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HRM, leadership and change

Operations, supply chain management and Innovation and technology management

Strategy and organisation

Finance and governance

Marketing and sales

When to use

Strategic (positioning/ aims) models 1 Ansoffs product/ market grid 2 The BCG matrix 3 Competitive analysis: Porters five forces X X X

These models help to analyse and plan a company's strategic position and provide answers to strategic questions. The Ansoff product/ market grid and the Ansoff cube can be used as a framework to identify the directions and opportunities for corporate growth. The BCG matrix can be used as a strategic tool to identify the profit and growth potential of each business unit of a company. This model can be used to gain a better understanding of the industry context in which the business is operating. This model can also be used to evaluate a firm's strategic position in the marketplace. Larry Greiner's growth model will help to understand the specific problems that belong to the particular growth phase the organisation is in , and therefore provides with the possibility to anticipate these problems in time. Using Kay's framework to identify distinctive capabilities allows to gain better understanding of the successes and failures in the company's history. It may also help with understanding the value currently held, as opposed to those that are desirable in order to increase competitiveness. The strategic dialogue was developed originally as a methodology to overcome generic pitfalls that were frequently found during strategy formulation. Any company undertaking strategic planning must at some point, assess its strengths and weaknesses. When combined with an inventory of opportunities and threats within or beyond the company's environment, the company is making a so-called SWOT analysis Strategic planners and consultants have used Poter's value chain extensively to map out a company's strengths and shortcomings. When strategic alliances, and merger and acquisition deals are analysed, the value chain is used frequently to gain a quick overview of a possible match. For example, if one company is strong in logistics, and the other in sales and service, together they would make an agile, highly commercial competitor. Organisations constantly question the needs of their customers, and the true value of what they offer. The value disciplines model helps to answer these questions. The use of the value disciplines model often provides new insights, especially when an organisation reflects on its reason for existence and how it wants to serve its desired customers. These models can be used to organise company processes, resources and people. They address important 'how to' questions. The 7-S framework is an appropriate checklist for defining and analysing the most important elements of an organisation. The framework enforces the user to work with a high level of discipline, and at the same time allows for both 'soft' and 'hard' perspective on the organisation. The model can be used to analyse the present organisation or a future situation, and it may help to identify gaps and inconsistence between them. The 7-S framework is like a compass, indicating whether all organisational elements are pointing in the same direction.

4 Greiners growth model

5 Kays distinctive capabilities 6 Berenschot 's strategic dialogue 7 SWOT analysis

X X X

8 The value chain

9 The value disciplines of Treacy and Wiersema

Tactical (design/ organisation) models

1 The 7-S framework

HRM, leadership and change

Operations, supply chain management and Innovation and technology management

Strategy and organisation

Finance and governance

Marketing and sales

When to use

2 Beer and Nohria E and O theories

The basic question this model tries to answer is, 'should the focus (in change) be on economic maximisation and efficiency (theory E) or on institutional culture and stability (theory O)? Hammer and Champy (1993) define business process redesign (BPR) as the fundamental reconsideration and radical redesign of organisational processes, in order to achieve drastic improvement of current performance in cost, quality, service and speed. Value creation for the customer is the leading factor for process redesign, in which information technology often plays an important role. The competing values framework is a model for judging the effectiveness of organisations (Quinn and Rohrbaugh, 1983), but it can be used to assess and define supervision and management development programmes. The study of Quinn and Rohrbaugh was an attempt to gain a better understanding of organisational effectiveness criteria, which resulted in a multi-dimensional scaling or spatial model with three dimensions: (i) internal versus external focus of the organisation, (ii) flexibility versus stability of the organisation, and (iii) process versus goals orientation. Every person has certain qualities that truly describe the 'self'. The core quadrants model of Ofman (2001) can help you to determine, describe and diagnose your core quality. The core quadrants can be used to find out what your strengths and weaknesses are, as well your pitfalls, challenges and allergies. Once you are aware of these, you can more easily recognise these characteristics in others as well. Furthermore, it gives you a better understanding of your reactions to others. When you have a better understanding of your own core competencies, you can gain greater insight into the rational problems of others and increased self-awareness. The seven habits model is a theory that tries to give an insight into why successful people are successful in both business and in personal life. The customer pyramid paradigm provides a company with a mechanism for segmenting its customer base and, in so doing, visualising and analysing customer behaviour, loyalty and value within each of those customer segments. It forces an organisation to segment customers in terms of revenue generation, which indicates how important a customer is. The model should be used as a framework to map the relationships between business strategy and IT strategy, and between operations and IT infrastructure, in situations where IT is very important for realising the chosen business strategy. Internationalisation leads to more international clients, partners and suppliers, and may also result in hiring employees from all around the world. This trend increases the risk of cultural misunderstandings and failures. Hofstede's cultural dimensions model has been useful in creating awareness of the various cultural differences that become apparent when a firm starts to operate internationally. A. T. Kearney's house of purchasing and supply is an appropriate framework for analysing and modifying any organisational procurement function to make it more effective. The framework helps to identify opportunities for improvement, with benchmark data regarding the procurement function, and consequently stimulates professionalism.

3 Business process redesign

4 Competing values of organisational effectiveness

5 Core quadrants

6 Coveys seven habits of highly effective people Currys pyramid: customer marketing and relationship management

8 Henderson and Venkatramans strategic alignment model

9 Hofstedes cultural dimensions

10 House of purchasing and supply

HRM, leadership and change

Operations, supply chain management and Innovation and technology management

Strategy and organisation

Finance and governance

Marketing and sales

When to use

11 Kotlers 4Ps of marketing

The marketing mix is a tactical toolkit that an organisation can use as an integral part of its marketing strategy to realise its corporate strategy. As an organisation can adjust the 'four Ps' categories on a regular basis, it is able keep pace with the changing needs of customers in a specific market segment, and of other stakeholders in the marketing environment. J. P. Kotter's eight phases of change is a systematic approach to achieving successful, sustainable change by breaking down the change process into eight phases. Kotter makes a clear distinction between leading change and managing it. He states that management consists of a set of processes that keeps a complex system of people and technology running smoothly. Leadership, on the other hand, defines the future, aligns people with that vision, and inspires them to pursue it. Kraljic's model is used to determine distinct purchasing strategies per product (or service) that enable an organisation to develop different strategies for each of the suppliers, so that each supplier will receive the appropriate amount of attention. The model enables an organisation to make its purchasing function more effective and efficient. Lean thinking is also known as lean manufacturing, or the Toyota philosophy. Lean focuses on the removal of waste and inefficiencies, which is defined as anything that is not necessary to produce the product or service. In lean thinking, inventories are considered to be the root of all evil. High inventories cover up all the real problems of an organisation and prevent it from becoming more flexible and efficient. If the inventories are reduced on a structural base, the real problems will become apparent, and then they can be solved accordingly. The MABA analysis is a very powerful model for helping companies to prioritise new opportunities. Especially in situations where funds or management time are scarce, the model is a great help in decisionmaking. It is a model for strategic analysis similar to the BCG matrix. The compensation model provides a framework for examining current pay systems. It was originally designed by Milkovich and Newman (2007) in order to examine strategic choices in managing all aspects of compensation. The organisational configurations framework of Mintzberg describes six organisational configurations. These organisational configurations help with understanding what drives decisions and activities in an organisation. Monczka's purchasing model (also known as the Michigan State University purchasing model) is a procurement model used to assess the maturity (i.e. the level of professionalism) of an organisation's procurement function, and to suggest improvement programmes to enhance development, in the form of a roadmap. It allows organisations to determine both the present and the desired situation. Quick response manufacturing (QRM), was developed by Rayan Suri (1998). QRM means responding to customers' needs by rapidly designing and manufacturing products tailored to those needs. QRM focuses on continuously reducing the lead-times of all activities in a company, resulting in improved quality, lower cost and quick response.

12 Kotters eight phases of change

13 Kraljics purchasing model

14 Lean thinking / just-in-time

15 MABA analysis

16 Milkovichs compensation model

17 Mintzbergs configurations

18 Monczkas purchasing model

19 Quick response manufacturing

HRM, leadership and change

Operations, supply chain management and Innovation and technology management

Strategy and organisation

Finance and governance

Marketing and sales

When to use

20 Senge The fifth discipline

21 The theory of constraints

22 Vendor managed inventory

The fifth disciplines is a model that can be used to create a learning organisation. That is, an organisation where people continually expand their capacity to create the results they truly desire, and where new and expansive patterns of thinking are nurtured; where collective aspiration is set free, and where people are continually learning to see the whole together. Every system has constraints that prevent a firm from fulfilling its ultimate goal: making money. The theory of constraints states that by removing the largest constraint (the bottleneck), the output of the entire system will be increased. Searching for and determining constraints is one of the key elements of the theory of constraints. Vendor managed inventory (VMI) is a means to optimise supply chain performance in which the supplier is responsible for maintaining the retailer's inventory levels. Since the implementation of VMI at Wal-Mart and Procter & Gamble, it has become increasingly popular in various industries, and has gained the attention of firms such as Kmart, Dillard Department Stores, JCPenney, Campbell Soup, Johnson & Johnson and Barilla. These models help to change organisations and implement best practices. In addition, this category covers models that help to optimise operational processes and activities. They address the 'who, what, when' questions when analysing and implementing excellent organisations. The balanced scorecard (BSC) was developed by Kaplan and Norton in 1992. The BSC measures a company's performance across four perspectives: financial; internal business process; learning and growth; and customers.

Operational (implementation/ execution) models

1 The balanced scorecard (BSC)

2 Belbins team roles

An assessment as Belbin's team roles encourage individuals to take a closer look at their own strengths and weaknesses, those of the other team members, and their co-operation. These can then be exploited or corrected as necessary, resulting ultimately in a more flexible, complementary, and stronger team.

Above is a re-write from the book 'Key Management Models' of Marcel van Assen, Gerben van den Berg & Paul Pietersma.