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Bo Thidé

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psilon

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ooks

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ϒ

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY

Bo Thidé

✐ ϒ E LECTROMAGNETIC F I E L D T H E O R Y Bo

Also available

ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELD THEORY EXERCISES

by Tobia Carozzi, Anders Eriksson, Bengt Lundborg, Bo Thidé and Mattias Waldenvik

Freely downloadable from www.plasma.uu.se/CED

Anders Eriksson, Bengt Lundborg, Bo Thidé and Mattias Waldenvik Freely downloadable from www.plasma.uu.se/CED ✐ ✐

E LECTROMAGNETIC F IELD T HEORY

Bo Thide´

Swedish Institute of Space Physics

and

Department of Astronomy and Space Physics Uppsala University, Sweden

and

School of Mathematics and Systems Engineering

Vaxj¨

o¨ University, Sweden

ϒ

Upsilon Books · Communa AB · Uppsala · Sweden

V axj ¨ o ¨ U niversity , S weden ϒ U psilon B ooks ·

This book was typeset in L A T E X 2 ε (based on T E X 3.14159 and Web2C 7.4.2) on an HP Visualize 9000/360 workstation running HP-UX 11.11.

Copyright ©1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 by Bo Thidé Uppsala, Sweden All rights reserved.

Electromagnetic Field Theory ISBN X-XXX-XXXXX-X

and 2003 by Bo Thidé Uppsala, Sweden All rights reserved. ✐ Electromagnetic Field Theory ISBN X-XXX-XXXXX-X

Contents

Preface

xi

1 Classical Electrodynamics

 

1

1.1 Electrostatics

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1.1.1 Coulomb’s law

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1.1.2 The electrostatic field

 

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3

1.2 Magnetostatics

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1.2.1 Ampère’s law .

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1.2.2 The magnetostatic field

 

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1.3 Electrodynamics .

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9

1.3.1 Equation of continuity for electric charge

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1.3.2 Maxwell’s displacement current

 

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1.3.3 Electromotive force .

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1.3.4 Faraday’s law of induction

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12

1.3.5 Maxwell’s microscopic equations

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15

1.3.6 Maxwell’s macroscopic equations

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16

1.4 Electromagnetic Duality

 

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16

Example 1.1 Faraday’s law as a consequence of conserva- tion of magnetic charge

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18

Example 1.2 Duality of the electromagnetodynamic equations 19

Example 1.3 Dirac’s symmetrised Maxwell equations for a xed mixing angle Example 1.4 The complex field six-vector

Example 1.5 Duality expressed in the complex field six-vector 22

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2 Electromagnetic Waves

 

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2.1 The Wave Equations

 

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26

2.1.1 The wave equation for E

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26

2.1.2 The wave equation for B

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26

2.1.3 The time-independent wave equation for E

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27

Example 2.1 Wave equations in electromagnetodynamics

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28

2.2 Plane Waves .

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30

2.2.1 Telegrapher’s equation

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31

2.2.2 Waves in conductive media

 

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32

i

Waves in conductive media   . . . . . . . . . . .

ii

CONTENTS

2.3

Observables and Averages

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34

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35

3 Electromagnetic Potentials

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3.1 The Electrostatic Scalar Potential

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37

3.2 The Magnetostatic Vector Potential .

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38

3.3 The Electrodynamic Potentials

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38

3.3.1 Lorenz-Lorentz gauge

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40

The retarded potentials

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44

3.3.2 Coulomb gauge .

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44

3.3.3 Gauge transformations

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45

Example 3.1 Electromagnetodynamic potentials

 

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48

4 Relativistic Electrodynamics

49

4.1 The Special Theory of Relativity

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49

4.1.1 The Lorentz transformation

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50

4.1.2 Lorentz space

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51

Radius four-vector in contravariant and covariant form

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52

Scalar product and norm

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52

. Invariant line element and proper time

Metric tensor

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53

54

Four-vector fields

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56

The Lorentz transformation matrix

 

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56

The Lorentz group

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56

4.1.3 Minkowski space

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57

4.2 Covariant Classical Mechanics

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59

4.3 Covariant Classical Electrodynamics

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61

4.3.1 . 4.3.2 The Liénard-Wiechert potentials

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5 Electromagnetic Fields and Particles

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61

62

4.3.3 The electromagnetic field tensor

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64

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67

69

5.1 Charged Particles in an Electromagnetic Field

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69

5.1.1

Covariant equations of motion

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69

Lagrange formalism

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70

Hamiltonian formalism

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72

5.2 Covariant Field Theory

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76

5.2.1 Lagrange-Hamilton formalism for fields and interactions 76

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76 Downloaded from http://www.plasma.uu.se/CED/Book ✐ Draft version released 23rd January 2003 at 18:57. ✐ ✐

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The electromagnetic field .

 

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Example 5.1 Field energy difference expressed in the field tensor .

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81

Other fields

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84

Bibliography

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85

6 Electromagnetic Fields and Matter

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6.1 Electric Polarisation and Displacement

 

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6.1.1

Electric multipole moments

 

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6.2 Magnetisation and the Magnetising Field

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6.3 Energy and Momentum

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6.3.1 The energy theorem in Maxwell’s theory

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6.3.2 The momentum theorem in Maxwell’s theory

 

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96

7 Electromagnetic Fields from Arbitrary Source Distributions

 

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7.1 The Magnetic Field

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7.2 The Electric Field .

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101

7.3 The Radiation Fields

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103

7.4 Radiated Energy .

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106

 

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107

7.4.2 Finite bandwidth signals .

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8 Electromagnetic Radiation and Radiating Systems

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108

109

8.1 Radiation from Extended Sources

 

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8.1.1 Radiation from a one-dimensional current distribution

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8.1.2 Radiation from a two-dimensional current distribution

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8.2 Multipole Radiation

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116

8.2.1 The Hertz potential .

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116

8.2.2 Electric dipole radiation

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120

8.2.3 Magnetic dipole radiation

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122

8.2.4 Electric quadrupole radiation .

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124

8.3 Radiation from a Localised Charge in Arbitrary Motion

 

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8.3.1 The Liénard-Wiechert potentials

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125

8.3.2 Radiation from an accelerated point charge

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127

The differential operator method

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129

The direct method

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133

Example 8.1 The fields from a uniformly moving charge

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Example 8.2 The convection potential and the convection force136

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iv

CONTENTS

 
 

Radiation for small velocities

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139

8.3.3 Bremsstrahlung .

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140

Example 8.3 Bremsstrahlung for low speeds and short ac- celeration times

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143

8.3.4 Cyclotron and synchrotron radiation .

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146

Cyclotron radiation Synchrotron radiation .

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