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Th( h!.a& )(a'%&$&g $' #h( /%). %/ a00)%1$.a#( )(a'%&$&g )a#h() #ha& (1a"# a' $& 2$/ 3 $' '.all #h(& Y $' la)g( a& $/ 3 $' 4()y '.all #h(& Y $' 4()y la)g(2. M% (l' /%) /!55y ( !"#$4( )(a'%&$&g '!gg('#( by L.A. Za (h a& E.H. M$. a&$ a' a& a00l$"a#$%& %/ /!55y '(# #h(%)y a)( b("%.$&g $.0%)#a&# $& #h( /$(l %/ 6&%7l( g( ba'( 'y'#(.'. Th( .(#h% $&4%l4(' a& $&/()(&"( )!l( a& a "%& $#$%&al 0)%0%'$#$%& 7h$"h "%&#a$&' /!55y "%&"(0#'. A& a##(.0# ha' b((& .a ( #% (4(l%0 /!55y 'y'#(. !'$&g /!55y ( !"#$4( )(a'%&$&g "%&"(0#' /%) .% (ll$&g #h( .a"h$&(', 7h$"h '!00%)# /!55y '$.!la#$%& a' 7(ll "a& b( !'( /%) ( !"a#$&g '#! (&#' 7$#h "%&"(0#' '!"h a' 'y'#(. y&a.$"' '$.!la#$%& !'$&g "a!'al l%%0'. Al'% #h( (4(l%0( /!55y 'y'#(. /a"$l$#a#(' /%) %0#$.$'a#$%& %/ /!55y .(.b()'h$0 /!&"#$%&' a& #h($) %4()la00$&g !'$&g g)a $(&# ('"(&# alg%)$#h.. in nature, and are often left to human !eings to deal with rather than !eing automated. %he concepts are no longer clear cut like true or false, INTRODUCTION !ut are relati"ely "ague, for example more or less true !ut most likely false. #n the (*+',s, a Communication with computers normally mathematician -ukasiewic& challenged this requires (sometimes rather exasperatingly) precise premise and proposed that a gradation may exist syntax. On the other hand, it is known that !etween these two extremes. .!out ten years humans can communicate with each other without later, a physicist /lack introduced the concept of the same degree of precision. For example, we "agueness, that a set may contain elemnts that may say that someone is "tall, slim and middle are partly in and partly out of the set. #n (*01, aged" !ut these terms are usally not interpreted in -otfi 2adeh of the 3ni"esity of California at the same way !y different indi"iduals. #n spite of /erkley 485, came up with a formal methodolgy this fact we are still a!le to communicate with for handling sets of thie type proposed !y /lack each other using this imprecise expression. and called these fu&&y sets. )e introduced the $imilarly, when a computer is used to model a theory of fu&&y set as an extension to traditional system, it is necessary to descri!e the system. #n set theory and de"eloped the corresponding fu&&y practice, howe"er this is seldom possi!le, since logic to manipulate the fu&&y sets. . fu&&y set the full description of the system is usually not allows for the degree of mem!ership of an item in a"aila!le. %herefore, it would !e desira!le to a set to !e any real num!er !e&tweexn &ero and know if it is possi!le to communicate with one. %his allows human o!ser"ations, computers in the same way as we do with human expressions and expertise to !e more xclosely !eings. %his can !e done if our software or modelled. $ince its introduction fu&&y set theory hardware can accomodate fu&&iness, a concept has attracted the attention of many reseachers in that implies that not e"erything !elongs to one of mathematical and engineering fields as well as in two possi!le categories (e.g. ' or (, !lack or white, computer science and has !ecome esta!lished. true or false, yes or no etc.) %he traditional set Currently a large num!er of succesful theory models the world as !lack or white and appplications of fu&&y logic to many real world makes no pro"ision for sets of grey. %his two control ro!lems ha"e !een reported. #n fact "alued logic has pro"ed "ery effecti"e and these applications ha"e surpassed the succesful in sol"ing well defined pro!lems., which expectations of the pioneers in this area. #t was are characteri&ed !y the precise description of the originally thought that most of the applicaations system !eing dealt with in quantitati"e form. of fu&&y logic would !e in those knowledge !ased )owe"er, a class of pro!lems exist that does not systems in which the resident information is !oth lend itself readily to this approach. %hese imprecise and uncertain. Contrary to this pro!lems are typically, complex or ill structured

expectation, most of the present applicatiions of fu&&y logic ha"e !een taken place in systems that ha"e imprecision !ut not uncertainty. #n this paper, an attempt has !een made to de"elop a fu&&y system for modelling and simulation of !asic commutating machine in electromechanical transducer mode of operation. %he system is de"eloped here which could change the support of fu&&y mem!ership function through error gradient descent algorithm to optimi&e the supprot while execution. .lso, the same algorithm is used later on to find the optimum shape of fu&&y mem!ership function.


#n the causal loop diagram, the cuasal link as dipcted !y an arrow could !e regarded as #f %hen relationship eg. -oad %orque $peed could also !e seen as <#f load torque is high %hen $peed of motor is low=. #n fact, we ha"e esta!lished a production rule of #f %hen from the causal loop diagram. Once these rules are encoded using a suita!le software, we arri"e at the rule !ase of the knowledge !ased system 4Yag() 8;+-5. /ut since, as explained earlier, the relationships are fu&&y and also the #f %hen (modeus ponens) rule is a special case of the compositional rule of inference. %he causal loop diagram could !e suita!ly modelled using fu&&y relations. %his would not only help incorperating the !eliefs and perceptions of the modeller in a scientific way, !ut also pro"ide a methodology for qualitati"e analysis of system dynamics models 4>olstenholme (*?@5. $ince most of the concepts in teh natural language are fu&&y in nature 48age (*?A5, a fu&&y set theorectic approach pro"ides the !est solution for such pro!lems. %he operators or experts in power system domain can rarely tell with preciseness the exact relationship !etween "aria!les in most of the cases and perhaps use linguistic "aria!les like slightly change the relay settings or so. %herefore it would !e more suita!le and appealing to communicate with them in a much natural a way as possi!le. For the model de"elopment of power system dynamics it is necessary to know the dynamics of its components and hence, here in this chapter the fu&&y models ha"e !een de"eloped for the power system components like synchronous generators, induction machine and !asic commutaing machine using fu&&y logic approach. #n fu&&y lgoic applications for modelling and simulation of electrical machines, the following important and crucial decisions are necessary to take (. $election of "aria!les and the num!er of fu&&y sets. +. $election of mem!ership functions for each fu&&y set and their o"erlappings @. $election of #ntersection operators B. $election of 3nion opertors 1. $election of implications methods 0. $election of Compositional rule and A. Cefu&&ification methods


%he relationships as dipicted !y the cuasal loop diagram are often fu&&y in nature, as there are no crisp answer to question like how much increase in load on a ring system would raise the load angle of any one alternator connected to that power system. #f one would like to gi"e crisp answer of this question it is neccessary to simulate a complex differentail or partial differential equations for the whole system and it will !e quite cum!ersome and time expensi"e, !ecause it is a function of multiple factors. . fu&&y relation 6 from a set 7 to set 8 is a fu&&y su!set of the Cartesian product 7 x 8. (7 x 8 is the collection of the ordered pair (x,y), x 7, y 8). 6 is characterised !y a !i"ariete mem!ership function 6(x,y) and is expressed as follows9 -oad torque $peed : %he Fig. + shows the complete causal loop diagram for !asic commutating machine. #t can !e reduced when the !asic commutating machine will operate in any one mode of operation (i.e. ;lectromechanical transducer mode, ;lectromechanical .mplifier mode and 6otating .mplifier mode of operation) !y keeping one port "aria!les constant. %he flow chart ( showing the fu&&y causal loop approach for the qualitati"e analysis of the system. .ccording to this flow chart the computer program is qualitati"e anlysis of the !asic commutating machine. %he procedure of qualitati"e analysis has !een illustrated through a fu&&y simulator of !asic commutating machine in this chapter to illustrate the concepts of fu&&y model using causal loops in systems modelling. %o simplify the model only steady state conditions ha"e !een considered, !ut one can include the transient !eha"ior also in the same way.

#n this work, the computer program has !een written to select the mem!ership function for each fu&&y set and their o"erlapping to model the !asic commutating machine as accurately as possi!le.


%he following fu&&y knowledge !ase is used to model the aforesaid machine under steady state conditions only for one causal link !etween the applied torque and steady state speed of the machine. %he following simple rules ha"e !een de"eloped. 6ule ( #F l%a #%)=!( #$ low %);D '0(( #$ high. 6ule + #F l%a #%)=!( #$ medium %);D '0(( #$ medium. 6ule + #F l%a #%)=!( #$ high %);D '0(( #$ low.

-snew E -sold : -s >here -snew new support for low torque fu&&y set -sold old support for low torque fu&&y set -s change in support for low torque fu&&y set -s E ;Ft : -s >here -earning rate Gomentum ; ;rror $imilarly, the degree of mem!erships for a gi"en function can also !e optimised.

%he results o!tained in the simulation of fu&&y system de"eloped here has !een summarised in the %a!le (. %a!le ( $ummary of 6esults $.Do 6ange of fu&&y me!ership 6G$ . functions error (. @.(0 +. @. B. 1. 0. A. ?. *. ('. ((. (+. ' ' + (' (+ (+ ' ' ( 0 0 (+ (( (+ +.0B +.B( ' + '( (' (+ (( (+ +.1? +.0' ' ' @ B ? * (+ (+ +.0B +.01 ' ' 1 0 A (+ (+ +.A( +.0? ' ' B 0 1 0 A ? (+ (+ +.00 +.A' +.?+


-oad %orque lowE4(.'F' : '.1F@ : '.'F0 : '.'F* : '.'F(+5 meduimE4'.'F' : '.'F@ : (.'F0 : '.'F* : '.'F(+5 high E 4'.'F' : '.'F@ : '.'F0 : '.1F* : (.'F(+5 $teady state $peed lowE4(.'F. :'.1F/ : '.'FC : '.'FC : '.'F;5 meduim E4'.'F. :'.'F/ : '.(FC : '.'FC : '.'F;5 high E 4'.'F. :'.'F/ : '.'FC : '.1FC : (.'F;5 .E(1'.??, /E(1+.*0, CE(1B.*B, CE(10.A0, ;E(1?.01.


%he gradient descent algorithm is "ery simple and most powerful learning algorithm in artificial neural networks for optimising the weights for lowest possi!le error for a gi"en set of inputs and outputs. %he same algorithm is used here also to optimise the support of gi"en mem!ership functions and their degree of mem!erships at different "aria!le "alues (shape of mem!ership function). %he following steps in"ol"ed in optimising the suport and the degree of mem!ership for a particular fu&&y mem!ership function.

(@. ' (B. (1. (0. ' (+ ' ' (+ (+ (+

+.@B +.@' +.@( +.@? +.B+

For the de"elopment of fu&&y set and fu&&y rules the system dynamics model 4('5 (causal loop models) has !een used. .lso in order to study the fine structure of fu&&y model, (0 rules of implication, usually found in the fu&&y literature 4( *5, ha"e !een tested with Gax Gin compositional rule and compensatory operator ( with different "alues of parameters used as connecti"es (union and intersection) for de"eloping the fu&&y relational matrix. %he results of fu&&y model of C.C. machine for different implications with compensatory operator ((uaHu!)(( w) . (ua3u!)w ) are shown in Fig. ( @. %he results o!tained with Gimdani implication and compensatory ( as connecti"e is compared, with the results o!tained with same implication and ordinary Gax Gin operator as connecti"e. #t is found that (. %he Gimdani implication with ordinary Gax Gin as connecti"es was gi"ing good results for dc machine pro!lem. +. /ut Iaines 6escher implication, Iodel implication and >u implication with compensatory max parameterE'.' and compensatory min parameterE'.(, was gi"ing e"en !etter results. +. .lso the ordinary Gax Gin is gi"ing almost constant "alues with most of the implications except the Gimdani implication and correlation product implication. @. Fu&&y set o"erlapping also affect the results and it was o!ser"ed that 1' J o"erlapping was gi"ing !etter results. 6;F;6;DC;

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