)

P
h
a
s
e

A
n
g
l
e

(
o
)

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... Results- Phase Response
Phase Response:
show how much a response lags behind the applied loads.
Angle (
o
)
----- Force ----- Output
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... Results Contour Plots
Contour plots include:
stress,
elastic strain, and
deformation.

For these results, you must specify
a frequency and phase angle.
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... Results Contour Plots
A contour result can be created from a Frequency Response.
The Phase Angle of the contour result has the same magnitude as the
frequency result type but an opposite sign.
The sign of the phase angle is reversed so that the response amplitude of
the frequency response plot for that frequency and phase angle matches
with the contour results.

RMB
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Note: The sign of the phase angle
in the contour result is reversed so
that the response amplitude of the
frequency response plot for that
frequency and phase angle
matches with the contour results.
RMB
1. By Frequency
... Results Contour Plots
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RMB
2. By: Maximum Over Frequency
... Results Contour Plots
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RMB
3. By: Frequency of Maximum
... Results Contour Plots
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RMB
4. By: Maximum over Phase
... Results Contour Plots
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RMB
5. By: Phase of Maximum
Note: The sign of the
phase angle is reversed.
... Results Contour Plots
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14.5 Release
Mode Sup Harmonic Analysis
ANSYS Mechanical
Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics
2012 ANSYS, Inc. March 28, 2013 37 Release 14.5
G. Mode-superposition Harmonic Analysis

Approximate solution; accuracy depends on whether an adequate
number of modes have been extracted.
Generally faster than FULL.
Does not support nonzero imposed harmonic displacements.
Solution points may be either equally distributed across the frequency
domain or clustered about the natural frequencies of the structure.
Solves an uncoupled system of equations by performing a linear
combination of orthogonal vectors (mode shapes).





| | | | | | ( ) } { } { ( ) } { } { ( )
( )
jc jc j j j
f y i
F i F u i u K C i M
= + O + O
+ = + + O + O
2 2
2 1 2 1
2
2 e , e

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Mode Superposition Method

Example:







Here, the sum of mode shape 1 and mode shape 2 approximates the final
response. Since mode shapes are relative, the coefficients y
1
and y
2
are
required.
Mode shapes (eigenvectors) are also known as generalized coordinates, and
in this case, coefficients y
1
and y
2
are the DOF.


y
1
y
2
+ =
e
1
e
2
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2 2
i
i
m d
i i
|e
e
o
+ + + =
Stiff.
Coef.
Mass
Coef.
Constant
ratio
H. Damping in Mode-Sup Harmonic Analysis
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I. Analysis Settings Mode-Sup Harmonic

Analysis Settings > Options
Frequency Range
Range Minimum >> Minimum Frequency
Range Maximum >> Maximum Frequency
Solution Intervals
Solution Method > Mode Superposition


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Analysis Settings > Options
Cluster Results > Yes


Without Cluster Option
Analysis Settings Mode-Sup Harmonic

With Cluster Option
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Analysis Settings > Options
Include Residual Vector

In MSUP analysis, the dynamic response will be approximate when
the applied loading excites the higher frequency modes of a
structure.
The residual vector method:
employs additional modal transformation vectors in addition to the
eigenvectors in the modal transformation .
accounts for high frequency dynamic responses with fewer eigen-modes.


... Analysis Settings Mode-Sup Harmonic

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... Mode-superposition Harmonic Analysis

Setup a mode-sup transient analysis in the schematic by:
1. linking a modal system to a transient structural system at the solution level.
Notice in the transient branch, the modal analysis result becomes an initial condition.
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... Mode-superposition Harmonic Analysis

2. Or, Analysis Setting > Solution Method > Mode Superposition
(Standalone Analysis)
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14.5 Release
ANSYS Mechanical
Linear and Nonlinear Dynamics
Workshop 5
Harmonic Response
(Fixed-Fixed Beam)