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Author Definition
Jan Scholte Globalization as internationalization.
Globalization: A Critical • describe cross-border relations between countries
• describes the growth in interaction and interdependence
between people in different countries
• With growing flows of trade and capital investment there is the
possibility of moving beyond an inter-national economy,
(where 'the principle entities are national economies') to a
'stronger' version - the globalized economy in which, 'distinct
national economies are subsumed and rearticulated into the
system by international processes and transactions'
Globalization as liberalization.
• refers to 'a process of removing government-imposed
restrictions on movements between countries in order to create
an "open", "borderless" world economy'
Globalization as universalization.

• Global is used in the sense of being 'worldwide' and

'globalization' is 'the process of spreading various objects and
experiences to people at all corners of the earth'.
• A classic example of this would be the spread of computing,
television etc.
Globalization as westernization or modernization
• in an 'Americanized' form

• globalization' is understood as a dynamic whereby the social

structures of modernity (capitalism, rationalism, industrialism,
bureaucratism, etc.) are spread the world over,

• normally destroying pre-existent cultures and local self-

determination in the process
Globalization as deterritorialization
• the spread of supraterritoriality
• entails a 'reconfiguration of geography, so that social space is
no longer wholly mapped in terms of territorial places,
territorial distances and territorial borders
• global
• supraterritorial

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Author Definition
• transworld
• transborder

Manfred Steger Globalization

(2003, Globalization: A Very Short • refers to the set of social processes that are thought to
Introduction) transform our present social condition into one globality
• shifting forms of human contact
• modernity > post-modernity > we have not yet reach it

Anthony Giddens Globalization

Director • defined as the intensification of worldwide social relations
London School of Economics which link distant localities in such a way that local
happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away
and vice versa

Fredric Jameson Globalization

Professor of Literature • reflects the sense of an immense enlargement of world
Duke University communication, as well as of the horizon of a world market,
both of which seem far more tangible and immediate than in
earlier stages of modernity

David Held Globalization

Professor of Political Science • process (or set of processes) which embodies a transformation
London School of Economics in the spatial organization of social relations and transactions –
assessed in terms of their extensity, intensity, velocity and
impacting generating transcontinental or interregional flows
and networks of activity, interaction, and the exercise of power

Roland Robertson Globalization

Professor of Sociology • refers both to the compression of world and intensification of
University of Pittsburgh consciousness of the world as whole

James Mittelman Globalization

Professor of International • compresses the time and space aspects of social relations
American University
Martin Khor • referred to by the third world countries as colonization

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Effects of Globalization
Camilleri, Falk, Wriston, Sassen Globalization has deprived the state sovereignty
Cable Globalization has diminished the nation-state
Schmidt Globalization promotes decline of nation-state
Strange Globalization promotes retreat of nation-state
Horsman and Marshall Globalization promotes crisis in nation-state
Dunn Globalization promotes extinction of nation-state

1. anarchy (Kaplan) and global globalization has bred intolerance and violence thru:
disorder (Harvey) • ultranationalism
• racism
• religious fundamentalism
• terrorism
2. barbarism of techno-war and
voyeurism of media war
3. increased violence against • global sex tourism
women • human trafficking
• mail-order brides
• prostitution
4. environmental catastrophe Threatens human security thru:
• exhaustion of natural resources
• excessive world population growth
• nuclear holocaust
• acid rain
• ozone depletion
• climate change
• species extinction
• Mad cow disease
• Genetically modified food crops
5. social inequity • do people have equal opportunities to participate in global
• Does globalization bypass, marginalize, silence much of the
global population?
• Growth in income gaps
• Globalization has increased the advantages of the upper class

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