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# Counting and Probability - Level 2

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A palindrome is a number which reads the same forward as backward, for example 313 or 1001. Ignoring the colon, how many di erent palindromes are possible on a 12- hour digital clock displaying only the hours and minutes? (Notice a zero may not be inserted before a time with a single-digit hour value. Therefore, 01:10 may not be used.) Five balls are numbered with the integers 1 through 5 and placed in a jar. Three are drawn without replacement. What is the probability that the sum of the three integers on the balls is odd? Express your answer as a common fraction. A palindrome is an integer that reads the same forward and backward, such as 3663. What percent of the palindromes between 100 and 500 contain at least one 5? A board game spinner is divided into three parts labeled A, B and C . The and the probability of the spinner landing on B probability of the spinner landing on A is 1 3 5 is 12 . What is the probability of the spinner landing on C ? Express your answer as a common fraction. Two distinct points are selected at random from the six-point set f(1; 1); (1; 2); (1; 3); (2; 1); (2; 2); (2; 3)g. What is the probability that the distance between them on a Cartesian grid is a rational number? Express your answer as a decimal. How many perfect squares are there between 20 and 150? A graphic art designer's annual salary is a whole number of dollars between \$62;400 and \$62;600. If the hundreds, tens and units digits in her salary are all di erent and in descending order, how many possibilities exist for her salary? If 1  a  10 and 1  b  36, for how many ordered pairs of integers (a; b) a + b an integer?

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## What is the units digit of 1! + 3! + 5! + 7! + 9! + 11! ?

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A customer ordered 15 pieces of gourmet chocolate. The order can be packaged in small boxes that contain 1, 2 or 4 pieces of chocolate. Any box that is used must be full. How many di erent combinations of boxes can be used for the customer's 15 chocolate pieces? One such combination to be included is to use seven 2-piece boxes and one 1-piece box. Set S is the set of all positive four-digit integers that have four distinct digits. How many of the integers in the set have a value less than 1235? Steve has one quarter, two nickels and three pennies. Assuming no items are free, for how many di erent-priced items does Steve have exact change? Each of the rst eight prime numbers is placed in a bowl. Two primes are drawn without replacement. What is the probability, expressed as a common fraction, that the sum of the two numbers drawn is a prime number? Suelyn counts up from 1 to 9, and then immediately counts down again to 1, and then back up to 9, and so on, alternately counting up and down (1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6; 7; 8; 9; 8; 7; 6; 5; 4; 3; 2; 1; 2; 3; 4; : : :): What is the 1000th integer in her list? A team averages 7 losses for every 13 games it wins. If ties are not permitted, what is the probability that the team will win its next game? Express your answer as a percent. How many 7-digit phone numbers are possible if the rst digit must be non-zero? Write your answer in scienti c notation. What is the positive di erence between the probability of a fair coin landing heads up exactly 2 times out of 3 ips and the probability of a fair coin landing heads up 3 times out of 3 ips? Express your answer as a common fraction.

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A bag contains three red, three white and three blue marbles. Two marbles will be drawn at random, without replacement. What is the probability that both marbles drawn are the same color? Express your answer as a common fraction. For positive integers m and n, how many integers are greater than the product mn and less than the product (m + 1)(n + 1)? Express your answer in terms of m and n. The mean of the integers 9, x , 2x 3, and 7 is 7. Find the value of the smallest integer. Each of six softball teams is to play each other team once. How many games are needed? Thad has an unlimited supply of 3-cent and 4-cent stamps. If he has to put exactly 37 cents of postage on a letter, how many di erent combinations of 3-cent and/or 4-cent stamps could Thad use? How many ve-digit zip codes exist such that each of the rst three digits is greater than 4? What is the minimum number of times you must throw three fair six-sided dice to ensure that the same sum is rolled twice? Given the list of six positive integers 9, 13, a, 12, b, and 8, how many ordered pairs (a,b) will result in a mean of 10 for the entire list?

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57 palindromes 2/5 10 percent 1/4 0.6 8 perfect squares 16 10 ordered pairs 7 20 combinations 65 integers 23 items 1/7 8 65 percent 9.0 * 106 1/4 m+n integers 5 15 games 3 combos 12500 zip codes 17 times 17
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Problem ID

5BC1 24312 04312 BD3D 0BA41 B3312 B4D3 C5212 D3C2 45D 15112 5D31 42441 B5D BDA1 B13B 0DB3 11512 5DCC 0BC51 5C53 A531 3454 A554 1ADA

Solutions

(1) 57 palindromes ID: [5BC1] First, consider the three-digit palindromes. There are 9 choices for the rst digit (the hour): 1, 2,..., 9. There are 6 choices for the second digit (the tens digit of the minutes): 0, 1, ..., 5. The last digit (the units digit of the minutes) has to be the same as the rst digit. So there are 9 6 = 54 three-digit palindromes. Second, consider the four-digit palindromes. The rst digit (the tens digit of the hour) must be 1. There are 3 choices for the second digit (the units digit of the hour): 0, 1, and 2. The third digit must be the same as the second digit, and the fourth digit must be the same as the rst digit. So there are 3 four-digit palindromes. In total, there are 54 + 3 = 57 di erent palindromes. (2) 2/5 ID:  The sum of the three integers on the drawn balls is 15 minus the sum of the integers on the two balls that were left behind. Therefore, we are looking for the probability that the two balls that were left behind sum to an even number. There are 5 ways to choose these 2 two balls. Their sum is even only if they are both even or both odd. The probability they 1 3 are both even is 10 and the probability that they are both odd is 10 . In total, the probability 2 1 3 that their sum is even is 10 + 10 = . 5 (3) 10 percent ID:  Since none of the palindromes between 100 and 500 begin with a 5, the only place a 5 can appear is in the tens digit. Therefore, there are 4 integers between 100 and 500 with a 5: 151, 252, 353, and 454. To count the total number of palindromes, we observe that there are 4 choices to make for the rst/last digit and 10 choices to make for the middle digit. = 10% . Therefore, the percentage of palindromes that contain 5 as a digit is 4 4 10

(4) 1/4 ID: [BD3D] The spinner is guaranteed to land on exactly one of the three regions, so we know that the sum of the probabilities of it landing in each region will be 1. If we let the probability of it 5 landing in region C be x , we then have the equation 1 = 12 +1 + x , from which we have 3 1 x = . 4

(5) 0.6 ID: [0BA41] Notice that if we choose two points from the set that agree in one coordinate, then the distance between the two is just the di erence between the values of the other coordinate, which will be an integer, and hence also rational. Conversely, ifp the two points p di er in both 2 2 coordinates, then the distance between them will equal either 1 + 1 = 2 or p2 2 p 1 + 2 = 5, both of which are irrational. Once we have chosen the rst point, there are two other points that agree in the rst coordinate, and one other that agrees in the second coordinate. Thus three of the ve choices for the second point give a rational distance. Hence the probability that we get a rational distance is 3=5 = 0:6 . (6) 8 perfect squares ID: [B3312] The perfect squares between 20 and 150 are the ones from 52 through 122 There are 12 5 + 1 = 8 of them. (7) 16 ID: [B4D3] The hundreds digit can be either a 4 or a 5 (it can't be a 6 because then the salary would be greater than \$62; 600). For either potential hundreds digit, possible tens and units digit combinations are as follows: 10 21, 20 32, 31, 30 Also, for a hundreds digit of 5, there are four more possible combinations: 43, 42, 41, and 40. Thus, there are 2 6 + 4 = 16 possible salaries. (8) 10 ordered p pairs ID: [C5212] p p b is an If a + b is an integer, then its square a + b is also an integer. Therefore, p integer. In other words, b must be a perfect square. If we de ne c = b, then the problem has asked us to nd the number of ordered pairs (a; c ) for which 1  a  10, 1  c  6, and a + c is a perfect square. We check the 6 possibilities for c separately. If c = 1, then a is 3 or 8. If c = 2, then a is 2 or 7. If c = 3, then a is 1 or 6. If c = 4, then a = 5, and if c = 5, then a = 4. Finally, if c = 6, then a is either 10 or 3. Altogether, there are 2 + 2 + 2 + 1 + 1 + 2 = 10 ordered pairs (a; c ) satisfying the given conditions.

(9) 7 ID: [D3C2] We observe that for all n > 5, n! has a units digit of 0, because 5! has a factor of 5 and 2, which become a factor of 10. So, the terms in the sum, 5!, 7!, 9!, and 11! all have a 0 for the units digit. And, 1! + 3! = 1 + 6 = 7 is the units digit of the sum. (10) 20 combinations ID: [45D] Note that at least one of the boxes must be a 1-piece box, because the number of chocolates ordered was odd. The problem is now to determine how many ways 14 pieces can be assembled using the 1, 2, and 4-piece boxes. If we begin with all 1-piece boxes, there's one way to do that. There are seven ways to have a mix of 1 and 2-piece boxes (one 2-piece, two 2-pieces, etc. all the way through seven 2-pieces). Now, each pair of 2-piece boxes can be replaced by a 4-piece box. If there is one 4-piece box, there are six ways to box the remaining ten pieces of chocolate with 1 and 2-piece boxes (no 2-pieces, one 2-piece, etc. all the way through ve 2-pieces). If there are two 4-piece boxes, there are four ways to box the remaining six pieces of chocolate (zero through three 2-piece boxes). Finally, if there are three 4-piece boxes, there are two ways to box the remaining two pieces of chocolate (either no 2-piece boxes or one 2-piece box). Thus, there are a total of 1 + 7 + 6 + 4 + 2 = 20 combinations of boxes possible. (11) 65 integers ID:  The integers strictly between 1200 and 1235 all of whose digits are distinct are the integers from 1203 through 1209 (inclusive) as well as 1230 and 1234. The integers from 1210 through 1229 are ruled out by their tens digit, and the remaining ones may be checked directly. Therefore, there are 7 + 2 = 9 integers between 1200 and 1235 with distinct digits. There are no integers between 1100 and 1199 all of whose digits are distinct. We can form each of the integers with distinct digits between 1000 and 1099 by making one of the 8 choices for the tens digit and one of the 7 remaining choices for the units digit. Therefore, there are 8 7 = 56 integers between 1000 and 1099 with distinct digits. Altogether, there are 56 + 9 = 65 four-digit integers less than 1235 with distinct digits.

(12) 23 items ID: [5D31] Considering just the pennies, Steve has exact change for items that are, in cents, 1, 2, or 3. Considering just the pennies and nickels, Steve can take one nickel in conjunction with zero, one, two, or three pennies, giving four more possibilities. He could also take two nickles in conjunction with zero, one, two, or three pennies, giving an additional four possibilities. Finally, adding in the quarter double the number of current possibilities (3 + 4 + 4 = 11), because a quarter can be added to any of the combinations to make a new price. Also, the quarter itself adds one more possibility. Thus, Steve has exact change for 23 di erently-priced items. (13) 1/7 ID:  The sum of two prime numbers is greater than 2, so if this sum is to be prime, it must be odd. Therefore, one of the primes in the sum must be 2, and the other must be odd. The rst eight prime numbers are 2; 3; 5; 7; 11; 13; 17; and 19. Of the odd ones, only 3; 5; 11, and 17 added to 2 give a prime number. Therefore, there are 4 possible pairs whose sum is 1 8 4 prime. The total number of pairs is = . = 28. So the probability is 28 7 2 (14) 8 ID: [B5D] We can treat this list as a sequence with a repetitive pattern. We see the sequence repeats itself every 16 elements (from 1 to 9 then back to 2). Because 1000 divided by 16 is 62 with a remainder of 8, to get 1000 terms in this list, we repeat the block 62 times, and then go 8 more elements. This means that the 1000th integer is the same as the 8th integer, which is 8 . (15) 65 percent ID: [BDA1] If a team averages 7 losses for 13 wins, that means the team wins 13 out of 20 games, and 13 = :65, or 65% . 20 (16) 9.0 * 106 I D : [B 13B ] There are nine choices for the rst digit, as it is non-zero. For each of the six digits thereafter, there are ten choices. Thus, there are 9:0 106 possible phone numbers.

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The probability that a fair coin lands heads up exactly 2 times out of 3 ips is 3 p1 = (1=2)2 (1=2) = 3=8. The probability that a fair coin lands heads up 3 times out of 2 3 ips is p2 = (1=2)3 = 1=8. Finally, we have p1 p2 = 2=8 = 1=4 .

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ID: [0DB3]

(18) 1/4 ID:  = 36 pairs of marbles and 3 + 3 + 3 = 3 + 3 + 3 = 9 pairs of There are 9 = 9(8) 2 2 2 2 2 marbles of the same color. Since each pair of marbles is equally likely to be drawn, the 1 9 probability that two randomly chosen marbles will have the same color is 36 = . 4 (19) m+n integers ID: [5DCC] We are looking for the number of integer solutions to mn < k < mn + m + n + 1. The values of k that satisfy these inequalities are mn + 1; mn + 2; : : : ; mn + m + n: There are clearly m + n numbers in this list. (20) 5 ID: [0BC51] Since the mean of the four integers is 7, the sum of the four integers divided by 4 must 9 + x + (2x 3) + 7 = 7. Solving this equation for x , we equal 7. Thus, we have that 4 have that 13 + 3x = 28 ) 3x = 15 ) x =5 We can then substitute in x = 5 to nd that our original four integers were 9, 5, 7, and 7. The smallest of these four integers is 5 . (21) 15 games ID: [5C53] The rst team plays ve other teams, and then it is done. The second team plays the remaining four teams, and then it is done. The third team plays the remaining three teams, and so on. Thus, 5 + 4 + 3 + 2 + 1 = 15 games are needed. OR For each game, we must choose 2 of the 6 teams. There are 6 = 15 ways to choose 2 two teams, so there are 15 games needed.

(22) 3 combos ID: [A531] Thad must use at least one 3-cent stamp, because there is no way to make 37 cents from 4-cent stamps. So, the problem is now to make 34 cents from 3-cent and 4-cent stamps. If we use one 4-cent stamp, we are left with 30 cents. This can be satis ed with ten 3-cent stamps. If we use two 4-cent stamps, we are left with 26 cents. If we use three, we are left with 22 cents. If we use four, we are left with 18 cents. This can be satis ed with six 3-cent stamps. If we use ve 4-cent stamps, we are left with 14 cents. If we use six, we are left with 10 cents. If we use seven, we are left with 6 cents, which can only be satis ed with two 3-cent stamps. Thus, there are 3 di erent combinations. (23) 12500 zip codes ID:  There are ve digits greater than 4 (5, 6, 7, 8, and 9), and each of the rst three zip code digits could be any of them. Hence, there are 5 5 5 = 125 ways to choose the rst three digits. The last two zip code digits have no restrictions, so there are 10 10 = 100 ways to choose them. Thus, there are 125 100 = 12500 such zip codes. (24) 17 times ID: [A554] In the worst-case scenario, every possible sum is rolled before the same sum is rolled again. The minimum possible sum rolled is 3 1 = 3, and the maximum is 3 6 = 18. Every sum in between those two extremes can be created, since the sums are created through adding three of the digits between one and six. Thus, there are 18 2 = 16 possible sums, so the dice must be rolled 17 times to ensure that the same sum is rolled twice. (25) 17 ID: [1ADA] a +b = 10. 8 + 9 + 12 + 13 = 42, so we are looking for two positive We want 8+9+12+13+ 6 integers a and b that sum to 60 42 = 18. Because we are looking at ordered pairs, a = 1, b = 17 is a distinct solution from a = 17, b = 1. There are 18 possible values of a for which there is a corresponding value of b (that is, a can equal any integer from 1 to 17, inclusive). However, the case in which (a; b) = (9; 9) has been counted twice, so we must subtract one. Thus, our nal answer is 17 .