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October 2003

Training Objectives

HVAC and
„ Design priorities
– Building enclosure design priorities (for efficiency and comfort)
Building Enclosure – Ventilation (mechanical vs. natural)
– HVAC system selection
– Displacement ventilation design
Overview
Misc. CHPS Criteria „ Based on understanding of:
Thermal Loads in Schools – Thermal comfort (covered previously)
Good Envelope Design – Indoor air quality (covered previously)
Ventilation: Natural & Mechanical – Thermal loads

HVAC System Selection & Design „ And at the same time…


Displacement Ventilation – Introduction to relevant CHPS criteria and BPM guideline contents

Overview 2

Water Credit 2:
Water Use Reduction (1 to 3 points)
HVAC and
1 point 2.1. Reduce the use of municipally provided potable water for
building sewage conveyance by a minimum of 50% through the
Building Envelope utilization of water-efficient fixtures and/or using municipally
supplied reclaimed water systems.

1 point 2.2. Employ strategies that, in aggregate, reduce potable water


use by 20% beyond the baseline calculated for the building (not
including irrigation) after meeting the Energy Policy Act of 1992’s
fixture performance requirements.
OR

Misc. CHPS 2 points 2.3. Exceed the potable water use reduction by 30% beyond the
baseline.

Criteria

CHPS Criteria 4

Energy Efficiency Prescriptive Approach for


Energy Efficiency
„ Energy Prerequisite 1: Minimum Energy Performance.
„ Energy Prerequisite 1 (10% Savings)
„ Energy Credit 1: Superior Energy Performance (prescriptive option). – Lighting power no greater than 0.95 W/ft2 (motion sensor credit allowed)
– Economizer
„ Energy Credit 2: Natural Ventilation.
– HVAC interconnect with windows and doors. „ Energy Credit 1 (20%, 4 points)
– 90% of classrooms without AC. – Daylighting and dimming controls on at least 40% of lighting
– Radiant barrier in attic.
„ Energy Credit 3: Renewable Energy and Distributed Generation.

„ Energy Prerequisite 2: Fundamental Building Systems Testing and


Training.

„ Energy Credit 4: Commissioning.

„ Energy Credit 5: Energy Management Systems.

CHPS Criteria 5 CHPS Criteria 6

1
Commissioning

HVAC and
„ Typical commissioning process.
– Commissioning plan development.
– Documentation of design intent. Building Envelope
– Design review.
– Submittals review.
– Inspections and system functional testing.
– Enhanced operating and maintenance documentation.

Thermal
– Post-occupancy testing.

„ Energy Prerequisite 2: Testing and Training.

„ Energy Credit 4: Commissioning. Loads in


Schools
CHPS Criteria 7

Why Talk About Thermal Loads? What’s a BTU?

„ An understanding of loads helps when setting envelope design „ Btu = British Thermal Unit
priorities

„ Minimizing loads can have many benefits


– Better comfort
„ 1 Btu = Energy required to raise
– Smaller HVAC equipment
the temperature of 1 pound of
– Lower operating cost
water (about 1 pint) by 1 degree
– CHPS energy efficiency points! Fahrenheit.

„ The heat generated by the


burning of one match
(approximately).

Thermal Loads in School 9 Thermal Loads in School 10

Heat Gains (independent of outside temperature) Heat Losses/Gains


(dependent on outside air temperature)
„ Window conduction
People 24-30 kids 5,000 Btu/h
(@ 200 Btu/hr) „ Walls, roofs and floors

Lights 1 watt per square foot 3,300 Btu/h „ Infiltration


(1 watt = 3.413 Btu/hr)
„ Outside air ventilation (a “system” load rather than a “space” load)
Plugs Three computers 1,500 Btu/h
(About 150 watts each)

Solar Fairly small with correct orientation up to 3,000 Btu/h


and shading

Total 12,800 Btu/h

Thermal Loads in School 11 Thermal Loads in School 12

2
Balance Point Temperature Balance Point Temperature (cont’d)
25,000 25,000
Cooling Required Cooling Required
20,000 20,000

15,000 15,000
Classroom Loads (Btu/hour)

Classroom Loads (Btu/hour)


10,000 10,000

5,000 5,000

0 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
-5,000 -5,000

-10,000 -10,000
Wall & Roof + Window
-15,000 -15,000

-20,000 -20,000
Heating Required Heating Required
-25,000 -25,000
Outdoor Air Temperature Outdoor Air Temperature

Thermal Loads in School 13 Thermal Loads in School 14

Balance Point Temperature (cont’d) Balance Point Temperature (cont’d)


25,000 25,000
Cooling Required Cooling Required
20,000 20,000
+ Occupants + Lights
15,000 15,000
Classroom Loads (Btu/hour)

Classroom Loads (Btu/hour)

10,000 10,000

5,000 5,000

0 0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
-5,000 -5,000

-10,000 -10,000

-15,000 -15,000

-20,000 -20,000
Heating Required Heating Required
-25,000 -25,000
Outdoor Air Temperature Outdoor Air Temperature

Thermal Loads in School 15 Thermal Loads in School 16

Balance Point Temperature (cont’d)


25,000
Cooling Required
20,000 HVAC and
Building Envelope
+ Plugs
15,000
Classroom Loads (Btu/hour)

Balance Point
10,000
Temperature
5,000

Good
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120
-5,000

-10,000

-15,000 Envelope
Design
-20,000
Heating Required
-25,000
Outdoor Air Temperature

Thermal Loads in School 17

3
Control Thermal Loads Fenestration Orientation

„ It’s pretty easy! „ Orient windows north/south.

„ Priorities:
1. Pay attention to the orientation of glazing.
2. Provide adequate insulation.
3. Specify window shading and/or high performance windows.
4. Control roof heat gain through cool roofs and radiant barriers.

„ Pay attention to details

Good Envelope Design 19 Good Envelope Design 20

How About Passive Solar? Guideline IN1


Wall Insulation
„ Heat typically needed in early morning; not a good match.

„ Direct solar is a source of glare.


Recommendation:
„ Possible applications in corridors and transitional areas.
Wall type South Coast Central Valley
„ Might be appropriate for mountain climates. North Coast Desert
Mountain
Wood frame 2x4 with R-13 or 2x6 with R-19
2x6 with R-19

Steel frame 2x4 with R-13 or Foam board sheathing +


2x6 with R-19 cavity insulation

Mass Provide wall Interior or exterior


shading insulation

Good Envelope Design 21 Vol. II - page 268 Good Envelope Design 22

Fenestration Performance Characteristics Transmission of Common Glazing Materials

„ Visible light transmittance (VLT).


„ Solar heat gain coefficient
(SHGC).
– Used to be shading coefficient.
„ U-factor.
„ Diffusion and Transparency.
– a key issue for skylights.
„ Durability.
– breakage, scratch resistance, UV
resistance, first cost v.
replacement cost.

23 24

4
Window Construction Guideline IN2
Roof Insulation
„ Choose high performance
windows.
– VLT > 0.65
– SHGC < 0.40 Recommendation:

„ Higher SHGC ok for completely Roof type South Coast Central Valley
North Coast Desert
shaded windows.
Mountain
„ Single pane glazing may be ok Insulation above deck R-7 foam board R-14 foam board
in warm coastal areas.

„ See also Guideline DL1: View Wood-framed, attic R-30 blown in attic R-38 blown in attic
Windows for VLT and other R-30 batt in framed R-38 batt in framed
recommendations. http://www.denison.edu/enviro/
barney/envtech.html

Good Envelope Design 25 Vol. II - page 271 Good Envelope Design 26

Guideline IN3 Guideline IN4


Cool Roofs Radiant Barriers
Recommendation: Recommendation:
„ Typically white color. „ Reflective foil sheet.
„ Single ply:
„ Cuts radiant heat transfer.
– EPDM.
– CPE. „ Reduces cooling energy.
– CPSE.
– TPO. „ Especially beneficial if
ducts are in attic space
„ Liquid applied:
– Elastomeric.
– Acrylic.
– Polyurethane.

„ White coated metal.

Vol. II - page 273 Good Envelope Design 27 Vol. II - page 277 Good Envelope Design 28

Georgina Blach
Middle School,
Los Altos, CA

GelfandRNP Architects
Photo: Andrew Davis, AIA
29

5
Gym, view from north east

Photo: Andrew Davis, AIA


Photo: Ken Rackow

Cesar Chavez Elementary School, Oakland


View from southwest

Photo: Andrew Davis, AIA VPN Architects


34

What is Ventilation?

HVAC and “The process of supplying and removing air by natural or


mechanical means to and from any space. Such air may
Building Envelope or may not be conditioned.”

(ASHRAE Standard 62-1999)

Ventilation:
Natural and
Mechanical
Ventilation 36

6
Why Ventilate? How?

„ Comfort Î dilute odors „ Naturally

„ Health Î dilute carbon dioxide and other pollutants „ Mechanically

„ Title 24 says we must „ Mixed mode (i.e. both)

„ It’s a CHPS prerequisite (P1.1 & P1.2)

Ventilation 37 Ventilation 38

Natural Ventilation When is Natural Ventilation Feasible?

„ Energy efficient ventilation potential. „ Appropriate climate


„ Traditional in California. „ Acceptable outdoor noise level
„ Still appropriate strategy in much of state. „ Acceptable outdoor air quality (e.g. dust, odors)
„ Design for security. „ Design meets Title 24 ventilation requirements

Ventilation 39 Ventilation 40

Title 24 and Natural Ventilation Natural Ventilation Potential, South Coast


(Long Beach)
„ Title 24 Compliance using natural ventilation permitted if:
– All spaces within 20 ft of operable opening.
– Total opening area > 5% of floor area.

„ For a typical 960 ft² (30 ft x 32 ft) classroom,


– At least 48 ft² opening area.
– Openings on two sides of the room.

Ventilation 41 Ventilation 42

7
Natural Ventilation Potential, North Coast Natural Ventilation Potential, Central Valley
(San Francisco) (Sacramento)

Ventilation 43 Ventilation 44

Natural Ventilation Potential, Desert Guidelines Related to Natural Ventilation


(Daggett)

„ TC1: Cross ventilation

„ TC2: Stack ventilation

„ TC3: Ceiling fans

Ventilation 45 Vol. II - page 301 Ventilation 46

Title 24 and Mechanical Ventilation Mixed Mode Ventilation

Two options for calculating minimum ventilation rate „ Often a good choice in California

Actual number of Default occupant density „ Opportunities


occupants: – Look up in Title 24 – Avoid air conditioning in spring and fall
– E.g. 30 people per – Divide by two – Save fan energy
classroom – Potential psychological benefits
OR For 960 ft² classroom:
– 20 ft²/person for
classroom „ Challenges
– 960/20 = 48 people. – Avoid increase in heating or cooling loads
– 48/2 = 24 people. – Providing ventilation whenever occupants are present

15 cfm per person minimum for classroom

15 cfm/person X 30 people 15 cfm/person X 24 people


= 450 cfm = 360 cfm

Ventilation 47 Ventilation 48

8
Energy Credit 2: Natural Ventilation Examples
Natural Ventilation (1 to 4 points)
1 point 2.1. Install HVAC interlocks to turn off HVAC systems if operable
„ No air conditioning
windows or doors are opened. – Cesar Chavez Elementary, Oakland
– Ross School, Ross, Marin County

„ San Diego USD Policy


3 points 2.2. Design 90% of permanent classrooms without air
conditioning. – No AC unless indoor T > 78°F for >10% of
school hours

Ross School Cesar Chavez

Ventilation 49 Ventilation 50

HVAC System Selection Decision Tree


Can natural ventilation meet all cooling needs?

Yes No

HVAC and Can natural ventilation meet


outdoor air ventilation
Can evaporative cooling
meet cooling requirements?
See Page 298
Building Envelope
requirement?

No Yes No Yes Volume II


Heating only hydronic systems Evaporative cooling system
Radiant floor Indirect
Baseboard Direct
or Indirect/Direct
Heating only air systems
Gas furnace
Unit ventilator

HVAC
Is natural ventilation
accessible and beneficial
for a significant portion of
Heating only air systems the school year?
Gas furnace
Unit ventilator No Yes

System
or
Heating only hydronic +
separate air ventilation system Mixed mode HVAC system
Radiant floor (allow simple occupant control
Baseboard of HVAC and operable openings)
- Packaged rooftop
- Gas/electric split

Selection
- Ductless split
- Ceiling panel
- Unit ventilator (2-pipe or 4-pipe)
- Air or water cooled chiller (if appl.)
HEATING ONLY
Cooling and heating system

and Design
(Ensure efficient duct and fan design)
- VAV reheat
- Packaged rooftop
- Gas/electric split
- Unit ventilator (2-pipe or 4-pipe)
- Air or water cooled chiller (if appl.)

HEATING AND COOLING

HVAC System Design 52

Which is Best? (Hint: it’s not always clear) Which is Best? (continued)

Packaged
PackagedRooftop
Rooftop Packaged
PackagedRooftop
Rooftop
„ Can run individual
Packaged
PackagedSplit
SplitSystem
System Packaged
PackagedSplit
SplitSystem
System systems for after-
2-pipe
2-pipefan
fancoils
coils hour activities
Packaged
PackagedVariable
VariableAir
AirVolume
Volume Packaged
PackagedVariable
VariableAir
AirVolume
Volume
•Air-cooled 4-pipe
4-pipefan
fancoils
coils •Air-cooled
•Air-cooled •Air-cooled
•Evap.-cooled
•Evap.-cooled •Evap.-cooled
•Evap.-cooled
Variable
VariableAir
AirVolume
Volume
•Single
•Singleduct
duct
•Dual
•Dualduct
duct
Water-Source
Water-SourceHeat
HeatPumps
Pumps
•Cooling
•Coolingtower
tower
•Ground
•Groundloop
loop Central plant options

53 54

9
Which is Best? (continued) Which is Best? (continued)

Packaged
PackagedRooftop
Rooftop „ Greater comfort potential due
to more steady temperature
Packaged
PackagedSplit
SplitSystem
System control

„ Compressor failure
affects only a single Packaged
PackagedVariable
VariableAir
AirVolume
Volume
•Air-cooled 4-pipe
4-pipefan
fancoils
coils
classroom •Air-cooled
•Evap.-cooled
•Evap.-cooled
Variable
VariableAir
AirVolume
Volume
•Single
•Singleduct
duct
•Dual duct
•Dual duct
Water-Source
Water-SourceHeat
HeatPumps
Pumps
•Cooling
•Coolingtower
tower
•Ground
•Groundloop
loop

55 56

Which is Best? (continued) Which is Best? (continued)

„ Fewer compressors to 2-pipe


2-pipefan
fancoils
coils 2-pipe
2-pipefan
fancoils
coils
maintain
4-pipe
4-pipefan
fancoils
coils „ Potential for lower 4-pipe
4-pipefan
fancoils
coils
„ Potential for lower operating cost
maintenance cost
Variable
VariableAir
AirVolume
Volume Variable
VariableAir
AirVolume
Volume
•Single
•Singleduct
duct •Single
•Singleduct
duct
•Dual
•Dualduct
duct •Dual
•Dualduct
duct
Water-Source
Water-SourceHeat
HeatPumps
Pumps
•Cooling
•Coolingtower
tower
Central plant options… •Ground
•Groundloop
loop Central plant options…

57 58

System Selection Considerations The Good News…


Set
Setupupaascoring
scoringmatrix
matrix
„ Initial cost
to
tocompare
comparesystem
system Any of these system types can be designed
„ Noise and vibration alternatives
alternatives to be relatively efficient given careful attention to
„ Thermal comfort performance (It’s
(It’sworth
worthspending
spendingaafewfew specifications and design details
„ Operating costs and energy efficiency hours
hoursearly
earlyin
inthe
thedesign
design
„ Maintenance costs and needs process)
process) (and usually with a little extra up front investment)
„ Space requirements (in the classroom, on the roof or in mechanical rooms)

„ Electrical service requirements

„ Gas service requirements

„ Durability and longevity

„ Indoor air quality ventilation performance

„ The ability to provide individual control for classrooms and other spaces

„ The type of refrigerant used and its ozone-depleting potential

HVAC System Design 59 HVAC System Design 60

10
HVAC Guidelines HVAC Guidelines (cont’d)

„ TC1: Cross Ventilation „ TC9: Ductless Split System „ TC17: Dedicated Outside Air „ TC23: Hot Water Supply
Systems
„ TC2: Stack Ventilation „ TC10: Evaporative Cooling System „ TC24: Adjustable Thermostats
„ TC18: Economizers
„ TC3: Ceiling Fans „ TC11: VAV Reheat System „ TC25: EMS/DDC
„ TC19: Air Distribution Design
„ TC4: Gas/Electric Split System „ TC12: Radiant Slab System Guidelines „ TC26: Demand Controlled
Ventilation
„ TC5: Packaged Rooftop System „ TC13: Baseboard Heating System „ TC20: Duct Sealing and Insulation
„ TC27: CO Sensors for Garage
„ TC6: Displacement Ventilation „ TC14: Gas-Fired Radiant Heating „ TC21: Hydronic Distribution Exhaust Fans
System System
„ TC21: Chilled Water Plants
„ TC7: Hydronic Ceiling Panel „ TC15: Ground Source Heat Pump
System System

„ TC8: Unit Ventilator System „ TC16: Evaporatively Precooled


Condenser

HVAC System Design 61 HVAC System Design 62

Design Case: Packaged Rooftop System Impact of Cooling Compressor Cycling


„ Minimize cooling loads (envelope and lighting)
„ Avoid conservative load calculations (and don’t rely on rules-of-thumb)
„ Avoid over sizing (design conditions occur relatively few hours per year)
„ Economizer – factory installed and run tested, direct drive preferred
„ Thermostatic expansion valve
„ High efficiency, SEER 12 or better
„ Design ducts for low air velocity

Standard Efficiency High Efficiency


Image Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide, CEC PIER Program, 2003 Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide, CEC PIER Program, 2003
HVAC System Design 63 HVAC System Design 64

Impact of Cycling on Efficiency Equipment Sizing

„ Bigger is not always better! Avoid oversizing for:


– AC/heat pump compressors.
– Furnaces.
– Boilers.
– Chillers.

„ Sometimes bigger is better!


– Ducts.
– Fans (if they have speed control).
– Cooling towers.
– Pipes.

Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide, CEC PIER Program, 2003
HVAC System Design 65 HVAC System Design 66

11
Economizer Energy Savings Packaged System Problems

Economizers
100.0%

90.0%
Refrigerant charge
80.0%

70.0% Low airflow


Annual Energy Savings

60.0%
Cycling fans during
50.0% occupied period

40.0%
Fans run during
unoccupied period
30.0%

20.0%
Simultaneous heating
and cooling
10.0%
No outside air intake at
0.0% unit
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Climate Zone
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7
Non-integrated Economizer Integrated Economizer
Problem Frequency

Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide, CEC PIER Program, 2003 Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide, CEC PIER Program, 2003
HVAC System Design 67 HVAC System Design 68

Economizer Actuator Types Economizer Specifications

„ Factory-installed and run-tested economizers

„ Direct-drive actuators

„ Differential (dual) changeover logic

„ Low leakage dampers

Linkage Driven Drive Drive


Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide, CEC PIER Program, 2003 Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide, CEC PIER Program, 2003
HVAC System Design 69 HVAC System Design 70

Thermostatic Expansion Valve Impact Design Case: Packaged Rooftop System Costs
1.2

TXV 1000 ft2 classroom, 4 ton AC, SEER 10


1
100%
Increase SEER 10 to 12 ($100 per ton) $400
Economizer $300
Efficiency

0.8

Thermostatic expansion valve $75


Normalized Efficiency

Fixed Expansion Device


0.6
TXV Total $775 ($0.78 per ft2)
Normalized

Short orifice
Reduce from 4 tons to 3 tons ($500 per ton) - $500

0.4
Net Cost $275 ($0.28 per ft2)

Savings (~1,600 kWh/yr, @ $0.12/kWh) $190 per year


0.2
Simple payback period
With downsizing credit 1.4 years
0
50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 110% 120% 130% 140%
Without downsizing credit 4.1 years
% Factory Charge
% Factory Charge
Source: Small HVAC System Design Guide, CEC PIER Program, 2003
HVAC System Design 71 72

12
Additional Packaged Rooftop Measures

HVAC and
„ Higher efficiency, SEER >12 (add $350 per ton for SEER 16)

„ Multiple compressors or variable speed compressor


Building Envelope
„ Variable speed or multiple speed fan

„ CO2 ventilation control

„ Specify commissioning
Special HVAC
„ Integration with lighting motion sensor control
Systems:
„ Interlocks on windows and doors

„ Increase the air flow to extract extra sensible cooling capacity out of Displacement
Ventilation
the unit, allowing the selection of a smaller “nominal” unit.

HVAC System Design 73

Displacement Ventilation Benefits of Displacement Ventilation

„ Fresh cool air is slowly supplied „ Healthier environment; germs are not spread as easily.
near the floor.
„ 100% fresh air vs. recirculation of return air.
„ Air rises as
it warms. „ Improved acoustics.

„ Air is exhausted near the „ Energy efficient system.


ceiling.
„ Compatible with operable windows and natural ventilation.

Courtesy H. L. Turner Group

Displacement Ventilation 75 Displacement Ventilation 76

Displacement Ventilation Details Displacement Ventilation Details (cont’d)

Conventional Displacement Conventional Displacement


System System System System
Ceiling Height 8’+ 10’+ Cooling load (lights) 3,300 Btu/h x 0.13 = 430 Btu/h

Cooling load (people) 5,000 Btu/h x 0.30 = 1,500 Btu/h


Supply air flow 1,000 – 1,500 cfm 400 - 600 cfm
Cooling load (equip) 1,500 Btu/h x 0.30 = 450 Btu/h
Diffuser air velocity 600 – 800 fpm <100 fpm
Cooling load (shell) 0 – 3,000 Btu/h x 0.19 = 0 – 570 Btu/h
Cooling supply air 52° - 55° 63° – 68° Total space 9,800 – 12,800 Btu/h 2,380 – 2,960 Btu/h
temperature cooling load
Outside air flow 400 – 500 cfm (~30%) 400 – 600 cfm (100%)
Ventilation air load 14,000 Btu/h 14,000 Btu/h
(varies by climate)

Total cooling load 23,800 – 26,800 Btu/h 16,380 – 16,960 Btu/h


(2.0 – 2.2 tons) (1.4 tons)

Displacement Ventilation 77 Displacement Ventilation 78

13
Displacement Ventilation Details (cont’d) Providing the Neutral Air

Conventional Displacement
System System
AC size 3 tons 2 tons

Cooling demand 3.3 kW 2.2 kW

Fan demand 0.3 kW 0.2 kW

Total demand 3.6 kW 2.4 kW

Displacement Ventilation 79 Displacement Ventilation 80

Providing the Neutral Air (cont’d) Providing the Neutral Air (cont’d)

Displacement Ventilation 81 Displacement Ventilation 82

Providing the Neutral Air (cont’d) Integrated Thermal Energy Storage

Displacement Ventilation 83 Displacement Ventilation 84

14
More Information on Displacement Ventilation What You Should Remember

„ Guideline TC6: Displacement Ventilation Systems. „ Minimize cooling loads through orientation and shading design.

„ Yuan, Xiaoxiong. Performance Evaluation and Design „ Take advantage of natural ventilation where it’s feasible
Guidelines for Displacement Ventilation. ASHRAE to expand comfort range and save energy.
Transactions. 1999. V. 105. Pt. 1. www.ashrae.org.
„ Perform load calculations and avoid over sizing AC equipment
„ Current research project:
– CEC PIER Indoor Environmental Quality Study, Thermal „ Consider displacement ventilation for better air quality and energy
Displacement Ventilation in Classrooms. efficiency.
– Demonstration classrooms to be installed summer 2004

Displacement Ventilation 85 86

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