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TDC 562:Computer Network Design

& Analysis (Internet Engineering)


Lecture # 6: Network Design Tutorial

Dr. Ehab S. Al-Shaer


School of Computer Science & Telecommunications
DePaul University
Chicago, IL

Network Design Steps


 From customer needs to network
specifications
• Network applications requirements
• Number of users and simultaneous access
• Type of machines
• Physical distribution and distances
 Network Elements
 Interfacing
• E.g., DCE-DTE,CSU/DSU for leased lines, ..etc
 Network Optimization
 bps/$$ Balance
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Basic Interfacing
 Interfaces: RS232, RJ45, .. etc
 RS232C Interface
• Physical interface
• DTE-DCE Signaling (straight)
DTE <----> DCE
DTR ---> DTR
DSR <--- DSR
RTS ---> RTS
CTS <--- CTS
TR ----> TR
RX <---- RX 3
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Basic Interfacing
• DTE-DTE Signaling (Cross)
DTE <----> DTE
DTR DTR
DSR DSR
RTS RTS
CTS CTS
TR TR
RX RX
 Some machines does not fully implement
the standard (25 pin assignment). So you
need to understand the concept and be 4
SMART Dr. Ehab Al-Shaer/Network Design & Analysis

Network Elements
 Terminal
• Mainframes or Minicomputers
• Workstations
• File servers
• Xterminals
• dump terminal (airlines, cashier .. etc)
 LAN Elements
• Asynchronous lines (may be with repeaters)
– mainframes and minicomputers with RS232 IAC
• NIC (direct)
– file servers, workstations and Xterminals
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LAN Network Elements


• Terminal Servers
– for dump terminal (airlines, cashier .. etc)
• Terminal Manager
– when too many terminal servers -- better management
• Bridges
– expand segment and filters packets, but not broadcast
• Routers
– S/W=IP forwarding + routing protocol such as RIP
• Switches
– Hardware (faster and cheaper)
– contains DL only, may be some IP functionality such as
fragmentation, may be al IP in VLSI -- not flexible
• ISDN PBX (DOV technology) 6
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Network Elements
 LAN Elements
• ATM LAN Emulation (LANE)
– ATM between machines or switches (example later)
• Wireless base stations (not covered)
 Remote Access Elements
• Modems
– dialup vs. leased line; Asynchronous vs. Synchronous
• Multiplexers
– TDM vs. STDM vs. FDM
• Dialup (PPP) terminal servers (e.g., Netblazer)
• ISDN links (128kbps)
• DSL (1.5Mbps) -- future xDSL 10Mbps 7
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MAN/WAN Network Elements


 Packet switching
• Routers (the only player in this game)-- next class
– may be multicastable (with IGMP)
– may include a gateways software
 Circuit and Cell Switching
• ISDN, DSL, PSTN
• ATM
– 53 (5 header) fixed cells
– guaranteed service (e.g., multimedia applications)
– IP over ATM
• Frame Relay
– Statistical multiplexer
– connected independent data links
– variable frames (more efficient than ATM)
– widely used by ISP and in WAN
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WAN Connectivity
 Private/Corporate Network
• leased or dial up
• Fiber optics, wireless (microwave, satellite)
+ under control -- important for critical net
+ long-term investment
- headache!
 Internet (via ISP or dedicated links)
+ flexible (expansion)
+ outsourcing
- uncontrolled traffic/reliability
 X.25 PDN (history)
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Rebuilding Your Network
 Reasons for re-building the network
• user growth
• new applications
• out-of-date machines and network elements
• make it more manageable
• adding more redundancy for reliability
 Network Design Approaches
• Designing small network: single seg, < 100
• Designing medium-sized network: backbone
network, < 1000 users
• Designing large-scale network: high-speed
network over number of buildings, >1000 users 10
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Network Design Architectures

Network Design Metric


• Performance – response time
• Scalability – future growth
• Adaptable – future application needs
• Reliability & Availability – service continuation
• Security – authentication and privacy
• Cost – $$/Mbps
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1. Flat Network

 Flat network includes hubs and layer-2 switches


 if A or B connects to H, then Switch 2 learns that A and B MAC
addresses are reachable thru switch 1 and port 1
 Switch must know MAC of all connected hosts as well as the
destinations connected to the other switch in order to forward pkts
directly, otherwise switch broadcast the packet thru all ports (flooding) 12
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2. LAN Segmentation Using
Routers

 every segment have a different subnet ID


 routers limit ARP broadcast into the local segment

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3. Symmatric/Asymatric
Switching

 could switch between devices of different speed


 have the same flooding problem

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4. VLAN Technology

 VLAN is logical grouping based on role (not restricted to physical


switch) using IEEE 802.1Q
 it limits ARP broadcast
 every VLA is like subnet but it does not have to be a subnet (i.e., a
subnet can have different VLAN) 15
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5. One-layer Network Design

 Simpler -- it is used mainly when remote access is limited and most of


the applications/users are normally from the local site (LAN)
 The key issue is the placement of of servers (distributed across LANs or
using a server farm) 16
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6. Two-layer Network Design

 To interconnect sites of multiple LANS across WAN (E.g.,


DePaul Campuses) 17
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7. Three-layer Network Design

 Core layer: interconnects remotes sites/campuses over WAN using T3 or


frame relays, ATM leased from the telecom service provider
 Distribution layer is the backbone that interconnects LANS (building)
and normally used Fast Ethernet
 Access layer is a group of LANs (ether/token ring) that provide network
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frontline access to users
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Designing Small Networks
 Topology: Ethernet, Token ring or switched
 First step
• Is it client/server or peer-peer network?
– E.g. of client/server: NFS, DB
– E.g. of peer-to-peer: Windows for Workgroups,
multimedia applications
– For client/server, Ether and Token are appropriate
– For peer-to-peer, switched network is appropriate
• What is the bandwidth required for the server
• Buffer Architecture
– Shared vs. independent port buffers
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Designing Medium-sized
Networks
 Topology: Interconnected Ethernet, Token
ring or switched subnets in to backbone
• Examples, CTI network (depts, labs .. etc)
 Traditionally, using routers increases
latency

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Designing Medium-sized
Networks Using Routers

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Designing Medium-sized
Networks Using Flat Switching

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Designing Medium-sized
Networks Using VLAN
 Flat switching is wasting bandwidth
 Using Virtual LAN (VLAN)
• notice (1) router use, (2) server is its own port
 Using VLAN to make logical subnets/group
 Using LANE as backbone for
interconnecting VLANs
 Examples follow

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Designing Medium-sized
Networks Using VLAN

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Medium-sized Networks Using
VLAN and LANE

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VLAN Benefits and


Drawbacks
 Virtual LAN
• avoids bridge transparent broadcast problem
• avoids routers latency problems
• more manageable => logical grouping
independent of physical location
• better performance => faster than routers
• better security (has more security options)
 Drawbacks
• limited max number of machines (MAC
addresses) ~= 500
• Switch port does not provide independent
VLANs (all machines connected to a switch
port via a hup must share the same VLAN) 26
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Designing Large-scale
Networks
 Step (1): Where is the bottleneck?
• Backbone
• Network elements such as routers and switches
 Step (2): What domains?
• Physical domains -- based on distances
• Logical domains – based on applications
 Step (3): Intra-domains connection
• What are the leaves network based on user access and
applications needs?
 Step(4): Inter-domain connection
• Interface to the backbone
• Watch out for bottlenecks
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Designing Large-scale
Networks
 FDDI
• upto 500? Mbps
• max 500 nodes and 62 miles total distance
• mature but expensive ($400-$1000/port)
 ATM
• >10 Gbps (OC-3, OC- 12 and OC-48)
• MPOA (multi-Protocol Over ATM)
– to forward between VLANS quickly and avoid router latency
– ATM can make routing decision based on pre-calculated
routing information
– A router server is still needed to build the routing table
 Frame Relay
• links routers, ISDN, switches to WAN (e.g. T1)
• T1~=1.5Mbps, T3=45Mbps
• used with CSU/DSU (from IP DG to frame) 28
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Network Elements Icons


(for the project)
Dump Terminal Router

Multimedia WS LAN switch

ATM with MPOA


Workstation

Frame Relay
Phone
Bridge

Mainframe Fax/printer

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Network Elements Icons


(for the project)
SONET
ADM
Multiplexer Modem
SONET or
FDDI File Server
Terminal Server
SONET
ADM
OC3 Terminal Manager

Internet PBX

PBX
Ethernet
Buildings/Houses
WAN Links
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