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National University of Singapore, School of Design & Environment Department of Architecture AY2013 -14 COMMUNITY & HOUSING DESIGN


This section is defined by interests in the user-centric needs and seeks creative reconciliation between the individual and community. It explores techniques to realize convivial and resilient communities and theoretically underpinned by participatory design methods, post-occupancy studies, concepts of open society, qualitative and quantitative approaches. Its focus is on the socio-cultural issues of resilient communities, aging, active design, healthcare and human factors. Research areas include Aging, Active Design, Community Bonding, Sustainable Urban Living, Environment & Behaviour studies and Urban regeneration.

FACULTY Architecture Dr. Chen Yu Adjunct Prof. Fung John Chye Dr. Lai Chee Kien Assoc Prof Tse Swee Ling Dr. Cho Im Sik Dr. Tan Beng Kiang (Leader) Adjunct Prof. Tay Kheng Soon (Co-Leader) Dr. Lilian Chee Assoc Prof Wong Yunn Chii Dr. Emi Kiyota (visiting) Dr. Ruzica Bozovic Stamenovic (visiting)

ASSOCIATED FACULTY (Urban Design) Low Boon Liang Jurgen Rosemann

All Year 3 & Year 4 students in the Community & Housing Design Section are required to attend this one-week workshop 2013 (schedule subject to change)

Mon 12 Aug 11am to 12 12- 1pm 1pm - 3pm 3pm 6pm Tues 13 Aug 11am 12 noon 12 noon 1pm 1pm to 2pm 2pm to 3pm 3pm to 4pm 4pm to 5pm Kong)* 5pm to 6pm

Introduction to Design Section & History of public housing and flat designs (TBK) @LR426 Orientation talk on the Global Situation (TKS)@LR421 Lunch followed by travel to the Field Visit site Field Visit to HDB housing estate with community programmes (guided by NVPC volunteers & NUS non aki volunteers ) Morphology (TKS) Aesthetics (TKS) Lunch break Climate adaption to density in Singapore Housing & learning from vernacular examples (LCK) Skyland is our Future (TCS) Politics of space in public housing: challenges of social integration (Sociologist Prof. Ho Chong Discussion

* 40 minutes talk, 20 mins Q&A Wed 14 Aug 11am to 11.30am 11.30 am to 12.30pm 12.30 1.30pm 1.30pm to 6pm Thurs 15 Aug 9am to 6pm

Ezio Manzini & other videos Empowering community through Block Pooling (Moh Hong Meng Lunch Hands on workshop prep work Hands on workshop (Morphology exercises)

Fri 16 Aug 9am to 1pm Review of workshop work 2pm to 6pm Reflections and Discussion TBK : Tan Beng Kiang TKS: Tay Kheng Soon LCK: Lai Chee Kien TCS: Tan Cheng Siong Thurs 22 Aug 2pm to 6pm & Fri 9am to 1pm (For year 4s and selected MArch students) Lecture and workshop by Tris Kee, Director Community Project Workshop Faculty of Architecture The University of Hong Kong Topic: Community Planning Framework, Principles, Methods & Scenarios

National University of Singapore DEPARTMENT of ARCHITECTURE Academic Year 2013-2014 Module AR4102 Studio Master: Assistant Prof Dr Cho Im Sik

Rethinking Public Housing and Community

Architectural Strategies for New Community Bonding


With HDB estates being the place where 80% of Singapores population live their daily lives, develop social relationships and where shared values develop, it is important to rethink the role of public housing and its built environment in facilitating, encouraging and deepening community bonding. This is more so given the fast changing social environment of a better informed and more vocal young population, a larger proportion of older residents and increasing social diversity. A review of the literature and academic studies has shown that planning and urban design of the built environment can have an effect on social interaction and bonding. While social interaction and bonding are influenced by a number of social/cultural factors, space is the medium/container in which those actions may take place and public spaces can be designed to provide a positive social setting to facilitate active resident interaction. Certain spatial organizations could encourage/stimulate social interaction while others discourage it. Spatial properties such as scale/proportion and design can be the determining factors. Function can be another important factor, as well as amenities that are assigned to such spaces. For example, in some cities, connecting pathways and improving walkability to facilities have been shown to facilitate social encounters and interaction. However, such overseas experience may not be applicable to the Singapore context, and similar studies have not been done here. It would therefore be timely and meaningful to conduct a study to investigate the success or otherwise of HDBs planning and design efforts from a community bonding perspective. This will enhance our understanding of the conditions that are conducive for community interaction and positive encounters amongst residents and visitors in the public realm. Design principles that are crucial to facilitate positive encounters and active interaction could be distilled from the study for application in new housing precincts or those undergoing upgrading. This project is part of a two-year research collaboration project between National University of Singapore (NUS) and the Housing and Development Board (HDB): Study on Impact of the Built Envi ronment on Community Bonding (Principal Investigator: Dr Cho Im Sik, Co-Principal Investigator: Dr Tan Beng Kiang, Collaborator: Dr Malone-Lee Lai Choo, Prof Heng Chye Kiang, Consultant: Urban Sociologist Assoc. Prof Ho Kong Chong, Research Fellow: Dr Devisari Tunas, Research Assistant: Mizah Rahman) 2. OBJECTIVES

This project entails a proposal to conduct a study to examine the influence and impact that the built environment of HDBs public housing has on community bonding. The study aims: (a) To gain better understanding of relationship between community bonding and the built environment by reviewing established indicators where available, and also to develop new indicators if necessary; (b) To evaluate HDBs efforts in planning and design with respect to commun ity bonding: (i) Investigate existing planning and design standards and guidelines to evaluate the types of spaces that could contribute to community bonding; (ii) Study the actual usage and activities that residents are interested to determine the spaces required by residents;

(c) Distil design principles that would enhance social interaction in common spaces: (i) Document best practices and distil design guidelines that could facilitate community activities and enhance social interaction at common spaces; (ii) Evaluate and propose planning and design guidelines to support future planning of HDB towns and estates. 3. SCOPE OF WORK The scope of work involves four phases: Phase 1 - INTRODUCTION OF TOOLKIT A) Methodology of Site observation (Community Asset) & Framework for Design Attributes B) Mass Survey Results C) Report of Past Semesters Students Work (AY2012-2013, Sem 1 & Sem 2) D) Selected Literatures for reading E) Timeline and Goals Design Studios

Aug 2013 Introduction of Toolkit & Fieldwork

Sept 2013 Fieldwork & Analysis of Community Bonding

Oct 2013

Nov 2013

Design Prototypes

Brainstorming: 1) What indicates community bonding in public housing? What do we understand by Community Bonding? 2) Setting Indicators for Community Bonding 3) Post a question: What are the problems and challenges for community bonding in Singapore? What are the current problems of community and neighbourhood design? Phase 2 - FIELD WORK A) Introduction of 6 sites (Density, population, demographics, housing type) B) Site Observation and Mappings, Visual Aids Comparing 6 sites [Focus of Research] 1. Recreational and Leisure Spaces (Playgrounds / fitness corners / hard courts, green and open spaces, precinct pavilions), 2. Commercial Spaces (Neighbourhood Centres / Retail shops, Markets / supermarkets / dry markets, Hawker centres / coffee shops) 3. Transitory and Residual Spaces (Linkways / pedestrian facilities, Drop-off porches / pergolas, Seats, Void deck, Common corridor, Lift lobby) 4. Social Communal Facilities (Elderly facilities, child care, education centre, community centre)

Phase 3 - ANALYSIS OF COMMUNITY BONDING Analysis of current situation (6 sites) by using the proposed framework

Phase 4 DESIGN PROTOTYPES From the understanding of the conditions that are conducive for community interaction and design principles that are crucial to facilitate positive encounters amongst residents and visitors in the public realm, which are distilled from the studies in the previous semesters and phases, in this Phase 4, these findings will be applied in the given housing precincts to propose alternative visions of community space model that promote better community bonding. New prototypes will be proposed by redesigning and re-planning the communal spaces in the housing precincts using the design principles and guidelines extracted from the previous studies to enhance social interactions and sense of community. Brainstorming: Explain concepts of Space to Grow and Social Innovation What is space to grow? Why is re-programming typologies of public space in HDB crucial? Introduce Recommendations: SPACE TO GROW & SOCIAL INNOVATION = PLACE, PEOPLE, PROCESS Space to grow and social innovation are two important elements of the concept of social sustainability: for a new community to be successful and sustainable, PLACE public space, housing block and amenities PEOPLE and PROCESS have to be able to adapt over time. Many aspects of social life that make communities flourish cannot be planned in advance.

Sense of Community


COMMUNITY BONDING Neighbourhood and Place attachment


Community Participation

National University of Singapore, School of Design & Environment Department of Architecture AR4101 Design 7 AY2013/2014 Semester 1 INTEGRATED & RESILIENT COMMUNITIES Studio master: Dr. Tan Beng Kiang, DDes (Harvard), MArch II (UCLA), BArch Hons (NUS)

Over 80% of Singapores population live in public housing and close to 90% of these own their flats. Singapore has seen a big transformation from slum housing in the 1960s to the present landscape of satellite housing estates with its mix of public & private facilities, educational, recreational and private commercial facilities. While the hardware of the built environment has evolved and improved over the years, the software of community and building relationships faces great challenges. Many factors such as increasing population, immigration, greying population, better education and thus higher expectations are testing the notion of community. The built form and planning of public housing has changed incrementally in the last 50 years but fundamental design principles remain. It is time to re-examine the status quo: Has the planning and built form constrain the development of community? What kind of built form will facilitate the development of community? Is our housing form designed for economic resilience and empowering of people? E.g. In time of a financial crisis, does the built form have the flexibility to convert housing to small enterprises for livelihood? How to develop an architecture that is participative? How can older people be integrated as full and productive members of their respective communities? This studio will examine the topic of integrated and resilient communities through the concept of Collaborative Services creating resource sharing community that suits diverse needs and lifestyles. And in the process empower the people to take charge of their environment. What kind of built form and facilities are required to support this concept? What kind of organization structure and processes need to be in place? Already, a local entrepreneur has started a website, Block Pooling, of similar idea. The studios approach is people centric. We will study a public housing estate/precinct, map its assets and needs through interviews and observations and hopefully through workshops with residents. The deliverable is a masterplan (hardware & software) in the first half of the semester and architectural design in the second half. Results of the studio may be submitted for the International Competition Integrated Communities: A Society for All Ages organized by the International Council for Caring Communities (www.international-iccc.org). Some References: Eizo Manzini Collaborative Services Social Innovation and Design for Sustainability Richard Sennett The Architecture of Cooperation (video) Block Pooling - http://www.blockpooling.sg/ Past Community Design projects MacPherson 21st Century Estate Smile Village in Phnom Penh Community Building & Enchanted Farm for Gawad Kalinga Philippines Rail Ides: Visions for the Rail Corridor

BA(Arch)AR4101 Semester1,AY2013/14 Tutor:TanChengSiong,ZhangJi Skyland With a projected population of 6.5 to 6.9 million by 2030, Singapore is facing tremendous challenges to accommodate the growth of urban population and provide a better urban environment for live, work, play and commuting, and for all ages. A primary concern regarding these challenges is the expansion and efficient use of our limited land resources, to which various planning strategies have been proposed. However, one should question the continuous consumption of land resources in our traditional planning methodologies. Skyland, artificial lands created up in the sky and concentrated in key node areas to be owned by the citizens, is proposed as a revolutionary vision, perhapsthelastfrontierforthefutureSingapore,acityinthegarden,andothercompactcitiesinthe regionwithincreasingurbanpopulationandhigherlifeaspirations. TheideaofSkylandisthreefoldwhichmaygeneratenewurbanismandarchitecture: 1) Skyland is a master plan for integrated land use. There are limitations inherent in the approaches to expand the reservoir of land resources through outward coastal reclamation, inward plot floor space densification, and downward underground development. Besides, premature demolishment of young building for land is wasteful and detrimental to our environment. Skyland is proposed to create and amalgamate various land uses vertically, thus avoiding the disintegration and fragmentation of urban life as a result of horizontal functional landusezoningcurrentlyappliedwhichkeepsgobblinguplandresources. 2) Skyland is an architecture that rejuvenates. Skyland is composed of frame and infill: the formerwill befundedandbuilt by the governmentastheoverallstructuretoprovide landinthe sky, and it will be created around transportation hub and some development areas with elegant andsophisticatedarchitecturalmanifestation;whereasthelatteristobedevelopedbypeopleor other parties according to their own needs and requirements. Skyland is architecture as infrastructure that adapts to an aging population, thus continuously selfrejuvenating and remainingrelevanttothechangingneedsofthesociety. 3) Skyland is a construction by people. In response to the shoebox dwelling model of which identical flats sandwiched in between similar flats that have low flexibility to cope with the housing demands emerging in the process of life, Skyland enables the customization of home according to residents evolving life expectations, needs, and preferences. This implies the development of new economic and industrial opportunities catering to the new ways of home buildingthatpromotelightweight,prefabricatedandgreentechnologies. TheSkylandconcepthasidentifiedthefollowingbenefits: 1.CreatingLandinthesky,increasingourcountryslandbank; 2.Promoteanewarchitecturethatrejuvenates; 3.Spawnanewconstructionindustrythatislessreliantonmanuallabour; 4.Toeventuallyrecovercurrentlanduseforotheruses;and 5. To prevent high underground rail infrastructure construction cost by integrating mass transit networkwithSkylandaboveground. This studio is set to seek architectural design solutions to reflect the above mentioned benefits of Skyland. Program The studio will be conducted by integrating topicbased research investigation and contextbased designexplorationinamutuallysupportingway.

Based on understanding of the momentum and vision of the Skyland concept, the students will implementitaroundselectedHDBnewtowncentersortransportationhubsusinghypotheticalurban scenariosforthenearfutureofSingapore,suchasyear2030,asreferences. In the process, the students will also be guided to conduct research on relevant topics to address the challenges implied in the implementation of the Skyland concept that will contribute to the explorationofarchitecturaldesignsolutions. Deliverables The students will work as a group to establish the urban design framework and quantitative parameters to address the vision and benefits of the Skyland concept for the given site based on islandwide and town level of analyses. On individual level, the students will identify within the site a specificSkylandcomponentorhousingtypologytodevelopdetailedarchitecturaldesign. Evaluation Students will be evaluated at both the group and individual levels based on the quality of their contributionstoanddedicationinbothcomponents. InitialReadings NationalPopulationandTalentDivision,MinistryofNationalDevelopment(2013)ThePopulation WhitePaperASustainablePopulationforADynamicSingapore,retrievedfrom http://population.sg/ MinistryofNationalDevelopment(2013)LandUsePlantoSupportSingaporesFuturePopulationA HighQualityLivingEnvironmentforAllSingaporeans,retrievedfrom http://www.mnd.gov.sg/landuseplan/ TheOpenBuildingconcept: http://www.habraken.org/index.html http://openbuilding.org/ob/concepts.html


Born 1937 Principal, Chairman Archurban Architects Planners, Singapore Archurban Projects Consultancy (Shenzhen) Pte Ltd, China Mr. Tan Cheng Siong, architect and founder of the Archurban Group, fervently leads his team to perform the duties and responsibilities of professional architects, especially in the areas of urban planning, architectural design and architectural development. He holds a Diploma in Architecture (1964) and M.A. Urban Planning (1972), and founded Archynamics Architects in 1967, and Archurban Architects Planners in 1974. He also leads an active practice in China. The iconic Pearlbank at Outram Park, the ground-breaking, 38-storey private residential apartments, designed and built in the late 1960s, the tallest in Asia then and widely considered to be a national icon today, and the condominium at Pandan Valley, emerged as models meant to replace landed properties, and are remarkable for their time. He became active in Singapore Institute of Architects work since late 70s and rose to be elected Vice President in 1984 to 1986. Many public institutions and agency activities invited him to sit in committees, join seminars, and deliver papers. In 1991, he was appointed team leader for the Jurong East Development Guide Plan; in 1997, he was also appointed team leader for the Pasir Ris 21 Development Guide Plan for the Ministry of National Development in Singapore. Serving as an advisor to the Planning Committee of Shenzhen since 1986, he introduced to China the concept of condominium housing in the mid-90s and continues to design pioneering landmarks in Shenzhen, Hangzhou, Wuhan, Shanghai, Sanya, Beijing and other cities there. Through him, China has learnt much from Singapores experience in housing and property development, and for this they have honoured him the title, Father of Luxury Housing. An Adjunct Professor at the School of Architecture, National University of Singapore from 1997-99, he was awarded the Distinguished Alumni Award, in 1999 and, in April 2009, was conferred Fellow (Life) member of the Singapore Institute of Architects. He regularly sits in as Jury member for various design competitions in Singapore and China. In Dec 2012, he earned the nations highest accolades as the Designer of the Year at the President Design Award. In May 2013, Mr. Tan was awarded the SIA Gold Medal, the institute's highest accolade at the recent 50th Anniversary Gala Dinner. Now 76 years of age and he is still passionately pursuing new ideas.

25 July 2013

DrZHANGJi DrZhangJiisaResearchFellowintheCentreforSustainableAsianCitiesintheSchoolofDesign andEnvironmentintheNationalUniversityofSingapore. He is currently involved in studies on sustainability of the built environment and in research projects investigating the relationship between density, urban form and environmental performance in highdensity urban context through computational simulation and perception surveyinareassuchasdaylightavailability,solaraccess,view,outdoorairmovement,etc.The objectives are to develop rigorous and efficient methodology and technologies to facilitate performance optimization oriented design exploration, and provide scientific advices to enable balanced and informed decisionmaking in the urban planning and architectural design processes. He holds a PhD degree in Architecture from the National University of Singapore. His PhD dissertation,focusedonthekeyconceptofplaceattachment,wasaninvestigationofthepositive emotional bonding between HDB residents and their nearby neighborhood parks from an environmental psychology perspective, as well as the implications of place attachment to open spaceplanninganddesigninhighdensitypublichousingcontext. HealsoholdsaprofessionalMastersdegreeinArchitecturefromtheSouthChinaUniversityof Technology, and he has been actively involved in a variety of architectural design and urban designprojectsandinternationalcompetitions.

TAY KHENG SOONS PROPOSED 2013, YEAR 4 SEM 1 STUDION WITHIN THE COMMUNITY AND HOUSING CLUSTER 18/7/13 PREAMBLE: Everyone can see that the World is experiencing crises at many interrelated levels and architecture no different. Business and thinking as usual in architecture is becoming obsolete. Design is no longer to be seen as merely the aestheticising of buildings as objects of pleasure but have now to be seen as vehicles and contexts for the transformation of values in social relations, cultural change and human emancipation. The interaction of the triple forces consisting of marketization, social protection and emancipation are in dynamic flux. Accordingly, there is a crisis of confidence in all institutions as the World system falters. The seeming benefits of Globalisation, the Neo-Conservative doctrine of the free Market are no longer sacrosanct. The legitimacy of governments are eroding. Governments traditional roles in social protection is increasingly contrasted against the tandem arrangement it has with foreign investors, monopolistic state enterprises and government linked corporations and big international corporations. All these phenomena are visible to a more informed public through the formal and informal information media. Better that such information be experienced through direct experience rather than through second-hand sources reliable or unreliable as the case may be. It is this context that challenges architecture: how to design environments that inform and which teach social values of compassion, conviviality and community. Indeed, this is now the new role of architecture to be the vector for the creation and sustaining of healthy social and economic relations. Style and formalism are our tools to serve humanity not to delude it. The program for this semester is to take an existing HDB estate and see how to increase its social, educational, cultural and economic functioning such as to engender a much more intelligent society, not through exhortation and social engineering but through the enrichment of experience while enacting the routines of everyday life; going to school, shopping, recreation, involvement is civic activity, enrichment through the arts etc. The key idea thus necessities the reconceptualisation of a human settlement an HDB Estate as a high functioning organism from its current form conceived as an efficient mechanism only. It is important here to note that as with all high functioning organisms our housing estates should also have an extensive central and peripheral nervous system. This system can be a fish-bone structure of nerves that connects the entire organism providing it with the necessary signal density and diversity that

enables the organism to be conscious, responsive and reactive to all internal and external stimuli. This is what Singapore needs as it moves forward to an uncertain world in flux. Survivability is a function of intelligence and human character. THE PROGRAM: Choose an existing HDB Housing estate and insert a central system and peripheral nervous systems. Analyze and quantify the facilities needed to serve the everyday routines of the community in a better way. Consider how existing can be integrated into the new CNS and PNS system including how some of these may have to be modified, relocated and reconfigured. Also consider how some existing facilities may be reused after having been relocated and reconfigured. Consider the introduction of new facilities normally located in the CBD and in central shopping and employment locations. Consider new building forms of community centres, clinics, shops, offices, schools, artist studios, entertainment, SME startups, retirement homes, markets, vegetable farms, special needs housing etc can be accommodated along the CNS and PNSs. Propose how these facilities may be distributed along the CNS and PNSs so as to create synergy and interconnected flow that an interesting, empowering and energizing community culture may arise. Propose how electric buggies, pedestrians, bicycles, wheel chairs, roller blades and skate boards etc can provide easy access without conflict with cars, vans, m/cycles and trucks. Explore A new architectural aesthetic that is capable of change through addition, subtraction and thematic modification and which is participatory, coherent and consistent, exciting and very beautiful. THE EXPECTED OUTCOME: Students will jointly do the research in quantifying and understanding the qualitative aspects and character of the estate. They will then determine the alignment of the CNS and PNSs together to ensure that every residential unit is not further that a 10 minute walk away from the nervous system. Students will then define and design each building type along the nervous system in consistent with the overall connectivity of the nervous system...

THE EVALUATION: Students will be given a grade for participating in the research and overall master plan based on the tutors observation of the extent of their contribution to the group effort. The main grading will be on the design quality of each students own design work. The evaluation will consider the innovation of an aesthetic that allows for community participation, is capable of coherent change and is evocative of a new imagination of a new society in the making. Resolution of functional and technical aspects is expected within a masterful verbal and 3D presentation of the design ideas.

TAY KHENG SOON, PRINCIPAL PARTNER, AKITEK TENGGARA SINGAPORE / MALAYSIA Tay Kheng Soon has been a professional architect since 1964. He was chairman of Singapore Planning and Urban Research Group (SPUR) in 1970, an independent group examining the urban environment, active in proposing innovative solutions to urban living. He was President of the Singapore Institute of Architects from 1991 - 1993. Tay is currently practising as sole proprietor of his own firm. His abiding concern is sustainable urbanisation and the evolution of a proper design process factoring in human dimensions within the Asian context. His scope of thinking and design compasses politics, education, economics, the environment, culture and modernisation. His enduring concern is in engendering modernity though integrating human motivation, planning and space design in a design language that is firmly based on the local reality of climate, vegetation and life. Increasingly his concern is with education. Most Singaporean children are brought up with a left-brain bias, their right brains are underdeveloped. He thus advocates that Kampong experience is vital to help restore a balance. That is why he is actively involved in setting up Kampong Temasek for families and their children; a charitable project. Tay is currently Adjunct Professor of Architecture at the National University of Singapore. In 2003, he was elected a Fellow of the World Academy of Art and Science (WAAS), a global community of intellectuals dedicated to considering, " the social consequences and policy implications of knowledge." Tay is also a member of the World Ekistics Society, (WES) which focuses on the study of human settlements. Educationally, his concern is with the learning of architectural design aesthetics through integrating personality development to environmental ethics. Thus, he elected to teach in the 1st year of the NUS architecture Program in 2003. He also runs Kem-Eco, an Ecoeducation forest-camp in nearby Johore, Malaysia for schools and corporate groups. His public contributions have been as Chairman of the Task Force for the Long-term Development of the Singapore National Museum, Chairman of the Committee on Heritage for the Singapore Advisory Council on Culture and the Arts. He was also Founding Chairman of The Substation, a cutting-edge-ground-up arts centre in Singapore. His civic activities include membership of the Advisory Panel of the Government Parliamentary Committee on National Development and a member of the advisory panel of the Singapore Institute of Policy Studies. He has been appointed in 1997 Adjunct Professor of Architecture at RMIT of Australia. He is Adjunct Professor at National University of Singapore. His seminal paper on Rubanisation was published in November 2008 in the policy journal, Global Asia and it led to his invitation to Indonesia and Sri Lanka where he is in discussion with the authorities there to implement Rubanisation in these two respective countries. Indonesias ministry of disadvantaged regions has adopted rural urbanisation
1 Updated 16 July 2010

based on Tays ideas on 7th december 2009. Thua Thien Hue has also adopted Rubanisation as part of the tourism master plan Tay is comissioned to develop.

In 2010, Tay was awarded the highest honour by the Singapore Institute of Architects its Gold Medal for life-long contribution to architecture and to the profession. In 2009 he was conferred the Passive Low Energy Architecture (PLEA) international award.

Updated 16 July 2010