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Application note for LTE FDD for planet v5.2.

1 (build 44)

Peter Cheung, Technical Consultant Mentum HK 09 Sep 2010

Work flow
Project setup
Map, preference (e.g., unit, display) and project setting Network setting (spectrum, mod CINR, frame setup) Create site table (e.g., ASP, Capesso, network overlay)

Sector setup
Organize sectors (flag/group/query/site set/site template) General (long/lat, antenna, link budget, model, filter mask) Antenna algorithm (MIMO, diversity, AMS) Power (EIRP, avg per RE per channel) ICIC related (RSRQ threshold and outer cell RE %) PCID and A3 HO threshold Setup sub (equipment and service) and environment Define area and PoC curve other system interference (e.g., other system interference, Femtocell) Generate layers for different loading % Do statistics report, compare with KPI

Network analysis

Monte Carlo
Generate traffic map and setup sub type Setup scheduler and run MC for combination of sub type/environment Apply cell loading and re-run network analysis


Generate IM, NL (single/multi-tech) AFP and PCID

Project setup (1) map

DTM/cutter/clutter height/polygon/vector must have same projection/resolution (eg UTM xxx at xxx m)

Since model is map dependent, so need to select proper map to run prediction for different models

Subfolder names under Geodata must be matched Map should be in UTM zone xxx and site/sector/DT should be in long/lat

Project setup (2) preference

Project setup (3) network setting

Define spectrum (start/end DL/UL freq and BW)

For subband (e.g., with carriers gap), need to define separate band, since each sector can ssign ONLY one band grey out means some sectors are using defined band. If need to modify existing band, need to first switch all sectors using this band to a dummy band first.

Project setup (4) network setting

Option 1 CINR threshold for each MCS with one spectral eff [bits/symbol] at some specified PER %, bits/symbol can be extracted from CQI table in 3gpp 36.213 Speed of each MCS is defined in project setting

Option 2 define spectral efficiency curve for each MCS. If used, new layers can be generated (e.g., UL/DL max/avg spectral eff) and affect max UL/DL data rate layers, best available DL/UL mod and UL noise rise (select max spectral eff)

Project setup (5) network setting

If Interference coordinate (i.e., ICIC) is enabled for this frame config, FFR, RSRQ threshold and RE % can be specified

carrier BW will define FFT size, sampling freq # occupied DL/UL subcarriers (excl DC/guard) # total RB/slot # RB for sounding ref signal Throughput (including L1 overhead) = #occupied subcarrier x #symbol/slot x #slot/frame x fps x

e.g., 10MHz carrier with spectral eff=5bits/RE has 601x7x20x100x5 = 42Mbps Throughput (excluding RS symbol) = #data symbol/RB x #slot/frame x fps x #RB/slot x #bit/symbol e.g., 10MHz carrier with 4 RS symbol and 64QAM/no FER has 80 x 20 x 100 x 50 x 6 = 48Mbps

Project setup (6) network setting

DL frame editor UL frame editor

DL overhead % = total overhead / DL frame duration Where Total overhead = CP + PDCCH + PBCH + ref signal Note that #RE allocated for PBCH and ref signal is dependent on # of tx antenna.

UL overhead = demod ref signal + PUCCH + sounding ref signal

Project setup (7) use ASP

Propagation model criterion

Traffic/site template criterion

Define basic (fit hexagon) or advanced (can use candidate site list, traffic map, coverage/model criteria) Define clutter exclusion, antenna height range, max pathloss, site radius Define polygon/area

Project setup (8) use ASP

Optimization constraint used by ASP and ACP (e.g., capesso) as input setting

Range of antenna height that can be adjusted by ASP


Project setup (9) use ASP

Sites generated from advanced ASP (meet criteria for coverage then traffic, use customized site template for different clutter and with antenna height adjusted)

Sites generated from basic ASP (fit # polygon of defined radius for 1 site template for all clutter and with clutter exclusion)


Project setup (10) use capesso

Create site candidate lists in planet first, run prediction. Then export to capesso and let capesso pick # site according to user defined criterion (coverage/capacity)


Project setup (11) network overlay

pick data source for other technology (e.g., group of GSM sites from same project) select LTE FDD band used for newly created co-located LTE FDD sites (with same antenna ht/azimuth, # of sector etc) save new LTE FDD site tabe and/or add suffix to sector ID [optional]


Sector setup (1) organize sectors

Site template can be created from existing sites

Flag, group, query to organize sectors for display/network analysis

Site set is storage of full/partial set of different version (e.g., site set before and after optimization) Query offer flexible sector group accordingly to user defined criteria


Sector setup (2) general

Site base station (different technology) sector antenna ID (e.g., split sector)

Each sector assign one band with its flag/group Max pooled throughput of site (blocked sub in MC runs)


Sector setup (3) general

Each sector assign antenna algorithm prediction model/distance/# of radial one or multiple antenna with specified link budget and feeder length Tx/Rx filter mask (at eNodeB)

Affect adjacent channel interference


Set threshold for blocked sub in MC run (coverage, #sub, UL noise rise)

Sector setup (4) antenna algo

Smart antenna/beamforming increasing CINR by increasing C and decreasing I Diversity gain adding CINR margin

See antenna algorithm application note for details

MIMO (open-loop) or spatial MUX increasing throughput relative to SISO with option for UL collaborative MIMO and LOS exclusion [MIMO improve throughout, not necessary coverage]

Automatic MIMO switch switch to diversity (low CINR) or MIMO (high CINR) or MIMO+diversity (high CINR with spare antenna for diversity)


Sector setup (5) power

Combined PA power (e.g., if #Tx antenna=2 with 40dBm each, PA power=43dBm) Enable hopping can improve reference CINR, but also affect DL loading % to other cell depending on RE reuse

Ref signal power = PA power x (% of ref signal within 1 RB) Where % depends on #subcarrier for ref signal and data E.g., 10MHz carrier has #ref signal subcarrier/RB=2, #total subcarrier/RB=12 ref signal Tx power = 34.55dBm with 3dB boost

Avg power per RE for xxx signal (used to calculate different RSRP, DL CINR)

Affect UL CINR


Sector setup (5) ICIC related

Input for network analysis, output for MC DL loading % = traffic loading = used # data RE / available # data RE e.g., 10MHz has 2 RS RE/RB, if 4 data subcarrier/RB is used, then DL loading = 4/(12-2)=40% [assume RS always Tx. But not data] UL noise rise can be initially estimated as 10*log[1/(1-UL loading %)] FFR usage % = % traffic loading in outer cell (only for frame config supports ICIC) Multiple antenna % = % traffic support AAS

RSRQ (ref signal received quality) used to define inner/outer cell boundary Outer cell % = RE% used in outer cell e.g., 100% means no ICIC e.g., <100% means PoC is used for co-channel interference


Sector setup (6) PCID and HO

PCID = [0..503] used for sector ID, and is combination of phy layer cell ID group =[0..167] from SSS phy layer identity = [0..2] from PSC Since ref signal hopping is dependent on PCID, if PCID of best server/interferer is same, ref signal CINR is lower

Used for AFP

(e.g., Threshold to trigger A3 measurement). HO layer will show a HO if (sector reference signal strength <= best serving sector A3 HO threshold) HO status max HO candidates HO candidates for priority [1..N]


Network analysis (1) setup sub

UE/CPE Equipment (e.g., mobile, USB dongle) Hardware UL power parameters

UE/CPE antenna pattern, MIMO, polarization diversity (i.e., x2 # of Tx/Rx port

E.g., #Tx antenna=1+polar div =ON is same as #Tx antenna=2+polar div=OFF )

Supported UL/DL modulation bearer


Network analysis (2) setup sub

Packet switched service (e.g., VoIP, 64k email, 1M web/FTP, 128k email) with different priority and QoS Convert traffic map to #sub to spread by MC by individual loading specified [see MC ppt for detail] Actual throughput based on UL/DL activity %

Sub type ONLY use in MC (see later slides on MC)

QoS class priority (e.g., 1 min=max data rate, 9 means min=0.1kbps (BE))


Network analysis (3) environment

Planet has 4 default environment (I, O, V, DI)

need to map clutter class to 1~4 environment e.g., water related clutter has no I, V, DI, then that analysis on non-mapped environment will not consider that clutter class fast fading margin = headroom for Rayleigh fading variation (e.g., 60km/hr require 10dB for 64QAM) penetration loss = extra building/vehicle loss apart from one from prediction model (e.g., 10~30dB depending on wall material)\ vehicular speed (V environment) = typical speed of UE/CPE for associated clutter

Clutter-dependent DL orthogonality %


Network analysis (4) define area

Define area (e.g., rectangle, polygon)

Area grid can be used in network analysis/MC/analysis statistics report


Network analysis (5) setting

Choose best server if total received signal strength > threshold (i.e., sensitivity) has highest ref signal strength [dBm] OR highest RSRQ [dB]

Each network analysis has one band equipment environment cell edge probability % KPI, used in Jakess curve from slow fading margin (for MC, different % for different service) speed # UL RB/sub
assume each map pixel has 1 sub affect UL CINR (less RB/sub, UE concentrate its power on less RB, extend coverage but reduced data rate) depends on scheduler from MC model as fixed value in network analysis

Network analysis (6) ICIC input

Under ideal channel conditions, OFDMA guarantee orthogonality between RB, so no co-channel interference for inner cells from best server

ICIC uses to reduce reused RB in outer cell (i.e., improve cell edge coverage prob %) Basic = remove % interference based on DL loading % at best serving sector (i.e., without interaction between eNodeB) Advanced = sort interfering sector according to received power and rank sectors to prioritize interference removed by scheduler (i.e., most interfering sector will use noninterfering RB the most, with interaction between eNodeB) See separate ICIC ppt for details

Network analysis (7) UL PC

No DL power control UL power control FULL = decrease Tx of UE/CPE just enough to achieve the required CINR of given MCS fractional = further decrease Tx of UE/CPE by pathloss weighted by alpha = this prevent UE/CPE with large pathloss (i.e., along inter-cell boundary) to transmit excessive power and interfere with all neighbor cells 3GPP equation for fractional UL power control


Network analysis (8) define PoC

e.g., increasing slope of PoC with scheduler

PoC % of reusing the same RB as a function of DL loading %. This PoC curve is used to calculate cochannel interference

Normal PoC curve


Network analysis (9) other system interference

Power setting for each sector Option 1 as fixed power [dBm] in same channel per sector

Option 2 import interference grid file (.grd) with specified center freq/BW E.g., CDMA1xRTT overlay DL interference import best server pilot Ec (since always Tx) UL interference UE EIRP


Network analysis (10) Femtocell

Run Femtocell extension [see separated Femtocell ppt for details]


Network analysis (11) layers

DL coverage (prob%, AAS, CINR, data rate, CQI, MCS, margin) Layers can be divided to Common (for all carrier) per carrier

Best server related (total/ref signal/syn signal) HO related

UL coverage (prob%, CINR, MCS, margin, data rate, tx power) Summary coverage


Network analysis (11) diff loading

25% DL loading Examine layer for different setting (e.g., DL loading %, antennalgorithm) during initial planning scenario DL CINR 75% DL loading

Similar to cell loading in CDMA network

DL avg data rate


Network analysis (12) ref signal

3 analysis layers generated related to reference signal
RSRP (ref signal received power) [dBm] = EPRE (energy per RE) in 3GPP (e.g., KPI has RSRP > -90dBm) = avg power received on 1 ref signal RE Ref signal strength [dBm] = total power received on ref signal RE = RSRP x 10log(# of ref signal RE) RSRQ (ref signal received quality) [dB] (e.g., KPI has RSRQ > -10dB) = 10log (N x RSRP / RSSI) Where N = total #RB, RSSI=avg power received on ref signal symbol


Max RSRQ = -3dB UE/CPE measure RSRP and RSRQ Compare to WCDMA RSRP CPICH RSCP for coverage KPI RSRQ CPICH Ec/No for interference KPI Cell selection procedure [idle mode] RSRP is used HO procedure can be RSRP, RSRQ or both

Network analysis (13) statistics

Since each layer is a mapinfo grid file, statistics report can be generated and check for KPI

Can do statistics on one or multiple layer

Include NULL and/or zero values in statistics


Network analysis (14) statistics

Similar to grid query from grid manager, extract statistics based on different filtering criteria

Can filter by one filter

Can filter by >1 filter


Network analysis (15) statistics

Step size used for statistics

% sub area and % sub within area X

Step size used for statistics

Filter by grc grid (e.g., best server or clutter map)


Filter by traffic map (e.g., Er, #sub, throughput)

Network analysis (16) statistics

Best server laye filter by numeric grid (e.g., DL avg data rate)

Compute mean/min/max/median/std dev/RMS of all bins within best serving coverage area of sector xx Note, mean grid is NOT avg sector thoughput, since mean is avg is ALL DL data rate bin, assuming there is 1 sub per bin (e.g., problem for overshoot area with no sub)


Network analysis (17) optimization based on statistics

[see separate ppt for LTE optimization based on statistics]


Sort (ascending/descending) (e.g., find top 10 sectors with highest coverage prob %) filter by specified range generate statistics CDF/PDF generate labels generate sector display scheme (e.g., different sector color to rep. specified data rate range)

Network analysis (18) optimization parameter examples

Coverage for RS
Boost for RS PCID and RS FH

Power affects coverage/interference

DL power RS and PSS/SSS signal with boost UL power PUCCH, PUSCH and SRS

Antenna config
Multiple antenna affects DL CINR, which determine highest MCS, max data rate and spectral efficiency E-tilt/azimuth/height/type improve DL CINR for sub close to eNodeB

Affect DL CINR and data rate, especially at outer cell Affect cell edge coverage probability, especially for high MCS Static ICIC using 1:3 reuse Dynamic ICIC based on channel/traffic conditions (e.g., RSRQ, FFR %, outer cell RE %)

Assign RB according to predefined rules [see MC slides later]

MC (1) generate traffic map

Generated Traffic map can be convert (between different unit), scaled and combined

Generate traffic map by

regions (polygon) vector classified grid (e.g., clutter map) network data (e.g., recorded OSS traffic statistics per sector)


MC (2) use traffic map as demand

Tabulate site ID/sector ID/ # of sub as an excel file Import excel file to planet and map column Import excel to operational data

Traffic demand for LTE can be #sub or throughput [kbps]

NOTE: use MC for indication to capacity/dimensioning and network stability (i.e., when network becomes saturated and start to block sub)

MC (3) generate TM via best server with clutter weight

Create best server grid based on RS Spread traffic demand per sector according to best serving coverage bins

Apply weight for different clutter class

Combine vector to clutter as new clutter


MC (4) generate TM via best server with clutter weight

Generated traffic map

Combine vector primary to original clutter as new clutter map primary_clutter, and a new clutter class highways is added


MC (5) setup sub type

Priority set for different sub type

1 sub type have

traffic map equipment one or more usage (weight for 4 environment) for one or more services/speed combination


MC (3) setup MAC scheduler

Proportional demand Proportional fair Maximum capacity

Scheduler types (serve sub at min data rate)

priority Based on priority in sub setting

proportional demand
RB given to low data rate sub max capacity RB given to high data rate sub proportional fair RB given to sub with better CINR user defined RB given to sub with user defined weight


MC (4) setting
Choose one or more sub type in 1 freq band

Input # of MC run and required convergence %

Steps of MC
spread sub randomly and independently per run sort sub by priority (sub type, service, QoS) analyze DL and UL, check if sub is served generating operating point and sub info (e.g., status and spreading)

Choose scheduler

convergence % =

#blocked sub of last 5 run


#blocked sub of last 5 run


avg # blocked sub

MC (5) generate report

Status with blocked reason

Detailed MC report for sub/throughput per sector/carrier


Other (1) generate IM

Use IM as input to generate NL, AFP and PCID Histogram based IM can be in area % or traffic % between server/interferer


Other (2) import IM


Other (3) generate NL

From IM, get NL from overlapped area/traffic or both NL can be generated based on best server grid or IM for single technology (LTE LTE) for multiple technology (LTE CDMA, CDMA LTE)

From Best server grid, get NL from border


Other (4) edit/compare NL

NL result can be view in map or manually add/delete Different NL table can be compared and merged


Other (5) generate AFP and PCID

Violation cost for AFP

Violation cost for PCID

For AFP/PCID planning, IM is mandatory input, and NL input is optional


Other (6) AFP and PCID results

Report of reuse distance/interference % for different sector

Display PCID/carrier in map


Backup slides

Spectral efficiency vs CINR

Different curve for different MCS under different channel conditions


DL frame structure


DL reference signal (3GPP 36.211)

Depending on # Tx antenna, # and RE position is different for reference signal of different antenna
Normal CP, # Tx antenna = 1

Normal CP, # Tx antenna = 2

Normal CP, # Tx antenna = 4



A3 Handover event


LTE QCI (QoS class ID)

3GPP 23.203 QCI table for different services and PER


Channel models (3GPP 36.101 app B2)

EPA5 slow speed pedestrian sub with highest throughput EVA50 medium speed sub ETU300 high speed sub with multipath spread > CP window

f _ doppler mobile _ speed = f _ carrier