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Manufacturing Technology II- Nov/Dcc-2011

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^ Question Paper Code : SS459 ) B.F.JB.Tcch. DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOVEMBER / DECEMBER 2011 Fourth Semester Mechanical Engineering ME 2252 - MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY - n (Regulation 2008) (Common to PTME 2252 - Manufacturing Technology II for.B.E. (Part-Timc) 1'hird Semester Mechanical Engineering Regulation 2009) Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks

Answer All questions PART A - (10 X 2 = 20 marks) 1. State any two situations where positive rate angle is recommended during turning. Name any two reasons for (lank wear in cutting tools List the different taper turning methods. Mention any two limitations of a centre lathe. What is deep hole drilling? State its applications. What is climb milling? Mention its advantage. Wliat are the types of surface gnnders? Mention any two advantages of gear hobbing. 9: Distinguish between point to point and continuous path systems.

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

10. What do you mean by machining centre W.R to N.C machines ? 11.
PART B (5 X16--80 marks) (a)(i) Discuss the advantages and limitations of the following cutting tool materials. (1) Cemented carbides,

,(2) Cubic Boron Nitride. Also state the desirable characteristics of a cutting tool material.

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(8) (ii) WiUltLe help of sketches, expla in the following types of chips produced durin g metal machining. (1 KJootLnuotrs chips. (2) lLnuous chips with bui! t-up-cdgc. Or (b)<i) With the help of a sketch, show crater wear and flank wear on a cutting tool. (4) (ii> Explain the types and applications of di fferem types o-f cutting tools. (S') (tii) Enumerate the factors that effect the cutting temperature during m achi ning, (4) Coi!i (S)

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(a)(i) Describe the special featuresofa turret lathe,, with a line sketch. Also mcnti on any two advantages ot' it (8) (it) Describe the operation of the Swiss type automatic i athe, with suitable sketches. . Or (b)(i) Explain the following, with suitable sketches. 0 )Turret Indexing mechanism (2)Bar feed mechanism

(8)

(ii) Sketch and describe the thread cutting operation in an engine la the using compound slide. <8) (2) Ball screws (8)

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(a)(1) With a neat sketch, describe the working principle of a Jig Boring machine. State its applications. (8)

(ii) Describe the construction of the following mi lling cutters < 1 JPlain milling cutters

ManrafBcturroijTechnology - If- Nov,'Dcc-2011 <2)End mills Or (b) (i) What is radial drilling machine? Sketch and describe it. (8)

3 (8)

(ii) Sketch and explain the hydraulic drive of a horizontal shaper. A1 so enumerate any two -advantages of hydraulic drive.(8)

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(a)(i) With the help of sketches, describe any two methods of


cylindrical grin ding. (8) (ii) Describe with neat sketches a gear hobbing machine and the way it generates the gear tooth. (8) Or (b)(i) With a neat sketch, describe the working principle of abrasive jet machining. State its product applications.(8) (it) Explain the working principle and product applicati ons of the folkwin g processes: (1) (2) Lapping Honing (8)

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15. (a)(i) Explain the following terms with reference to CNC machines! (1) Tool Length compensation (8)

(2) Cutter raidus compensation

(ii) With a help of an example explain the differences between point to point and continuous path type of num erically controlled machine tools. (8) Or (b) (i) Explain the worktn g of a NC mac hine tool with the help of a diagram. Also state any two advantages and limitations of NC machines.(8i) (if) Discuss the fit notions of the folio wing with reference to NC machine. (1) 13. Linear bearings

<a)(i) With a neat sketch, describe the working principle of a Jig Boring machine. State its applications. (8)

(ii) Desert be the construction of the followin g milling cutters (I )Plain mi lltng cutters (2) milks Or (b)(i) What is radial dril ling machine? Sketch and describe iL (8) (ii) Sketch and explain the hydraulic drive of a horizontal shaper. Also enumcraleany two advantages of hydraulic drive.(S) 14. (a)fi) With the help of sketches, describe any two methods-of cylindrical grinding. <S) (ii) Describe with near sketches a gear hobbing machine and the way it generates the gear tooth. (8) Or End (S)

M.mufiacturing Technology II- Nov/Doe-2011

(b)(i) With a neat sketch, describe the -working principle of abrasive jet machining. State its product applications.^) (ii) Explain the working principle and product appli cations of the following processes : (1) Honing

(2) Lapping (8) 15. (a)(i) Explain the following lenu* with jcfeicucc to CNC machines. (1) (2) Tool Length compensation Cutter raidus compensation

(8)
<h> With a help of an example explain the differences, between point to point and continuous path type of numerically controlled machine tools. (8) Or (b) (i) Explain the working of a NC machine t ool wit h the help of a diagram. Also state any two advantages and Limitations ofNC machines.

(8)

(ii) Discuss the funct ions of the following wi th reference to NC machine. fl> Linear bearings

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Part-A 1. State any two. situations where positive rate angle is recommended during turning. The slope given to tool face in such a way that it should be away from thecuttingedg.es and slant towards thcback/sidcofthe tool. In most of the applicat ions, positive rate angle is provided on the tool face.

2.

Name any two reasons for Flank wear in catting tools F lank wear occurs, when machining of bn tile material likecost iron is done. < When feed is less-than 0.15mm/revolution flank wear occurs. *> When flank wear increases, the frictional heat will cause high temperature of the tool at the cutting edge which decreases the hardness and causes failure of the tool. It results in a rough machined surface. List the different taper turning methods? v Form tool Methods. > Tai 1 stock ser over method *> Compound Rest Methods Taper turning attachment method. Mention any two Limitations of a Centre lathe -> Only one tool can be used in the normal course *> Large setting lime of die job is required.

3.

4.

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The idle times involved in setting and movement of the tools between tbe cuts in targe. > It requires skilled! labours and the accuracy of the parts is leas. It cannot be used for mass production for making identical parts. 5. What is deep hole drilling? State its applications. Deep hole d rilling is a machining operation where holes are drilled whose depth exceeds the normal drill size. These operations are carried out at high speed and low feed. Applications of deep hole drilling are; > Used for drilling deep holes in rifle travels. > Used for drill ing c rank shafts etc... 6. What is climb milling? Mention its advantage: Climb milling is otherwise called as down milling process. In this process the workplace is Fed in the same direction as that ofthc cutters tangential velocity. Advantages of Climb milling, are; > The clamping force required is less. > This process produces belter finish and dimention accuracy. > Coolant can be easily Fed. > Removal ofthc chap as easier. 7. What are the types of Surface griuders I* Horizontal spindle Reciprocating Table surface grinder. I* Horizontal spindle Rotary Tabic surface grinder. *> Vertical spi ndle Reciprocating Table surface grinder. > Vertical spindle Rotary Table surface grinder. Mention any two advantages of gear hobbing > It is easy to control the tooth spacing, head and tooth profile, v Setting and operation of bobbing machine is simple. *> Long shafts and splines can be accommodated in hobbing machine. All types of spur and helical gears can be cut oo both metaU and non metals. > Large number of similar gear held on a mandrel can be cut at a time. The production rate is comparatively higher.

8.

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9. Distinguish between: Fuiui it* P-trixjl Palb COHUUUVUA Parti Bplvn The objective of the machine tottl system is to more the cutting t > It is capable of performing both ool to a prede fined location. point to point and straight cut operations. > The speed (or) Path LS not C* It is a complex and flexible important in this system method of tool control's* The path of NC cutter is continuously controlled This system is also called as to generated the desired geometry of positioning system. the work place. This system is called as continuous path NC (nr) rnntnnring NIC system.

10.

Whit do you mein by machining centre w.r to N.C machines? In machine centre a Automatic Tool changer (ATC) is used for performing the following operations like milling, drilling. Reaming, Boring, lapping etc... I he machining centre has two (or) more table named as pallets. Automatic pallet changer (APC) centre is used and time will be reduced. There are three types of machining centres:
2 Hoii^uubjJ SpuiiJtc iiudcluiiJiicriiisc.

> Vertical spindle machining centre. Universal machining centre. Prt - B U-a <l) Discuss the advantages and limitations of the following cutting tool materials. (1) Cemented Carbides, (2) Cubic Boron nitride. Also stage the desirable characteristics of a cutting tool material. (1) Cemented Carbides: The Culting tool made of cemented carbide can 'with stand higher temperature up to IDOO^C. Its cutting speed is 6 times higher than the high speed steel. The major disad vantage of cemented carbide is it is brittle and has low resistance to shock. It must be supported very strongly to prevent cracking Straight tungsten carbides are very strong and more wear resistance. But, rapid cracking takes place

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while machining steels. Inorder to improve resistance to cratering, alloyed tungsten carbides arc used with additi ons of carbides of titanium and molybdenum-etc. Titanium carbide improves the hot hardness and reduces the tendency of chips to weld to tbc tool. (2) Cubic B-oron Nitride : CBN is next in hardness only to diamond fKnoop hardness 4-700 kgt'mg-). It is not a natural maternal but produced in tbc laboratoiy using a high temperature/high pies sure process similar to the making of artificial diamond. CUN' is less reactive with materials like hardncd steels hard chill cast iron., and nickel base and cobalt base super alloys. This is very expensive, 10 lo 20 times than of a conventional abrasive such as AT.Or CBN is a combination of Boror. and Nitrogen. Characteristics of an cutting, tool materials'. The material must remain harder than work material at elevated temperature. > The material must withstand excessive wear even through the relative hardness of the tool-work materials changes > The material must nave sufficient strength and dvcriluy to wiih stand shocks and Vibrations and to prevent breakage.

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> Ilcc coefficient of friction at the chip tool interface must rcmatn low for minimum WCAT and reasonable surface finish. The cost and easiness- offribractson should be within reasonable limits. 11. (a) (ii) With the help of a sketches explain the following, types of chips produced daring metal machining. (I) Continuons chips, (2) Continuous chips with built-up edge. (I) Continuous Chips: During cutting of ductile material, a continuous ribbon 1 ike chip is produced due to Use jues.vui c of the tool cutting edge in compression and shear. These types of chips are in the form of a long coil and have the same thickness throughout the length. The advantage of continuous chip formation are1 good surface finish improves the Ccntinous Chip tool Ii fe and less power consumption. The disposal of the chi p i s not a easy task in contimtouschips The following condition favours the formation Of continuous chip; Ductile maternal lilcccarbon steel, aluminium, copper etc..., smaller depth of cut. Higher cutting Speed. Large rake angle, sharp cutting edge, proper cutting fluid, and low friction between tool face and the chips.
<2) C ontinuous chip wirh tuilH -up edge:

During cutting process, the interface temperature and pressure arc quite high and a Iso high -fh-ction between tool-chip interface. It

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causes the chip material to weld itself to the tool face near the nose as shown in fig. This is called built-up edge ". Formation of a built-up edge in continuous chip is a transient and not stable phenomenon. The accumulated built-up of chip material will then break away, part adhering to the underside of the chip and pari to the work piece. Thus, the p rocess gi ves rise t o a poor surface finish on the machined surface and accelerated wears on the tool face. However, this type of chips having some advantages, the one important favour of it is that, the. rake face of the tool protected from wears due to moving chips and the action of heat. It may result the increasing of tool life. .

Shear plane

Work

Segmental chip
The following conditions favour the formation of dtsconti nuou.v chips: Low cutting speed. *S> Small rake angle. Coarse feed. Strong adhesion between chips and tool face. O Insufficient cutting fhiid. Large uncut thickness. 11. (b) (i) With the help of a sketch show crater wear and fEank wear on a cutting tool.

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Flank Wear thus its also called as edge wear. Friction, abrasion, adhesions are the main causes for this type of wear. Flank wear is a flat worn out portion behind die cutting edge. The worn out region of the flank is known as wear land. This wear takes place when machining brittle material I ike cast iron. It also occurs when the feed is less than 15mmi'revolution. "When the wear land increases, tlie frictional heat will cause excessive temperature of the tool at the culting edge thereby decreasing its hardness rapidly and hcnoc catastrophic failure of the tool will occur. Flank wear results ill a rough machined surface. Crater Wear The face of the tool is always contacted with the chip. The chip slides over the face of the tool. Due to tbc pressure of the sliding chip, the tool face wears out gradually. A cavity, is formed on the tool face. The cavity is called crater. This type of wear is known as crater wear. The major tendency of this type of wear is abrasion between the chip and the face of the tool. When cratering becomes excessive, the cutting edge may break from the tool. Cratering is commonly occurred while machininga ductile material which produces continuous chips. Diffusion of metal may be one of the causcso-f this type of wear. The maximum depth of the crater is usually a measure of the amount of the crater wear. The tool life due 10 crater wear can be determined by fixing the ratio of Too l

width o f crater to its depth The tool wear i s generally classified as follows. <i) Rank wear or Crater wear. (ii) Face wear Hank

Tool wear

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(iii)

Nose wear

11. (b) (ii) Explain the types and applications of different type* of cutting cools: a) Depending upon the number of cutting edges the cutting tools used in metal cutting are classified as follows: (I) Single point cutting tool <10 Multi point cutting tool Single Point Cutting Fool This type of tool has a effective cutting edge and removes excess material from the work piece along the cutting edge. Single point cutting tool is of the following types. (a)Ground type (b) Forged type (c) Tipped type (d) Kit type In ground type the cutting edge is formed by grinding the end of a piece of tooE steel slock. Whereas in forged type the cutting edge is formed by rough forging before hardening and grinding. In tipped type cutting tool the cutting edge is in the forni of a small tip made of high grade material which, is welded to a shank made up of lower grade material. In bit type a high grade material of a square, rectangular or some other shape is held mechanically in a tool holder. Single point tools are commonly used in lathes, shapers, planers, boring roach incs andslotters. Si ng!c poin t cutting tool may be 1 eft handed or right handed type. The cutting edge is on the right or left side when viewing tool from die point end lathe tools, shaper tools, planer tools and boring tools are single point tool s Multi Foint Cutting Tool They have tnore than one cutting edge. Milling cutters, drills, broaches, grinding wheel are multi point curt ing tools. b) Cutting tools can also be classified according to the motions as: (i) Linear motion: Lathe, bonng.broaching, planning, sha ping too Is etc. (ii) Rotary motion I oote: Milling cutter, grin dig wheels etc. (in), Linear and rotary tool: Drills, honing tool, bonng heads etc. 11. (b) (ill) Enumerate the factors that effect the cutting temperature during machining.

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*fr Cutting speed is 3too high > Poor surface finish on the cutting face of the tool *S* Worn (or) Incorroclly ground culting tool > Formation of a built up edge on cut ting face of the cool v FriciJOB between tool and work piece 12. (a) (i) Describe the special features of a turret lathe, with a line sketch. Also mention any two advantages of It. Capstan and Turret Jathes arc the two types of semi-automatic lathes. The construction and. working principle of both the lathes are oneand the same. But they differ in applications. The turret lathe is used tor heavy jobs whereas the capstan lathe is used for light and smalljobs. The main parts of turret lathes arc 1 2 Bed Head stock

3. Turret head and saddle '1. Cross slide

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Turret lathe

12, () (HJ Describe the operation o f the Swiss type automatic lathe, with suitable sketches. This type of automatic lathe is suitable for small but long and slender parts like parts of wrist watches. There is a distinct d rffercncc between the conventional automatic ladies and Swiss type automatic lathes in the latter. Uhe work is fed against the tool Tlte head stock carrying the bar slock moves back and forth for providing the feed movement nt the longitudinal direction. H cncc, this type of automatic lathe is a Iso called a sliding head automatic lathe. This machine is used for producing long accurate parts of small diameter (2 to 25mnf). In this, the parts can be machined to an accuracy of0.005mm to O.OI25nim 1 here may be as many, as Five cross slides in the case of a utomatic lat lie. However, prpducti vity-w ise, the conventional automatic lathes arc superior for short work pieces. The advantage of a sliding head automatic tathc is that long slcndcr work pieces can be machined with very yood surface finish accuracy and concentricity i n sliding

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head automatic lathes, further the Swiss type automatic lathes arc capable of completely machine certain types of parts which may require second and third operations in conventional automatic
head stock Bar stock Tool bracket

Motor Swloc type ecrew cutting machine

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*** slams

Working principle: The bar stock is bcLd in the rotating spindle by a collets chuck. Head stock slides along the bed ways with the rotating bar stock. This head stock movement gives longitudinal feed to the work. All the tools in the tool slides remove material from the work piece at the same time the tool in the feed base attachment may also do operations like dnlling. After Lhc work piece is machined, the head stock slides back to the original position. One revolution of the cams ha ft produces one component. Most o f the turning and forming operations ar e done by the tools held on the (horizontal) front and rear tool slides The vertical tool slidesarernainlyusedfor undercutting chamfering, knurling cutting off. Advantages of Swiss type screw machine: 0. 1. It is used to manufacture turning of small parts. It has five tool slides-

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S. Wide range of speeds is available. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. It is rigid in construction. Micrometer tool setting is possible . Intcrchangcabilityofcatns is possible. Simple dcssgn of cams is enough. Tolerance of0.005 to 0.0125mm is obtained. Numerous working stations are available.

It consists of four major purls: 1. The sliding hcadstock through which the bar stock is passed and gripped by a. carbide-lined guide bush 2. The camshaft which controls the bar stock and cutting tool movements.

The tool bracket which supports five tool slides and a bush for stock.
4. Auxiliary* attachments for performing various operations such a s knurling, drilling, tappin g, screwing, slotting, recessing etc. The descriptions of various parts are given below: 1. Sliding hcadstock: This hcadstock has a collect. The haT stock is held in the collect. The hcadstock slides along the guide ways of the bed. A bell cam connected to the camshaft controls this sliding motion. 2. Tool bracket The tool bracket is mounted on the bed way near the hcadstock. *!hc tool bracket supports 4 or 5 tool slides It also has a bush for supporting and guiding the bar stock. Two slides are positioned horizontally i.e. One at the front and the other at the rear The other slides are arranged above these -slides. All the slides can move back and forth. These slides are actuated independently by sets of rocker arms and plate cams. Plate cams are fitted to the camshaft.

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Infeed cam arm

Tool bracket 3. Feed base The feed, base vs mounted at the right hand sick of the headstock. This can move a long, the bed. Using this; attachment, operations like drilling, boring, thread culting etc are done. The movement of the feed base is controlled by the plate cam fitted to the camshaft. 4. Camshaft The ca mshaft is mounted at the front of the machine. It has a bell cam at the left end. This controls the sliding movement of the headstock . Plate cams fitted at the center of the shaft controls the movement of tbc tool slides. Plate C3m at thexight end ofthe camshaft controls the movement of the feed base 1. Bed Bed as the base part of the lathe. It is a bo* type which is- made of cast iron, (iui.de ways on tbc top of the bed has been provided accurately. Cross slide and narrcl head are mourned on these guide ways. The bed should be strong and rigid to withstand heavy loads, force and vibrations during m achini ng task.

Manufacturing Technology' 11- Nov,rDcc-2011 2. Cross slide The two types of cross slides are 1. 2. Reach over type Side hung type

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(I) Reaches over type: ft is mounted, on the bed guide ways in between 'aeadslock and turret which is also supported by lower rail. The cross slide has two tool posts. One is at the front end having four faces of square turret for mounting the tools Fxcb tool can be indexed by 90 stop bars are provided for controlling the motion of each tool which can be indexed automatically along with square turret for the next machining opttratirw The tool post can move both in perpendicular and parallel to t he spindle 3xis. Mostly power feed is used for movement of the tool post. In rear tool post, the parting-off tool is clamped in inverted position to make the direction of rotation of workpiece anticlockwise wtth re spec t to tool mov ernent. <10 Slide hung type: This type of cross slide is entirely supported on the front way which JiUs no rear rool post. This, provides greater swing capacity which accommodate large diameter work piece. It is mainly used in turret lathe. 3. Head stock

fleadstack of capstan and turret lathe is similar to that of head ordinary center lathebul largerand heavier in construct ion to house the spindle and driving mechanism. A powerful motor of 30 to 2000 rpm speeds is fitted. The four main types of lieadstoek arc i) Step cone pulley driven headsiock ii) Direct electric motor driven heads tock iii) All geared headstockiv) Pre-select-ive stock. Step cone pulley driven hcadstock, direct electric motor drive headsiock and all geared headstock are already discussed in detail. Pre-select ivc headstock: In this type ail geared hcadstock is provided with friction clutches rapid .stopping starting and speed changing, fir different machine operations can be done

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by simply pushing a button or pulling a lever. The required speed of the next operation can also be selected advance. At the end ofthc first operation, the lever is actuated to rotate the spindle at the selected speed without stopping the machine. 4. Tor ret head A turret head haa. a hexagonal block having six faces with a bore for mounting six or more than six tool s at a t ime. The four threaded boles on these faces arc used to accommodate the tool holders. The turret head is mourned on the ram fitted with turret slides longitudinally on a saddle.

$>Wi

H> tee

- Ram of capstan lathe

The ram is actuated either by hard or power. The forward movement of die ram is controlled by a -preset or adjustable stop To index the cutting too!, the ram or turret is returnee to its starting position for tripping the stops. The tripped stops arc locked in position by locking nuts.

M anufaclunni?

Technology Q Nov,T>^c 20l I

Advantages of turret lathes: > Rate of production is high > It has wider range of speed > Cost of labour is less *> More than one operation can be performed at the same rime. Large Dumber of tools can be held Heavier and large work piece chucking can be done.
Tra%orse tor turret position

Travwrri* lor turret podtioo I


Hexagonal turret

Saddle of turret In the

Manufacturing Technology - II- Nov/Dec- 2011 In a capstan lathe, the turret head is mounted on a ram which slides on a saddle, it can be positional on a lathe bed ways and clamped well. Ln a turret lathe, the turret head is mounted on the saddle itself which slides on the bed ways during machining.lt is mainly used in turret lathe. 12, {!>) (i) Kxplain the following with suitable sketches (1) Turret indexing mechanism An indexing mechanism for turret is shown in figures. There is small vertical spindle < 1) fixed on the saddle. At the top to the spindle, the turret head (2) is mounted just be low the turrtt.head on the same spindlie. 3 circular index plate (3) having six slots, a bevel gear (4) and a ratcher{6) mounted on the saddle which locks the index plane. This prevents the rota tion of turret during the rnach ining operation. A pin fitted on the plunger projects out of tbe housing.

ft* <*n

Turret indexing mechanism


An ac tual ca m (&) and a n indexing paw I (a) are tnu ed to the -lathe bed (lO)are the required position.. B-oth cam and pawl arc spring loaded. When the turret reaches the backward position (3ftcr machining) tlic projection pin (5> of plunger (7) rides, over the sloping surface of the cam. So the plunger is released from the .groove of the index

Manufacturing Technology U- No v/Dec-201!

plate. Now the spring loaded pawl engages the ratchet groove and rotate it. The in dcx plate and the turret spindle rotates through 1 /6 of a revolution. The pin (5) drops of the cam and hence the plunger locks at the index psat e at the next groove. Thus the turret is indexed automatically. There is a shaft (11) ha ving a bevel pinion (12) arc one end. At its other end. a circular plate is connected. Six adjustable stop rods (I 3) arc fitted to this circular plute. The bevel pinion meshes with the bevel gear When the turret rotates, the bevel pinion will also rotate. And hence the circular stop plate is a Iso indexed by l/6ofu revolution. 2. Bar feed mechanism: In turret and capstan lathes, the bar is fed automatically. This bar feeding is done without stopping the lathe to reduce the production time. The bar stock passes through a bar chuck of the feeding mechanism and the hollow spindle of the lathe. The bar is held by the collect chuck. The bar chuck is fitted to the bar by set screws. The bar chucks rotates is a sleeve along with the bar. The loose sleeve is housed ina sliding. The slider brakci can slide over 3 sliding bar. The

Bar feeding mechanism

s.hd ing bracket is attached to one end of a chain. A weigh! is suspended at the other end or the chain as shown in figure. This arrangements exerts a constant force on the bar chuck towards right. When the bar is released by the colled, the force due to suspended weight will feed the bar towards right. This feeding lakes place towards nght. This feeding takes place till the end of baT puli against the bar stop held in the turret. Then the collect as closed. In this way the bar is fed without stopping the machine. After a number of such feedings the bar chuck wilL approach the rear end of the bead stock. Now the bar chuck is released from the bar and brought to the left extreme position. Then it is screwed on to the bar 12* (b) (ii) Sketch and describe the thread cutting operation in an engine lathe using compound slide: Thread cutting mechanism

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*. Tl^ead
LH Thr ead 0-Major Diameter, d Core Ola Meter, P Pflch

e
(c) Sample Gear Train
4b) Thread C-uttingi Cper?*c-n

C&r*QQ

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The principle of thread cutting is to produce helical groove on a cylindrical or conical surface by feeding the tool longitudinally. The job is held between centers or by a chuck. The toot used is called threading tool. The rotation of the lead screw is used to transverse the tool along the worn to produce screw threads. The half nut makes the carriage to engage or di sen gage the lead screw whiLe cutting threads. The speed of job is reduced to one-third or onc-forth of the job speed used in turning operation. The work is held between centers and turned s ize of the majoT diameter of the threa d to be then change gears of correct sizes are calculated as below and fitted between the lathe spindle and the lead screw. Thread cutting: Thread cutting is the process of p-rodu cing a helical groove on a cylindrical or conical surface. The necessary condition for cutting screw is that in one revol ution of the spindle (wor k) the tool traverse a distance equal to She pitch of the thread to be cut. This is achieved .by a gear train between the lead screw and the lathe spindle. The gear ratio for cutting screw threads may be giVen as. Driver "Fitch of the Job Pitch of the I cad screw

Gear raho =

Dnven

Every lathe will be equipped with a quick change gearbox Therefore in such lathes gear box is not provided a suitable set of gears has to be found out and mounted at the proper position for cutting threads of different pitches. Setting up of lathe for su-ch worit includes proper holding of the job, concentric with the lathe centers, setting of too! at proper height and mounting of the calculated change gears at proper location. The lead screws get its motion with the help of change gears. The stud gear (of the change gears) meshes with, the reversing gear whic h get s motion through the spindle in the head stock.

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13, (a) (i) With a neat sketch, describe tbc working principle of a jig boring machine. State its application Jig boring machine A jig boring machine is a precision boring machine used for boring accurate holes, al proper centre-to-centrc distances. It is specially designed machine tool for the preci sion location and production of holes needed in jigs, fixtures, dies and templates. The machining accuracy of holes produced by this machine tool lies with in a range of 0.0025nmt. Buill in precision measuring devices for axis movement is another specialty of this machine. This machine is also used for prototype production of accurate parts, production of parts in small quantities where investment in tooling ts not desirable, work pieces like dnll jigs and parts requiring very high accuracy. In appearance and construction. 3 jig boring machine resembles a vertical milling machine but it is more rigid and accurate. Tbc spindle and other parts of this machine are very rigid to resist deflection. There are mainly two types of jig boring machines. 1. 2. Single vertical column type Planer type.

Jig boring operations: In addition to drilling, boring and milling, many other operations such as lacing counter boring, countersinking and trepanning can be performed on jig boring machines Single vertical column type jig boring machine A block diagram of this type is shown in the fig. This is the most extensively, usod jig boring machine. It consists of the following parts (Ij Bod (ii)Colttuin (iii) Spindlehead

Table

(v) Saddle

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The member that supports the machine is known as bed. It is a box shaped casting made of cast iron. To provide more rigidly. J is provided with stiffened ribs. It supports the column sadd le and the whole machine and houses all the electrical controls of the machine. The column is a hollow vertical cast iron structure that supports the spindle head; guide ways and vertical hand traverse of the spindle head. The spindle can slide up and down on the vertical guide ways of the column. There is a quill attached to the spindle head. The spindle housing is fitted at the bottom of the quill, The spindle housing is made of a special metal called invar. 'Hie machine spindle rotates in accurate antifriction bearing, A saddle moves on the horizontal guide ways over the "bed. The table is fined over the saddle. The table can be adj usted cross-wise. Generally the table is provided with T-slots at the lop surface for clamping the work piece. The saddle permits the work to move longitudinally. Longitudinal and traverse motion, to the table and saddle are given by separate electrical motor fiued inside the bed Rapid traverse of tabic and saddle is affected by a clutch Verniers are pro sided for setting the tabie by hand. The various machine operations arc controlled by means of pick up drives Application: It is used in precision tool room applications such a s j ig. fixture, template, dies, casting and other components. It can be used for carryiaigout light milling operation.

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13. (a) (ii) Describe the construction of the following milling cutter: (1) Plain Milling Cutters Plain milling: The plain milling, isthe operation of production of a plain, flat, horizontal surface parallel to the axis of rotation of a p 1 am mi 11 ing cutt i ng. The operation is called slab milling. To perform the operation, the work and the c-urtcr is secured properly on the machine. The depth of cut is adjusted by rotating the vertical feed screw of the Lable and the machine is started after selecting proper speed and feed. The plain mailing operation is shown in figure. F.nd Milling: The end milling is the operation of producing D, a flat surface which may be vertical Plain milling Operation ^U horizontal or at an angle kept reference ter I Mill . ----------- 1 the table surface. The cutter usedisan end mill. The end milling cutters are also used for production of .slots. grooves or kcyways. A vertical nulling machine is most suitable for end End Milling Ope milling operation figure shown an end milling operations. 13. (b)(i}What is Radial drilling machine? Sketch and describe it. RADIAL DRILLING MACHINE' This type of machine is mounted on floor and suitable tor drilling medium to large and heavy workpieces. The most significant feature of bis machine is a radial arm which can swing about a coiumn.

Manufacturing Technology - If* Nov/Dec-2011 Ttic The main pans of the machine arc base, column, imlusJ ui m, drill bead, spindle speed and feed mechanism.
Moft* tar e'*vabr*9 th* *nr
Motor tar spindle

Jh**d

^ I =

>

Column

Bas* Radial drilling machine 1.

Racial ariTt etevattno wew

Base 11 is a large rcctangular casting. 3t supports the vertical column and table. The- top surface of the base is accurately machined with T-$Iots to mount the large size work pieces*. 2. Column Column is a cylindrical casting mounted on Che base. It supports radial arm. drill head and motor. The column face should be accurately machined to slide :he radial arm up and down. An elevating screw is provided on the side of the column to move t lie radial anil up and down The elevating screw is rotated by the motor. 3. Radial arm It is a heavy casting mounted on the column. The drill head is mounted on l he radial arm. Et has guide ways to move the drill head. The arni car. be swiveled around the column. I: can be- moved up ufad dow n l>y rotating an eievato-r screw.

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4.

Drill head The drill head is mounted on the radial arm. The drill head is equipped with separate motor. The drill head is moved along the arm manually or with power assistance. Dnil head has a spindle which carries drill bit. 5. Spindle head and feed mechanism The spindle is driven through a gearbox. Feed can be manual or automati c. Depth settings for production work with sut omaiic reversal is a standard feature. Radial drilling machine may be classified with respect to the movements of radial arm and tool head, '13ic vanous types of radial drillin g machi ncs arc: (i)
Plain type:

The foIEowing adjustments arc available in this type. Vertical movement ofthe radisal arm with respect to the column. > Circular movement of Lhc radial arm about column. Horizontal movement of the tool along the arm ways.(ii) Semi-universal type: In addit ion to the above three movements as in case of plain t ype, t he fourth movement of the tool post can be swung about a horizontal axis perpendicular to the arm This arrangement permits fen drilling a hole inclined at any angle to the horizontal plane. (Hi) Universal type-: In addition 10 the above fourth movement as in case of* semi* uni versa! lypc, the fifth movement of the ra dial a mi is rotated (tilted) or. horizontal axis. 13. (b) (ii) Sketch and explain the hydraulic drive of m horizontal shaper also enumerate any two advantages of hydraulic drive lhc oil from the reservoir is pumped by gear pump It is driven by an electric motor, l hc pump Supplies constant quantity of oil at a'

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moderate pressure. The oil is delivered to the cylinder, through the control val-vc. By changing the position of the central valve ltrver, the oil is-delivered to the right or left side of the piston. When the lever is in the position P oil is delivered to the right side of the cylinder. Due to the oil force, the piston moves right to left. The piston is connected to the ram through piston rod. So, the ram moves from right to. left. It is cutting stroke. At the same time, oil in Ihe left side flows out of the cylinder. It goes to the reservoir through the control valve. When tlie lever is in the position P oil is delivered to the left side of the piston. It moves the ram from left to right. It is return stroke- At the same time the o i! on the right side of She cylinder goes to the reservoir through control valve. The position P, and P, can be adjusted by adju sting trip dogs. The length ofstroke and positi on of stroke is adjusted, by adjusting the position of the trip dogs. Cutting speed in cutting stroke is controlled by adjusting the throttle valve. Full opening of this valve gives more speed. Partial opening gives less speed.
Quick Return

Cylinder Rod

Piston

P/3 Con

Values R$w:ning tev*r

TfvofUe * VblM CNPumo


OttR***rvor

Relief Valve

Hydraulic Shaper Mechanism

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The piston rod ds provided, in ihe lei) side. Il occupies certain volume. So less volumrodc of oil c^iu be filled up in the left side. Bui tie pump, pumps the oi! at constant rate. Hence, when the oi I enters from, left side, it gives more force. During t he return strok e the ram moves fast. J Advantages of HydTJtniic Drive 1. 2. 4. 5. Uniform cutting speed. * Smooth and noiseless operation. Changing of cutting speed is easier. More safety due to the provision of relief valve.

y. Higher ratios of quick return can be arranged

14. (a) (i) With help of sketches. describe any two methods of cylindrical grinding The c ylittdricas grinding machines, surfepc gracing machines ami internal grinding machines conics under precision grinding machines category. The principal of cylindrical gnodcr is shown in figure. In this the woikpiece is held between the dead centres and rotated by a dog and driver on the faoc plate. 1 here are four movements i n cyiindrical centre t\pe grinding.
Grinding

Wheel

Work Traverse Cylindrical grinder

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Wareuficniriftg Technology - II- NoWDtc-ZQ] I i) ii) iii) iv)

33

The work must revolve. The wheel must revolve. The work must pass the wheel. The -wheel must pass- the worlc. These grinding machines are used for grinding plain cylindrical parts, although they can also be used for grinding cont oured cylinders, tapers, shoulders etc. En cylindrical grinding two types of grinding operations are done (i) Traverse grinding (ii) Plunge grinding Traverse Grinding In this work is reciprocated as the wheel feeds to produce cylinders longer than the width of the wheel. Plunge Grinding ^/Feed

In plunge grinding, the work

rotates in fixed position as the wheel feeds

Plunge Grinder

to produce cylinders of a length equal to or shorter than the width ofthe wheel. The gericial tangc of work speeds lorcytirdncal grinding is from 20 to 30mpm (surface speed in meter per minute). Pin rye grindi ng requires vety low speed.

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Plain centre type grinder Reversing Table Ptain Center type


l~~ Head Stock j
work piece-

grinder

/ Lower Table

Base

'. Movement of tbe Table for

Dogs for A plain centreTrip type grinding machine is shown m G gure. It consists of the following - parts.

Adjustable

Feeding \ Table Reversing Lever

Base Table > Head Stock. Tail Stock Wheel Head Cross Feed On plain grinding machines, the operation may be stopped automatically when the work piece has been finished to size. In one method automatic type gauging attachment is used to measure the workpiece and stop the operation at the proper time. 14. (a) (ii) Describe with neat sketches a gear hobbing machine and the way it generates the gear tooth.
Gear hobbing

Hobbing is a process of pet lerati :iy a "ear by tiMrans of a rotating cutter called hob. The hub lias helical threads.. Grooves arc cut in

Marutactxirmg.Techio!-ogy - II - Nov-'Dec-2(l 11

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the threads parallel to the ax is. 'l his will provide llt-e cutting edges. Proper rake and clearance angles are ground on these cutting edges. The rotating hob acts like a continuously moving rack as it cuts. The gear blank is mounted on. a vertical arbor. The boh is mounted m a rotating arbor. The hob axis is tilted through the hob lead angle a so that its teeth are parallel to the axis of the gear blank. Then a ~ (90* - a,) Where a, - helix angle of the hob thread. The hob axis is inclined at ac wit h the horizontal as shown in the figure Note : (hob lead angle90^ hob helix angle) The hob is rotated at suitable cutting speed. It is fed across the blank face. The hob and blank are nt3de to rotate in correct relationship to each other i.e.. they rotate like a worn and worn gear in mesh. For one rotation of the hob, the blank rotates by one tooth, (incase of single start hob)

HOB Axis Though a = (9(J-Beix Angle of Hob) Gear Hobbirrg For cuti in g hehca 1 gears, die axis of the hob Is inclined to bori^ootal by a where. - f* + (90' - a,) (If t?*e helix of the hob and the helix of the gear to be cut arc different (i e.) one is right handed and another is left handed.) <r.= 0 flW- o,) (Ifthehcltx ofthchob and the helix of the gear to be cut are'both right handed or both is left handed.)

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Where. 0 - Helix angle of the helical gear to be cut, a, - Helix aivgk of the bob. Application: Hobbtng is used for generating spur, helical and worm gears. Used in automobiles, machine tools, vanous instrument 3, clocks and other equipments.
Advanta gcs:

1. A single hob with the given module can be used for generating gear with any number of teeth of the same module. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The same hob can be used for spur and helical gears. Operations is continuous. So very fast rate of production Perfect tooth shape is obtmncd. Process is automatic and so less skilled operator is sufficient Worm gears are generated only by bobbing

7 Multiple blanks can be cut at a time. Hence high rate of production. Limitations: _ L Internal gears cannot be generated. 2. I lobbing cannot be usc-d for producing gear teeth veiy near to shoulders.

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14. (b} <i) With a neat sketch, describe the working principle of abrasive Jet machining. State its product applications ABRASIVE GRINDING JET

In electrochemical grinding, machmiog takes place by both gnixli ng and chemical reaction. Tire grinding wheel impregnated with a nonconduct ive abrasive acts as anode and work acts as a catlxxle. When the supply is given, grinding wheel rotates. At that time, electrolyte solution is passed through the nozzle in the grinding zone. Due to this, electrical bridge is completed between anode and cathode. Here. the work and wheel are not made to contact directly. Due to rotary action of the grinding wheel, the electrolyte is passed the work at higher speed. So. the metal is removed by both abrasive and electrolyte action. In case of abrasive jet grinding, only the electrolyte used in electrochemical grinding is replaced by abrasive jet. But grinding process is carried out in the same manner as that of electrochemical grind: ng. as shows in fig. Eroduction of abrasive jet ' The abrasive jet producer system consists of compressor, pressure gauge, nozzle, mixing chamber and hooper to store abrasive powder as shown in fig. Abrasive may be aluminium oxide, silicon carbide, glass powder and dolomite First, the filtered gas is supplied under a prcssurcof2 to 8 kg/ftem'to the mixing chamber through accntrifugal compressor. Before this, abrasive powder is already filled in this mixing chamber through a suitable transportation device. In the mixing chamber, both the abrasive and gas mixture vibrates al 50Hz. Then itbccomcs abrasive particles. Thesi2Cof particle varies froiti -3 O'to

MisniifmriujiTig Technology II- N*ov/Dcc-2Q] 1

40

SO microns. These abrasive particles and g.as mixture arc allowed to pass in the grinding y.oru: through
the suitable convergent ncv^Je So, the abrasive jet coining out will be at high

Cofnpnwaof Air I rid

c
cz
Production o-f abra*tve jet

5?

aiso

rotates.

iso,

uac

grinding of work surface takes place by both ihc abrasive action of abrasive jet

and rotary action, of the grinding wheel. In this case also, a constant gap of0.025mm is maintained between work and wheel. In this process, 10% metal is removed by abrasive action of the grinding wheel and 90% by abrasive jet action. The grinding rate is affected by the following factors:

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> Grinding wheel speed. < Type of abrasive used. 5* Capacit y of pomp. I* <apaciry-offilter. > Grinding wboel material > Abrasive jet velocity etc..
Applications 1. Ii is mainly used in grinditig hardened steel, ceanented carbides. 2. It is used in resharpening and reconditioning of carbide tools. 3. It is used in grinding thin-wall tu be w it hcxit leaving burr or distortion which are difficuIt to gri nd in any ot her process.

Adviatagti 1. No burrs arc produced. 2. No heat is generated, 3. Pressure exerted osi the work is less. - A. It .has no wheel! wear. 5. Metal removal rate is. high. Disadvantages1. Cost is high. 2. Power consumption is high. 3. Skilled labour is required. 4. Resharpening and rccond itioni ng of grinding wheels are needed.

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14. (b) (Ki) Explain the working principle and product application of the following process

(1) Honing: Honing i> a of machining with bonded abrasive grains, it serves to improve the shape, size, accuracy and surface quality- <of the workpiece. One distinguishes between long-strokc honing unci short-strode homngfsupcrOnishlng). in terms of the movement cycles. Both processes can be use-d fbr internal surfaces(holes> as well as for outer surfaces

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(shafts)

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On the honing machine, the workpiece (engine block, bush, etc..) travelsundcxthe boning tooL on a table which moves endwise and crosswise. The Hydraulic honing tool is suspended in the honing spindle with a ball-Transmission aad-sooket-joint so that it can move' and adjust to t he position of the hole. The rotary motion of the spindle is impart ed to it by an electric motor over a Piece steplessly variable bcit or chain drive. The stroke motion is generated hydraulioaily. and can . be regulated in length, position and speed. Because it must adjust precisely to the ax ial position of the hole being honed, the honing tool cannot be rigidly fixed to the spi ndle. A ball-and-socket joint is therefore interposed between the spindlpand the tool {carda n ic suspension).

Ho-ning machine The Ironing tool has four or mote boning sticks mounted in iL The tool rotates snd goes through an axial stroke motion at the same time. The stroke length is set so that the toofi moves upward and downward beyond the workpiece by about W of its own length. These motions combine to form a helical grinding track. Tliis not only improves the surface quality, but also the cylindrical shape of the honed workpiece. This process does not significantly affect the roundness of holes The honing sticks ore pressed and fed against he generated surface by two cones inside the tool. (2) Lapping: Lappmg isa process of chipping away material with loose abrasive grains. Hxtrcmely high .accuracy of form and: dimensions, as well as very good surface quality. can be obtained w ith this process.

Manufacturing Technology II- Nov/Dec-2011 Workpiece Surface

Lapping Compound Lapping wheel Surface Lapping Process Process :


The abrasive substance, consisting of silicon carbide, refined corundum, boron carbide -or diamond, in grain sizes between 18 and )50pm, is mixed with a liquid foil, kerosene, etc.,) and the mixture is known as lapping compound or lapping paste. Ibis lapping compound cbips away material when it is introduced between the surfaces of the lapping wheel and the workpiece and the two are moved against each other with the application of light pressure. The workpiece surface Is wo-m away more mpidly, because the abrasive gra ins lodge in the softer and more porous- lapping wheel and act as cuti ing wedges, against the workpiece. Another theory holds that the abrasive grains roll on tlic w-orkpiccc surface and cause notches on iL The material, work hardens and tiny particles chip off. 15. (aj (t) Kxplain. the toll-owing terms with retcrcnee to CNC machines 1. Tool length compensation. 2. Cotter radios compensation. (I) Tool length compensation: This machine centre compensation type allow the programmer to forget about each tool's length as: lie program is wri ttcn. Instead of having to know the exact length of each tooJ and tcdiousy calculating Z-axis posi tions based on the tool's 1 enjoh, the pio.qramnscr simply instates tool length compensation on each tool's first Z-axis approach movement to the work piece.

Maunjfsic tuting Technology -II- Nov/Dec* 201 1

At the machine during setup, the operator -will input the tool length

42

compensation value for each tool in the corresponding offset. If the tool length compensation is wisely used, the tool length compensation value can be measured offline to minimize set u p time. With this method, the tool length compensation value is simply the length of the tool. (2> Cutter Radius Compensation: Cutter radi us compensation allow the programmer to forget about the cutters, radius as contours arc programmed. Cutter radius compensation, is used for only milling cutters and only when mill iug on the periphery of.the cutter. The usage of cutter radius compensation does vary' from one control to the other. Once cutter radius compensation is properly instated. it the cutter will be kept on the left side (or) right side of aJl surfaces to cancel compensation. Without cutter radius compensation, machining center programmers must program the centerline path of all mill ing cutters. With cutter radius compensation the programmer can program the coordinate of the work surface, which eliminates the need for many

calculations..
As with tool length compensation, the opera tor casi use the cutter radius compensation offset to help with sizing. 15 {a) (il) With a help of an example explain the difference between point to point and continuous path type of numerically controlled machine tools. Point to Point NC.system: It is atsocal led positioning system. The objective ofLlicmachhte tool control is to move the cutting tool tc a predefined location. The speed (or) path is not important in this system. Continuous Path N'C system: II is also called contouring NC system. Iliscapablcofperforming both point to point and straight -cut operations.. More than one axis movement of the machine tool is possible. The path of NC cu tier is continuously controlled to generate the desired geometry of the work piece. a) Point-To-Point (PTP) Motions Statement: There are only two basic commands arc available for PTP motions. They are: GOTO and GODLTA Tl >0 GOTO statement i nstructs the tool t o go to a pujticular point location specified inihedcscripttvedaita. As mentioned abpvc, there are two ways available for

Madu factoring Technology motions, I t - Nov.'Dcc-ZOl1 specifying live statements. For PTP they can be

43

GOTO J P, GOTO / - 2.0, - 2.0. 0.0 In the first statements, the tool lias been instructed to move to a new locatiou{destination point) P.. En the second statement, the tool has been instructed to move to anew location (destinationpoint) whererheco-ordinaccsarc-2.0, 2.0. 0.0 i.e.. X - -2.0. y -2.Q- 2=0.0 Tlie GODLTA command specifies 3n incremental to move the tool into the neiv location. For cxampFc. consider the statement. GODLTA/ 2.0. 2.0, 0.0 In the above-statement, the tool has been instructed to iftd-ve into the new location from its current lecation by 2 own in *lie X-direcliicHi and 2nrm in the v-dinection. while the z-direetion distance remains unchanged The GODLTA command is used in drilling and oilier related operations. First ?ire tool can be directed to move to a particulars hole location witJj'Oie'GOTt) statement arid then the GOD-1. LA command would be used to drill the hole in that location. From the above, the statement can be given as: GOTO i P3 GODLTA/O. 1.5.-1.5 GODI.TA./0, 1.5. + 1.5 In a drilling operation, the GOTO statement is used to position tbc cutter to the particulars location., where the bole has to be drilled and tbc GODLTA statement is then used to plunge the cutter into the work piece to drill a hole. Another GOEH.TA command is used to retract the tool, from the work piece. The sequence is repeated for each hole. b) Contouring Motion Statement: Contouring motions statements arc more complicated because the tools position must be continuously control led throughout the move. To achieve this control, the tool is directed to move along two intersecting surfaces. These surfaces have very specific names in APT. They are 1. Drive Surface 2.. Part Surface In addition to this, another surface must be defined to control the tool motion in con touring.

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1.

Drive Surface: Drive surface is the surface that guides the side of the cutter. So, the tool slides along this {drive-) surface. 2. Part Surface: Pan surface is the surface on which the bottom of the cutting tool travels or slides. So, the tool end moves on the pan surface. It may or may not be the actual surface of the work part. So-, the pan programmer must define the part surface along with the drive surface in order to maintain the continuous path control of the tool-

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15. (b) (i) Explain tbe working of a NC machine fool with the help ofa diagram, also state any two advantage sand limitations of NC machines. NUMERICAL CONTROL SYSTEM Controlling a machine tool by means ofa prepared program is known as numerical control or NC. Definition of NC System A. system tn which actions are controlled by the direct insertion of numerical data at some point is known as NC system. Jive system most automatically interpret at least some portion of this data. A general configuration of NC system is shown in fig. In NC system, the numerical data which i s required for pnoduci ng a pari is maintained on a punched tape called as part program. The part program is arranged in the form of blocks of information. The block contains the numerical data required to produce one segment of work piece. The punched tape is moved forward by one

Numerical control system block each time the cutting of a segment is completed.. Dimensional information isiakcn from the engineeringdrawing. Dimensions-arc given separately for each axis of motion (x, y). Types of NC System There arc throe types -of NC used for rr.ot ion control. They axe 1. Point to Point NC system.

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2. 3. 1.

Straight cut NG system. Contouring NC system.

Point to Point NC System It is-also called position?, ng system. The objective of the machine tool control isto move the cutting tool u> a predefined location.. The speed or path i s not important in this system. 2. Straight cut method NC System This system is capable of moving cutting tool parallel to one of r.he maj or axis ar a. controilcd. rate fox- machining. lit is preferred for zn illing operations. Here, it is not possible to combinc more than a single axis direction. Angular cuts are not possible. 3. Contouring NC System It is a complex ar.d flexible method of tool .control. It i.s capable of performing; both point so point and straight -cm: opera: ions. More than one axis, movement nf r-hc machine-tool ispo'ss'iblp. The path of NC cuitcr is contiguously controlled Lo generate the desired geometry of t he work piece. This sys tem is also called as conti nuous pitth .VC si'S-iem. Advantages of NC Machines 1: Greater accuracy. 2. Lesser prod uc-i oncost per piece duo to- reduction in lead lime anid also setup time. 3. Improved product quality and provision of high order of rcjientabiliiy.

MujwfjK-tunnRTechnology - II- No-v.'jOec-ZOI I 47

4. High fwoductionraWsaslhemachiniiigcondittoniare optimized &nd Che nonmachining times arc reduced to a minimum. 5. Less scrap due lo consistent accuracy and absence of human
errors.

6. Reduced inventory in work-in-proccss (W1P). 7.1. css operator skill is Tequi red. S. Machine utilization is better. 9. Lov/ertooling cost. 10. Cyclctimc is reduced thereby increasing tool life-, disadvantages of NX* Machines The major d-isadvantages of NC machines are their costs and requirements of highly knowledgeable person in this field. Lo-ng preparation time required for each production series. Flexibility is not there since machine is for only fixed cycle of operatic n.

(b) (ii) Discuss the Functions of the following with reference to NC machine -(1) Linear bearings The uni t consists of a bearing block and rail. Two race ways are provided on one side of the bearing block where two rows of rolls

Various - Maurtling arrjngHmntfi a* Llnsar Motion Guldk-b

Manufacturing Technology-II-No v/Dcc-2 011 are retained 3nd caused to recirculate by means of retainer and two end plates. 48

Tbc unit is constructed in such a manner that each of 1hc rows of bulls rolling over the rail comes into contact with the race way at an angle of 45 degree. The race is in the line contact instead of the conventional point contact. Thus tbe ball has 13 more tiroes allowable load, carrying capacity than conventional point contact system. Tbc system is capable of withstanding ctjual load in any direction. Figure shows various mounlin g arran gements of 1 inear motion guides.

Ball Retainer

Cross -sectional View Antifriction guide-ways used In CNC Machine Tools Since the friction as high in the conventional slide ways, the antifriction slide ways are generally used which makes the use of rolling friction by the use of recirculating balls. Atypical linear motion guide using the rail as shown in Figure. As shown in Ihe cross Sectional view, there are a nunitrm of fecircufaLing balls providing nothing motion between the slider the the rail. At the end of the block there are cud plates to ensure that the balls circulate through the rolling tracks. These provide a very high rigidity and very low friction for the movement of the axis. In the view of the low friction, there is less wear and hence these systems arc able to maintain the accuracy through out, its long life.

Manufacturing Technology II- Nov-Dec-2011 Another type of linear motioa device is the use of a ball bush, where the balls arc arranged in the trad: inside o f a busb, which can sJidc along a ground rod to provide the I incar motion sim ilar to round slide ways used in convctuiosaJ machine tools, Figure shows the typical ball bush used for linear movement in CfvC machine tools.

(2) Ball Screws Ball screws arc employed in few mechanisms of CNC machine tools. When compared with conventional trapezoidal and ACMF.. screws, the ball screws provides many advantages.

Spiro Stsrft

Ball Buah uswd for Linear Mowemenrt In CHC ttacfWna Tools i) Low co-efficient of frict ion; It is of the ocder of 0.004 as compared to 0.1 to 0.5 which is typical of sliding friction power screws. Wear is therefore less and there is very little need for frequent adjustment. ii) In a ba II screw, the load between the t breads of the screw and the nut is not transmitted by direct method contact but through intermediate rolling members (spherical balls). The baL! rotate between the helical grooves of the screw and nut in a manner a kin to their function in ball bearings. An essential features of almost all ball screws is the provision of recirculation of halls. iii) By prcloading the assembly, clearance and consequent backlash can be eliminated and the axial stiffness of the ball

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50

screw can be increased. It should be noted that the axial stiffness of ah ordinary power scr-cvv and accuracy of ball screws arc high.

iv) JFTiction force-is virtually independent of the travd/velothy and the friction .at
rest is very .small consequently. The stick slip phenomenon is absent ensuring uniformity of motion.

v) High triinsjTtissidnenrieieacy (2-9 tunes) -which is particularly


marked at low: values of helix angle of screw (2- S) that are typical for power screws. This high efficiency allow larger thrust loads to be carried With less torque.

NUt A

Preloading of a Recirculating BaH Screw and Nut Arrangement

Advantages of Recirculating ball screws in comparison to the conventional type of screws: L. They have.a longer life, 2. Tle po wcr required for dri vi ng i s srhal I due to small fricti on 3. The wear of the screw is relatively small. Therefore, it xviJI maintain the accuracy' through the entire li ie of the screws. 4. The fri ct io-nal resistance offered is small, hence, it car. be used for carrying heavier loads at faster speeds Further., the ball screws c?n.be prelpad^d to eliminate the axial displacement which consequently reduces the backlash One of the method followed for preloading is keeping a -space;between: the two iltc&ias-shown an Vicure. This sacreas'es the axial rigidity of the nut while decreasing the axial displacement.

Question Paper Code: E3134 B-.E/B.Tech. Degree Examinations, April/May 2010 Fourth Semester Mechanical Engineering ME2252 MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY II (Regulation 2008)
Time: Three hours Maximum: 100 marks

Manufacturing Technology II ApriL'May 2010 (E3134)

Answer ALL Questions PART - ( 1 0 x 2 = 20 Marks)


1. 2. 3. 5. How da you classify tool wear? Define Tool Life. Distinguish between Capstan in the form Turrcnt Lathe. A. State the different, How do you classify milling cutters?

methods erf Taper turning. 6. Define Broaching. 7. State the applications of honing and lapping finishing methods 8. Compare gear forming with gear generation method. 9. State the limitations of CMC machine toots. JO. What is a Canned1 cyde?

PART B ( 5 x 1 0 = 80 Marks)
11. (a) (i) Discuss the various types of chips produced during metal machining. (6> (ii) State the parameters that influence the life of tool and discuss. - (10)
Or

12.

13.

(6 ) (ii) Name the various lathe accessories. How docs a four jaw chuck differ from a three jaw chuck? (10) (a) (i) What are the operations performed on a milling machine? (6) (ii) Explain different types of drilling machines with their specific features, (10) Or Ob) (i) Discuss the various types of broaches. (6) (ii) Discuss the common work holding devices used on shapers, slotters and planers. (10)

(b) <i) What is meant by OrthogonalCutting and Oblique Cutting? (6) (ii) Explain Merchant force <31010 along with assumptions. (10) (a) (i) Ihsouss the main partsof turrentlathe. (6) (ii) Explain the working of Swiss type auto lathe with a neat sketch. (10) Or (b) (i) What is meant by tool layout* of a turrent lathe?

14. 2 (a) (E3134) AgrA'May 2010 ManutacUinnq Technology II (i) Give the specification of grinding wheel. (6) (ii) What is meant by dressing and truing of grinding wheel? (10) Or (b) (i) List the advantages and limitations of gear shaping. (O) (ii) Explain the principle of gear hobbing with neat sketches. (10) 15. (a) (i) Under what conditions of production the numerically controlled machine tools are employed? (6) Explain the various elements of NC machine with closed loop control system. <10) Or Ci) Explain the main difference between point to point and continuous path type of numerically controlled machine tools. (6) (ii) List any five motions and control statements of computer assisted NC programming and explain. (10)

E3134 ME2252 MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY II PART - A


/. Hour do you clasmify tool loecw? (I) Flank wear or clearance face wear It is* the wear occurring on the flank of the tool below the cutting: edge due to abrasive action. It is the most common method of expressing tool failure and is experienced with both roughing as well as finishing cuts. It increases gradually with the duration of operation. It is caused due to abrasion when turning steel with carbon steel tools.

(ii)

Crater wear or rake face wear ft is caused by the chips impinging on the face of the tool behind the cutting edge resulting in a cup-shaped cavity which increases in size and gradually approaches the cutting edge from behind until the edge breaks of resulting in sudden tool failure It is usually experienced with roughening operation. Crater formation is often encountered with high speed steel, cast non ferrous metal.

(iii)

Nose wear This is similar to flank wear in some operations. The wear occurs on the nose radius of the tool. Due to this wear, more heat is generated 2. Define Tool Lift. Tool Life is defined as the cutting time required reaching a tool life criterion. It is also defined aR time elapsed between two consecutive tool resharpening.

X Distinguish betuveen Capstan in th* form Tument Lathe. (E3134) Apnt May 2010 Manufacturing Technology
Capat&n lathe Ci) Turret lathe

II

Short slide, fednoc the saddle is Saddle moves along the bed, thus clamped on the bed in position. allowing the turret to be of a large size. (ii) Light duty machine, generally for Heavy duty machine, generally for components whose diameter is components with large diameters, Less than 50 nun. such LS 200 mm. (iii) Too much, over hang of the turret Since the turret slides on the bed, when t is Marine cut. there is n o such difference.

4L State the different methods of Taper turning. <i) Form bool method (ii) Tailstock set over method <iii) Compound rest method (iv) Taper turning attachment method 5. How do you classify milling cutters? According to the type of operation (i) Plain- milling cutters (ii) Face milling cutters (hi) Profile, milling cutters (iv) End milling cutters (v) Side milling cutters (wi) Angular milling cutters (vii) TsloC milling cutters According to- the method of mounting the cutters (i) Arbor type milling cutters (ii) Shank typo cutters (iii) Fading type cutters & Define Broaching. Broaching is a process of machining a surface with a multipoint cutting tool called 'Broach* in a fixed path. 7. State ihe applications of honing and lapping finishing methods. (i) To produce geometrically true surface. (ii) To correct minor imperfections in shape. (iii) To obtain fine dimensional accuracy to provide a very close fit between the contact surfaces. (iv) To secure a fine surface finish. (y) Used in piston pins* plug gauges, cylinder, worm and worm gear, crankshafts, camshafts,, etc.

A Compare, gear Technology forming with gear generation Manufacturing - II April/May 2010method. (E3134) Gear forming Under this roll forming, extrusion, cold, drawing methods axe included Non medal removal <or) cutting process Gear generation Gear shaping. Gear hobbing are employed

Rock (or) Gear cutter* hobbies used to each produce gear by metal removal process Used in mass production but limited It . is also used in mass production for gear size. varying gear size

9. State the limitationM of C7VC machine tools. (i) 71)0 price of CNC machine is very high. fii) Maintenance is complicated. Special care should be token by specially trained people. (iii) Well trained professionals arc needed for writing part programs.

10. What is a Canned* cycle9 5 (E3134) Apni/Uay 2010 Mar+jt*cturIng Technology - Jl Canned cycle is used to define a series of machining sequences for drilling (or) boring lor) tripping etc. The use of canned cycles reduces the programming* length required to perform certain operations.

PART B
1L (a) (i) Discusi the various 4ypc$ of chips produced itaring met at machining. Generally, there are following three types o-f chips 1. Continuous chip 2 Discontinuous chip 3. Continuous chip with built up edge Continuous chip Continuous chips are normally produced when machining steel or ductile metals at high cutting speeds. The continuous chip which is like nbbon flows as (shown in fig) along the rack face.

Continuous chip is possible because of the ductility of metal {steel at high temperature generated due to cutting) that (lows along the shear plane instead of rupture. Thus, on a continuous chip, we can not sec any notches It can be assumed that each layer of metal flows along the slip plane till it is stopped by work hardening. Each of the layer get welded to the previous ones because of the high temperature, thus forming a continuous chip. This, is most desirable form of chip, since the surface finish obtained is good

and tutting is smooth

{E3134) ApnkMay 2010 Manufacturing Technology - >1

Continuous chip with BUE (Built up edge) When the friction between tool and chip is high vchilo machining ductile materials, some particles of chip adhere to the tool rake face near the tool tip. \Vhf?n such sizeable material piles up on the rake face, it acts as a cutting edge in place of the actual cutting edge, as (shown in fig) This is termed as buik-up-odge <BUE). By virtue of work hardening,

felJE is harder than the parent work material. As the sire of BITE grows larger, it becomes unstable and parts of it gets renoo-ved while cutting BUE is harmful while rough machining. The conditions that normally induce the formation of BUE are low cutting speed, high speed, and low rake angle. Higher the work hardenabiSity, rougher is the machined surface produced. Discontinuous chip When brittle material like cast iron are cut, the deformed material gets fractured very easily, and thus the chip produced is in the form of discontinuous segments as shown in fig. In this type, the deformed material, instead of flowing continuously, gets ruptured periodically. Discontinuous chips are easier from the chip disposal view point However the cutting force become unstable with variation coinciding with the fracturing cycle. Also, they generally provide better surface finish. Higher depth of cut (large chip thickness) low cutting speeds. and small rake angles arc likely to produce discontinuous chips.

Manufacturing Technology II AphiMw 2010 (E3134)

Technology - II Aort /May 2010 (E3134) 1 7. (Manufacturing CL) (ii) State the parameters that influence the fife of foot and discus*.
:

Factors influence (he tool life The Life of the cutting tool is affected by the following factors (i) Cutting speed GO Feed and depth of cut (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) speed Cutting speed has the greater influence on the tool life. When, the cutting spoed inctWSM. the cutting temperature increases. Due to this hardness of the tool decreases. It is obvious that when cutting speed increases, the tool life decreases. The tool life will be increased at low cutting speeds. There is a definite - relationship between cutting speed and tool Life. This relation is given by Taylor formula as follows: Tool geometry Tool material Cutting fluid Work material Rigidity of work, tool and machine <i) Catting

VT* = C '
Where. V Cutting speed in m/min T * Tool life in minutes a - exponent or index which depends on die tool and work - 0.1 to 0.5 for high speed steel tools = 0.2 to 0.4 for tungsten carbide tools 0. 4 to 0.6 for Ceramic tools C Constant

10

(E3134) Apn^/ay 2010 Mafhiactunng Technology - II It is numerically equal to cutting speed that gives a tool life of one minute. A typical cutting speed (V) . Tool life (T) relationship is shown in graphs.

Tool:lif6rTfrnjh) In general, a para bob c decrease in tool life with increased cutting speed is obtained. These plots indicates that as cutting speed increases with decrease in tool life. (fl> Food and depth of cut The life of the cutting tool is influenced by the amount of metal removed by the tool per minute. On the fine feed, the area of chip passing over the tool face is greater than that of a coarse feed for a given volume of metal removal. On the offset this advantage in favour of the thick chip, the tool forces to produce thicker chips. The effect of feed and depth of cut on tool life is given by 257 Where. V" Cutting speed

Manufacturing Technology - II April/May T - Tool life f fend in in m/m in t - 2010 (E3134)

11

depth of cut in mm The above equation is* valid/for low carbon steel by a cemented carbide tool. Tool life is decreased with increase in feed and depth of cut. (iii) Tool geometry Large rake angle reduces tic tool cross section and hence the amount of heat absorbed by the tool also reduced. This weakens the tool. Hence, correct rake angle must be adopted for good tool life. The optimum rake angle for maximum, tool life lies between - 5 to + 10 for turning operation. If the relief angle is more, less the friction of the bool on th.e work But more relief angle decreases the tool life because of decreased strength. The optimum relief angle is 12^ to 15\ Similarly, H higher value of Hide cutting edge angles gives longer life to tool. The optimum side cutting edge lies between 30 to 25. Increase in nose radius improves the tool life? since the stress concentration is less for greater nose radius. (iv) Tool material A good tool material is one which removes maximum volume erf material at all working speeds. Physical and Chemical properties of tool material will influence on tool life. (v) Cutting fluid Heat produced during metal cutting is carried away from the tool and work by means of cutting fluid. It reduces friction at chip tool interface and increases tool Life -Cutting fluid which, directly controls the amount of heat at the chip tool interface and it is given by the formula.

T&1 ~C Where, T - Tool life (J - Temperature of chip tool interface in cC n - An indeed which depends on shape and material of the cutting tool
(vi) Work piece material Tool life also depends on the microstructure of the work piece material. Tool life will be more when machining soft metals than hard metals like cast iron and alloy steel. (WI) Rigidity of work, tool and machine A strongly supported tool on a rigid, machine will have more life than tool machining under vibrating machine.

13. (b) (i) What is meant by Orthogonal Cutting and Oblique- Cutting?
.(a) Orthogonal cutting Oblique cutting The cutting -edge of the tool is perpendicular to the direction of Tbc cutting edge- is inclined at an tool travel angle i (known un inclination angle) with the normal to the direction of tool travel The cutting edge clears the width of The cutting edge may or may not the workpiece on either end clear the width of the work piece Maximum chip thickness occurs at its middle The maximum chi p thickness may not occur at middle Three components of the; forces (mutually perpendicular act at the cutting edge) Only two components of the cutting forces arc acting on the tool. These two components are perpendicular to each other and can be represented in a plane
1L. (b) (iiy Explain WiercFtunt fbrc-e circle* a long with as sumptions.

12

<31-34} April/May 2010 Manufacturing Technology - 11

(ii)

(iii)

Civ)

Forces on the Chip (Merchant Analysis) Reference to th figure The forces exerted by the work piece on the chip are:

FQ - compressive force on the shear plane F*S - Shear Force


on the shear plane The forces exerted by the tool on the chip are iV Normal force at the rake face of tool. F - Frictional force along the rake face of tool The Forces acting on the tool and measured by dynam ometro are:

Ft tangential or cutting Force Ff - feed force Angle a is tool rake angle. is shear phiru? angle and p is the angle of friction. Using the concept explained in fig fa) it is now possible to find graphically the magnitude of force fc, Wandf. The vector diagram of forces is constructed us follows CGg (h Draw

Manufacturing Technology - II April?^ay 2010 (3134)

13

F^tutd to some convenient -scale and join AB to obtain their resultant. Bisect AB and draw a circle having the resultant force as its diameter. Set off BE, making angle with force Ft% to cut. circle at E. Join A. The magnitudes of iF^and Ff are now known. Set off n line BG, at an angle (90-a) with Fc (F, is vertical and BBJ is horizontal SDBBr is 90). Join GA. The magnitude of forces N and F are thus known, as also the co-efficient of friction at the chip - tool interface {FtAT). Angle BAG is the angle of friction between chip and Tool.

... (i.

(E3i 34) ApnUMay 2010 Manufacturing Technology - II

Manufacturing Technology 'I April/May 2010 (E3134)

(b) Analytical Treatment Ref fig (b)

F - GH+ HB =AI + HB
or

F - Fj cos a -t- F, - sin a N=AG~DH DI

. . . ( 2)

iV = F, cosa - jTf sin a p Ff cos a + Ft sin a MfltX ..................... Illmmmamii.i ... (3) Now

N" Fr - cos a - Ff sin a


Dividing RS by cog a F Ff+ Ft - tan a H ~ F, - Ff tan a The resultant tool force. R (.equation) Can be resolved into two components N and F normal to and along the rake surface respectively fig (b). Since f must be the friction force due to the exixtencs; of the normal load JV, as per usual convention

Where JJ is the average co-effident of friction between the chip and the tool From eqns (1) (4) and (5)

... <

6)

Ft = Ft cos <> OD Fs Ft cos or o - Ff sin o FQ*A O + OB Fc -* Ff cos d + Ft sin ... {7)

In A AGR ^ GBA = 180 - 90 - p ^ 30 ~ fJ Hence ZASD 90 - a-(90 - 0) = 90-a-90 - (1 = 3-a

... ( 8)

16

(E3134) ApriVMay 2010 Manufacturing Technology - II

Now Ft - BD From A ADD.


<P

BD (Or/'.)
... (9) . 1.10)
... ( 1 1 )

Thus, F,- R cos <(5 - a) and

Fff> Ji sin (P- a)


Also from A A RE. ~ = cos (O + 3 - a) Now from Rqns (9) and <11)

!l _ # cos ( 8 - a) Fa " R cob *" p : a)

. . . ( 12)

Assuaptionii made The above derived relations Ceqos.) are baaed upon the following assumptions: 1. The tool is perfectly sharp .and it does not make any flank contact with the job. 2. The cutting velocity remains oonsdtant. 3. 4. 5. A continuous chip with no-built up edge is produced The- chip does not flow either side. Chip shears continuously across the shear plane as the shear stress reaches the value of shear flow stress.

12. (a) (i) Dxs-ctiss the main parts of a turrenl lathe.

Main parts of Turrerit Lathe* The main parts of a horizontal turret lathe ore; (i> Bed <ii) Head stock, spindle, chuck, etc. {iii) Carriage <iv) Turret

(i)

Bed The bed is a long* box like casting fitted with rectangular way& upon which are mounted the carriage and turret It also supports the heads took. The bed ManrJftduring Tecnriofofly - II Aprilrtday 2QT0 (E3134) provides strength ind rigidity to other parts. It ensures proper alignment of parts also.

17

<ii) HeadsUxrk The hvudstock is a large casting located on the left end of the bed. It houses the transmission (3134) mechanism <gears?GTO etc.) Manufactunng which operatesTechnology the spindle-11 at 18 AprkMay various speeds These speed* are controlled by the built Lo speed selector- A modem turret lathe uses either an electric head with a multiple speed motor mounted directly on the spindle or an all geared head is used. The o|>erator needs only to set the dial to the diameter of work, and the spindle s-peed selector will automatically shift to the correct speed. (ii) Carriage The carriage is fitted over the ways of the bed. Mounted on it is the tool post. The* front of th.e carriage indudes the apron which contains the feed mechanism. The carriage has reversible power longitudinal feeds ranging from 0.125 .to 4.5 mm and also reversible power cross feeds ranging from 0.050 to 2.25 mm per revolution of the spindle. Moat models have longitudinal and crossfeed positive stops which act to disengage the feed according to the specification the work. (iii) Turret The turret is a hexagon on square shaped tool holder mounted on the saddle or carriage on the bod ways The main ram turret usually is six sided, and provision is made for mounting tools on each of the six faces. The turrent can be rotated about a vertical axis to bring each tool into operating position, and the entire unit can be moved longitudinally, either manually or by power, to provide feed for the tools. The cross slide turret also can be rotated manually about a vertical axis to bring each of the four tools into operating position. On moet machines -the turret ran he Tnnvprl transversely, either manually or by power, by means of the cross slide and Longitudinally through power or manual operation of the carriage. In most cases, a rear tool post also is added to the back end of the cross slide; this often carries a parting tool.

The* tools held in the turrent may be used to perform certain operations on a workpiec, 'while* at the- same time,2010 other tools held in. the square tool post Manufacturing Tectnciogy l Apr&/May (3131) mounted on the carriage do other operations. The workpiece having been previously chucked correctly, with these basic features of a turrent lathe, a number of tools can be set up on the machine and then quickly be brought successively into working position so that a complete part can be machined without the necessity for further adjustment or changing tools or making measurements. Operations such as roughing, knifing, tapping, boring, etc. can be performed merely by rotating the hexagon turret and presenting to the workpiece a different too] secured, in the turret, in order of sequence. 12* (a) (ii) Explain the working of Swiss type auto lathe with a neat sketch. Single spindle chucking automatics are designed for efficient production of parts which must be held in a chuck. All the tool movements, and speed and feed changes arc controlled automatically. Parts are usually loaded and unloaded manually. These machines are built with numerical controls or with electro mechanical or hydraulic control system. This type of automatic lathe is suitable for small but long and slender parts like parts of wrist watches. There is a distinct difference between the conventional automatic lathes and swiss type automatic lathes. In the latter the work is fed against the tool. The head stock carrying the bar stock moves back and forth for providing the feed movement in the longitudinal direction. Honce, this: type of automatic lathe is also called a sliding head automatic lathe. This type of machine has the following four mnjor parts Ci> The sliding head stock, through which the bar stock is passed and gripped by a collet. (ii) The tool bracket, supporting five tool slides, and guide hush for the bar stock.

19

The cam shaft, controlling the synchronizing bar stock, and cutting tool movements 20 <31-34) April/May 2010 Mara/tecturing Tecrroto,qy - II Auxiliary attachments for performing various operations such as drilling, tapping, screwing, etc.
<iii)
(iv)

Motor

Single SpJrrdte AufotnatJc-lviitho


c.

-~1.-V/

:i-L Vw

Figure shows the general layout of sliding head type- single spindle automatic lathe. The bur stock is fed through a sliding head stock and held by a collet chuck. It has a sliding head stock which is transversed by a bell or plate type cam. A tool bracket, supporting five tool slides, each slide, operated by a separate cam* is mounted on the ceutre. Tool bracket also contains a guide or steady buxh for the bar stock. Cams are held on a front cam shaft. These control the tool slides and head stock movements. In place of turret slide is mounted a feed base having single or multi spindle for operations like drilling, reaming, screwing, tapping, etc.

The main drive is from an electric motor at the bottom left hand of the machine which drives a gear box housed in the cabinet base. From gear box the f^a/vj'aciurinfl Tocftnoiogy - (I AprilMny 2010 {E3T34} drive is transmitted to the spindle by two roller chains which pass up through the base of the bed. Thus the spindle speed can be varied from 60 to 200 rpm in steps. The operation of these and the spindly clutch takes place from the back shaft and tlius Ihe speeds could bo changed or reversed automatically also. On the base of the machine is mounted a bed which carries the main dements of the machine as listed below 1. Work spindle 2 Back shaft (axial centred shaft) 3- Front shaft (cam shaft) 4. Turret and iUj slide 5. Cross-slide (front and rear) In this type of machine, no special bar stop is required because the headstock itself traverses. The parting off tool is left in the forw;ird position after cutting through the bar in previous operation. The chuck opens and the head slock moves back. The bar being preloaded move*- forward against the parting off tool. When the head stock has reached its initial position, the chuck grips the bar The parting off tool retracts and the work cycle commences. This type of automatic lathe is the logical development of the capstan lathe. These are actually automatic bar type turret lathes used for machining external and internal surfaces on work pieces from the bar stock. The bar is advanced to a stop automatically at the beginning of each cycle and then clamped in that position up to six tools can be mounted on the tail stock turrent and other on front and rear tool slides. Al! these tools are automatically fed at the correct times during the cycle by cams. The various clutches are operated by trip dogs fastened to disc on the front shaft.

21

11L (h) (i) What is meant by "tool layout' of a turrent lathe?


23 Lathe Tootling Layout (pairv*) April/May 2010 Mgndacturrna Tochootogy - II Turret

(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v)

Set up time Work handling time IVfadhine Controlling time Cutting time Tool co?t

(vi) Settop labor cost (via) Lithe operator labor cost (viii) Number of parts to be manufactured Factors (i) to (iv) affect the arrangement of the tools in tho turret and tool holders. Factors (v) to (viii) relate to the cost of producing parts on the turret lathe and thus determine whether turret should be used for the snid purpose or not. The next step is to: <i) Prepare the finished drawing of the part to be manufactured. (ii) Select tool holders and tools such as* drills, boring bars reamers etc, for the necessary machining operations.

Fig. Sample Tool layout - 1

(iii)

Decide length of travel of the tools and position of .stops.


23

<iv> Select proper cutting speeds and feeds for each operation. Cv) Set the work* tool holders and tools -on turret lathe. Manufacturing Technology II the AonWlay 2010 fb3t34)

Fig. Sample tool layout - 2


M2. (b) (ii) Name the various lathe accessaries How does a four jaw chuck differ from a three jaw chuck?

Work holding devices are used eitiier for holding the workpiece or for supporting the workpiece during- machining. Pew of the widely used work holding devices are 1. Chucks 2. Centres 3. Faocplates 4. Reatw and 5-. Mandrels Chuck: A chuck is a device, which, is us*d for bolding and rotating the job of shorter length during machining. A chuck is usually equipped with three or four jaws and accordingly it is classified as three - jaw chucks and four jaw chuck respectively. These are shown in figure.

(3134) AprMMay 2010 Manutactarira Tochnofc^y Chuck is attached to the spindle by a backp-l&te to which

the chuck itself is bolted Chucks particularly t.h> t

chucks all-ow rapid work set-up. Three jaw chuck: This is also- known as a self - centering or a universal chuck. The chuck was' an accurately machined spirally grooved plate (disc) and three matching jaws with teeth that engage the spiral. When the disc is made to rotate by *ny one of the pinions, all the three jaws move backward or forward by an equal amount. This chuck is suitable for holding round or hexagonal and other s&milar shaped workpieces.

hmn - jaw

Pitfb'952r$&o\r Disc.. 3B&teA T^ho^S^)1 Disc-; * v 4:Ghu^&ody. !> Jaw\


F<>ur Jaw Chuck: This is also called independent jaw ebuefc The four-jaw chuck is a very versatile workholding device, aiblc to bold cylindrical as well as oddshaped parts for machining. A four jaw chuck is shown ioflgure. En a four jaw chuckvthe jaws can Iw moved and adjusted independent of each other.

IS- <*) O) Wha4 are the operations performed on a milling machine?


ManuFactu^/m Technolon/ - il April/May 2QJ-0 (E3134)The

MlUing^

operations ao-e 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Plain or slab milling Face milling Angular milling Straddle milling Gang milling G.

Form milling 7. End milling T-slot milling 9. Gear cutting 1- Plain or slab milling Plain or-slab milling is the operation of producing Cat horizontal surface parallel to the axis of the cutter using a plain or slab milling cutter as shown in fig. 1

2. Face mining Face milling is the operation of producing flat surface on the face of the work piece which is at right angle to the axis of rotation of the lace milling cutter fig. 2.

(E3134) Aj'x&Wj&y 20*0 ffonut?ic1urinQ T'feg^otoQy - II

Slab Mill

VVotk item

Work

/ ?7?y j^ /T / 777

Fig 1 Plaiinnilfing

Fig 2 Face milling

3.

Angular or Bcve milling It is the operation of machining a flat surface at an ungie, other than right angle to the axis of the revolving cutter. The cutter used may he a single nr double angle cutter, depending upon whether a single surface is to bo machined or two mutually inclined ivrfaW9 simultaneous fig. 3.

F5g. 3 Angm! ar milling

Manufacturing Tccbnotogv - II Apm'May 2010 (C3134 S

4.

Straddle milling Straddle milling operation is the production of two vertical flat surfaces on both sides of the job by using two side milling cutters which are separated by collars.

Fig 4-Straddle milling

yprk piece

(E3134 ) ApritMay 2010 Manufach.*r ng Technology - I?


(J.'.rjg nr.il ling in the products or* of many a-\juriVLC*j of a

jo-b simuliormiusly by feeding th? table against a number of required cuttern. Fig. 5 shows a gang of three side milling cutters and two plain mining cutters fitted to be arbor This method of operation saves machining time and hence it is widely used in moss production. 6. Form milling It is the operation of production of irregular surfaces or can lours by using required form, cutters. The irregular contour may be convex, concave or any other shape.

Fig: 6. Form rntfiirig End milling It is the operation of producing /both peripheral and face milling operations simultaneously, genera tea vertical, horizontal or angular surfaces by using a end milling cutter. It is used for milling slots, grooves, keyway&, etc.

f^a?^faduring Tech^otofiy - 11 ApriEW.ay 2010 (3134)

29

Ffcg 7. End milling s 8. T-slot milling Killing of T-slot is produced in two or three stages. In the first operation, the end milling operation or a plain slot is made by using an end-milling cotter and in second operation T-slot is made by using the T-Slot emitter to enlarge the slot and to mill tbe bottom face of the slot as shown in fig. &

(E3134) April'May 201C ManufacSurinfl Technology - A

Fig. Gear cutting It involves cutting of different types of Rear a. 13. (a) (ii) Explain different types of drilling machines tvith their specific featuresDrilling Machine It is the simplest and accurate machine used in production shop.
The vv'orik pitete is h<5tld ^UitsOnfti^y ifc- Cl&njiped ill

position and the drill rotates to make a hole. Types 1. Based on construction Portable. Sensitive, Radial. up-righ*. Gang.

Manufacturing TccftncJoov - II ApcT/May 2010 CES134)

Multi-spindle

2.

Based on Feed Rand driven Power driven Sensitive

or Bench Drilling Machine This type of drill machine is used for very Eight works. Fig. 1 illustrates the sketch of sensitive . drilling machine. The vertical column carries a swiveling table the height of which can be adjusted according to the work piece height. _

Fig. 1. Sensitive Drilling Machine

32

(fc'3134!

ApnUMay

2010

Tdanufact.>rJ>q

Technotogy - P.

The table can also be Sevang to any desired position. connected by a belt* one pulley is mounted on the motor shaft and other on the machine spindle.

m At- ibe top nf t_h** m'nmn th*>r<* m two iiullp-y*

Vertical movement to the spindle is given by the feed handle by the operator. Operator senses the cutting action so sensitive drilling machine. Drill holes from 1.5 to 15 mm. These are medium heavy duty machines It specifically differs from, sensitive drill in its weight, rigidity, application of power feed and wider

Up-Right Drilling Machine

.Karidfe

iCc^UITOI

< _

I'

oase .

Hg

a*

34 (E3134)ApnVTv/ny 2010 Manulajcturing Technology Manufacturing Technology - II April/May 2010 (313^) _________________ 33 - il

range? of spindle spe?d Fig 2 shows the line sketch of up-right drilling machine. This machine usually has a gear driven mechanism for different spindle speed and an automatic or power feed device. Table can move vertically and radically Drill holes up to 50 mm. Radial Drilling Machine It the largest and most versatile used for drilling medium to large and heavy work pieces Radial drilling machine belong to power feed type. Tine column and radial drilling machine supports the radial arm, drill head and motor. Fig. 3 shows the line sketch of radial drilling machine.

Or>jlHea > i" \ SB? * . J \7LfP-r>. ! *' -.

mme^r.

~r? -Spind-e

Fig. 3 Radial Drilling Machine

The radial arm slides up and down on the column with the help of* elevating s-crew provided on the side of the column, which is driven by a motor. The drill head is mounted on the radial arm and moves an the guide wayii provided the radial arm can. also be swiveled around the column. The drill head is equipped with a separate motor to drive the spindle, which carries the drill bit A drill head may. bo moved on the arm manually'or by power. Feed can be either manual or automatic with reversal mechanism.

/3. (b) (if Mucuss tJic various types of broaches. A broach is a multiple - edged cutting tool that has *U4CCtfrvely higher cutting edges along the length of the tool. * rr ------------------------ : -------------- V : : _ "Z ' ; Dialer

xrJMilMilllM . .
.1
HotfVcr

W U

4 ------------- -S?09lWQ*e* ^ HeweROX f KiTVf

-nT

%-' I Filing Teelti

R^.eAr^.

KVC
K

Revotw o.

' -"f : *-t2^r


k

j TnoBflprt*

anuch $h&.'p*;ninrj
Typical. CoostnMiar o

Brooch

Manutac:-jrir>n Technology II Aprilfl1ay 2010 (E3134)

SS

1. 2.

Broaches are classified as follows; According to the type of surface broached - internal broaches and external broaches. According to the method of operation - push broach and pull broach.

3.. According to the type of construction - solid broach inserted teeth broach and progressive- cut broach

4. According to the operation performed on the workpiece. Surface broach, key way. round hole and spline etc. Internal broaches are used for broaching internni surfaces. The broach will have the same shape of the contour to be broached. Tor oa-ch shape and size a separate broach is used External broaches are used for broaching outside surface. The surface- may be flat, curved or any ocher contour Push Broach is pushed through thr work during Culling operation. During broaching: the broach comes under compressive load. To avoid bending, the push broach is made short. So only a few number of teeth are available in the broach. Holes axe broached using push broaches only for finishing-. The push broach has got nicked teeth, in the front portion. The rear portion has finishing teeth. Pull Broach: A pull broach cuts the material while it is pulled through the work piece. During pulling, the broach, comes under tensile load. So it will not bend during machiniag. Broach elements: Ordinary cut broaches for machining previously drilled or bored holes consist of the following elements. Pull End: This is designed to permit engagement of the broach with the broaching machine through the user of a pull bead Front pilot: This centres the broach in the hole before the broach begins to cat. Roughing and Semi finish teeth: They remove most of the stock in the hole.

36

(E3134) ApriVMay 2010 Manufacturing Technology - II

Finishing teeth: They are act swing: the hole and must have the shape required at* the finished hale. Rear pilot and followed rest: They support the broach after the last tooth leaves the bole. Land: The top portion of a tooth is called the land and in most cases ground to give a slight clearance. Rack off or clearance angle: This corresponds to the relief angle of a single point tool. This is 1.5 to 2: for both cast iron and steel. Finishing tooth have a smaller angle ranging from 0 to 1.5 Broach Materi-al: Mast broaches axe made from 18-4-1 tungsten chromium vanadium steel, ground after hardening. IS. fit) Discuss the comncon ivork holding devices used on shapers, blotters and planers. The commonly used work bolding devices on these machine tools are given below:
1. T-Bolts and HRmps

The table of machine tools such as shapers, $1 otters, planters, drilling machines and milling machines are provided with T-skto. Most jobs can be held on the machine table by means of T-bo3te, blocks and clamp plates. Fig <a, b. c). A simple black or a stop block (to accommodate jobs or different heights) can be used as the fulcrum black. For round jobs, V-blocks are used for the proper location of the jobs, Fig. 1 (b, c). T-bolt should be nearer to the job than to the fulcrum.

Marmfacturirq Tecftf>o!oay - H .AprilMay ?010 (E31S4)

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Stop pins:

Marmfacturirq Tecftf>o!oay - H .AprilMay ?010 (E31S4)

tt*i 1 (d, e) S. Stop pins and Too-dogs Fig- 1 fO. Hie arrangement is used for holding thin jobs particularly on plancrs. 4. Vises A vise is a common work holding device, ft has two hardened jaws, one 6xcd and the other movable with the help of a handle. The job is held between the two jaws. The base of the vise carries slats or damping ears to fix the vise to the table of the machine tool, with the jaws either parallel or

38

(E3134) Aprt'Way 2010 Manufacturing Technology - II

perpendicular to T-slots. Special jaws can be attached to the plain jaws Of llie vise U> suit Liiv difftl ent conUmrc- of jo be. For rouDd jobs,; Vecs may also bo fitted instead of standard plain jaws. The Swivel vise* is made in two parte. It consists of a round swivel base over which, the vine body is mounUsd. The base is graduated into 360. The body is damped to the base by zaeaas of clampsng bolts. The body can be adjusted at any angle relative to the base and so the jaws can be sct at any angle. IT the* vise, apart being swivelled in the horizontal plane, can also be tilted in the vertical plane, it is called 'Universal. Vise.
If. (a) (V Cirwe the spectficutiun uf gjhulUifs tchccL

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Manufachjrjrva Technology - l April/May 20*0 (E3134) ii. fa.) ftij WrAaf zj mrant by dressing and truing of grinding wheel? With the passage of time, due to the grinding wheel, the wheel becomes loaded zs explained above and this cutting capacity and efficiency of the grinding wheel. use of the glazec and lowers the

(b) I)muliiK uf lilt* K r i u d i i i K w l i t r vl

Grinding wheels are dressed to restore their cutting capacity and cutting properties. Dressing a "grinding wheel is (1) To remove* metal or foreign matter}which has lodged in and loaded (filled up) the pores of the' wheel. Fine grit wheels may load up quite quickly. : (ii) To remove dull grains which did not break off. The dull grained (or glazed) wheel will burn the work and cause fine lmat crocks. The Dressing tools: are most frequently single point diamonds (shown in fig) which are mounted in metal held on the grinding machine. These arc traversed across the face of a straight wheel to dress it

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(E3134) ApritMiy .2010 Manufacturing Technology II


With continu-oos use, a grinding wheel becomes dull, with the sharp abrasive grains becoming round**!. This condition of dull grinding wheel with worn - out grains is termed as glazing. Further, some grinding chips get lodged in to the space between the grit with the resulting condition known AS a lo-aded wheel. Loading is generally caused during the grinding of soft and ductile materials A loaded wheel cannot cut properly. Such a grinding wheel can be cleaned and sharpened by means of a pToce*s called dressing. A simple dressing is done by means of small steel disks wh->rh ar+ fr**o to rotate at the end of a stick. These disk -will remove o small portion of the face of the wheel. Though this process is simple, since the dressing is done manually it will not be able to produce a concentric surface. A true surface of the gnnd wheel in terms of either the form or concentricity can ho achieved with the help of a diamond dressing tool. A. diamond used for truing is set in a closely fitting hole at the end of a short steel bar and is brazed. To do the truing operation, the grinding wheel is rotated and a small depth of 0.(125 rum is given while moving the dressing tool across the face of the grinding wheel in an automatic feed

T4. (b) (i) List Utr advantages anti limitation* of gear shaping.
In Gear shaping, when the machine is started, the cutter reciprocates vertically and parallel to the axis of the gear blank. During generation process, both the cutter and blank, are made to rotate slowly together about their axis. The principle of cutting gear by the generating method has the advantage that with a particular module of DP cutter it is possible to cut accurately gears having identical module or DP. but different number of teethApplications 1. Gear shaping is used for generating both internal and external spur gears.

Manirfacluring Tcchrx>k>sy - 1! Apr^May 2010 (E3134) 2.

41

Helical gear can also be generated but up to Helix angle of 23* using helical cutter of opposite hand than the helix hand required on work piece. Advantages of Gear shaping? 1., The gears produced by this method are wry high accuracy. 2. Both internal and external gears can be cut by this process. 3. Non-conventional types of gears can also be cut by this method. 4. The production will be high. 5/ By single cutter, number of sizes of gear?? can be produced Limitations The production with Gear shaper Is lower than bobbing. Worm, worm wheels cannot be generated on gear shaper.

14. (by {ii) Explain Ihe principle of gear FtoJfbung with newt sketches. Gwar liobbisg The most accurate way of cutting spur and helical gear is by the bobbing process. The cutter used in this process is known as Hob, which is as a rotary cutting tco-l with teeth arranged as a helical thread. A (gear) hob (fig) car. be described as a cylinder with the surface, teeth thread has been cut. The thread has the shape of the involute gear teeth- The hob is most frequently 75 to 350 mm in diameter. Double and Triple thread hob? are also made. They cut faster but less accurate The hob revolves and cuts like milling cutter- It & teeth lie on a heliac like a worm. The teeth are form relieved behind tho cutting edges.

(gai34j Aprit'Slay 2010 Manufacturing Technology - H A

hot i used as a cutler on the g i h o b b i n g machJrvo <as shown in fig) This machine cam cut spur gears, helical gears, and worm wheels. The machine has three operative motions. Hob rotation Hob fe^d Gear blank rotation
-

dotation <yf lhfc (fr'eUt Tjt-rna'TrtaOy.. *hd & g& m f o k l t e ; ! h e prtch bl tn- oev Waofc -r^ould

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-v.>:

Manufacturing Technology II AfttiU'toay 2010 (E313*)

43

The construction of a hobb ing machine is on the line* of that indicated at <a) and (b> vertical or Horizontal, this referring to the direction of the hob slide. In both the machine, the hob is. both rotating and feeding:, Fig shows the action of the hob tooth on the gear blank In their suoocfrsivc positions (1. 2, 3 etc). The hob teeth gradually cut the tooth space of the gear while the hob rotates in timed relation with the blank. The profile obtained consists off series of flats formed by the teeth of the hob. Gears can be cut either by climb bobbing or conventional bobbing. In climb hobbing the direction of rotation off the ho-b coincide? with the direction of work feed. In conventional hobbing the hob rotates in a direction opposite to that in which -the gear blank is fed. As regards advantages and applications of gear hobbing, it is most used method of making gears. It- is fairly quick to set up.' Hobbing can also be used to make Helical gears, worm gears, sprockets, splines etc. 15 (a) (i) Under it'fiat conditions of production the numerically controlled machine tools are employed? 1. Optimization of cutting tool life and quality of jobs. 2. Possibility of making parts which are impossible in conventional machining .systems. 3. Quick and more accurate inspection and machining systems direction of error in design. 4. The NC machines has Greater Accuracy and I-ower tooling cost. 5. Due to the absence of Human errors - I-ess scrap due to the accuracy of job. 6. Improved product quality. 7. Mochining time utilization is better. 8. Lesser production cost per piece. 9. - Reduced in process - Inventor}*. 10. Reduced s e t - u p Time.

44

(E3134) Aipl/Kfay 2010Manufacturing Tocfrrotogy - II

IS (aP {ii) Explain the various elements of NC machine uith closed loop control system Main components of PTC system arc (a) Program of Instruction. (b) Controller unit or machine control unit. (c) Machine Tool. (<1) Servo mechanism and drive unit. (e) Control panel.

Convim Ho031A1C

*/. NC-NC Oewle. i-S<rn*ti Ontres MVacMne Ted. COaa^ ; ^.;;

Manufacturing Technology II AfttiU'toay 2010 (E313*)

45

(a)

Program of Instructions The program of Instructions is prepared by part programmer The program of instructions is the detailed atop by step set of directions which tell the machine tool what to do. It is coded in numerical or symbolic form on some type of input medium that can bo interpreted by the controller unit (as shown in fig)

Manufactumq Technology - il AprilMay 2010 (E3T34)

The most common input medium today is 25 mm wide punched tape Numbers, letters and symbols gathered together and logically organized to direct a machine -tool for specific task are called NC program >TC program is interpreted by the controller unit and accordingly instruction ore fod to the machine tool to perform all the required movements that produce a finished part.

(b)

Controller unit or Machine Control Unit (MCU) The controller unit consists of the electronics and hardware that read and interprets the program of instructions fNC program) and convert it into mechanical actions of the machine tool. The typical elements of a conventional NC controller unit include (i) The tape reader (ii) Signal output channels to the machine tool (iii) A data buffer (hr) Feed back channels from the machine tool, and (iv) The sequence controls to co-ordinate the over all operation of the foregoing elements. The (ape reader is a device for winding and reading the punched tape containing the program of inmructious. The data contained on the tape are read in the data buffer. The purpose of this device is to store the input instructions in logical blocks of information. Signal output channels are connected to tho servomotors and other controls in the machine tool Sequence control co-ordinates the activities of the other elements of the controller unit. The tape reader ia activated to read data in to the butter from the tape, signals are- sent to and from the machine tool and so on. This type of operation must be synchronized and this is the function of the sequence control*.

(c)

Machine tool Machine tool is that part of NC system which performs useful work of converting raw material in to finished component. Machine tool is used to perform machining operations It consists of the work table spindle, cutting tools, works fixtures and other auxiliary equipment needed in the machining operation.

<d) Servomechanism and drive unit

48

(3134) ApriF/fly 2010 Mani/tectunng Technology II

A servomechanism is a group of elements which convert the MC input in to precision mechanical displacements of machine tool parts. The elements include motor*, gear trains, and transducers.

(e) Control panel The control paneL may be a part of the controller unit or of the machine tool. The control panel also known console con tains the dials and switches by which the machine operator runs the NC system. As the NC is automatic, the human operator is still needed. Ci) To turn the machine ON or OFF (ii) (iii) To change tools ajid To load and unload the machine etc To be able to discharge these duties, and this is done through the control panel.

Closed loop control system If there is a feed hack device to compare and correct the actual position of tod slide with the desired one, it is known as closed loop control system.

Manufacturing Tecfr-dogy - H ApdWtay 2010 (3134)

Fig. Closed loop control system with tachometer and encoder

47

A control system Ln which movement of the machine slide is checked and corrected with respect to input signals and mainly by the signals from feed back devices, is known as closed loop control system. There arc two signals to drive a stepper motor. One signal is a command signal by which the servomotor is driven. Onto the muchine slide starts moving, another signal is generated by the position sensor known as Transducer. Transducer is used to indicate whether desired position is attained or not. The above two signals are compared in the Comparator Device known (is Differential Analyser and it produces new electrical signal proportional to the difference between the two. This new signal is sent to the servo motor through an amplifier to move the machine slide in a direction to reduce the difference (to reduce the errorJ. This loop is repeated (do-looped> until the difference between the input signal and feedback signal to be zero. At this point, the comparator output becomes zero and the machine slide occupies the correct position. Tie inertia effects of machine slide la also taken care of by this closed loop control systems.

In closed loop control system moasun^s the actual position of slide And its velocity and compares them it with tie -desired position suid desired velocity respectively. The difference between the actual and the desired values is the error and this control system eliminates the error. This closed loop control id used for obtaining higher degree of accuracy. Most of the contouring (continuous path) systems are controlled by this dosed loop systems. /5. (i>) (i) Explain the main difference heticeen paint to point and continuous path type of numerically controlled machine tools.

48

(3134) AprflMay 2010teanufactu nag Tec^rologrv - H

(i)

Positioning system or (FTP) point-to point system Its primary purpose - is to move a tool or work piece from one programmed point to another for an operation such as drilling a holeThe speed or path by which this movement from one point to an>tl>er is accomplished is no-t important to point - to -point NC. NC drill presses are a good example of PTP system s. FTP system is suitable for hole machining, operations, such as drilling, counter boring, and tapping Hole pundiing machines, spotc welding machines and assembly machines also use PTP NC -systems.

Cii) Contouring system Contouring is the most complex. the* most flexible and the most expensive type of machine tool controL Contouring NC system are capable of directing the tool or work piece to move at any angle and also along curved paths. Many contouring NC machines, such as lathes and vertical milling machines, are of two axis types. This allows continuous path contours to be rraa-cbincd only in the XY planes Three-axis machines are capable of simultaneous cutting movements in all three axis, such as is reamred for machining thrp*-dimn<riona1 sbitpo* in. die and mould cavities. Milling and turning operations are common examples of the use of contouring control. For machining a curved path (Fig shows) the direction of the feed rate must continuously be changed so as to follow the path. This is accomplished by breaking: the curved path in to very short straight

Manufacturing Technology - II April/May 2010 (E3134) 49 line segments that approximate the curve. Then the tool is commanded to machine each segment in succession. What results, is a machined outline that closely approaches the desired shape-. The maximum error between the two can be controlled by the length of the individual line segmeut.

SO ___________ (E3134) ApnTMay 20^0 Manufacturing Technology -11


Fig. Approximation of a curved path in NC by 2 series of straight line segments

IS. (b) (id) List any five motions and control statements of computer assisted iVC prrpgramminfi and cjcplain APT is the three dimensional system that can be used to control up to five axes. APT' can be used to control a variety of different machining operations. There are four types of statements in the APT language. 1. Geometry statement 2. Motion statement 3 Postprocessor statement 4. Auxiliary statement GEOMETRY Art.JU*STATEMENT To program in. APT', the workpart geometry must first be defined. Tim tool i3 subsequently directed to move to the various point location and along surfaces of the work part which have been defined by these geometry statements.

Manufactjrcnfi Technology 41 April/May 2010 (E313-4)

51

The general form of the APT geometry statement is this Symbol = geometry type/d escri ptive data An example of such a statement as

*>: v*.

- r!. | -

' ,..L ? .............................................. 50.0000 > V*!: Fig.

PI = POIN-T/50, 50, 0 The statement is made up of three sections. The first is the symbol used to identify the geometric element. A symbol can be any comb ination of six or fewer alphabetic and numeric characters. Atleast one of six must be an alphabetic character Also, although it may seem obvious, the symbol cannot be one of the APT vocabulary words. The second section of the geometry statement is an APT vocabulary word Lhat identifies the type of geometry element. Beside POINT, other geometry elements in the APT vocabulary include LINE. PLANE and CIRCLE, The third section nf the geometry Statement comprises tho descriptive data that define the element precisely, completely and uniquely. Those data may include quantitative dimensional and positional data, previously defined geometry elements, and other APT words. There many other ways to denote r.he point. They are as follows:

52

(3134) April/May 2 0 X0 Manufacturing Tecftnoiojy - [I

1. Intersection of two lines

ManuTactunnq lecbncioay II AprtL^ay 2010 (3134)

53

PI = PODST/YLARGE. IXFOK, Cl, C2 4. Polar coordinate in coordinate plane

PI POINT/RTHETA.YZ PLAN. 27, 7914. $ 5. On a circle -at an'angle with x axis

PI = POLNT/CIRCLE, ATANGL. 30 Similarly lines and circles can be denoted in APT language. For denoting lines the following expxession can bo used; LI = UNE/POINT i, POINT 2

54.

(1:3134) AphWay 2010 Manufacturing Tochnoftooy - II

Ad for denoting circle the following expression can be used <SYMBOL>-CrRCUy<PARAMRTKIC STRING> EMENT APT motion statements have a general format, just as the geometry statements do. The general form-of a motion statement is Motion command/descriptive data An example of a motion statement is GOTO/PI (PI = POINT/50.50)

Fig. The statement consists of two sections separated by a slash. The first section is the basic motion command, which tells the tool what to do. The second section is comprised of descriptive data, which tel! the tool where to go. Id the example statement above, the too] is commanded to go to point PI, which has been defined in a preceding geometry statement The GODLTA command specifies an incremental move for the tool. The example, the statement GODLTA/2.0, 7.0. 0.0 instructs the tool to move from its present position 2 in the x direction and 7 in the y direction. CONTOURING MOTIONS Contouring commands arc some what more complicated because the tools position must be continuously oontro11-d thro-ughouc the move. To accomplish, this control,, the tool is directed along cwo intersecting surfaces. These surfaces have very specific means in APT: I. Drive surface: This is the surface that guides the side of the cutter. 2 Part surface: This is the surface on which the bottom. of the cutter rides. The pare programmer must define this plus the drive surface for the purpose

Manufacturing Technology H April/May 2Q10 (E3134]

55

of maintaining continuous path control of the tool. Check surfaces: This is the surface that scops the mo vement of the tool in its* current direct io-n. In a sense, it checks the forward movement of the tool. The APTR contour motion statement commands the cutter to move along the drive and part surfaces and the movement ends when the tool is at the check surface. There sir enotioo oommitnd words: GOLFT, GOFWD, GOUP, GORGT, G-OBACK, GODOWN POSTPROCESSOR STATEMENT To write a complete program, statement must be written that control the operation of the spindle, the feed, and other features* of the machine tool. These are called postprocessor statements. Some of the common postprocessor statements that appear in the appendix at the end of the chapter arc: COOLNTA RAPID. END. SPINDL/, FEDRAT/, TLTRRENTA MACKINA The postprocessor statements, and the auxiliary statements in the following section, are of two forms either with or without he slash. The statements with the slash are self-contained. The API* words with the slash require descriptive data after the slash. For example The FEDRAT stands for feed rate and the interpretation of fed differs for different machining operations. In a drilling operation the feed is in the direction of the drill bit axis. 3.

56

(E31341 Apni/May 2010 Manufacturmj Technology - II

AUXILIARY STATEMENTS The complete APT program roust also contain various other statements, called auxiliary statements These are used for cutter size definitions, part identification, and so on. The following APT words used in auxiliary statements are defined in the appendix Co this chapter: m.p-RNT. INTOl/. CUTTER. OUTTOL/. FINI, PARTNO cutter/500 would instruct the APT program that the cutter diameter is 0.500 in. Therefore the tool path must be offset ^omt eh part outline by 0.250 in. fcOMPLfCA'JLON CONTROL COMMANDS This segment covers various statements that normally prepare the computer for accepting the part program, improve the readability of the part program and control the output of the computer. PARTNQ/rlitera] string> The PARTNO is used as an identification of the part program and as such should form the very first statement in the part program. The FBCI statement is the physical end of the part program and should always be present at the end of any program. For NC motion and control statements, G and W codes also he used. List of (3-codt** (Motion) Statements:

Manufacturing TecHnocpgy II Aprd/May 3010 (3134)


' Corollary in/6

57

Code GOCK

I>**r!ciptioii ftapic position ir-tf

Milling CM) M

rarnina <T) T

oc 2- or 3-accs moves, GOO < unlike G01) * . \ ck>e-a not n*c***aril.y mow in a sin^U straight din* between start point and riad point it move* eacb axirot IU max xpeetl until .eta vector is achiewd Shorter vnter usually finish** first giwn similar a*l* speeds)

G01

Linear interpolation

Tbe moat common vrorkhoew code for feeding during a cut Tlie program spccj che start and \ ood pccnts. And tbe control "^^mitociaticaily c Adulates <mterpol*te) the intermediate point* to pavs through tb*x will yield > straight linen Qwrtce 'linear*) Toe ooutml tboo c aJcnJat**th* angular vtktfatie* at which to Cum tbe suds lead screws. Tb* computer perform* thousands of calculations per second. 002 Circular int^iyjlalioo. Clockwise M T / Ouuiot star: JM1 or G42 an cm ox QOS' modes. Mu FT already b* compensated in rarbrj G-0L block. T. Ccjxnot start 041 or G42 in G02 os G03 modes. Must airoariy be compeniAUd in iHinr Of)l Klork

G03 Circular interpolation. couzLterdodw tse Dwell

G04

T Takes an address for dweL period (nay be X. U, or P)

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Manufacturing TecHnocpgy II Aprd/May 3010 (3134)

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[3134} AfwiyMay 2010 Ma/iufacturinq Technology - H


Description M&ehiB* coordinate Milling Turning IT) T Corollary info -

W)

ayvtxtn

7ak*n absolute coordiulco QC. "V, 7-. A. B. . C) with rrfciroor to machine rero rather than program reTO. Cox be helpful for tool changes NtanaxxLal and absolute only. Subsequent blocks are tnterp/eCcd as Wade to 064* even if it is rvot explicitly programmed M T Have Largely replaced position ragfrter (^5<T"incl G92K Each txiple of \m r^Tfe'-s r*lm.trs program tei*> dirvcllx machine tero Standard is G tuples (G64 to G59>. w*th optiOTinl extenu bilitj to 48 blow ria CS4.1 PI td P.

054 CSS

to Work coordiiuire STStC2Q2S <WCSs>

LJnt of M-codcs (Control) Statement


Code *(00 Dt*&cri ptinn Compulsory stop Milling (M) M Turning <T) T Non-optional machine will always stop upon reaching MOO in the program execution U01 Optional stop *1 T Machine will ooLy stop at VIO1 if operator hfiu pushed the optional *to*> button *(02 Eud of program M T No ret ora to program top; may or may hot reset nrgiat-er value*. MIA MI* Spindle rotatac> on <cl<ttkwi*e M M T T Corollary Info

Spindle on -counter clockwise rotaUon)

Manufacturing Technofogy - II ApntTMay 2010 (3*34)

61

Code MOft M(X>

Dficripoon Spinide.stop Automatic looC change <ATC)

Milling rM) M M

Txirni nK .m T T (.oroetu&ee )

Corollnrjr in/a ./

Many Lathe*; -do out 1 use MQ6 because tbe T nddmsa itself indmce* tbe tucr4.-Tcr undartaxGT b<ow tbo T oridreM work* and bo* it interaeta^or out) with MOj0y cw must study the- va/iuufl method* nath'frr-lathe turreot prccremiatng ATC faced tool selection, ATC random rnetnorry tool jnJactinti, -tbe concept of "next tool WSJtlflg", a&d empty tool* Programming n any " particular snnchim* tooi requires knowing which method that j&adhi^c uses M09 -V CooUrvd off !MI3 'SpiocUc oa (clockwioe rotation) and ooolant on (floods M Tfcl&apje M code doe# the woc~of both M03 and M08. It m not wmiu3 fox specific maxbdmr model/, to have such combined commands. which nut lor far shorter, more quickly* written programs. M T> Tor macbinine centers with pallet i-Ksngrrg

j&o MW)

Knd of program with return to frrccrain top Automat*: pallet change (APC)

62
Cod* M98

<r3134) AprilrMay 2C1Q Manufactunr>3 Technology H


rV^cription Subprogram call Milling tWT) M Turning (T) T Taiea an fddrtza P u> specify which sutogonuQ \o cli, Car ran pie. *! P8S79coJlf sab program 06979. Corollary Info

T 3343 B.E/B-Tech. DEGHEE EXAMINATION, APRIL/MAY 2008 Third Semester (Regulation 2004) Mechanical Engineering ME 1203 - MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY II (Common to B.E. (Part-Time) Second Semester Regulation 2005)
Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks

Answer ALL questions. PART A (10x2 = 20 marks)


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. List out the difference between orthogonal cutting and oblique cutting. Write short notes on flank wear and crater wear of a single point cutting tool? State the need fo-r tumbler gear mechanism. Differentiate capstan and turret lathe. Mention the difference between shaper and planer. I jst out the situation where reaming operation is required.

Compare and contrast the gear generation process with gear forming process. S. A grinding wheel in specified as A 24 K 7 V. What does each letter indicates? 9. Differentiate between fixed zero and floating zero in CNC terminology. 10. Write short notes on point interpolation system. PART B (5x16 = 80 marks) 11. ta) (i) The Eife of a turning tool obtained was 40 minutes and 25 minutes at cutting speed SO m/min and 100 m/min respectively. Determine the tool life at 40 m/min and 120 m/min. <10)

(ii) State the functions of cutting fluids and their types

- (6) MT Apr / May 2008 - Question Paper Solved

Or <b) Draw the merchants circle and derive the relationship between various cutting forces. . (16) 12. (a) Discuss any four work holding device applicable in lathe. (16) Or (b) Explain turret indexing mechanism and bar feeding mechanism applied in automatic lathe? (16) 13. (a) (i) Describe with a neat sketch, the quick return mechanism of a shaper. (16) (ii) Explain the various drill holding devices. (6) Or Ob) (i) Differentiate the up milling from down milling process. (4) (ii) Discuss about index milling, screw thread milling and end milling operation. (12) 14. la) (i) Discuss the three types of feed in ccatreless grinding machine.(10) (ii) Explain about the glazing and dressing of a grinding wheel.6) Or fb) (i) Explain the principle of broaching operation with neat sketch. > (6) (ii) Draw and explain the broach tool. (10) 15. (a) (i) Discuss the importance of slant bed CNC lathe? Write short notes on Tool magazine. Automatic tool changer and Palette (12) Or fb) (i) Explain the APT system configuration with a neat block diagram. <8)

fii) Writ* the part program for the workpiece shown in figure 1. Material : Aluminum Workpiece Size : lOChnm x 80mm x 15mm Manufacturing Tcctmciogy * H

(8) 3

*1

MT Apr / May 2008 - Question Paper Solved

T3343 PART A - ( 1 0 x 2 - 2 0 marics)


1.

List out the difference between orthogonal cutting and oblique cutting.

Orthogonal cutting Oblique cutting <) The cutting edge of the tool is perpendicular to the direction of tool The cutting edge is inclined at an angle i (known as inclination angle) travel with the normal to the direction of tool travel. (ii) The cutting edge clears the width of The cutting edge may or may not dear the woTfcpicce on either end. the width of the work piece. Cni) Maximum chi p thickness occurs at The maximum chip thicknens may its middle. not occur at middle. <iv) Three components of the forces (mutually perpendicular act at the Only two components of the cutting cutting edge). forces are acting on the tool. These two components are perpendicular to each other and can be represented in a plane.

2. Write short notea on flank wear and crater wear of a single point cutting tool? Flank Wear or Clearance Pace Wear It as the wear occurring on. the flank of the tool below the -cutting edge due to abrasive action- It is the most common method of expressing tool failure and is experienced with both roughing as well as finishing cuts. It increases gradually with

the duration of operation. It is caused due to abrasion. eg> wtim turning steel 3tomjfactuof*q Tccflnotogy - II 5 with carbon steel tools. <ii) Crater wear or rake face wear It is caused by the chips impinging on the face of the tool behind the cutting edge resulting in a cup-shaped cavity which increases in size and gradually approaches the cutting edge from behind until the edge breaks of resulting in sudden tool failure. It is usually experienced with roughening operation. Crater formation is often encountered with high speed steel, cast nonferrous metal. 3.

State the need for tumbler gear mechanism.

Tumbler gears are used to give the desired direction of movement to the lathe -carriage, via lead screw or the feed shaft. The tumbler gearing comprises of two pinions mounted on a bracket. The bracket is pivoted about the 1st stud shaft. The design provides three positions of the bracket. Forward, Neutral and Reverse. By using the bracket of gears, the directions arc moved cither forward or reverse direction.
4. IHfferentiate capstan and turret lathe.

Capstan lathe <i)

Turret lathe

Saddle moves along the bed, thus Short slide, since the saddle is allowing the turret to l>e of a large damped on the bed in position size. ; (ii) : Light duty machine, generally for Heavy duty machine, generally for components whose diameter is less components with large diameters, than 50 mm. such as 200 mm.

(in)
Too much over hang of the turret Since the turret slides on the bed, when it is nenring cut. there is no such difference.

5. Mention planer. 6 the difference bctzveen shaper and MT - Ape / May 2008 - Question Paper SoVed 1. Planer In a planer, the* tool is stationary In shaper, the work is held and the work piece travels back and stationary' *nd the cutting tool on the forth under the tool. ram is moved back and forth across the? work Shaper

2. This machine is used for medium This machine is used for large and and small work pieces. heavy work pieccs3. Work setting is easier Work setting requires more skill.

List out the situation where reaming operation is required. For finishing the accurate size of the hole,, this multi cutting edge Reamer tool is used. Holes which arc to be reamed must be drilled or bored to within 0.05 mm or 0.1 mm of the finished size.
6. 7. Compare and contrast the gear generation process toith gear forming process. Form cutting process: makes use of a gear cutter that has the same form or shape between, two adjacent teeth eg: Form cutter Form cutter Form cutter in Milling machine in broaching machine in shaper.

Generating: process In generating process, the cutting tool (Cutter gear) meshes with the gear blank and the teeth are developed on the blank by the relative coordinated rolling motion of the cutter and the blank.

v=lLrA^umg Technology it
<k*4ir pinning hobbin^ Shear

Gear shaping Hack cutting Broaching

8* A grinding wheel us specified cis A 24 K 7 V. What does -each letter indicates? A Aluminium oxidf* 24 Grain size CCOOTS* medium).
K 7 V Referring to the hardness of the bund (soft) Dense of the structure Vitrified bond type

9. Differentiate between fixed zero and floating zero in CMC terminology. Fixed zero: A fixed point on a numerically controlled system, about which all machine movements are referenced. Floating zero: A characteristic of numerical control system which allows the zero reference point to be shifted to any where over the full travel of the machine slides. 10. Write short notes on point interpolation system*

Point 5

Pomt 2
Point 3

Point 1

The specific points there is no Solved 8 machining operations are performed MT at - Apr May 2008-and Question Paper machining while the machine table or slides, moves from on po-int to the next Point - to - point control follows a some what irregular straight line path.

P A R T B ( 5 x 1 6 = 8 0 marks)
12. (a) (i) The lift of a turning toot obtained was 40 minutes' and 25 minute* at cutting speed 80 m/min and 100 m/min respectively. Determine the tool life at 40 mJmln and 120 mfmin*
Given data V Cutting speed in m/min T Tool life in minutes a = exponent C * constant Solution: Taylors equation V 7* = C To find the tool life at 40 to/min and 120 m/min. ease (i) V minutes Case (ii) V = 100 m/min T = 25 mxnu tes We know that VT* * C
V j 7^ - V27Z = C
ic., 80 x 40* 100 x 25*

& 80

m/min T- 40

Manufacturing Technology II- Nov/Dcc-2011

ffl

(1.6)n = 1.25 n log 1.6 log

100

80

1.25 Hog means natural log ie., InJ log 1.25 ' Iogl.6
n = 0.475

C = 80 x 40-47B C- 461.390 T-ool life at V= 40m /min V7 = <7 C 461.390 1 m = V 40 7 = 11.53 n log r= log 11.53 -1.062 062 3.062 n 0.475 togr= 2.235 Result Tm 172.10 Tool life at V-= 320 m/m in VT - c j* _ e = 461.390 v 120 7" - 3.845 n log T- log 3.845 * 0.585 ^ n 0.476

Manufacturing Technofogy - fl

to

MT Apr / May 2008 - Qucston Paper SoVed = 1.232

11

Result:
r= 17.061 miruits

11. <u) (ii) State the functions of cutting! fluids and their types.
Cutting fluids

The functions of cutting fluids are to <i) Cool the tool and work piece <ii) Rcduoe the friction <iii) Protect the work against rusting (iv) (v) Improve tbe surface finish To prevent the formation of built up edge and

(vi) To wash away the chips from the cutting zone. However, the prime function of the cutting fluid in a metal cutting operation is to control the total heat. This can be done by dissipating the heat generated, as well as reduce the heat generated. Typ^o of cutting fluMT TKPIV n t.hrX> basic types of cutting fluids used in metal cutting. They are water based emulsions, straight mineral oils and mineral oil with additives. Water based emulsions: Pure water is the best cutting fluid available because of its highest heat carrying capacity (high specific heat). Residua this, rt is cheap and easily available. Its low viscosity makes, it flow at high rates through the cutting fluids system. However, water corrodes the work waterial very quickly, particularly at high temperature prevalent in the cutting zone as well as the machine tool parts <5n which it is likely to spill. Hence other materials are- added to water to improve its wetting characteristics, rust inhibitors and other additives to improve lubrications characteristics. These are also called water soluble oils. The concentrated oil is normally diluted in water to any desired concentration, such as 30:1 to 80:1.

Straight Mineral oils: These are the pure mineral oil without any additives. Their main function is lubrication and rust prevention. It is used for light. duty applications only. Mineral oil with additives: (Neat oils) This is the Largest variety of cutting fluids available commercially- A number of additives have been developed which when added to mineral oils would produce th.e desirable characteristics for the different machining situations. Many difficult to machine situations would be helped by the use of these cutting fluid* These are generally termed as neat oils.
COT)

11. (b) Draw the merchant** circle and derive the relationship bettceen various cutting forcesForces on the Chip <Merchant Analysis) Reference to the figure The forces exerted by the work piece on the chip are:

FQ - compressive force on the shear plane F$ - Shear force on


the shear plane The forces exerted by the tool on the chip are

N - Normal force at the rake face of tool.

F - Frictional force* along the rake face of tool The forces acting on the tool and measured by dynamometre are:

Ft tangential or cutting force Ff - feed force Angle a is tool rake angle. $ is shear plane angle and 0 is the angle of friction.
Using the concept explained in fig (a) it is now possible to find graphically the magnitude of force F^% A'andF.

Manufacturing Technofogy - fl

13

Fig (*1 Force System on Chip, Diagram


Shear Plane

Fig(b) Merc ha fit's Circto

. 17c vector diagram of fvtcos is constructed as follows (fig CM) Draw and F, to some convenient scale and join AB to obtain their resultant. Bisect AB and dra-w a circle having: the resultant force as its diameter. Set off BE. making

F.gCa)

Manufacturing Tecftnologv i

14

angle p wit* force Fiy to (rut circle at E* Join EA. The magnitudes of F^ and arc now known. Set off a line BGf at an angle ^90 - a) with Ft tFe is vertical and BB is horizontal. ZDBB' is. SO5). Join GA. The magnitude of forces N and F are thus known, as also the co efficient of friction at the chip - tool interface (FfS). Angle BAG is tiie angle of friction between chip and Tool.

... a)
fb) Analytical Treatment Ref fig (b)

F=GH +.HB~ AI + HB
or

Ffrcos <x F, sin u N-AG- DI1-M

^2) ^

F t - cosa-F^-sin
f Ff cob cc + F. sin a Now - ----------------------- : -----/v F t - cob ct-Ff sin <t

Dividing

toy cos a

jr F f + F t - taoce N Ft - Ff
tance The resultant tool force, R (equation) Can be resolved into two components Nand F normal to and along the rake surface respectively fig (b). Since f must be the friction force due to the existence of the normal load JV, as per usual convention F <VM ... <6> Where jt is the average co-eflfieient of friction between the chip and the tool

From eqns <1) (4) and (5)

- <6)
F, = F, cos $ - OD Ft - F. or cos i ' -F f - silt 0 Fc - AO + O E F c = Ff cos 0 ~ F t - sin <> or
... (8)

. ... <7)

In &AUB, ^ GBA - 180 - 9 0 - p - 90 (3 Hence ZABD= 9 0 - a - ( 9 0 - p > = 9 0 - a - 9 0 r p - p - a Now F, = HD

BF> (or FA
Thus. F ^ ^ - c o s t p - a) and Ffm jff sir (p - a) ... ... QO) (9)

F_ AI30 from A ABE, ^ cos ( + P - a) Now from Rqns (9) mwl Cll) ' l = /? cos C& > Fm It cos < + 0 o)
or F, = F,

cos (p - .) cos - P - a)

... (12)

Assumptions made The above derived relations (eqns) are based upon (he following assumptions: 1. The tool is perfectly' sharp and it does not make any fl3nk contact with the job. 2. The cutting velocity remain* consitant. 3. 4.

A continuous hip with, no-built up edge ia produced Tho chip does not flow either side.

16

Ml' - Apr / May 2000 - Quealiuti PdLpgi Ootv^d

Mamufci^Un**ikj TtrUnnrtOttV \t 5. Chip shears continuously acrois the shear plane ots the shear stress reaches ihe value of shear flow stress.

12~ (o) Discuss any four work holding device applicable in lathe. Work holding devices are used either for holding the workpiece or for supporting the workpiece during machining. Few of the widely used work holding devices are L Chucks 2. Centres 3. Faoeplates 4. Rests and 5. Mandrels Chuck: A chuck is a device, which in used for holding and rotating the job of shorter length during machining. A chuck is usually equipped with three or four jaws and accordingly it is classified as three - jaw chucks and four jaw chuck respectively. These are shown in figure. Chuck is attached to the spindle by a backplate to which the chuck itself is bolted. Chucks particularly the three - jaw chucks allow rapid work set-up. Three jaw chuck: This is also known as a self - centering or a universal chuck. The chuck was an accurately machined spirally grooved plate (diacj and throe matching jaws with teeth that engage the* spiral. When the disc is made to rotate by any one of the pinions, all the three jaws move backward or forward by an equal amount. This chuck is suitable for holding round or itfocagonal and other similar shaped workpieces.

Thrw Jaw Chuck (U/ifvorsal ChuckJ


1 Bevel fViion.2. Scroll Disc.

3.Bevel on Scrot Disc. 4 Choc* Body 5 J aw ___________

Four Jaw* Chuck: This i also called independent jaw chuck. The four-jaw chuck:
Manufacturing ij is a veryTechrxpioqy versatile workholding device, able to hold cylindrical as well 17 as odd-

shaped parts for machining. A four jaw chuck is shown miigure. In a four jaw chuck, the jaws can be moved and adjusted independent of each other.

A Four J*w Chuck

Re^ts: A rest is used for providing additional support to the long workpiece. When, it is machined between centres or held in a chuck. If long work, pieces are not supported during machining, then there is a possibility that they may bend due to-self weight or due to the cutting forces exerted by the
Work

Hinge

Jaws

Lathe Bed Guido'ways (t>) Follower Rest

Different Typs of Rests

cutting tool tin the workpiece. Two type* of rests are in common use; these axe the steady (or fixed) and follower for travelling) rest. It is shown in the figure-. Centress When the length of jobs is large and cannot be conveniently held in a chuck, the work piece can he held and rotated between the head stock centre (the live centre) and the tail stock centre (the dead centre) P9*7
Head stock Centre (Lrve Centre) ^ Tailstock Centre (Dead Centre)

Workpiece

Job being held between centres. Face plate: The face plat is a common work holding device. Work pieces that cannot be accommodated in a chuck or between centres, because they axe asymmetrical or have a complex shape, can be bolted to the face plate either directly or indirectly via an angle plate. Bolts, clamps and dogs are

Mr - Apr / May 2CC8 Question Paw* Solved


Manufacturing Techrxpioqy ij 19

used with the face pi etc; to hold the work piece. The face plate is directly mounted on the lathe spindle (Or) 12. (b) Explain turret indexing mechanism and bar feeding mechanism applied in automatic lathe? Turret Head Indexing Mechanism Turret head indexing mechanism is an -arrangement that indexes the turret head automatically when it is brought back away from the spindle nose or chuck after the first operation is completed. That means, automatically the present tool in the turret head wili rotate away and the next tool will come into place for the next position.

Index Plate

* ^ Pin >
c

\
/Shaft _________ X * vT'v\vV> r "

Ratchet

V^j

Adjustable Screw

ik

ITT T

tog

/ J Bevel Gear

Turret Head U I
v-spi
ndia

If X *exin$

Geneva Mechanism or Turrot Indexing Mectoml&m


As th.e turret head reaches the backward position that is away frutti the chuck holding the workpiece., the plunger

actuatingTechnology cant lifts the and thus Manufacturing- II plunger from tbe slot S' of the index plate 20unlocks it so that, now the turret xve&d is free to rotate. As the saddle is still .moving, the ratchet wheel cnmcs in contact with the projecting pin of the pawl. The pin pushes and rotates the ratchet wheel which results in the indexing of turret when the turret head has roache<I its extreme right position., ratchet wheel also has been rotated through 60 and the plunger has again set in one of the slots of the index plate. Bar Feeding Mechanism: When work pieces are to be machined from the bar stock on capstan or turret lathes, it is necessary that some arrangement must he there for feeding the bar stock forward (for the next piece) after each finished workpiece is parted off. The bar may be pushed manually by hand. But this arrangement takes* more time, because the spindle and the long bar must cotne to a dead stop before any adjustment can be made. The other method of bar feeding which pushes the bar forward immediately after the collet chuck releases the work without stopping the machine is shown in figure. Referring to figure the Rotating sleeve Spindle

Q Guide puey Bar


Wire Rope

,A ^

SU3nd

A
Feeding Mechanism

Wen1

_____________ Bar

21

mounted on the .guide bar carries the real end of lie bar stock. The other end of the NTT"- Apr / May 2006 - Question Paper SoWod bar stock passes through the spindle to project outside the -collet chuck under the action of wire rope and weight, the sleeve and har stock has a tendency to move to right ie, towards the head slock and thus out from the collet chuck. After the finished piece has been parted off, the -chuck open^ and thus the bar stock automatically moves forward and rests against the bar stop fitted on the turret.

13. (<a) (i) Describe icith a neat sketchy the quick return mechanism of a shaper.
Slotted Link Quick Return Mechanism The slotted link quick return mechanism is shown in figure. + The mechanism is simple and compact It converts the rotary motion of the electric motor and gear box into the reciprocating motion of the ramClampng Nut

Ram

But'Vwheel
Slotted Crank B

(a) Sfotted Link Mechanism

Marrjfectunnq Technology - II The slotted link mechanism gives the ram a higher velocity during the return non-cutting stroke than during its forward cutting stroke there by reducing the time wasted during the return stroke. The bull wheel is driven by a pinion which is ixinnected to the motor shaft through a gear box with four, eight or more s-peeds available. The bull wheel has a slot (fig (a)). The crank pin A is secured into this slot, at the same time it can slide in the slotted crank B. When the bull gear wheel rotates, the crank pin A also rotates and side by side slides through the slot in the slotted crank B. This makes the slotted crank to oscillate about its one end C. This oscillating motion of slotted crank (through the link D) makes the ram to reciprocate The intermedicade link D is necessary to accommodate Lhe rise and fall of the crank. The position of the crank pin A in the slot in the bull wheel decides the length of the stroke of the shaper'. Further it is avrav from the centre of bull wheel, the longer is th* stroke
, i m

Length of Stroke

kSt or Return Stroke

(b) PrJncipfe of Mechanism The cutting stroke of the ram is completed while the crank pin moves from A to A1# and the slotted link goes from left to right- Similarly, during return

22

MT Apr / May 2008 - Question Paper Solved

stroke crank pin moves from A2 to A and the link changes its position from right to left. The time taken by cutting and idle strokes of the ram is proportional to the angles AZA, and A , Z A resjjectively. Cutting tame _ '^AZAj Idle time Z AjZA Since the crank pin A rotates with uniform velocity and Z A j Z A is smaller it is obvious that the Idle stroke i quicker than the forward cutting stroke and hcncc the slotted link mechanism is known as quick return mechanism..

13- (a) (ii} Explain the various drill holding devices* - It is very much necessary that drills and other tools used on the drilling machine sh-ould rotate about their centre line. For this purpose, suitable drill holding devices are employed. There arc three general methods of holding drills in the spindles of drilling machines: (i) By bolding the drill ns a drill chuck (ii) By inserting the drill shank directly into a hole in the machine spindle. (iii) By inserting the drilt shank in a sleeve or socket which is held by the drill spindle. Drill chucks are used very extensively, especially for holding small drills such as parallel shank drills.
The drill chuck can be tightened or loosened the help of chuck key. with

The shank of the drill chuck has an appropriate taper and it can be fitted into the hole in the drill machine spindle

Sleeve and Sockets A sleeve is used to hold the taper shank twist drills that are too small for the tapered hole in the spindle of the drill and a socket is employed to hold twist drills with shanks

Manufacturing Technology - II

Chuck

Setf Centring Jaws Twist Dnll

Drill Chuck

Shrove and Socket

13. (b) (i) Differentiate I ha tsjy milling from rtoum milling proem.

25

Up milling: Up milling is that method of milling in which tbc cutter rotates against the direction in which the /work feeding. MT - Apr May is 2006 - Question Paper Solved
sleeve, the (or)

Down milling: Down milling ifl that method of milling in which the cutter Total** in the same direction as that in which the work is feeding.

End of Cm
Start of Cut Chip Cross-

Section (Enlarged)

Up Milling Operation and the Chip Cut by a Cutter Tooth

Start of Cut

J ?
End of Cut Chip Cross-Secfcon (Enlarged)

Down Mining Operation and the Chip Cut by 9 Cutter Tooth

13* (b) (ii) f>iscusa about index milling. screw thread milling and end milling operation* Index milling: Index base milling is employed when identical multiple operations arc to be performed on one or more work pieces which are indexed each time to present a
nnrc position in oaeh eye1*.

Screw Thread! Milling Milling machine can be employed to mill threads on dies, screws, worms, etc., both internally and external ly. As compared to thread cutting on lathe, thread milling has the advantage of offering speedy productions, with accurate threads and an excellent finish Short threads are milled by means of a parallel sided cutter, with spiral flutes. Internal threads are milled with a straight flutes cutter. Long tlireais are milled with disc-shaped cutters whose form repeats that of tfce thread contour to he milled.

Screw Thread Milling Operation


For m i l l i n g threads, three driving motions are required on the machine, one for the cutter rotation, second for the work rotation and third for the longitudinal cutter traverse. The revolving milling cutter has the shape of the thread contour required.

Manufacturing Technotogry - U

27
May 2008 Question Paper Solved

26

fi<T

Apr

EN.T5 Milling: Operation. m akes esc of an. end mill cutter to produce a flnt surface which, may he horizontal, vertical or at an angle -with respect to the position of the table. The end mill is mainly used on vertical milling machine to cut- slo-ts, grooves or keyways.

End mill us ed for moMfng a slot

(a) 14.

Millinga profile End milling operations (a) ft) Discuss the three types of feed in centrelese grinding machine.

Manufacturing Techooaogv - 1

1. Grinding Wheel 2 Workpieoe 3 Regulating VWiee 4. V\foffc-Rest

CENTERLESS GRI NDER Throe methods used for feeding the work to the eentrele&s grinding machines are: 1. Through feed 2. Infced and 3. End feed
rtg Wheel Regulating Wheel Work

Work Rest Fig.e Through Feed in CMterfess grinder The through feed method (as shown in fig. (a)) is used for straight cylindrical work. In this case, the work goes in on one side of the machine and comes out on the other side. The work rvst for through feed grinding has adjustable guides on each side to

WT - Apr / May 2006 - Question Paper Solved

steer the work between the grinding wheels. The height of the rest blade 15 adjusted to fit the diameter of the work.
Grindmg Wheel Grinding Wheel

Work

Work

Fig t> Infeed Cecvtede'ss _______ Grinding ______


Regulating Wheel

Fig.cEfKtfeed Ceoterless __ Gnncfrnq

Infeed grinding fig. (b) ia used for jobs that, because of a shoulder or some other obstructions on the part, can only enter the machine so far and then, after the grinding is done, must be with drawn. The work rest for this operation does not have guides, but has an adjustable stop on the far end. End feed grinding fig. (c> is ideally suited for grinding short tapers and spherical sitapes. Both wheels are dressed to the required shape and the work is fed in from the side of the wheel to an end stop. The finished piece is ejected automatically.

Manufacturing Technology II- Nov/Dcc-2011

29

14- (a) (ii) Explain about the glazing and dressing of a grinding wheeL
(a) Glazing

Glazing of a wheel is a condition in which the abrasive particles in the wheel have become dull by attrition wear, there as insufficient grain fracture and the grains are not released by the bond, thus causing the cutting surface of the wheel to take a shiny or gloss like surface. Generally glazing is caused by the wheel being too hard for the materials being ground, or too high a wheel speed, or too low for a work speed. Glazing may be reduced by increasing the work speed and reducing the cut to promote rapid disintegration of the wheel.

(b)

Dressing of the grinding wheel With the passage of time, due to tlie use of the grinding wheel, the wheel becomes glazed and loaded as explained 3bove and this lowers the cutting capacity and efficiency of the grinding wheel.

Grinding wheels are dressed to restore their cutting capacity and cutting properties. Dressing a grinding wheel is

(i) To remove metal or foreign matter which has Lodged in and loaded (filled up) the pores of the wheel. Fine grit wheels may load up quite quickly. (ii) To remove dull grains which did not break oft The dull grained (or glazed) vrhcel -will bum the work and cause fine heat cracks.

30;

MT - Apr / May 2006

Question

Pape/ Solved

Hoie
Dmooc Po1t I*JS? Be on Cemne line of \Atiee*-N*ver afcove If in Dcutt. Lower Point 1/3" 1o1/4* for safety

SVTie*/ Dressing Note: Diamond point must be on centre line of wheel 1" 1" - Sever above. If in Doubt, lower point Trto for safcty. 4 (Or) I-#, (b) (i) Explain the principle of broaching operation ivith neat sketch Broaching is similar to shaping, hut instead of a single point cutting tool advancing slightly after each stroke across the work, the broach is long tool with many c u t t i n g teeth (as shown in fig). Each tooth removes a predetermined amount of metal in a predetermined location in -the cut- Each tooth has a cutting edge that is a few thousands of an inch higher than the one before and increases in size to the eract finished size required.

1 The Dressing tools are most frequently single point diamonds (shown in fig) which are mounted in metal held on the grinding machine. These are traversed across the face of a straight wheel to dress it

Clamping \ in Fixture

}-+- Sprocket
jB~CI3-C=iyC3 Q

Wodc Broach / Undamped Vl

R erased WOT*

FixtureEndless Chain

Fig(a) Horizontal Type Continuous Broaching Machine


Rotating Table

Fig Rotary Table Continuous Broaching Machine

For machining or removing metal from a workpiece, the broach Ls pushed or pulled over straight or irregular surface, either externally or internally. The way and amount of metal removed per tooth <fced per tooth) has boon shown in fig.

MT Apr / May 2008 Question Paper Sofred


32

The amount of stock removed per tooth vAries with the type of operation and material. A general average is 0.050 to 0:125 mm per tooth for high speed steel broaches.

J4L (b) (ii) Dnau> outd explain the broach tooL


Rni Pii

0al
----- -RouQhng 7**th m

\^+

Ftnishlrg Front Plkrt Semi-Finiafwnp TeeSi Teeth U-------- Sliank \erx)\* ---------- - ------------ Cutting Tectfi | TN G/lnding Wnrol TNoC^fcndJngVVnr V ol l * ^ w RevokFW VLVJ^W Hook dr RevokFW
Rak* Ar
Hook dr

Rak* Ar

Broach Sharpening
Typical Construction of a PuMJ Broad*

A hroach is A multiple - erdged cutting tool that has successively higher cutting edges along tbe length of the tool. 1. 2. 3. Broaches are classified as follows: According to the type of surface broached - internal broaches and external broaches. According to the method of operation - push broach and pull broach. According to the type of construction - solid broach inserted teeth broach and progressive cut broach 4. According U) the operation performed on the workpiece. . Surface broach, key way, round hole and spline etc.

Internal broaches are used for broaching internal surfaces. The broach will Manufacturing Technotoqy - >1 33 have the same shape -of the contour to be broached. For each shape and sire a separate broach is used. External broaches arc used for broaching outside surface. The surface may be flat, curved or any other contour. Push Broach is pushed through the work during cutting operation. During broaching the broach comes under compressive load. To avoid bending, the push broach, is made short. So only a few number of teeth are available in the broach. Holes are broached using push broaches only for finishing. The push broach, has got nicked teeth in the Grant portion. The rear portion has finishing teeth. Pull Broach: A pull broach cuts the material while it is pulled through the work piece. During pulling, the broach comes under tensile load. So it will not bend during machining. Broach element*; Ordinary cut broaches for machining previously drilled or borred holes consist of the following elements. Pull End: This is designed to permit engagement of the broach with the broaching machine through the user of a pull head. Front pilot: This centres the broach, in the hole before the broach begins to cut. Roughing and Semi finish teeth: They remove most of the stock in the hole. Finishing teeth: They are not sizing the hole and niust have the shape required of the finished hole. Rear pilot and followed rest: They support the broach after the last tooth leaves the hole. Land: The top portion of a tooth is called the land and in most cases ground to give a slight clcarcncc. Back off or clcaranc angle: This corresponds to the relief angle of a single point tool. This is 1.5 to 29 for both cast iron and steel Finishing teeth have a smaller angle ranging from 0 to 3L(S* Broach Material; Most broaches are made from 18-4-1 tungsten chromium vanadium steel, ground nfler hardening.

15.

(a) (i) Discuss the importance of slant bed CNC Lathe?


The slant bed CNC lothe has the horizontal spindle. They have the hydraulic or pneumatic tail stock and roller steadies for supporting the work piece. Tooling is mainly for external working. It has got Rotary Indexing Turret tool head with Number of Tools The MCU {Machine Control Unit) may be generally housed in a separate cabinet - like body or may be mounted on the machine itself-

34

When separately mounted (MCU) it may be like a pendant which could MT - Apr / May 2008 - Question Paper Solved swing around for convenient handling by the operator. In appearance, it looks like a computer with display panel generally of small size, a number of button*; to control the machine tool along with a key board. The control unit controls the motion of the cutting tool, spindle speeds, feed rate, tool changes,, and cutting fluid and several other functions of the machine tools. Due to slanting of bed. easy fall of the chips material Is carried by cutivtsyus. CNC program can bo checked and rectified by using Tool path graphics.

15. (a) (ii) Write short notes on Tool magazine* Automatic tool changer and Palette

Automatic Tool Changer Marnifactumg Tecftnotogy - U 35 It is device for automatically changing the cutting tools under the instructions given in the part program. The required tool is automatically selected from the tool magazine and loaded on the machine spindle. (a) (b) The automatic tool-change system consists of the following elements. Rotary tool - storage magazine for thirty tool holders
with tswkl<3

Automatic tool changer to remove tool holders from the machine spindle and replace them with tape programmed tools.

<c) Basic Tool holders adaptable to a multiplicity of cutting tool types and work specifications. (d) Tooling card used for process planner and Tool engineer for specifying style, diameter, setting length and Tool code. The ATC, Automatic - Tool changer is provided to reduce the idle time between change over from one operation to another.

Tools magazine; The initial position of various tools is fed to the control system, which then keeps updating and the data regarding tool number fitted in the particular pocket in the tool magazine. Tool magazine with upto 60 tools are quite common. The tool change cycle cqtishts of two paths.

(i) Tool Selection Cycle: The tool for successive operation is selected during the
previous machining operation. The selected tool corues to the tool change position, whenever the tool selection command ifc received by the system. Tool transfer cycle: In this part of the tool change cycle, the tool which is lying selected in the magazine, is transferred to the spindle and the tool which is in the spindle is transferred to the magazine. Before the tool transfer takes place, the spindle is turned off and moves to the tool change position, ao that the tools will not hit the work piece. Automatic Pallet Changer: By providing more than one table (Pallet), it is possible to reduce or eliminate setting times. While machining is being performed on the work piece, the operator can unload the finished work piece and set up un machined one on the other pallet; Two. three and four position versions of rotary pallets are commonly used.
(Or)

15. Kb) (i) Explain the APT syntern configuration with a ncal block diagram.

36

MT - Apr f May 2006 - Question Paper Sotoed

The system generally lias two components namely Preprocessor and Postprocessor. Preprocessor is a software consisting of a specially structured set of symbols* rules and conventions by means of which the programmer communicates the desired part information to the computer system- The language typically involves a set of vocabulary in words similar to English which the computer translates in t-o its own code for necessary calculations, checks and manipulates data- in general, the processor generates data on cutter location and machine motion <Ctedata, CLrfile or Cl*-tape). Program generation is done using the post processor. Apart from the part oriented information, CNC system specific information also lias to be incorporated in the part program A post processor is a computer program which accepts par oriented information together with other marchining information such 33 speeds, feeds and tolerances. The post processor takes in to account the programmer specified tolerances and the dynamic and geometric constraints of the machine tool. The post processor is therefore machine specific i different for a machine tool and a computer combination. The advantage of a separate post processor is that the effort

needed tx> adapt the post processor Manufacturing. Techootoqy - II for a particular system is very much Jess 37 compared to the effort needed to adapt the pi*t processor for a particular system is very much Je*s compared to the effort required to modify the whole programme. The functions of the post- processors are <i) Reading CLDATA. <ii> Converting cutter location points to machine tool co-ordinates for particulao* machine. (iii) Checking if slide movements violate the limits of travel of the particular machine. (iv) Checking the specified speeds and feeds whether they do not exceed capabilities of the machine tool. (v) Correcting any parameter which is beyond limits in a machine tool.

MTM - Apr / May 2008 - Qtipston Paper Solved Assigning suitable G and codes. {vii> Calculating tool axis orientations in multi axis machining. (Tin) Preparing suitable outputs like operations sheet5- fix) Providing a list of

3a (vi)

errors and warnings if necessary. (x) Calculating machining time and length of tape.

IS. (b) (ii) Write the part program far the workpiece
oho-urn ir filtert* /.

Material : Aluminum Workpiece Size : 100mm X 80mm x 15mm

04212 NO 10 G21 (metric mode) [HIT .LET X85 Y83 710 (TOOL DEF T01 DIO I EDGE MOVE XO VO 70 (Applicable only for DEN FORD CNC SIMULATOR) NO 20 NO 30 G92 XO Y0 ZO (Presetting: M06 TOl (Tool change) at S 1)

NO 40

M03 SI500 (Spindle speed

at 1500 rpm)

(Absolute programming) NO 50 G90 (ABSOLUTE MODE) The diameter of the cutter is assumed as 10 mm. NO SO G-12 (Cutter radius compensation, right) NO 70 GOO XO Y0 Z2 NO 80 GOO Z - 5 NO 90 GOI X5 Y5 F 1.5 NO 100 G 01 X 65 Y 5 NO 110 G 02 X 85 Y 25 (Radius 20) NO 120 G 01 X 85 Y 45 NO 130 C 03 X 65 Y 85 (Radius 20 ) NO 140 G 01 X 20 Y S5 NO 150 C 01 X 5 Y 65 NO 160 G 01 X 5 Y 5 Z 0 NO 170 G OOXOYOZO NO 180 G NO 200 M 05 (SPINDLE STOP) NO 210 M 30 (Program End and rewind). NO 190 G 28 X 0 Y 0 2 0 (Return to reference o

1 I l

X H

Manufacturing Technology II ApriL'May 2010 (E3134)

41

R 3452

Manufacturing Technology - H

B.E/B.Tech. DEGREE EXAMINATION, NOVEMBER/DECEMBER 2007 Third Semester Mechanical Engineering ME 1203 - MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGY II (Common to 8.E. (Part-Time) Second Semester Regulation 2005)
Time : Three hours Maximum : 100 marks

Answer ALL the questions PART A - (10x2=20 marks)


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Give two examples for orthogonal cutting. What are the four important characteristics of materials used for cutting tool*? Why is it essentia] that the cutting point of the tool should be level with the spindle centre while machining taper on a work-picce? What is the difference between a ram-type turret lathe and saddle type turret lathe? Under wbat conditions planning operation would be preferred over other machining processes like milling, broaching* shaping, etc.? Wbat arc the common work holding devices used on milling machine**? What for lapping is used? State the abrasives usod in the manufacture of grinding wheels. What is the difference between incremental and absolute system? What is the role of computer for NC machine tool?

6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

MT - Nov Dec 2CQ7 Quest or. Paper SoVod

P A R T B - (5 x1 6 = 8 0 marks)

11.

(a) Explain the conditions that. promote the formation of the following types of chip: (i) Continuous chip* without Built up edge. (5) (5)

<ii) Continuous chips with BaiJt up edge. Discontinuous chips. (6)

Or

v<b.Xi.) Define the various tool parts of a single point cutting tool 'with a neat sketch(6) <ii) What are the standard angles of cutting tool? Illustrate with an example. CIO) 12. <a) J(0 Describe some of the methods and equipments for holding: work on a lathe. f8) (ii) Explain any four commonly used attachments of lathe. (8) Or (b) <) Briefly explain the principle of working of the sliding head type single spindle automatic machine. (S> (ii) Describe with a neat sketch a turret automatic screw machine. (8) 13. (a) (i> State the advantages of Wsrd-Leomtrd drive. (6) (ii) Explain with a sketch *"Fast and Loose pulley* quick return mechanism of a planer table. (10) Or (i) State the methods of holding milling: cut.ters.C4) (ii) Explain Simple indexing, Compound indexing and differential indexing with suitable example. (12) 14. (a) (i) State the advantages and limitations of broaching. (8) Compare gear hobbing with gear shaping. (8) Ox Cb> (i) Explain self-sharpening characteristics of grinding wheel. (5) Cii) Describe- the use of cutting Quids in grinding. (5) <iii) Explain wheel truing and dressing. (6) 15. (a) (i) Slate a few typical applications whan* the us* of numerical control would be justified. (8) Cii) Describe in brief the basic components of a tape-operated NC

Manufacturing Technology - II April/May 2010 (E3134)

machine tool.

(Si Or fb> (i) Discuss the advantages of computer numerical control system. (&' Clip What is the difference between positioning machines and contouring machines? J8)

R 3452 PART A - ( 1 0 x 2 = 2 0 marks)


/. Give two examples for orthogonal rutting. The two examples for orthogonal cutting are 1. Sawing 2. Broaching

2. What are the four important characteristics of materials used for cutting tools?
The materials used for cutting tools should {raises following four important characteristics: (i) Hairiness, in order to enable tool to penetrate the work piece material. Resistance to softening at high temperature* encountered during cutting metals. Should be easy to regruid and easily weldable to tool. Readily obtainable and easy to manufacture. <ii) Toughness, to withstand shock.

(ii) (iii)

3. Why w ii essential that the catting paint of the tool should be level with the spindle centre while machining taper on a work-piece't It is essential that the cutting point of the tool should be level with the spindle centre while machining taper <m a work-piece, because the tool bit held above or below the centre of thin work piece may cause it to bend and fly out of the lathe. 4. What is the difference between a ram-type turret lathe and saddle type turret lathe t The main difference between the ram-type turret lathe and saddle type turret lathe is rain-type turret lathe slide mounted in a saddle bolted to the bed of the turret lathe, while saddle type turret lathe has the (hexagon) tool head mounted on a saddle sliding directly on the bed.

5. Under uh<U conditions planner operation would be preferred over other lyUmufactumg Technology - It 4 machining process like nulling, broaching, shaping etc? Planers may be used in medium and heavy engineering pLants for single piece and small lot production and aiso in repair shops. 6. What tire the common work holding devices used on milling machineu. (a) Stepped block
(b> Angle plate (b) Milling fixture (d> Dividing head (e) V block

7.

What for lapping is used? It is an abrading process for refining surface finish and the geometrically accuracy of flat cylindrical and spherical surfaces. Eliminating small distortion Removing the cracks left during previous operation.

8.

State the abrasives used in the manufacture of grinding wheels. The abrasives used in manufacture of grinding wheels are (i) Natural abrasives (ii> Artificial abrasives
<i) Natural Abrasives (ii) Sand stone Emery Carborundum Aluminium oxide Artificial diamond

Artificial Abrasives

Boron carbide What ia / Ac rf///crvcc &Wu'flw absolute system-

nnd

Incremental system A system of giving the dimensions on a drawing in which each point is referenced to the last position rather than a fixed datum. Absolute co-ordinate system Dimensioning system in which all the co-ordinates arc measured from a fixed datum.

10. W/iat is the rale of computer for \TC machine tool?

Computer Numerical Control is an NC system that utilizes stored program to Martjtacturing Technology - ^1 functions. Mini or Micro computer based control unit 5 perform basic numerical control is used Wien computed to NC. CNC offers more flembibty and computational capability, Reprogmnicoing is easy. PART B - <5 x 16 = SO marks) //. (a) Explain the conditions that promote Ihe formation of the following types of chip. (i) Continuous chips without Built up edge (ii) CoDtinuoufi chip* with Tbnlt. up edge (iii) Discontinuous chips (i) Continuous chips without Built up edge Continuous chips are normally produced when machining steel or ductile metals at high cutting speed*. The continuous chips which is like ribbon flows (os shown in fig (a) ) along the rake face. Continuous chip ia possible because of the ductility of metal (steel at high temperature generated due to cutting) that flows along the shear plane instead of rupture. Thus, on a continuous chip, vc can not so any notches. It can be assumed that each layer of metal flows along the slip plane till it is stopped by work hardening. Each of these layers welded to the previous ones becauKf? of the high, temperature, thus for mans a continuous chip. Some ideal condition that promote continuous chip* in metal cutting are s-btirp cutting- edge, small chip thickness <fine feed). large rake angle, high cutting s-peed, ductile work, materials, and less friction between chip tool interfs.ee through efficient lubrications*.

Fig. (a) Continuous chip without built up edge

6 good

This is the most desirable form of chip, since the surface finish obtained is l/T - NJov Dec 2007 higher - Quesltoo Paper and cutting is SCI-OOUL it also helpsV in having tool life Solved and power consumption. (ii) Continuous chip with Built up edge.

When the friction between tool and chip is high while machining ductile materials, some particles of chip adhere to the tool rake face near the tool tap. When such sizeable materials piles upon the rake face, it.nets as a cutting odgc in place of the actual cutting edge as shown in figure (b). This is termed as built-up edge (BUE). Continuous chips with built-up edge normally occur while cutting ductile materials with H.S.S tools at low cutting spe**!*.

FSg.<b) BUE (Build up edge) cycle Welding of chips to the tool forma the built up edge -which adversely influences o?n tool life, power consumption and surface finishTherefore, chip welding should be prevented by following means. R*<hc* frirt-inn hy increasing rake angle of the cutting tool and by using a lubricant between the rake face and the chip. The rake face may also be polished. (ii) Reduce temperature by reducing &iction and by reducing cutting speed. (i) (iii) (iii) Preventing metal to metal contact hy use of a high pressure lubricant between chip and tool interface.

Discontinuous chip When brittle materials Like cast iron are cut, the deformed material gets fractured very* easily, and thus the chip produced is in the form of discontinuous segments, as shown in figure. In this type, the deformed material,, instead of flowing continuously, gets ruptured periodically. Discontinuous chips are easier from the chip disposal view point- However the cutting force becomes unstable with the

Fig. Tear typo


Manufacturing Tecftnoioqry - H

Rg. Sheer type

variation coinciding with the fracturing cycle as shown in figure.

1.

02

Distance Ccjt, Inctim

Fig. The variation of cutting force in discontinuous chip formation (medium carbon steel, rake angle =30*. cutting speed m 1.85 ft/min, depth of cut - 0.4-1 in, feed rate =0.125 IrVrev)

UT - Nov / Dec 2007 - Question Paper Scived

Also-, they generally provide better surface finish. However, in case of ductile materials, they cause peer surface finish. and low tool Me. Higher depth of cut (large thickness), low enrttahg speeds, and small rake angles are likely to produce discontinuous chips. Or 11. (b) <ij Define the various tool parts of a single point cuffing iool with a neat sketch. The size of the tool is generally square or Tectar.gular in cross-section. The shank is that part of the tool on -one end which the cutting tool ids formed. It is supported in the toplf; post on the lathfe The base is chat part of shank, which bears against tike support and hears the tangential force of t-he .cut- The tool signature of the single point cutting tool is shown here.

Shank

Nose
Cutting Edge

Side Rake Angle

Side Cutting EcsgS Angle

Up Angie

SfrariK

End Relief

Bake rake angle is the angle between the face of the tool and the base of the Mao-jta during Tochnofogy - II !1 shank or holder, and is usually measured in a plane through, the side cutting edge, and at right angles to the base. Si dc-rake ang2e is the angle between the portion of the side flank iiuznediutoly below the sicto-cutting edge and a line drawn through this cutting edge perpendicular to the ba&c. Et is usually measured in a plane perpendicular to the side ilankEnd-relief angle Is the angle between the portion of r.h? end tlank irumedlately he-low the end cutting edge and a line drawn through this cutting edge perpendicular to the base. It is usually measured in a plane perpendicular to the end Hank. II. Cb) (ii) What or*- the standard angles of cutting ta>oi? Wuetrate with an example? The tool angles are normally specified in a sequence as shown below. Tool designation Back raie SD 14= Side rake End relief 6= Side relief End cutting edjje Side cutting edge 6 20s 15

Nose radius 0.8 These individual angles have generally considerable influence on the cutting performance. They have to be- Judicially chosen for a given application. Kor example, the side cutting edge angle controls the width and thickness of the <Aipa produced. A very largo angle means Uiiit the uncut chip thickness reduces, resulting in higher specific -cutting resistance when it approaches zero, the radial component of the cutting force is minimum while the axial component is maximum. Tiiis is generally the preferred condition, since the vibration resistance is at its best in this condition. The

recommended tool angles for various MT types of work tool materialPac-er combinations 12 - Nov / Pecand 2007 - Question Solrod are given in the Tahl.es.

Recommended tool angles in degrees for high speed steel cutting tools
Work aaUrrial Back-rake a Side-rake angle ngl Sitfe-ralsaf

aogkr

Front itttff AAg* Side cutting edge ' *)

E-rid cutting edg* ngUr

St^l Cart

8 20

8-20 8

6 6

6 6

10 10

15
15

Ca*
iron Bren r *

4 0 4 8-20 4 8-20 6

15
10

S
6

6 G

10 10

10 15

5
steel

Recommended tool angles In degrees for cast alloy cutting tools


Work cna-t^ria] Back rube Side-rake angle Sd*-r*Ii*i angle Fronl-reli^f angle Side cutting edge angU Steel Cart 8 Cast troci Brims 8 4 0 4 62*> Sta inleu bt^vl 8-20 6 6 10 4 6 6 10 8 6 10 IS ft-20 8-20 6 6 10 End cutting odC* angle 15 IS

10

10 15

Recommended tod angles In degrees for carbide cutting tools

Manufacturing Technology -11. Nov/Dec-13 Ori 1


Work material Alominjum arid in*nrsrum alloys Copper Back- T iikc angle 0-10 Si de-rake angle 10-20 Sidr-neiiof Jingle 6

2
End relief ancle 6

<W 0-5

16-20 -5-8

*a e-a

M 68

Brass and brons* Cost iroo -7 0 -7-0 Itain ciirfcan *U1 Alloy M U H /U Stainless ote*h Titanium ufloys -7-0 -7-0 -5-6 7-6 -70 5-0 5-ft 5-8 5-8 5-8 5-8 - <1-8 - 7-6 -7-6 5-8 5-6 5-8 5-8

Shank: It is the body of the tool or part on one cad of which tbe cutting edge is formed. Nose: It relates to tbe tip of the cutting endFace: It is the surface against which the chips bear. Base: It is that surface of the bool shank which bears against the supporting tool holder or block. Rake Angle: The nominal rake angle is the angle between the tool face and a plane parallel to the base of the tooL Back Rake Angie is measured in the direction of the tool dank and Side Rake angle in a direction at right angle to the tool shank. Side Rake Angle: It is the angle between the base of the tool shank and the face of the tool measured in a plane perpendicular to the piano through the side cutting edge and at right angles to the baseRelicf Angle: Clearance may consist of two angles to reduce the amount of end surface and amount of grinding required in sharpening the tool. Lip Angle: It is the angle between the tool face and the ground end surface or flank.

12. (a) (i) Describe some of (he methods and equipments for holding ivnrh on a

lathe* 14
Work Holding

MT Nov / Dec 20G7 - Question Paper Sofred

Some of the standard work holding devices used to hold the work in lathe are, (i) Centres Cii) Chucks <iii) Face plate (iv) Mandrel (v) Steady rest (vi> Follower rest Examples of the above accessories. In which two are of them explained briefly with, sketch. Lathe centres Lathe centres are required for (i) Turning work between them.

(ii) Supporting long work piece in the tail stock. A Lathe centre is a hardened steel device as shown in figure with a taper shank on one end and a sixty degree point at the other end. They arc made of very hard materials to resiat deflection and wear. The shanks of all the centres are machined to the morse (0 uJ O) or metric (-4 and 6) stji-ndard tapers.

frfawtacturing - ll Hcadstock Technology Centre


{Live Centre) >

Workp.-ece

Tatlstcck Centre (Dead Centre)

Job being hetd between centres. CHUCKS: A chuck is one of the most important devices for bolding: and rotating a piece of work in a lathe. A chuk is attached to the lathe spindle by mean* of bolts with the back pi at* ?-crw+cl on. to th* spindle nos*. Accurate alignment of tic chuck with tho lathe axis is effected by spigotting. The different type* of chuck are 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Four ja-w independent chuck Tliree jaw universal chuck Combination chuck Magnetic chuck Collet chuck Air or Hydraulic operated chuck Drill chuck
Three Jow Chuck (Universal Chuck)

1.Bevel Pimon,2.ScrcHI Disc. 3 Bevel Teeth on Scroll Doc. Body, __________ 5.^w
1.Bevel Pinwn,2.Scroti Disc, Fig. Universal chuck 3 Bevel Teeth on Scroll Doc. Body,__________ 5.

Tittec Jaw Chuck (Universal Chuck)

jaw

Face plate* A face plate consists of a circular disc bored out and threaded to fit the nose .of the lathe spindle. This has the radial, plain and T slots for holding work by bolts and damps. Faoe plates are used for holding work pieces which cannot be conveniently held between centres or by the chucks. This is shown in Fig.

Mandrel: The plain mandrel is illustrated in fig. This type of mandrel is most commonly used in shops and finds wide application where a large number of identical pieces having standard size holes arc required to be mounted on it. The body of the mandrel is slightly tapered, the difference in diameter being 1 to 2 mm per 100 mm length. The length varies from 55 to 430 nun. For different sires of boles in work piece, -different mandrels are used.

Manufactunrq Technology
Steady ii>(. A s>l*rcnly test is Miown in figure. It cot3z*t of a

17

cast iron base, which may be made to elide on the lathe bed ways and clamped at any detuned position where a support is necessary. The three jav/s on the steady rest, two on the lower base and one on the upper frame, may be adjusted radially by rotating individual screws to accommodate workpices of different diameters. The jaws which act as n bearing to the workpiece are damped in position after setting is properly made. The main function of steady rest is to provide support to- a lor.g slender workWork Piece

Stoady Rest

Follower rest: A follower rest shown in Fig consists of a ttCT like casting having two a<ljuslable jaws which support the work piece. The rest is bolted to the back end of the carriage and moves with it. The follower rest prevents the job from springing away when the cut is made and is used in finish turning operations or where the entire length of the work piece is required to be turned without disturbing the setting.

MT - Nov / Dec 2007 - Question Paper Solved

12.

(a) (ii> KxpUtin any four commonly used attachment on lathe. The four types -of commoaly used attachment on lathe

are (i) Grinding attachments to perform many grinding operations on the work, piece without mooring it from the lathe. <ii) Milling attachments permits keyway cutting, T-slotting, dove tailing, ungle milling, etc. (iii) Taper turning attachment: permits turning or boring of tapers on the* work pieces. tiv) Ball turning rests: replace tie compound slide and enable turning or boring of spherical shapes. Or 12. (b) (i) Briefly explain the principle of icorkinp oj the sliding head type single spindle automatic machine. Single spindle chucking automatics are* designed for efficient production of parts which must be held in a chuck. All the tool movements, and epoed and feed changes are controlled automatically. Parts are usually loaded and unloaded manually. These machines are built with numerical

ManufactunrK) TecTmoloqy - II

19

controls or with electro mechanical or hydraulic control system. This type of automatic lathe is suitable for small but Joog and slender parts tike part* of wrist watches. There is a distinct difference between the conventional automatic lathes and Swiss- type automatic lathes.' In the latter the work is fed against the tool. The head stock carrying the bar stock moves beck and. forth for providing the feed movement m the longitudinal direction. Heme*, this type of automatic lathe is also called a sliding head automatic lathe. This type of mad line has the following four major parts (i) The sliding head stock, through which the bar stock is passed nnd gripped by a collet. (S) The tool bracket, supporting five tool slides, and guide bush fo-r the bar stock. (iii) The cam shaft, controlling the synchronizing bar stock, and cutting tool movements. {iv) Auxiliary attachments for performing various operations such, as drilling, tapping-, screwing, etc.

Sliding

Hcadstock

Motor

< - Bell or Pfrfo Typo Cam

KRT**

Tool Cams X StdingHead

Sis

Single Spindlo Automatic Lathe

20

MT - Nov / Dec 2007 - Question Pape* Solved

Figure shows the general layout of sliding head type single spindle automatic lathe. The bar stock is fed through a sliding head stock and held by a collet chuck. It has a sliding head stock which is tramversed by a bell or plate type cam.

A tool bracket, supporting five tool slides, each slide, operated by a separate cam, is moon ted on the centre. Tool bracket also contains a guide or steady bush for the bar stock
Cams ore held on a front cam shaft. These control the tool sbide* and head stock movement*. In place of turret slide is mounted a feed base having single or multi spindle for operations like drilling, reaming, screwing, tapping, etc. The mam drive is from an electric motor at the bottom left hand of the machine which drives a gear box housed in the cabinet base. From gear box the drive is transmitted to the spindle by two roller chains which pass up through the base of the bed. Thus the spindle speed can be varied from 60 to 200 rpm in steps. The operation of these and the spindle clutch takes place from the back shaft and thus the speeds could be changed or reversed automatically also. On the base of the machine is mounted a bed which carries the main elements of the machine as listed below 1. 2. Work spindle Back shaft <axial control shaft)

3- Front shaft (cam shaft) 4. Turret and its slide

5. Cross-slide (front and rear) In this type of machine, no special bar stop is required because the head stock itself traverses. The parting off tool is left in the forward position after cutting through the bar in previous operation. The chuck opens and the head stock moves back. The bar being preloaded moves forward against the parting off tool. When the head stock, has reached its initial position, the chuck grips the bar. The parting off tool retracts and the work, cycle commences.

Manufacturing Technology - H This type of automatic lathe is the logical development of the capstan lathe. These are actually automatic bar type turret lathes used for machining external and internal surfaces on work pieces from the bar stock. The bar is advanced to a stop automatically at the beginning of each cycle and then clamped in that position up to six tools can be mounted on the tail tstodc turrent and oilier on front and rear tool slides. All these tools are automatically fed at the correct times during the cycle by cams. The various clutches are operated by trip dogs fastened to disc on the front shaft.

12.

(h) Describe with a n**it sketch cm turret automatic screw machine.

vrfY

Head Stock Bar

Six Station

Round Toot Turret Turiet & Slide

Tube

Lead Cam Haviog Six Lobes to Operate Round Tool Turrent

Motor

General Layout of Turret Automatic

Single spindle chuclcing automatic vary di from 150 mm to 1600 mm chucking capacity. The drive from the motor id to the spindle via change geare and Cram hence, through feed change gears to the central shaft which operates the turrent by means of a dram cam having the same number of lobes as there are turret faces, which vary from four to six Turret and cross slide feed strokes are altered bv adjustable tripe on the central shaft operating a clutch, 'which disengages the feed drive from the work spindle and brings in a constant fast speed drive to the central shaft, so that although the turret has a constant stroke, the feed stroke can be tripped in at any time. Single spindles machines can be set up in a reasonably short time, to perform turning operations, of a simple nature with a minimum of tooling and so are invaluable for small batch worfc Cycle time, whilst bring high compared with be more sophisticated multi spin die ic automatics, even then the machine costa are reduced.
IS. (a) (i) State the- advantage* of ward Leonard drive.

Induction Motor

Constant DC. Supply

: Generator

Ddvtng Motor

Wertt-L oonorxi Method of Controt

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An inherent property of the Ward I^onard equipment, which makes it eminently suitable for reversible derives is &ai the motor i* reversed without any additional loses while kinetic energy stored in the moving part is recuperated during the deceleration process. No- other electrical or mechanical reversing drive exhibits this advantage and this is particularly appreciated when reversal takes place in succession. Under f=acb conditions even a rwpid rworcing drive may be highly stressed so that one can imagine what is happening* to the electrical and mechanical reversing drives which have no possibility of recuperating the kinetic energy and with -which any change in speed during the period of deceleration will arase heavy additional losses in the form of heat. The electrical braking of Ward - Leonard system bring other advantages with respect to the construction and efficiency of machine tools. Electrical braking replaces the mechanical braking system m almost every cose and, in consequence* the design of the machine tool becomes simpler, cheaper and more reliable.

13. (a) (li) Explain with a sketch "Fast and Loose pulleys" Quick return mechanism nf n j>lnnvr- labt*. A planer driving mechanism provides die longitudinal to and fro motion of the planer work table. Figure- shows Open and cross belt drive or Fast and Loose pulleys", mechanism.
In the mechanism of planer - table drive, the open and cross belts transfer motion from the driving shaft (or electric motor) to the bull gear, which in turn moves the rack fitted under the work table of the planer. Two belt^, one open and one crossed operate on loose and tight pulleys. Crossed belt is used for fftrwflrH or cutting etroko and the open belt fui return, motion. The open and crossed belt drive mechanism permits operation of the gear train such

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MT fstov / Doc 2007 - Question Paper Soh/ed

Courier

Open and Cross Belt Drive

Open Belt

Cross SeSt Belt Shifter

rm
Fast Pulleys Main -i / Driving !IZ] Shafl Loose Pulleys

Bed Ways Drrviag Pinion y Speed Reduction Shaft Driving Pinion Gaar&ox

a manner that the table will travel slowly on the cutting stroke and travel faster on the return stroke. Pulleys. keyed to the drive pinion shaft are called tight pulleys and those which turn freely on the shaft are called loose pulleys- There are two tight pulleys and loose pulleys. The larger tight pulley is used for the slower forward speed or cutting stroke drive and the smaller tight pulley is used for the quicker return stroke. For obtaining continuous forward and return motion of the planer table, both the open, and crossed belts ran continuously and are shifted back and forth by the belt shifted which is linked to the reverse lever. During cutting stroke the cross belt is on the tight pulley, the open belt is on the loo**? p ul3ey and the position is reverse during the return stroke. Belt shifter, reverse lever

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ssd the trip dags of each stroke, are responsible for relative Mifliing of bclc automatically at the end of each stroke, without sloping the machine. Trip dogs are provided, one each xi both ends of the planer table. At the end of each stroke -jhe trip dogs meet against the reverse lever, actuate the belt shifter -and thus the table movement is reversed. Or

13. (b) (i) State the methods of holding milling cutters6) A cutter having a bore can be mounted on arbor. (ii) A cutter having a shank end can be fitted either in the collet or an adapter or a spring collect and these can be connected with the spindle -of milling machine by a draw bolt.

<hiJ Face mil ling cutters of large diameters having no shank can be bolted directly on the nose of the spindle. (iv) Some cutters are screwed - on - type which can be screwed on the threaded nose of an arbor which can be mounted on the spindle of the milling machine.

13. (i>) (ii) Kxjdain simple indexing, compound indexing, and. differential indexing with suitable' examples.
Simple Indexing: In this case, different index plates with varying number of holes are used to increase the range of indexing. The Index is fixed in position by a pin called lock pin. The spindle is then rotated by rotating- the handle which is keyed to the worm - shaft as shown in figure. The following relation is used for simple indexing: T= 40/N, where TT gives the number of turns or parts of a turn through which the index crank must be rotated to obtain the required number of divisions (N) on the job periphery. Example: To cut 64 teeth on the gear blank. 40 40 . 16 _ 2

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MT - May / Pec 2007 -

QuKoo

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Index Head

Index
Plate

\ Wbtfm Sing** Tfweac F19 {*)


WcxmSnafl

Simple or Pimm Indexing

i.e, the worm is to be rotated by the handle through one complete rotation and two-third of the number of holes of any circle. Compound Indexing Using the simple indexing method, a majority of the indexing jobs could he completed. However when the available capacity of the index plates is not sufficient to do a given indexing job. the compound indexing method could be used. In order to obtain more complex indexing, this method is used. First, the crank is moved in the usual fashion in the forward direction. Then a further motion is added or subtracted by rotating the index plate after locking the plate with the plunger. This is termed as compound indexing. For example, if the indexing is done by moving the crank by 5 holes in the 20 - hole circle, and then the index plate together with the crank is indexed back bv a hole with the locking plunger registering in a 15 - hole drdc.

total indexing done is then A A =il 20 ' lo 60 ie II holes in a 60 - hole circle unfortunately the 60 - hole circle is not available in the Brown and Sharped range of index plates. Similarly, it is possible t-o have the two ^notions in the same direction as well, In that case, the total indexing will be 5 J_ 19 20 4 15 60 ie, 19 holes in a 60 - hole circle. Therefore, it is possible, to do any other indexing also by following this method. Differential Indexing Though compound indexing as explained above is a convenient way to get any indexing required, it is fairly cumbersome to use in practice. Hence differential indexing is used for that purpose which is exactly an automatic way to carry out compound indexing method.

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MT Nov / Pec 2007 - Quosttco Paper Sotvod

Ftff(c) Differential Jmfexing

Irvdex Plate

It differential Indexing, the Index plate is made free to rotate. A gear is connected to live hack end of the driving head spindle while another gear is mounted on a shaft, and is connected to the shaft of the index plate through bevel gears. When the index crank is rotated, the motion is communicated to the piece spindle. Since the workpiece spindle is connected to the index plate through the intermediate gearing as explained above, the index plate will also start rotating. If the chosen indexing is less than the required one, then the index plate will have to be moved in the same direction as the movement of the cranck to add additional motion. If the chosen indexing is move, then the plate should move in the opposite direction to subtract the additional motion.
40 T Wcrm V^eel

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The direction of the increment of the index plate depends upon the gear train, employed. If an idler gear is aided, between the spindle gear and Uu shrift gear in caae of a simp3e gear train then the index plate will move in the same direction as that of the indexing cranck movement. In the case of compound gear train, an Idler gear is to be used when the index plate is ro move in the opposite direction. Examp'le The change gear set available is 24, 24, 28, 32, 40, 44, 43, 56, 64, 72. 86 and 100. Obtain the indexing for 97 divisions. Require indexing 40 which cannot be obtained with any of the index plates available. Choose the nearest possible divisions. For example, the indexing decided is 40 2 6_ 100 5 20 The actual indexing decided Is 8 holes in 20 hole circle. The Indexing will be less than required. Ideally, the work, piece should complete one revolution when the crank is moved through the 97 turns at the above identified indexing. Actual motion generated when the crank is moved 97 times is 97x40 3x40 100 ~ 100 Hence the index plate has to move forward by this amount during the 97 turns to compensate for the smaller indexing being done by indexing crank. Hence the gear ratio between the spindle and the index crank is 3 x 4 0 f> 100 5 Change gear set used is w~-~~ 4 = 44Dnver 5 40 An Idler gear is to be used since the index plate has to move in the same direction. 14. (<x> U) State the advantages and limitations of broaching. Advantages and Limitations of Broaching Broaching is a metal cutting -operation which haa been adopted for mas-3 production woTk. because of its outstanding features and advantages which are as follows: 1. Both roughening and finishing operations are completed in one pass of the tool, giving a high rate of production. 2. Any form that can be reproduced on a broaching tool can "be machined

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by broaching process. 3. Elate of production is high, because the actual cutting time is a matter of few seconds only. Rapid loading and unloading of a fixtures keeps the total production time to the minimum. Internal or external surfaces can be machined with in the close tolerances needed for interchangeable mass production. The operation of broaching is simple and there exists a possibility of automatic process.

4. 5.

Limitations
1. 2. The tooling C03ts is very high and hence broaching process is adopted only in those places where mass production is required. The broaching tool is made for a particular job only and cannot he easily adopted to a range of applications.

3. Surface to be broached should not have any obstructions. 4. The process of broaching is not recommended for the removal of large amount stock and short run joh*. 5. All the. elements of the broached surfaces must be. parallel to tlic axis of the travel. Obviously it is not possible Co broach the entire* surface of a tapered hole.

Technology II

H la) (ii) Compare gear hobbing icith gear shaping. Hobbing is a process of generating- a gears by means of ntetiog cutler called a Hob. It is a continuous indexing /r55< in which both the cutting tool and work piece rotate TL a constant relationship while the hob is being fed into work. Gear shaping: A generated surface whether it is curved or txraigjht, is produced by continuous motion of a point, a line ar a surface. The cutter is reciprocated with the required speed for stock removal along the face of the work and is gradually fed radially to plunge it for correct seech depth by means of a cam. In hobbing, the gear blank is mounted on a vertical sroor hut the hob is mounted in a rotating arbor. To cut parallel teeth, the bob axis is. tilted through the hob lead angle
IP >

Here a = 90>-aj where nt| helix angle of the hob thread. Applications: Ilobbing is used for generating spur, helical and worm gea r. Merits and limitation of Hobbing process Merits (i) Any external tooth form which is uniformly spaced about the centre (not necessary involve form or a form symmetrical about an individual axis) so that all the teeth, or identical., can be bobbed using suitable hob. <ii) One hob of a particular module can be used to cut teeth, of nil involute spur and helical gears of any number of teeth same module and pressure angle. It is thus a versatile process and can be used to cover a variety of work like spur, helical, worm, splines and variety of special forms. (iii> It can be used in ruass production. (iv) The indexing is continuous and there is. no intermittent motion to give riM to errors.

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(v) Worm gears can be generated only by hobbing. Limitations: It can't be used to cut bevel and internal gears and for gears having adjacent shoulders larger than the root diameter of gear. In Gear shaping, when the machine vs started, the cutter reciprocate* vertically and parallel Lo the axis of the gear blank. During generation process, both the cutter and blank are made to rotate slowly together about tlveir axis. The principle of cutting gear by the generating method has the advantage that with a particular module of DP cutter it is possible to cut accurately gears having identical module or DP, but different number of teeth. Applications 1. Gear shaping is used for generating both internal find external spur gear*. 2. Helical gear can also be generated but up to Helix angle of 23 using helical cutter of opposite hand than the helix hand required on work piece. Advantages of Gear shaping 1. The gears produced by this method are very high accuracy. 2. 3. 4. 5. Both internal and external gears can be cut by this process. Non>conventional types of gears can also be cut by this method. The production will be high. By single cutter, number of sizes of gears can be produced.

Limitations The production with Gear shaper is lower than, bobbing. Worm, worm wheels cannot be generated on gear shaper.

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Or

(b)

(i) Explain self-sharpening characteristic* of grinding wheel.

In a grinding wheel, the cutting tools arc irregularly .shaped and randomly distributed. The sharp edges on the periphery of the wheel takes part in material removal process Jtnd gradually* they become blunt i.e, worn out (did)}. Due to xh>e greater forces on them during machining, they either fracture to prevent new sharp cutting edge, or get lodged out and new grains below it become exposed and take part in material removal. This process imparts grinding wheels the characteristic of shelfsharpening. It would be realized that the strength of bond (called its grade) decides the maximum ftrcc on abrasive grain can withstand and this is an important characteristic of grinding wheel. A wheel with a strong bond is called bard. Due to the random grit orientation, these instead of cutting may rub. These factors make grinding process to be inefficient and consume high specific energy.

(b) (ii) Describe the use of cutting fluid in grinding Grinding fluids help in preventing excessive heating of work piece and flash the whel. Grinding fluids containing sulphur or chlorine additive help in reducing the cutting force and improving the surface finish and increasing the life of the grinding wheeL Usually water based emulsions and grinding oils in ample quality (15 20 litcrs/min for normal medium sized grinding machine) are used for this purpose. The fluid is supplied under pressure using special noizles, so that air film around the wheel surface is penetrated due to high speed. In order to prevent clogging in the wheel due Ur fine particles, the grinding fluid is finely filtered. 14. fb) (iii) Explain wheel truing and dressing. With continuous use, a grin ding wheel becomes dull, with the? sharp abrasive grains becoming rounded.- This condition of dull grinding wheel with worn out grains is termed as glazing. Further, some grinding chips get lodged in to the space between the grit with the resulting condition kn-own as a loaded wheel. Loading is generally caused during the grinding of soft and ductile materials. A loaded wheel cannot cut properly. Suph a grinding wheel can be cleaned and sharpened by means of a process called dressing. A simple dressing is done by means of small steel disks, which are free to rotate at the end of a stick- These disk wall remove a small portion of the face of the wheel. Though this process is simple, since the dreeing is done manually it will not be

14.

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MT - Nov i Dec 2007 - Qfg3ton Pap& Solved

able to produce a con centric surface. A true surface of the grind wheel in terms of either the form or concentricity can be achieved with the help of a diamond dressing tool. A diamond used for truing is set in a closely fitting hole at the end of a short steel bar find is brazed. To do the truing operation, the grinding wheel is rotated and a small depth of 0.025 mm is given while moving the dressing tool across the face of the grinding wheel in an automatic feed. J5L (a) (i) State few typical application* where the use of numerical can trol would be justified. t. Optimization of cutting tool life and quality -of jobs. 2-. Possibility of making parts which are impossible in conventional machining systems. 3. 4. 5. t^uick and more accurate inspection and machining systems direction of error in design. The NC machines has Greater Accuracy and Lower tooling cost. Due to the absence of Humiin errors - Less scrap due to the accuracy of job.

6- Improved product quality. 7 Machining tame utiliutiou is bclUfi8. 9. I^Mir production cost per piece-. Reduced In process Inventory.

10. Reduced set - up Time. 15 (a) (ii) Describe in brief the basic components of a tape-operated NC machine tooL Main components of NC system are (a) Program of Instruction. (b) Controller unit or machine control unit. (c) Machine Tool. (d) Servo vri2r4uivu*nrt nod djrivo unit. 2 The most common input medium today is 26 mm wide pun chrri t*pp Numbers, letters and symbols gathered together and logically organized to direct a machine tool for specific task are called NC program. NC program is interpreted by the controller unit and accordingly

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(e) Control panel. (a) Program of Instructions 'The program of instructions is prepared by part programmer. The program of instructions is the detailed step by step set. of directions -which toll Ihe machine tool what to do. It is coded in numerical or symbolic form on some type of input medium that can be interpreted by the controller unit, (as shown in fig)

instruction are fed to the machine tool to perform-all the required movements that produce a finished part.

MT - Nov / Deo 2007 - Qu^sboo P^fw Snhrttd

(b) HontroOcr unit or Machine Control Unit (MCU) The controller unit consists of the electronics and hardware that read and interprets the program of instructions (NC program > and convert it into mechanical actions of the machine tool. The typical elements of a conventional NC controller unit include (i) (ii) The tape reader Signal output channels to the machine tool

(hi) A data buffer (iv) Foed hack channels from the machine tool, and (v) The sequence controls to co-ordinnte the over all operation of the foregoing elements. The tape reader is a device for winding and reading the punched tape containing tlie program of instructions.

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The data contained on the tape arc read in the data buffer. The purpose of this device is to store the input instructions in logical blocks of information. Signal output channels are connected to the servomotors and other controls in the machine tool.

Sequence control co-ordinates the activities of the other elements of the controller unit. The tape reader is activated to read data in to the buffer from the tape, signals arc sent to and from the machine tool and so on. ThU typ* of operation, nnitt bo synchronized and this is the function of the sequence controls. c) Machine fool Machine tool is that port of NC system which performs useful work of converting raw material in to finished component. Machine tool is used to perform machining operations. It consists of the work table spindle, cutting tools, -works fixtures and other auxiliary equipment needed in the machining operation. fS Servo mechanism and -drive unit A servomechanism is a group of elements which convert the NC input in to precision mechanical . displacements of machine tool parts. The elements include motors, gear trains, and transducers. (e) Control panel The control panel may be a part of the controller unit or of the machine tool.
WUJ

The control panel also known console contains the diaJe and e witch by which th machine operator runs the NC system. As the NC is automatic, the human operator is still needed.

<i) To turn the machine ON or OFF

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MT - Nov V Dec 2007 CXiestgon Paper Sohred

(ii) (iii)

To change tools and To toad and unload the machine etc To be able tn discharge these* duties/ and this is done through the control panel. COT)

J5- (b) (i) Discuss the - advantages of computer nunu-ricaJ control system. 1. 2. 3. 4. The part program tape and tape reader ore used only once to enter the program The NC tape can be corrected and even optimized (eg tool path, speeds, and feeds). CNC can accommodate conversion of tapes prepared in unite of indies in to the International system units. CNC is more compatible with the use of a . computerized factory - wide manufacturing system. .

5. Greater flexibility. 6- A reduction is hardware circuits and simplification of the remaining hardware, as well as the availability of automatic diagnostic programs, brings a subsequent need for fewer maintenance personnel. 7. The possibility of using the computers peripheral equipment tor debugging the edited part program* eg: a plotter can. be utilized tor drawing tbe shape of the part. 8. Greater accuracy and improved product quality.

IS. (b) (ii) What is the difference beticecn positioning machines and contouring machines?
(i> Positioning system or <PTP) point - to point system lU primary purpose - is to move a tool or work piece from one programmed point to another for an operation such as drilling a hole. The speed or path by which this movement from one point to another is accomplished is not important to point - to -point NC. NC drill presses arc a good example of PTP systems.

PTP system is suitable for hole machining, operations, such as drilling,, counter boring, anti tapping. Hole punching machines, spote welding machines and assembly machines

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also use PTP NC systems.

(n) Contouring system Contouring is the most complex, the most flexible and the most expensive "type of machine tool control. Contouring NC system are capable of directing the tool or work piece to move at any angle and also along cuncd paths. Many contouring NC machines, such as lathes and vertical mailingsmachinbs, are of two axis types. This allows continuous path contours to he machined only in the XY planes. Three-axis machines arc capable of simultaneous - cutting movements in all three axis, such as is

required for machining three-dimensional shapes an die and mould cavities. Milling and turning operations axe common examples of the use of contouring control. For machining A curved path (Fig shows) the direction of the feed rate must continuously be changed so as to follow the path. This Ls arrompliahfcd by breaking the curved path in to very short straight line segment* that approximate the curve. Then the tool is commanded to machine each segment in succession. What results, is a machined outline that closely approaches the desired shape. The maximum error between the two can be controlled by the length of the individual line segment.

Actual Interpolated

Fig. Approximation oI a curved path in MC toy a series of straight line segments